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Sketches of The Character, Manners, and Present State of the Highlanders of Scotland


Military Annals of the Highland Regiments

Forty-second Royal Highland Regiment
Second Battalion,
Now Seventy-third Regiment
1780

GREAT Britain having now to oppose the united force of France and Spain, which had joined the Americans, Hyder Ali availed himself of so favourable an opportunity, when the strength of this country was divided, to re-commence hostilities; and engaged in his service a number of French officers, to form his army under a regular system of military discipline. Attacked on so many points, more than ordinary exertions on the part of Great Britain were called for. Fresh levies were accordingly embodied; and, among others, a second battalion was added to the 42d regiment. On the 21st of March 1780, three months after the appointment of the officers, a battalion, composed of the very best materials for forming good soldiers, was raised, and soon afterwards embodied at Perth. The celerity with which these gentlemen recruited their men, and the readiness with which the youth of the country joined the ranks, was the more noticed, as upwards of 12,500 men had been raised north of the Tay within eighteen months.

The following officers were appointed to the battalion:

Colonel, Lord John Murray; 21st March 1780, died in 1787 the oldest General in the army.
Lieutenant-Colonel,
Norman Macleod of Macleod, died 1801 a Lieutenant-General.
Major,
Patrick Graeme, son of Inchbraco, died 1781.

Captains.

Hay Macdowall, son of Garthland, a Lientenant-General. [General Macdowall was unfortunately lost at sea, with all on board, on the passage from India in 1809.]
James Murray; died in 1781.
John Gregor.
James Drummond, afterwards Lord Perth, died in 1800.
John Macgregor, retired.
Colin Campbell, son of Glenure, retired.
Thomas Dalyell, killed at Mangalore in 1783.
David Lindsay, retired.
John Grant, son of Glenmoriston, retired. Died 1801.

Lieutenants

John Grant.
Alexander Macgregor of Balhaldy, died Major of the 65th regiment in 1795.
Dougald Campbell, retired in 1787.
James Spens, retired Lieutenant-Colonel of the 73d regiment in 1798.
John Wemyss, died 1781.
Alexander Dunbar, died 1783.
neas Fraser, died Captain in 1784.
Alexander Maitland.
Alexander Rose, retired 1784.
John Oswald.

[John Oswald. The history of this officer is rather singular. He was the son of a goldsmith in Edinburgh, and had received a good education, but from some frolic, enlisted with a recruiting party of the 18th, or Royal Irish, in which regiment he was appointed sergeant, and when quartered at Deal, married a young woman possessed of some money. Soon afterwards, he obtained his discharge from the Royal Irish, and purchased an ensigncy in the 1st battalion of the Royal Highlanders, from which he was immediately promoted to a lieutenancy in the 2d battalion in 1780. He accompanied the regiment to India, and fought a duel with the officer commanding on board his transport, while the squadron lay in Porto Prya Bay. From this circumstance, and his finances being low, he did not associate, or dine with the officers in the cabin, but employed his whole time in acquiring a knowledge of the Greek, Hebrew, and Gaelic languages, and was particularly fond of Ossian's poems. In India he imitated the Gentoos, abstained from animal food, and regularly performed the usual ablutions. For a short time he acted adjutant to the battalion, and soon afterwards sold his commission, and returned to London, where he lived several years, supporting himself by the labour of his pen. He was a warm Republican, and on the breaking out of the Revolution, went to France, where he got the command of a regiment, and was killed in 1783 in La Vendee, along with his two sons, whom, in the true spirit of equality, he made drummers in his regiment. But in his ideas of liberty and equality he was not always consistent; liberty being with him, the freedom of tyrannizing over others. For the short time he acted as adjutant in India he was so severe and tyrannical, that the spirit of the soldiers revolted, and had he not been removed, he would have occasioned a mutiny.

Some years ago a learned doctor wrote an essay, in which he laboured to prove, by a long deduction of circumstances, that Bonaparte was in reality John Oswald, the son of the jeweller in Edinburgh. He alleged that Oswald was not killed in La Vendee—that he changed his name—that he was a violent Republican, as was once the suppossed Bonaparte—that he changed his religion, and became Mahomedan—that though he talked much about liberty, it was only liberty to act as he chose, as he was cruel, tyrannical, and imperious in his practice—-that he was a man of great courage and fearless enterprise—that he was fond of Ossian, had his poems always in his mouth, and spoke in heroic language; all which was seen in the character and conduct of Bonaparte; therefore Oswald and Bonaparte must have been the same. But however much the doctor was convinced of the truth and correctness of his own opinions, his friends prevailed upon him not to publish them. ]

Ensigns.

Charles Sutherland.
John Murray Robertson
Alexander Macdonald.
Robert Robertson.
John Macdonald.
William White.
Charles Maclean.
John Macpherson, killed at Mangalore.

Chaplain, John Stewart, died 1781.
Adjutant,
Robert Leslie
Quarter-Master,
Ken. Mackenzie, killed at Mangalore.
Surgeon, Thomas Farquharson.
Mate,
Duncan Campbell.

After the formation, the battalion was quartered in Dundee and Fort George, removed from thence to Queens-ferry, and embarked for Chatham in December 1780, to form part of an expedition then fitting out at Portsmouth, under the command of Major-General William Meadows, and Commodore Johnstone, intended for an attack on the Cape of Good Hope. This force embarked in January 1781, and consisted of the second battalion of the 42d, the 98th, and 100th regiments, with one company of each of the following corps, namely, the 8th, 9th, 20th, and 47th regiments, and a detachment of Royal Artillery, under Lieutenant William Hislop, brother to General Sir Thomas Hislop, and Lieutenant Durnford, of the Engineers, also accompanied the expedition. Various delays detained the expedition till the 12th of March, when it sailed, and, touching at St Jago in April, was there attacked by the French squadron under Admiral Suffrein, who was repulsed with little loss on either side.

The expedition then sailed for the intended attack on the Cape of Good Hope; but Suffrein haying arrived there before them, the attempt was abandoned, and the troops ordered to proceed to India. However, a valuable convoy of Dutch East Indiamen, who had taken shelter in Suldanha Bay, was captured there. The troops shared the prize money. Their right to share was, however, disputed by Commodore Johnstone, on the plea that the troops had not landed; but, after a lapse of many years, it was determined in their favour.

The Myrtle transport, on board of which were Lieutenant-Colonel Macleod and Captains Macdowall and Dalyell, separated from the fleet off the Cape, and never afterwards joined. [Captain Drummond having gone on board the Myrtle to dine with Colonel Macleod, a gale of wind sprung up, which prevented him from returning to his own ship, and proceeded to India in the Myrtle. Two years afterwards this gentleman experienced a great change of fortune. From the rank and pay of a captain, he was placed at the head of his family, with an income of 18,000l. a year, by the restoration of the Perth estate, which had been forfeited after the Rebellion of 1745. A few years afterwards the title of Lord Perth, which had formerly belonged to his family, was restored in his person.] This vessel had neither chart nor map ; and the master being an ignorant seamen, it was owing to Captain Dalyell, who kept a kind of reckoning with deficient instruments, and no maps, but those in Guthrie's geographical grammar—that he made Madagascar, the appointed rendezvous. Seeing no appearance of the fleet, they again sailed, and made their way back to St Helena. Here they procured charts, and at length reached Madras, on the 23d of May 1782.

The scurvy attacked the troops on the voyage, which induced the Commodore to put into the Island of Joanna, where fresh provisions were abundant. But, in attempting to cure one evil, they unfortunately encountered another; for, after the troops had landed, and were encamped, for the benefit of air and exercise, they caught the fever of the country, and, carrying the contagion on board, a great many of the men fell a sacrifice to it. Towards the end of September the squadron sailed, and arrived at Bombay on the 5th of March 1782, after a twelve month's voyage; and on the 30th of April sailed for Madras. In the course of the passage from England to Bombay and Calcutta, the regiment suffered considerably : Major Patrick Graeme, [Major Grame died of sea-sickness. Nothing remained on his stomach for nine months, and his Constitution sunk under extreme exhaustion. This respectable officer, who was the eldest son of Mr Graeme of Inchbraco, and had served with the first battalion of the 42d in America, died a few weeks before the fleet reached Bombay.] 4 officers, and 116 non-commissioned officers and soldiers, died.

General Meadows remaining on board, and Lieutenant-Colonel Macleod in the Myrtle not having arrived, the command of the troops intended for actual service devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel Mackenzie Humberstone of the 100th re-giment, under whom an expedition was undertaken for the purpose of attacking Palacatcherry, situated in a country considered of importance to Hyder Ali. The troops, consisting of seven companies of the Highlanders, a detachment of the 100th regiment, and some native corps, took the field on the 2d of September 1782; and, after taking-several small forts on the march, reached their destination on the 19th of October, when, on a full examination, the fort was found everywhere much stronger than had been represented; at the same time that intelligence was received of Hyder's having sent his son Tippoo Saib, with a large force for its relief. In such circumstances, a regular siege could not be attempted; and, as it could not be taken by assault, Colonel Humberstone determined to withdraw to Mangaracotah, one of the small forts he had taken, The intelligence of Tippoo's advance being well founded, Colonel Humberstone continued his retreat, and, blowing up the forts of Mangaracotah and Raraguree, arrived at Pa-niane, closely pressed on the march by the enemy, who had pushed forward with considerable rapidity, and in great force.

Lieutenant-Colonel Macleod, who had arrived, now assumed the command, and found himself surrounded by an enemy of 10,000 cavalry and 14,000 infantry, including two corps of Europeans under the French General Lally. The British force was reduced by sickness to 380 Europeans, and 2200 English and Travancore Seapoys, fit for duty. The post was strong by nature, and some attempts were made to strengthen it still more by field-works; but, before these were completed, the French General Lally attacked the post on the morning of the 29th November. He advanced with great spirit at the head of his European troops; but, after a smart contest, well supported on both sides, the enemy were repulsed, and entirely defeated.

The weight of Lally's attack was directed against the post occupied by the Highlanders, whose repeated charges with the bayonet were principally instrumental in promoting the success of the day. "This little army, attacked, on ground not nearly fortified, by very superior numbers, skilfully disposed, and regularly led on: they had nothing to depend on but their native valour, their discipline, and the conduct of the officers. These were nobly exerted, and the event has been answerable. The intrepidity with which Major Campbell and the Highlanders repeatedly charged the enemy was most honourable to their character." [General Orders.] The loss of the British and Native troops was 8 officers and 88 soldiers killed and wounded. That of the 42d regiment was 3 sergeants, and 19 rank and file, killed; and Major John Campbell, Captains Colin Campbell and Thomas Dal-yell, Lieutenant Charles Sutherland, 2 sergeants, and 31 rank and file, wounded.

After this defeat, Tippoo retreated towards Seringapatam, the movement being hastened by accounts received of the death of his father, Hyder Ali.

The enemy making no further attempts to disturb this post, Colonel Macleod, with his battalion, was ordered to embark for Bombay, and join the army under Brigadier-General Matthews. This junction was formed on the 8th of January 1783 at Cundapore; and, on the 23d, Brigadier General Matthews moved forward to attack Beddinore, the capital of a rich province, the conquest of which was of the more importance, as the Saltan had received from it the greatest part of the supplies for his army.

During the march, the troops were considerably harassed by the enemy's flying parties; but their greatest impediment arose from the nature of the country, rendered still more difficult by a succession of field works erected on the face of mountains they had to ascend, but which, however, proved more formidable in appearance than in the defence of the enemy. On the 26th February 1783, "the 42d, led by Colonel Macleod, and followed by a corps of Seapoys, attacked these positions with the bayonet, and, pursuing like Highlanders, were in the breastwork before the enemy were aware of it. Four hundred were bayonetted, and the rest pursued to the walls of the fort." [Colonel Mark Willi's History. On this occasion Lieutenant Hislop, of the Royal Artillery, was severely wounded, the calf of his leg being carried away by a rocket. He was a high-spirited accomplished officer, and, with feelings similar to those of Colonel Erskine of the 92d, wounded in Egypt, he would not allow his leg to be amputated, fearful that he would be incapacitat ed for the active duties of his profession. He sunk under the great discharge of blood, and died in two days. He was brother to Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Hislop.] In this manner seven forts were attacked and taken in succession, when the formidable appearance of the principal redoubt, named, by way of pre-eminence, Hyder Gurr, rendered it necessary to proceed with more caution. This fort is situated on the summit of the highest ghaut or precipice, with a dry ditch in front, mounted with twenty pieces of cannon. On the face of the mountain seven batteries were placed on terraces, one above the other, with internal lines of communication; but the outward approaches were obstructed by large trees, cut down and placed transversely, so as to prevent the ascent on any part, except that immediately exposed to the full effect of the guns. These obstructions, formidable, if well defended, were however of no avail; for the spirit with which all the lower defences were attacked and carried, struck such terror into the minds of the enemy, that they evacuated this strong position in the course of the night; and making no farther resistance, Beddinore was taken possession of on the 27th of January 1783. [In the Fort of Hyder Gurr were found 8000 stand of new arms, with a large quantity of powder, shot, and military stores.] In this place a full supply of every necessary was found, and the expectation of the troops considerably excited by the prospects of great sums of prize money. But these expectations were soon succeeded by a melancholy reverse, I mean the capture of General Matthews, and the greatest part of his army, at Beddinore.

From this misfortune, the Highlanders, forming part of a detachment under Major Campbell, were exempted. The object of the detachment was to attack and take possession of the fort of Annanpore. This service was accomplished on the 15th of February with great loss to the enemy. The loss of the British was quite trifling. By the following extract from Major Campbell's orders, it appears, that, on this occasion, some of the troops forgot the necessary steadiness which distinguishes good soldiers, in not trusting to the bayonet instead of powder. "Major Campbell returns his thanks to the army for their spirited behaviour yesterday, and his particular acknowledgments to Captain Dalyell, and the officers and men of the flank companies of the 42d regiment who headed the storm; but strongly recommends, when the bayonet can be used, that a shot should not be fired."

After remaining here till near the 28th of February, the battalion was again employed under the command of Major Campbell, and ordered to occupy two small forts, Carrical and Morebedery, in which they remained till the 12th of April, when they marched first to Gourspoore, and thence to Mangalore.

A few weeks previous to this period, Lieutenant-Colonels Macleod and Humberstone having gone to Bombay, the command of the troops at Mangalore devolved upon Major Campbell, now promoted to the brevet rank of Lieutenant-colonel. These officers had been ordered to Bombay by the Governor and Council, to report on the conduct of General Matthews, who was, in consequence, suspended from his command, and Colonel Macleod, now promoted to the lank of Brigadier-general, appointed to succeed him, but too late to save the unfortunate army at Beddinore, whose surrender subjected them to all the miseries which a cruel and ferocious enemy could inflict.

The consequences of the surrender of Beddinore soon appeared. A considerable force was immediately detached by Tippoo to the neighbourhood of Mangalore, where a position was taken up by them about twelve miles distant from the place. On the 6th of May they were attacked and defeated by Colonel Campbell, with the loss of all their guns; but few men were killed or wounded on either side, as the enemy made a feeble resistance. The Highlanders had Captain William Stewart wounded, 7 privates killed, and 16 wounded.

Tippoo being now at full liberty to act without restraint or fear of an enemy, if we except the small force in Mangalore, marched with his whole army, expecting an easy conquest. His apparently overwhelming force consisted of 90,000 men, exclusive of a corps of European infantry under Colonel Cossigny, from the Isle of France, Monsieur Lally's corps of Europeans and natives, and a troop of dismounted French cavalry from the Mauritius, the whole supported by 90 pieces of cannon. The troops in the garrison amounted to 21 sergeants, 12 drummers, 210 rank and file, of King's infantry, and 1500 Natives fit for duty. There was a numerous list of sick.

To give a detail of the events of a siege which lasted from the middle of May 1783 till the 30th of January 1784, when the capitulation was signed, would exceed the necessary limits of this narrative. The place was completely invested, with the exception of an outpost distant upwards of a mile, which, though strong, required too great a force to defend it. The occupation of this position was persevered in for some days, after the enemy had got possession of some passes, which nearly intercepted the communication with the garrison. Whether from an impression of the difficulty of retreat, or from the influence of a powerful attack, made by the enemy on the morning of the 23d, the Seapoys, who had the defence of the post, gave way on all sides the moment the attack commenced. The 42d, with a corps of Seapoys, were ordered out to their support, but so sudden was the route of those in advance, that the reinforcement was too late to save them, and the whole retreated together within the garrison. This first and only error in the commander, in allowing part of his communications with his outposts to be cut off, and this want of steadiness in the troops, were, however, fully compensated by the ability, courage, and perseverance, with which the place was afterwards defended, though the garrison were suffering the severest privations. Although the enemy were so ably supported, and their operations so powerfully seconded by their French allies, every attack was repulsed. At length a continued bombardment had made large breaches in the walls, and reduced many parts into a mass of ruin, from which the besieged could not venture to fire their cannon. [The enemy threw stones weighing 150 pounds from large mortars. This species of artillery destroyed many houses, and when they fell on a hard substance, split in pieces; and did great execution.]

This silence on the part of the garrison increased the boldness of the enemy. They made several attempts to enter the breaches and take the place by assault, but were uniformly repulsed, sustaining a greater loss by every successive attack. In this manner the enemy continued their attacks with similar bad success, till the 20th of July, when, both parties seeming equally disposed to relax from their fatigue, a cessation of hostilities was agreed upon. This agreement was, however, broken on the 23d, by the enemy, who sprung a mine at the moment that the flag of truce was flying. Hostilities immediately recommenced, and continued till the 29th, when another cessation, which ended in a regular armistice, was agreed upon. By this time the provisions were nearly exhausted, and the consequent privations of the garrison extreme. On the 17th of August Brigadier-General Macleod, with a small convoy of provisions and a reinforcement of troops, anchored in the bay. This prospect of relief animated the half famished garrison, but the General, influenced by an honourable regard to the terms of the armistice, ordered the ships back to Tillycherry, notwithstanding the enemy were committing daily infractions, repairing old batteries, and erecting new ones. On the 22d of November another reinforcement appeared on the coast. Every arrangement was speedily made for the landing of the troops, but after they were seen in the boats, they again re-embarked in the transports and sailed.

Another visit of a similar description was made by General Macleod on the last day of December, and again he departed, still preserving faith with an enemy who showed no disposition to imitate the example; keeping the garrison in close blockade, without the smallest supply of provisions. [In consequence of the peace with France, Colonel Cossigny withdrew his troops, and refused to act with Tippoo. The French Envoy also remonstrated. Their conduct gave great offence to the Sultan, who encouraged the French soldiers to desert and join his standard. Colonel Cossigny behaved with great spirit; for, having recovered some of the deserters, he ordered them to be shot in presence of two persons sent by Tippoo to intercede for their lives.] The misery and privation of the troops thus tantalized, had risen to a height almost insupportable. They were reduced to nearly one half of their original number, and one-half of the remainder was in the hospital. Tormented and tantalized with so many expectations of relief, the sick, who had been temporarily invigorated by hope, became dispirited by their disappointments, and relapsed into a state of despondency, that proved fatal to numbers. Many of the Seapoys became totally blind, and others were so weak that they dropped down when shouldering their firelocks. The decisive moment seemed now to have arrived; their provisions were nearly consumed, the patience of the troops entirely exhausted by frequent disappointments; they had no hope of relief, nor the least knowledge to what part of the coast Brigadier-General Macleod had sailed; "and the troops were eating horses, frogs, dogs, crows, cat-fish, black gramb, &c. &c. and in the utmost distress for every necessary of life. [Colonel Wilks.] In this state it was determined, by a council of war, surrender the place on terms highly honourable to the garrison. The terms were joyfully accepted by the enemy, and the garrison embarked for Tillycherry, where they landed on the 4th of February 1784.

This fort, defended by a few hundred men, employed the Sultan's main army for nearly nine months; and while the firmness of the garrison must excite admiration, it is to be regretted that such an event did not occur earlier in the war, as the neutralizing of so vast a force would have greatly influenced the progress of hostilities. A detailed account of casualties in the garrison has not been published, but the small loss of the Highlanders shows the spirit with which every assault and attempt of the enemy were resisted. These numerous attacks were received with an energy, and were driven back with a rapidity, that paralyzed the enemy, and rendered their fire in a manner aimless, and of little effect; consequently, the loss was only Captain Dalyell, Lieutenants Macpherson, Mackenzie, and Mackintyre, 1 piper, and 18 soldiers, killed; and Captains William Stewart, Robert John Napier, Lieutenants Murray, Robertson, and Welsh, 3 sergeants, 1 piper, and 47 rank and file, wounded. [Among the officers of the garrison killed was Mr Dennis, the acting chap-Soon after the siege commenced, he was standing behind a breastwork of sand-bags, viewing the operations of the enemy, and looking through a small opening; a match-lock ball entered at this opening, and passing through his forehead, killed him on the spot.]

Thus ended the defence of Mangalore, an event which did not, in this country, receive the notice which it so well deserved, from the firmness displayed by the besieged a-gamst so great a force of the besiegers, urged on by the inveteracy and determination of the Sultan, exasperated at the unexpected defence of so diminutive a place, apparently incapable of resisting a regular siege, but which, nevertheless consumed so much of his time and of his army.  [After the surrender, Colonel Campbell had an audience of the Sultan, who said many handsome things on the gallant defence of his garrison, made him a present of an Arabian charger and sabre, and behaved altogether in a manner which formed a complete contrast to his father's, as well as to his own cruel treatment of the unfortunate prisoners who fell into their hands. The miseries inflicted on General Matthews and his army, after the surrender in Beddinore, were shocking to humanity. ]

Mangalore consisted of an upper and lower fort, surrounded by a ditch, in some parts deep and wide, without any bomb-proof casement or cover; but the true defence consisted in the firmness and reciprocal confidence subsist-ing between the commander and the garrison, and not in the strength of the walls, or the depth of the ditch. The force of this garrison consisted of the second battalion of the 42d very weak in numbers, a few men of the 100th regiment, a detachment of European infantry and artillery, and the 1st and 8th battalions of Bombay Seapoys. The good conduct of these Native battalions was so conspicuous, that the latter was made a Grenadier corps; and, fortunately for the ser-vice, great unanimity subsisted between them and the High-landers, who named them their third battalion. Colonel Fullarton, in his Views of the British Interests in India, says, "We now arrive at the most interesting moment of the war; the garrison of Mangalore, under its inestimable commander, Colonel Campbell, had made a defence that has seldom been equalled, and never surpassed. With a handful of men, worn out by famine, he resisted for many months a formidable force under Tippoo Sultan. The whole power of this prince, assisted by the science of the French auxiliaries, could not force a breach that had long been laid open, and he was repulsed in every attempt to take it by storm. The Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel Colin Lind-say, in his Military Miscellany, speaking of this and another similar affair, says, "The defence of Colberg, in Pomerania, by Major Heiden and his small garrison, and that of Mangalore, in the East Indies, by Colonel Campbell and the second battalion of the Royal Highlanders, now the 73d regiment, we conceive, are as noble examples as any in history."

The East India Company appear to have been of the same opinion, for they ordered a monument to be erected at Bombay to the memory of Colonel Campbell,

[Colonel Campbell died at Bombay. He was the eldest of seven sons (all of whom died before their father) of Lord Stonefield, one of the Lords of Session, by Lady Grace Stuart, daughter of the Earl of Bute. This accomplished officer combined the qualities of great firmness and rapid decision, with conciliating manners. By his example and energy, he encouraged the brave, and checked those who might be inclined to murmur at such privations and hardships as they encountered in Mangalore; and by his kindness and sensibility to the distress of his soldiers, he cheered and inspired all.

Captain William Stewart was twice wounded, and with a mind active and zealous he continued to do duty, neglecting the cure of his first wound, when a second proved mortal. He had been Deputy Quartermaster-General to General Matthews' army, but had resigned when his regiment was ordered to Mangalore, before the surrender of that commander and his unfortunate army. Captain Stewart was son of William Stewart of Garth.

Captain Dalyell was an intelligent and accomplished officer. While at sea he navigated to a sea-port the transport which had parted company, and in the field he was a brave soldier, and an excellent engineer. He was son of Mr Dalyell of Lingo, in the county of Fife.]

Captains Stewart and Dalyell, and those who fell at the siege, and a; handsome gratuity to be given to the survivors.

The regiment, now much reduced, embarked for Tillycherry, where it remained till April 1784, and then embarked for Bombay.

The siege of Mangalore was the last active service in which this regiment was employed as the second battalion of Royal Highlanders. [The following is a list of the officers of the 42d regiment present at this siege, where their intrepidity, perseverance, and firmness, under the most trying privations, were crowned with that success which their Conduct so well merited : Lieutenant- Colonel John Campbell; Captains Thomas Dalyell, John Grant, Robert John Napier, William Stewart, and James Spens; Lieutenants Alexander Dunbar, J. Murray Robertson, Alexander Macdonald, John M. Macpherson, Kenneth Mackenzie; Ensigns James Welsh, Robert Leslie, Donald Mackintyre; Surgeon's mate, Robert Baxter, Surgeon Thomas Farquharson was severely wounded at Onore, having had his left hand shot away and could not be with his regiment at Mangalore. Of the above list of officers, Dr Thomas Farquharson is the only survivor in the year 1825.] At the conclusion of the war, it was intimated to the second battalion, that, instead of placing all the officers on half-pay, the juniors should be reduced in each rank of both battalions. On this intimation, mutual representations were made by each battalion, stating the service of officers in distant regions. The case was taken into consideration, and to save officers who had served so long from the half-pay, and as the battalion was now complete in numbers by recruits from Scotland, his Majesty ordered it to be formed into a separate corps, with green facings instead of blue, under the denomination of the 73d regiment, and the command to be given to Sir George Osborne. It was now a distinct corps, so far as related to change of name; but it has always upheld the character which it had so honourably acquired as foster-brother to the old Highland regiment. This event took place at Dinapore in Bengal, on the 18th of April 1786.

I shall now proceed with a rapid sketch of the actions and services of the 73d Highland regiment down to the period when that designation, together with the ancient national dress, was changed in the year 1809.

The 73d removed from Dinapore to Cawenpore, in December 1787, and, remaining there till March 1790, moved to Fort William in Bengal. From thence the regiment was sent round, in 1791, to the coast of Malabar, and placed under the command of Major-General Robert Abercromby. During these periods several detachments of recruits joined from Scotland, and different changes took place among the officers. Major Macdowall was promoted to the 57ih, and was succeeded by Captain James Spens; Captains Grant and Henry Grahame retired, and Francis Skelly was promoted to the 74th regiment.

Lord Cornwallis having resolved to attack Seringapatam, directed General Abercromby, with all his disposable force, consisting of the 73d, 75th, and 77th British, and seven Native regiments, to form a junction near the point of attack. This army commenced its march on the 5th of December 1791. The roads were much cut up with the torrents of the monsoons, which occasioned great delay and difficulty in getting forward the heavy artillery and provisions. On the 21st of January 1792, they had ascended the Ghauts, and were proceeding on the 22d, when orders were received to halt, to place the heavy artillery in position, and to be ready to move forward in light marching order, on the shortest notice. General Abercromby remained here till February, when he was directed to move forward, and occupy a position about 40 miles from Seringapatam. He commenced his march on the 8th, and on the 11th, having received farther instructions, he crossed the Cavery at Evalore. In the course of his march, parties of the enemy's horse made several attempts to break in upon the baggage, and on the 13th, in particular, they pushed forward with great boldness, but were never able to make any impression. Ori the 16th, a junction was formed near Seringapatam. On the 22d, a part of the army had a smart conflict with the enemy, which ended in the repulse of the latter; and on the 24th, the preliminaries of peace having been settled, all hostilities ceased.

Considerably reduced by sickness, but always receiving reinforcements of recruits, the 73d marched into the Carnatic. The regiment was 800 strong in 1793, when embarked on the expedition against Pondicherry, where they served in Colonel David Baird's brigade. In this service Captain Galpine, Lieutenant Donald Macgregor, and Ensign Tod, were killed. In 1795, the 73d regiment formed part of the force, under Major-General James Stuart, destined to act against Ceylon, and remained in that island till 1797, when they returned to Madras, and were quartered at St Thomas's Mount and other parts of that Presidency, till they took the field in 1799, and joined the army under General Harris, On the 1st of February the first Division of the army moved forward on an enterprise which was to decide the fate of an extensive, rich, and populous kingdom. On the 27th of March the army was at Malrilly, when the whole force of the enemy, under the command of the Sultan, was seen drawn up about two miles distant from the English encampment. Here a smart skirmish took place between; the advanced picquets under Colonel Sherbrooke and the enemy's cavalry. This brought on a more general action, which ended in the rout of the whole of the enemy's force, with the loss of 1000 men, while that of the British was only 69 men killed and wounded. The army continued to-advance slowly, and, on the 5th of April, took up a position preparatory to the siege of the capital of Mysore, now undertaken for the third time within the space of a few years. The same evening the enemy's advanced troops and rocket-men annoyed the picquets, when two. columns, under the Honourable Colonel Arthur Wellesley and Lieutenant-Colonel Shaw, were directed to drive them back, and establish posts more in advance. Owing to the darkness of the night, and some unexpected obstructions, this attempt failed ; but the object was accomplished the following morning' by the same officers. The advanced posts were established within 1800 yards of the garrison. On the 15th the Bombay army, under Major-General James Stuart, joined and took up a position in the line. On the 17th, a party under Colonel Hart of the 75th, advanced and dislodged the enemy, and, after forcing them back, established themselves under cover within 1000 yards of the fort. At the same time Major Macdonald (son of Clanranald) of the 73d, with a detachment of his own and other regiments, took possession of a post at the same distance from the fort on the south. In the mean time, batteries were erecting, and all necessary preparations for a siege going forward with great activity, when, on the evening of the 20th, another advance was made by Colonels Sherbrooke, St John, and Monypenny, who drove 2000 of the enemy from an en*'

trenched position, within 800 yards of the place, with a loss the latter of 250 men, while that of the British was only five killed and wounded. Approaches so easily accomplished must soon lead to a conclusion. On the 22d the enemy made a vigorous sortie on all the advanced posts. They were repulsed, but they renewed the attack repeatedly till finally driven back with great loss. On the 23d the batteries opened with such effect, that in the course of the day they silenced all the guns opposed to them. In this manner the operations were carried on till the morning of the 4th of May, when it was resolved to attempt the place by assault. The command was given to Major-General Baird, who, twenty years before, had been a prisoner within those walls which he was now to force. [History has seldom produced a more striking difference in the fortunes and circumstances of a man's life, than in the case of this officer. He now entered as a conqueror within the walls of a town where he had been led in as Prisoner, and kept in chains for three years, suffering under the most cruel treatment. As a conqueror, he showed a bright example of the difference between ferocious and generous minds. His revenge, when retaliation was in his power, was shown by endeavours to save the now prostrate enemy, and the inhabitants, from the fury of his troops, who knew what he and his brave fellow-sufferers had been made to endure, and were consequently more than usually exasperated. ] The assault was to be made in two columns, commanded by Colonels Dunlop and Sherbrooke; the Honourable Colonel Arthur Wellesley to command the Reserve. The whole amounted to 4376 firelocks. At one o'clock in the afternoon all was ready, and, on the signal being given, the troops rushed forward, and, in less than two hours, the capital of Mysore was in possession of the English. The Sultan and many of the principal officers were found among the slain, and all who survived within the walls were made prisoners. This regiment lost Lieutenant Lalor, killed; Captain William Macleod, Lieutenant Thomas, and Ensigns Antill and Guthrie, wounded.

After this important service, the 73d was employed under Colonel Wellesley, who marched against an active and zealous partisan of the late Sultan. This chief was soon afterwards killed in a charge of cavalry, and the army re-turned to quarters.

The regiment remained stationary in the conquered country, and in different parts of India, till embarked for England at Madras in 1805. All men fit for duty, who preferred remaining in the country, were allowed a bounty. So many accepted the offer, that few came home. These few landed at Greenwich in July 1806, and marched from thence to Scotland. When they reached Perth in 1807, there were only Quartermaster Mackintosh and a few men remaining of those who were embodied there in 1780 as the second battalion of the Royal Highland Regiment. In 1809 the ranks were again filled up to 800 men, when the uniform and designation being changed, they were no more to be called Highland. In the same year a second battalion was added, and the first embarked for New South Wales.


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