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The Family Buie


When he published his excellent study of the Buie family in 1950, the late Robert Bernard Buie wrote the following preface which is true today as it was then:  "The history of the Buie family in America, particularly early America, not only parallels that of the nation itself, it comes very near being the history of young America.  They were tough, smelly, sweat-stained, seldom washed Scots, but they had a courage and determination, a will and strength that made a home from a wilderness.  From a group of Gaelic speaking foreigners 225 years ago, they have become as typical middle class, scattered group as possibly any once closely related family or clan sept in the nation.  They have seldom or never been rich, often well-to-do, often very poor.  Generation after generation of hardy Scotch ancestry has kept them self-respecting, hard-working, 'doing' people.  Many have been pious men.  In religion, by far the majority have remained.  Presbyterian.  By occupation the first were of course farmers.  An unusual thing is that many of the male Buies have been doctors in a percentage far above the national average.  Physically they seem to have no noticeable characteristics.  One North Carolinian says they have the typical long Buie nose while another describes the family as flat-nosed.  One family speaks of the tall ranginess of the Buies, while another relates of uniformly medium height and inclination to be overweight.  A Buie in Scotland states 'it is characteristic for the hair to turn white at an early age' while another says 'my grandfather died at 79 with the usual head of black hair.'  Without preparing a table to determine the fact, the Buies do seen to have a bit longer than average life span and a Scotch ability to accept the world as they find it.  It is easy to say that any family scattered over the states is average, but on second thought, if all people were like the Buies it would unquestionably be a more militant, sounder, and more stable country."

 
I was doing some research in the Odom Library in Moultrie, Georgia and took some photostats of ages from the Buie records held there.  They then went missing and as a pure coincidence Deborah sent in some stories that I had photostated so many thanks to her for that.  Here are the stories I reasearched...
 
When Archibald Buie set foot on colonial North Carolina soil at Wilmington in 1739, he faced numerous challenges.  His only possessions were the clothes on his back and the small articles he and his family could carry.  Although he had a limited knowledge of the English language, the Scot felt definitely more comfortable conversing in his native Gaelic.  The land and the climate were different, and he knew that adaptation would be necessary in order to make a living and provide for his family.  But not everything was an adversity.  His friends from Jura - the McCraines, the Clarks, the McDougalds, and the rest - were with him and would endure the same hardships. And the government was with him, for in February, 1740, "as an encouragment to Protestants to remove from Europe to this Province", the Colonial Council exempted persons arriving in groups of forty or more from paying any public or county tax for ten years.

After the landing, Archibald and his family boarded small pole boats or long boats and made their way up the Cape Fear River for about 100 miles.  The journey lasted over a week.  Archibald finally found the place he wanted where bottom land faced the Cape Fear near the mouth of a small stream.  Archibald returned to Wilmington with his family in early June, 1740, and presented his petition for land grant to the Colonial Council, and after payment of fees, he received the title to 320 acres on the southwest side of the Cape Fear in the vacinity of what would be later called Buies Creek.

The same procedure would be followed by the other Buies who later came to the Cape Fear region; however, for convenience, they would be allowed to deliver their requests for grants at county courts rather than be compelled to travel to the council.  Archibald was granted 200 more acres on the north side of the Cape Fear in 1746.  Duncan and Gilbert Buie received their grants in 1750.  Archibald Buie, Jr. was presented 200 acres on the Cape Fear in 1754.  By 1755 Archibald Buie, Duncan Buie, Gilbert Buie, Daniel Buie, and Archibald Buie, Jr. were all landowners and listed on the Cumberland County tax list.  In 1755, Archibald Buie the Piper bought 91 acres on the northeast side of the Cape Fear from Archibald McDonald.  The Buies continued to acquire land by grant and purchase and in 1767 the tax rolls of Cumberland included Archibald Buie, Malcolm Buie, Archibald Buie, Junior, Daniel Buie, Gilbert Buie, John Buie, Duncan Buie, and Archibald Buie the Piper.

Not all of the early Scots owned land. Some could not pay the land grant fees. Many were indentured servants and spent years paying back others for financing their voyage. The poor frequently became tenant farmers and paid their landlords portions of their yearly crop and stock increases. Still others, not wanting to pay taxes, simply became squatters and did not bother to apply for grants or register their lands.


Not all of the early Scots owned land.  Some could not pay the land grant fees.  Many were indentured servants and spent years paying back others for financing their voyage.  The poor frequently became tenant farmers and paid their landlords portions of their yearly crop and stock increases.  Still others, not wanting to pay taxes, simply became squatters and did not bother to apply for grants or register their lands. 

Neill Buie was one of the unfortunates who did not have enough money to purchase land or pay the grant fee. He farmed as a tenant.  When Neill died in 1761, he could give his children only a small modicum of money and a few cows and hogs.  His personal possessions included a pair of stockings and garters, a jacket, gloves, blankets, a razor and a knife, and a few other items of bare necessity.  Old Daniel Buie, a man of slightly better means, owned a plaid cloak in 1764 which represents the last known article of Highland garb worn by an early Buie in North Carolina. 


Several Buies turned to other occupations to supplement their income from agriculture and animal husbandry.  John Buie, a weaver, bought land on the Cape Fear in 1763 near Archibald Buie, a blacksmith.  Malcolm Buie was liscenced to keep a tavern near Cross Creek in 1775.  The 1777 Cumberland County tax list included Archibald Buie, shoemaker, and Duncan Buie, tailor.  Another Buie used a talent learned in his youth on Jura.  He played the bagpipes for his Highlander friends at their ceremonies and social gatherings and was appropriately known as Archibald Buie the Piper.

"Piper Archie" first lived on the Cape Fear and later in the Barbeque area.  Piper Archie never married and went blind in his old age.  When he became lost in the woods and swamps he just sat down on a log and wailed away on his pipes until someone found him and led the aged, bow-legged fellow to his destination.  In 1759, Archie's neighbor Niall Ruadh or Big Red Neill McNeill fell ill with swamp fever at Smylie's Falls on the Cape Fear. Archie visited his old friend and droned on the pipes hoping their tones would perk old Niall Ruadh up, but after awhile, Red asked Archie to fell a tree for him.  While Archie played on, the giant Scotchman took the log and carved himself a coffin while uttering ancient prayers in Gaelic, "Is e Dia fein a's buachaill dhamh cho bhi mi ann an dith...".  As he weakened and the end drew near, Red motioned to Piper Archie and told him "Bury me across the river on the brow of Smylie's Hill where it faces west. When ye ha'e buried me, speed me on my way wi' a skirlin' o' the pipes." In a few moments, Niall Ruadh had passed on to join his ancestors in the New Caledonia.  Piper Archie placed his friends body in the coffin, but the river was swelling from rains and he couldn't get it across, so he dug a shallow grave, lowered his friend below, covered the hole with dirt and played the McNeill lament.

Years later during the Civil War, decades after Piper Archie's death, a rain deluge hit the Cape Fear Valley while Sherman's Yankees marched and fought at Averasboro.  After the waters receded, a gum log coffin was found containing the red-bearded skeleton of a huge man.  The news reached Alexander "Sandy" Buie up the river and rushed to the scene with his coon dog Beauregard.  Sandy had heard the story of Red's desire to be buried across the river and now he obliged the wish.  The body was buried on the brow of Smylie's Hill.  The story didn't end here, though, for even today when the mists rise from the river and the cypress swamps near Smylie's Hill, one can hear the low moan of bagpipes and barely see the ghostly spectre of bow-legged, little Archie Buie playing for a dancing giant apparition with curly red hair and beard.

In 1756, Rev. James Campbell, a Gaelic-speaking Presbyterian minister, settled on the Cape Fear opposite "the Bluff". On October 18, 1758, several men, including Archibald Buie, contracted Rev. Campbell to preach to the Scotch settlers.  He dutifully ministered for many years at first in the homes of Roger McNeill and Alexander McKay on alternate Sundays.  In 1758 he began preaching at John Dobbin's house on Barbeque Creek.  Finally, in 1765, a log church was built near the Dobbin's house known as Barbeque Church and the first elders were Gilbert Clark, Duncan Buie, Archibald Buie of Gum Swamp, and Daniel Cameron.  These men, nourished by the sermons at the old Jura church at Kilearnadil were so knowledgeable of doctrine that they were known as "the Little Ministers of Barbeque".  The church historian Rev. James D. MacKenzie described the worship at Barbeque: "The building had no chimney, for the worshippers inside did not believe in being comfortable in church.  There was no piano or organ there, for they did not believe in using instrumental music in the worship of God.  Nor were there hymnbooks. They didn't believe in hymns either.  Their hymnbook was the Bible, and they sang the Psalms of David which had long before been rendered in verse form and set to music.  There was no carpet down the center aisle and no upholstered pulpit furniture. But the love of God was there, and this was sufficient for them. " And, of course, much to the satisfaction of the members, Rev. Campbell would fill their hearts with sermons preached in their beloved Gaelic tongue.


One John Buie of Cumberland County, an American patriot, then only 17 years old, recalled these times. "(I) entered the Army of North Carolina in the year 1776, in February, in Cumberland County, North Carolina under Capt. Clark for the term of six months as a substitute for (my) father Duncan Buie.  (We) rendezvoused at Fayetteville, North Carolina then a placed called Cross Creek where Col. Thorton took command of the regiment and Israel Folian was major and Thomas Dobbins lieutenant...During the time of encampment at Fayetteville, Col. Thornton (Thackston) marched back again to the Cape Fear River to head the Tories who were fleeing in that direction after their defeat by Col. Caswell at Moore's Bridge. We fell in with the Tories who were submitted without any resistance to the number of about six hundred.., whom we made prisoners and sent their officers to Halifax, North Carolina.  There was no other skirmishes and nothing else done except training and scouting parties occasionally scouring the country until my term of six months expired."  John's military career did not end here, for in 1779 he moved to the 96th District in South Carolina, again enlisted in the American Army, and fought under the command of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln.  John survived the war and later moved to Tennessee.
After Moore's Creek the Whigs controlled Cumberland County.  Daniel Buie served as a captain of militia and helped organize the Whigs into military units.  In June, 1776, Col. Philip Alston sent Daniel out to gather men for a muster.  A 14-year old lad, Hugh McDonald, who had been forced to fight as a young Tory soldier at Moore's Creek by his father, recalled an encounter with Captain Daniel Buie in a field while young Hugh was plowing.  "Five men on horseback appeared at the fence, one of whom, Daniel Buie, knew me and asked me what I was doing here. I answered that my father lived here; and he said he was not aware of that.  'Come', he says, 'you must go with us to pilot us through the settlement; for we have a boy here who has come far enough.  He is six miles from home and is tired enough.'  His name was Thomas Graham, and he lived near the head of McLendon's Creek.  I told Mr. Buie that I dare not go, for if I did, my father would kill me.  Mr. Buie then alighted from his horse, and walked into the field, ungeared the horse and took him outside the fence.  He then put up the fence again, and, leading me by the hand, put me on behind one of the company, whose name was Gaster, and discharged the other boy." Hugh guided Daniel Buie and his men through the area and continued with them to Henry Eagle's house on Bear Creek where he was befriended by Col. Alston and his wife.  Refusing to return to his father, Hugh went to Cross Creek with Daniel Buie and joined Capt. Arthur Council's Whig militia.

Since Daniel Buie and Thomas Dobbins were captains of the militia in the Bar-beque District, they were responsible for administering the provisional government in that area.  The remainder of the Buies were still undecided about which side to adhere.  Duncan Buie, who had served the Barbeque Church for so many years as an elder, left his neighbors probably because of his neutralist or loyalist feelings, and relocated on Raifords Creek near the Cape Fear opposite Bluff Church.  In 1779 only half of the Buies had pledged an allegiance to the new government.  As time passed, however, they became more accustomed to the revolutionary regime and by 1780 all but three Buies had taken the oath of loyalty to the state renouncing any obedience to the King.

After a period of relative quiet in Cumberland County, the war drew near again.  After his costly victory at Guilford Courthouse on March 15, 1781, British Lord Cornwallis led his army southeast toward Cross Creek.  The first redcoat legions entered Cumberland County on the northern boundary and camped near William Buie's home.  The next day Banastre Tarleton's British dragoons approached Barbeque Church.  They were met by Captain Daniel Buie and his small group of Whig militia including Jacob Gaster, Laurence Strodder, Duncan Buie, John Small and others.  In the short skirmish which followed, Duncan Buie's scalp was split open by a sabre and was left for dead by the British.  Later however, he recovered and lived many years.  Most of the Whigs were captured and placed in a bull pen overnight.  A few escaped from the pen that evening in the darkness.  The remainder were led away with the British force to Wilmington.  Gaster, Small, and Strodder were later exchanged.  Daniel Buie died a few months later aboard a British prison ship anchored at Wilmington.
One of the early pastors, Rev. C. W. Grafton, wrote of the early life around Union Church.  "The people in the early days were noted for simplicity of their manners. They were not wealthy.  They were plain, unpretending, honest people...The period between 1820 and 1830 might be called the romance period of the Scottish settlement.  Everything was young, bright, fresh, and full of life and vigor.  The country abounded in game and the streams in fish.  The lowlands and sometimes the hills were covered with canebreaks.  Farming was an easy matter at that day.  Burn away the brakes and plant your corn and you would be sure of a harvest.  Natchez was the market town for the country...and it was a great occasion for a farmer to yoke up his oxen and start to market with the whole week before him for going and returning.  Some of the old Scotch were not adverse to strong drink and coming back with a jug of Scotch whiskey their animal spirits would be stirred on the way and their homecoming would be loudly advertised.  But such a one would unfailingly be brought before his brethren in the church and he would be certain of a reprimand and would probably be excommunicated for a while.  The old records of Union Church abound in illustrations of the faithful dealings of the elders with their brethren.  Let a man be overtaken in a fault, such as violating the Sabbath day, or taking God's name in vain, or becoming intoxicated, and he was certain of discipline by the church.  And this faithful attitude of the Ruling Elders doubtless saved many an erring brother."

John Buie, Sr., one of the elders at Union Church wrote two letters to his cousin Neill Brown back in Robeson County which revealed much about the everyday life at the settlement. In November, 1824, he related "I hope religion is gaining ground in this section of the country.  The different denominations are becoming more friendly especially Methodist and Presbyterian which I think is a good omen.  We have made a tolerable good crop. We lack for none of the necessities of life. Friends and neighbors here are all well. " In December of the next year, John wrote "John, Jennet, Catherine, and Anabel are still living with me and all are in good health except Catherine, who had a severe spell of the third day ache and fever, for the space of four months; she is getting some better, but has fevers yet (this was probably malaria).  We have a quarter section of land, and a beautiful situation, and twenty-five acres of land under cultivation.  The only inconvenience that attends our place is the lack of drinking water which we have to haul a mile.  We have made three attempts to dig wells but have failed in getting water.  We expect to dig another soon.  We have made a tolerable good crop of cotton and corn this year.  We also have a good stock of hogs and cattle.  Our hogs will be excellent pork.  We lack for nothing to render life comfortable...We have Rev. William Montgomery for our pastor.  He preaches for us every third Sabbath.  He is an able Divine."


A few years later another group of Scotch pioneers made their way to Union Church. The account of Mrs. Kate McGeachy Buie reads "In the year 1841 some of the Buie connections moved to Arkansas.  Several families joined together forming quite a party. When they reached their destination they stayed as near together as they could get land to locate on. In the party were McCorveys, McAlpines, Wilkersons, Rays, a Croatan Indian named McGilverary Braboy, and others.  They took several negro servants.  They carried all their household goods they could find room for.  The women took their spinning wheels. The men furnished each his own team of horses, mules, not then being in general use. Before they started the men made their own wagons, doing the wood and iron work in their own shops, for in those days there were no ready made wagons near. In the party were wives and children and babies.  They traveled at their leisure, camping when they found a good place or were tired.  When they came to the "Buie settlement" as the place where their kinfolk were located, being the home of Malcolm Buie and others in Mississippi, they halted for a time, and as it was springtime and their grain provisions were running short, they rented land and made a good farm crop.  When this was harvested they moved on again to Arkansas. The men were good hunters and as game was plentiful all along the route they kept the party well supplied with fresh meat.  Deer, wild turkeys, and wild hogs were abundant."  This group made their way to Union County, Arkansas, and settled near the present town of Junction City.


During these pioneer days the new nation suffered its share of growing pains and military conflicts were certain to ensue.  The Buie men did not hesitate to join their country's armed forces to defend their homes.  During the War of 1812, Neill Buie of Cumberland County served as a captain of the Fayetteville Independent Company of the North Carolina Militia.  Others serving in the militia at this time included Hugh Buie of Bladen County and Daniel Buie of Cumberland County.  It is likely that none of these men actually saw action with the British.  A few years later, Malcolm Buie of Georgia marched against the Seminoles in the Indian Wars in Florida.  Those serving in the Mexican War were Archibald Buie of Christian County, Kentucky, John McL. Buie of the District of Columbia, Owens Buie of Mississippi, William L. Buie of Tennessee, and William W. Buie and Hugh Buie  Cumberland County, North Carolina.  Hugh reported died during the Mexican War.  (Hugh Buie died July 24, 1847 in Monterrey Mexico).
The Confederate States of America was formed by the southern states in early 1861 and in April of that same year the Civil War began with the attack upon the federal outpost at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Immediatedly, there was a general call to arms in both the South and North, and the Buie men did not hesitate to offer tileir services to the Southern cause.  Only one, William R. Buie of Illinois, fought for the Union side.

Southern patriotism ran deep in the Buie families.  At Union Church, Mississippi

the company of Confederates composed of local boys paraded beneath the trees near the church and received a hand-made silken banner of the Southern Confederacy from Miss Flora Buie.  Hugh Buie of Bladen County, North Carolina, had six sons to enlist. (Seven sons).  North Carolina alone had about 40 Buie men to fight in the war.  Of so many that joined their country's forces, about one-third did not return.  Many were killed or died in Northern prison camps.  Others were so maimed by wounds that they died soon after the war or were crippled for the remainder of their lives.

A few personal accounts of their war experiences survive.  The story of young Aaron Hinsdale Buie of Franklin County, Mississippi, follows which exemplifies the life style and hardships of the typical Confederate soldier:

"... I left the schoolroom at the age of 16 years and was examined and sworn

in service...May, 1863, at Monticello, as a private in Compally E, Fourth Mississippi Cavalry, General N.B. Forrest's Division... (I) was never wounded, taken prisoner, changed nor promoted...was in the battles of Harrisburg, Mississippi, Selma, Alabama, and many skirmishes. I served as a courier a great deal of the time. (I) received parole in Meridian, Mississippi.  In the winter of '63, I contracted a cold which resulted in deafness and was discharged.  I returned home and after a rest of two months, my hearing was restored.  I returned to the same regiment...On the night of my arrival, after being sworn in, I was placed on picket duty and orders were given me to arrest any man passing that way without a pass from headquarters.  So about 9 o'clock I heard a man advancing towards me with his sword rattling at his side, and it happened to be my colonel who was an old bachelor.  Just to my left lived a rich farmer with four or five fine daughters, and the colonel had sent them a note that he would call on them that night, but he had no pass. We kept him under guard for about two hours until the young ladies had retired and then marched him back to his headquarters. He begged piteously to let him pass, telling me that he had given such orders, but I told him I must carry them out or suffer the consequences.  On our return to camp, he told me that he would remember me for the act.  Being only a lad, I expected severe punishment.  Within two days, he ordered his regiment into line to secure an escort for him on a raid into Mississippi.  After two days march about sunset we were nearing a little town, Fayette, in Jefferson County.  We rode into the arms of 600 Yankees.  He halted us for a few minutes and commanded us right about and charge.  The Yankees broke their line and went out .... We then marched to Jackson, Louisiana, where a large force of Federals were in camp . We took them by surprise. I, with others, was ordered to run out on a road for some two miles and report the movement of the Yankees.  While there we heard a noise and the hair stood straight up on our heads. In a few minutes, seven Yankees ran into the road about fifty yards in front of me.  We halted them and carried them into camp.  My colonel was so well pleased that he made me one of his couriers.  I found this harder than a private's life, more risks to take and more hardships."


Most of the soldiers at war were homesick young men who yearned to return to their families.  James A. Buie, a 23-year old recruit from Smith County, Tennesee, enlisted in Company A of the 8th Tennessee Infantry.  He was sent to Camp Trousdale for training and one of his first letters was to his sister Mazey, his wife Susan, and one of his brothers: "Dear brother, I seat myself to write to you to inform you that I am well hoping when these lines come to hand they will find you well.  A few lines to Mazey:  Mazey, I believe this is the first time I have sent you a line and you must not fall out with me.  Mazey, I want to see you badly and hope I will .... So write to me Mazey and give me your best respects.  A few lines to "Soos" (Susan): Soos, I want to see you mighty bad, and if I can't, write to me for it does me good to hear from you at any time, and write it yourself for I can read your hand real good. Soos, I have been in good health ever since I left home, but John Lee is sick this morning and we don't know but what he is taking the measles, but I hope not.  I am going to have my likeness taken the first clear day and will send it to you.  So Soos, you must do the best you can for yourself until I come home.  So I must close my letter.  So give my best respects to all my friends and tell them to write to me.  So remains your husband until death, James A. Buie."
Several Buies achieved notable promotions in the Confederate Army.  Duncan Buie enlisted in 1861 in Winnsboro, Lousiana, and was elected to Captain of the Franklin Life Guards which was one of the constituent outfits of the 4th Louisiana Battalion.  Duncan was promoted to major in 1862, and later in May, 1864, reported his unit's activities during the Atlanta Campaign "I assumed command of the Fourth Louisiana Battalion near night-fall, May 15.  The same night (we) retreated from Resaca.  (We) continued to retreat south, resting at intervals until May 25,Wednesday, instant, when the Command was ordered into the line of battle near New Hope Church.  The same night (we) entrenched our positions and remained there entrenched for sixty hours, during which time (we) lost three men killed and eight wounded.  On May 28, (we) marched to the right of New Hope Church.  On May 29 we were in the rear of the line of battle two miles and a half east of New Hope Church. " Although wounded soon thereafter, Duncan recovered, and after the war was a sheriff and county judge in Franklin Parish.

Another officer was Captain James D. Buie of Cumberland County, North Carolina, who was also a chaplain.  He was a pastor at the Straits in 1862 when New Berne fell to the Federals in March.  Captain Buie must have been an outspoken secessionist for he wrote "(The Federal Major) commanding in Beaufort sent thirty men to the Straits to arrest men, and sent handcuffs to put on me. I escaped by sailing up Core Sound and across Pamilco Sound to Hyde County.  I walked 125 miles to Tarboro and went to Wilson...I volunteered April 27, 1862, and was mustered out with Johnston's Army April 26, 1865."  Captain Buie recalled a sad event which occurred during the war.  "After the Battle of Burgess Mills on October 27, 1864, I was going over the field looking after the dead and wounded, and I found, leaning against a tree, one of our church members with his New Testament in his hands.  He was dead.  He died with his Testament opened and I found it stained with blood."


Dr. William E. Buie of Union Church, Mississippi, served the Confederate Army of Mississippi as a surgeon attached to the 7th Mississippi Infantry Regiment.  Despite poor health, he participated in some of the fiercest battles and hardest campaigns of the war and he was one of the most beloved men in the Army of Mississippi.  During the Battle of Shiloh his horse broke loose and ran off.  Dr. Buie knew that because of his feebleness he would not be able to leave the battle-field on foot and in despair he cried "I am gone up."  A young soldier heard his shout, recognized him, and replied "not while I'm living" and retrieved the horse despite heavy enemy fire and thus saved William's life.  One of Dr. Buie's friends described the physician's actions during and after Shiloh.  "The wounded were taken to a log church where for three days he was constantly engaged in performing surgical operations.  The fatigue and exposure caused him sickness.  General Bragg offered him a higher position in the Medical Department, but the exposure of the Kentucky  campaign brought on an attack of pneumonia which compelled him to resign and return home.  In consequence of his exposure, his hair, which had been black, had turned prematurely gray."  After the fall of Port Hudson in 1863, Dr, Buie joined his brother Isaac Newton Buie and his family in their journey from war-torn Mississippi to Texas.


During the final months of the Civil War, the Confederacy suffered a chaotic disintegration.  Its once-proud armies melted away.  The youthful Aaron Hinsdale Buie described his last days in a gray uniform.  "Our last battle was at Selma, Alabama, and we marched for three days and nights without anything to eat.  We had to retreat, and on my way I stopped at a farmer's house and the good lady put sixteen biscuits in my haversack, and I had to run for my life, as the Yankees were upon us.  Having lost our horses, we had to tramp through sand over our shoes all that day.  The following morning we were unable to walk."

After their surrender, the defeated veterans returned home to their homes and to their families and began to rebuild their shattered lives.  Their inborn Scottish will allowed them to prevail.  After a time, the Buie men and women were able to turn their thoughts to the future; their minds dwelled upon the challenges of new frontiers and the betterment of life for themselves, their children, and generations yet unborn.


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