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Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland
On Planting in Exposed and Maritime Situations


By Lewis Bayne, Kinmel Park, Abergele, North Wales. [Premium—Five Sovereigns.]

Those who engage in planting in extremely exposed or maritime situations need not look for immediate and certain success, nor be disheartened by the failure to some extent of their labours, as successful planting in such situations is always problematical, and requires great preparation and perseverance to ensure even moderately good results. It has been found from experience that certain trees will grow and thrive with various success in the most exposed situations when the soil is suitable; but when the soil is unsuitable, the success of the planting becomes doubtful, and ought not to be attempted without due consideration, and under any circumstance a reasonable time must elapse before the trees planted will have much appearance.

"When the soil and subsoil is of a tenacious and stiff nature, there will be little use of planting any trees or shrubs without first thoroughly preparing the soil for their reception, as without this operation their chance of success will be very limited, even should the most suitable varieties of plants be selected.

After having the ground intended to be planted properly fenced and enclosed, the first thing to be done is to have it thoroughly loosened by trenching or ploughing. The former, although the most expensive method at the beginning, is by all means the best and most profitable in the end, and should be had recourse to where practicable, to a depth of from 20 to 24 inches, especially when the ground is of small extent, or when the planting is to be for ornamental purposes. When trenching is performed, it should always be kept in view to keep the surface soil on the top of the trenched ground, so that the young roots of the plants may have the advantage of the best soil to give them a good start. The under soil being well loosened by the trenching, is also improved by the action of the atmosphere, and particles from the good soil are washed down to it by the rain, while the surface is kept from becoming very wet by the rain-water getting away more freely. But when there is an over-abundance of moisture from rains or stagnant water, it is essential to have it removed by draining. In plantations we consider open drains the best, the depth, width, and distance between each other to be decided upon according to the nature and circumstances of each case.

In very exposed situations, where young trees are planted without the preparation of ploughing or trenching, and the necessary draining, on stiff soils, they become loosened by the action of the wind, and the swaying backwards and forwards produces an open hole right round at the collar of the plant, which allows the air to penetrate the roots. In such circumstances the roots make little progress from the tenacity of the under soil. The holes fill with water, which in winter freezes to the roots of the plants when frost sets in, while the plants are often laid almost on their broad side, and make little or no growth for a year or two. On the contrary, they are likely to succumb to the influences of the weather from want of nourishment, which merely for the want of preparation of the soil the roots are unable to search for. Very different results may be expected when the ground is well trenched or ploughed and drained, as from the looseness and dryness of the soil on the surface and about the roots, the trees will have a chance of sending out their spongioles in search of food, and making good root growth, which enables them to stand the severity of the storm as well as to make upward growth. Without good roots it is, in the writer's opinion, impossible for trees to grow in the face of severe winds, these being their main stay and support, and good roots they cannot have unless the soil in which they are planted, when of a wet tenacious nature, is thoroughly loosened and drained. On the other hand, when the soil and subsoil is of a light or sandy nature and perfectly dry, neither trenching, ploughing, or draining will be necessary, because it is necessary to retain as much firmness in the ground as possible, so that the plants may be firmly planted.

When the planting operations have been finished, and the plants have attained a size of affording some protection to one another from the storm, a great measure of success will have been attained. But there is still an important part to perform, viz., the keeping and maintaining of the plantation, which will require great attention and judicious management until the trees have arrived at timber size. If the trees are neglected in any way, say from want of timely thinning, and allowed to be drawn up, their after chance of success and renovation by late thinning will be very small indeed; they will probably either be perished to such an extent as to become stunted, or on being thinned the wind may entirely overthrow them. "When drawn up, they will have but small roots to struggle against the wind, and thus be the less able to withstand a storm. Having made these general remarks, derived from experience and observation, the writer will now refer specially to several plantations, of different ages, growing in very exposed situations, and containing various varieties of trees and shrubs, some of which are doing very well, others moderately so, and some to a certain extent failing to give the satisfactory results expected.

The first to be mentioned is a small plantation of about three acres, situated about four miles from the sea, and about 600 feet above sea-level, the soil being of a cold clay loam, not well adapted for the early growth of young plants. The trees are a mixture of common and Turkey oak, ash, sycamore, beech, elm, and a few birch, with one or two laburnums, and service harry trees along the margin, all as near as the writer can judge from their appearance about forty-five years old. The subsoil rests on limestone rock, which in parts has been removed to some depth, forming in some places an undulation of 12 to 15 feet, where the trees are much larger than on the more level parts. This may be accounted for by the dryness of the soil, from much rubbish and mixtures of small stones being in the bottom, giving plenty of room for the roots of the trees to extend, and also from the fact of the prosperous trees not being growing so close to one another as those in the other parts. Another advantage they have is the shelter derived by their being placed in low ground, and having the other trees growing as it were above and around them. All the trees on the level are very small for their age, which is mainly due to the exposure of the situation, the coldness of the soil, and the want of thinning them in youth. The trees which have made most progress are the beech and sycamore, and the difference between them and their neighbours is very apparent. Along the margin there is a row of ash with a few Wych elm, and one or two Turkey oak, laburnum, and service trees, and as these have been receiving the severest exposure, one may judge from their appearance which are the best trees for planting when severe winds are to be contended with. The Turkey oaks contain more timber than their neighbours, having grown larger than either the ash or elm, but the branches and young shoots of the last have stood the severity of the winds better than those of the Turkey oak. The ash, on the other hand, are all blown with the wind to such an extent that their branches are grown towards the sheltered side, while those facing the storm have made little progress. The laburnum and service have both stood the exposure well. Near the outside are one or two larch which have made but small progress, not containing at present more than three cubic feet of timber, and having the tops entirely gone. All round this small plantation a young one was planted (about ten years ago), which is partly enclosed by a wire fence, and partly (on the west and most exposed side) with an upright paling fence 4˝ feet high, having the pales or spars placed 1˝ inches apart. This fence was erected for the double purpose of (1) protecting the trees from the inroad of stock and ground game (and avoiding the expense of wire netting), and (2) of sheltering the plants from the severe gales that blow on that portion of the plantation. At first sight the erection of this fence seems a good idea, and from the shelter afforded, success might very naturally have been expected.

Indeed this result, to a great extent, has been the case, but the success would have been much more marked had the fence been permanent. In the way of making alterations, however, this fence was removed in the autumn of 1873,. and erected with the same view of protecting the trees in another young plantation, both from wind and animals. From the paling uprights being only 3 inches wide, and placed at 1˝ inches apart, it might reasonably have been, expected that a sufficient current of wind would have gone through between the pales to have hardened the trees to such an extent, as to enable them to withstand the exposure when the fence was removed, but the result was otherwise. Directly opposite where part of the fence was removed were growing birch and Scots fir, with a few oaks, and a good under cover of whins, and it was soon found that they had been too kindly nursed by the shelter of the paling to withstand the severity of the exposure. After its removal a great many of the Scots firs were blown down, and several of them half way over with their roots partly removed from the soil. The birch shared the same fate, and many of them had their roots drawn partially out of the ground—the same as if they had been pulled over. Had the fence been left, the result of the shelter might have proved otherwise, as they would have received the blow of the wind gradually as they grew up above its level.

This example goes to show the necessity of bringing up young trees in extremely exposed positions as hardy as possible, so that they may take their girth in proportion to their height, and make good root growth, so as to hold them firm in the ground against severe weather. The writer is of opinion that when shelter is to be provided by the fencing of young plantations in exposed situations, the best fence that can be made use of is a good stone wall or dyke with a rough and irregularly projecting coping. By the coping being thus irregular, with a few inches projection over the sides of the wall, the wind is broken as it rises on the wall, and is prevented from coming in contact with the tops of the trees in great force, or at once, whereas with a level coping of the width of the top of the wall without any projection over its sides the wind rises over the wall, and meets no obstruction, coming against the trees in much greater force above the level of the wall than if there had been no wall or shelter whatever. Many prefer artificial paling, brush, or stake and rice shelter to stone walls or dykes, and such fences are probably sufficient for the purpose in view, providing they are upheld until the trees can do without them. But this becomes expensive, without even providing the plantation with a permanent fence, which the stone wall or dyke is.
The following remarks apply to a plantation extending to about ten acres, and planted with the following varieties of trees, namely, oak, wych elm, Scots fir, larch, and spruce. It is situated about two miles from the sea, and 40 feet above its level. The ground is on a slight slope or rise, and of various descriptions of soil, part of it being pure sand to a considerable depth, parts light, thin, poor loam and sandy subsoil, and parts poor loamy clay with a clay subsoil. The geological formation is limestone, but at a considerable depth. The plantation is protected on the one side by a wire fence, and the remainder partly wire fence, and old hedge and ditch, which had been the division between the fields before the ground was planted. The ground had, some years previous to being planted, been under or furrow drained with pipe tiles to a depth of 3˝ feet, and at the distance of 30 feet between the drains, and on the ground being planted it was well turned over to as great a depth as possible with four-horse ploughs, and again drained with open drains 30 feet apart, and to a depth of about 15 inches.

On the east or sheltered side of the plantation is a strip of old oak trees; also younger wych elm, sycamore, and birch, but which have little or no effect in the shape of shelter towards the younger trees. The plantation is now twenty years old, and has been several times thinned, during which process the larch and spruce were principally removed on the west or exposed side of the plantation, giving preference to the hardwoods and Scots fir as standards, while on the east and sheltered portion the spruce fir have had the preference with the hardwoods, and the larch and Scots removed.

There is every appearance of health throughout the whole plantation, amongst the hardwoods, Scots fir, and spruce, with the exception of the extreme margin, where any few larch and spruce that have been left in the thinning are not thriving.

The larch show less signs of hardiness than the spruce, and although planted and growing on the margin of the ditch, which is about 3 feet deep with the soil thrown inwards to the plantation, therefore rendering the soil perfectly dry. There is not a single larch that has not lost its leader, and is not bent and twisted with the wind. In most cases they are dead several feet from the top downwards, and in the thinning many were found dead altogether, or in a dying state. The same stunted-ness is also shown in the larch on the sides of the drive, where there is an opening for the wind to strike against them, while any that are growing towards the sheltered side are in a much more healthy state. This shows that the larch is not well adapted for planting in exposed or maritime situations. The spruce on the exposed margin, although keeping growing make but little progress. There have been few deaths among this class resulting from the exposure, although many of the trees are one-sided, with their foliage on the exposed side quite red, while on the sheltered side of the same tree the foliage is nearly of its natural green. In the sheltered part or east side of the plantation, the spruce are making rapid progress, and appear to be in a very healthy state, having in many cases much overgrown both the larch and the Scots fir. The Scots fir, although not appearing to be the true variety, are all growing well, and within the last few years have made rapid progress. Those on the extreme margin of the west side are more one-sided, and have fewer branches than the others, but they show no signs of succumbing to the blast, giving evident proof of the endurance of the Scots fir over the larch.

The oaks are all growing moderately well where the soil is suitable for them, and those near the exposed margin have, in many cases, made considerable progress, although they are more stunted in appearance than their better-sheltered neighbours.

The wych elms are more numerous on the margin than the oaks, and have apparently been considered very hardy, and therefore planted on the exposed side, as shelter for the others. They have all a healthy appearance, and stand the winds better than any of the others. They have never been in any way pruned, and have therefore branches to near the ground. Indeed, it would not be advisable to prune them, but to leave as many branches on them as it is possible to obtain, seeing that the principal advantage to be derived from them is shelter for the rest of the plantation. The larger the quantity of small branches the better, so long as they don't appear to yield to the breezes.

Adjoining this plantation, along the margin of a garden, without any artificial shelter, a few Austrian pines and English yews are planted at distances apart of about nine feet, and in a row. The Austrian pines are about twelve years old, and were transplanted to their present situation from an open exposure in the year 1871, and the yews were removed in 1869. Neither the pines nor the yews have made great growth in their new position, but both appear to be in a very healthy state. The pines are growing steadily though slowly, with the branches on the exposed side stretching out against the wind, as well as on the sheltered side, and never showing any signs of the gale cutting their foliage. A few damson plum-trees in the same garden are growing well in the face of the wind, but although showing plenty of bloom they seldom produce much fruit.

The next plantation to be noticed contains about four acres, and is situated about a mile from the sea, and is close upon its level on level ground, with an open exposure all round. The surrounding ground, and that betwixt and the sea, is a level strong clay soil or loam, or what may be termed in Scotland "carse soil." In the neighbourhood it is known by the name of "marsh land," probably from its having been in a wet and marshy state before being drained and cultivated. Even now in many places it is very wet during the winter months, or in rainy weather, and from being level the water takes long to clear off. The plantation is also of a heavy clay soil, and subsoil of same stiff nature, and from the stiffness and tenacity of the soil, and exposure of the situation, planting has never been performed to any extent, even with the view of shelter.

The plantation referred to is partly fenced by a hedge and partly by an open ditch, and the remainder by a water-cut, into which the tide has access. The trees consist of oak, ash, elm, sycamore, beech, poplar, willow, alder, and Scots fir. A good many larch had been planted, but are now almost all cut out, and the few that have been left are quite dead. This result, in the writer's opinion, is owing principally to the unsuitableness of the soil, as the dead trees are standing in the interior of the plantation, and have therefore had the shelter of the other trees. From the appearance of the trees, and counting the concentric circles as the years' growth, the trees were ascertained to be from thirty to forty years planted, and none of them are of very large size, considering that age to be correct (which we believe it is), and the strong quality of the soil in which they are growing. This may be accounted for by the smallness of the plantation, the exposed situation on which they are growing, and the want of timely and proper thinning.

The north side, facing the sea, is margined with Huntingdon willow, and a few common alders and poplars, none of which have made much progress, the poplars being very much cut by the wind, the willows having much the same appearance, while the alders are not only of a sickly appearance, but have made a very small growth, and are comparatively smaller than any trees in the plantation. The poplars on this side are larger, and have made more wood than any of the other trees. The west side, which is much exposed, is principally composed of wych elm, with a few ash, sycamore, and beech, and one or two oaks. The oaks and beech are rather small, and also the wych elm, but the latter appear very healthy, and their foliage and young wood appear to stand the exposure better than the former varieties. The sycamores, although small, appear to be in a healthy state. The south, or sheltered side, consists principally of poplar, ash, and elm. The former are of good size compared with any of the other trees, and are much larger than the poplars on the other side of the plantation, which is easily accounted for by their having the shelter of the other trees, and an extra depth of dry soil, being planted close to the open ditch where the soil had been thrown out.

Taking the plantation as a whole, the oaks are few in number and none so good as the elm and ash, where the latter have had room. The wych elm rather small towards the outside, but some of them as large as the best ash towards the interior. The sycamores are generally small but of a healthy appearance; beech about the same size as the sycamore, and retain their leaves longer in a green state, the latter in a few cases decaying towards the extreme points of their leaders in the north or sea side. The average height of the trees throughout the plantation range from 30 to 35 feet, with girths at 6 feet from the ground varying from 3 to 8 inches (quarter girth), except the poplars, which are a few feet higher and about 3 inches girth on the exposed sides, and from 13 to 14 inches (qr. girth) on the sheltered side.

The general appearance of the foliage of the trees on the outward exposed sides shows the effects of the cutting winds by the brownness of the leaves. From the want of underwood as shelter in this plantation, it is proposed to have it cut down and planted with underwood and forest trees, with the view of raising a young plantation from the assistance of the shoots from the stools after the trees are cut down. This course is commendable from the existing trees being rather drawn up from the want of thinning, and as in their exposed position thinning now would be apt to check rather than increase their growth without providing the necessary shelter.

With the view of showing the effects of severe prevailing winds on various varieties of trees, it may not be out of place to refer to several growing singly in hedgerows and in the margins of plantations, and other places, which the writer has an opportunity of observing daily in the course of following his occupation.

Oak, Common, although planted in favourable soils, and in moderately exposed situations, is far from being suited for situations exposed to prevailing winds. Many are to be seen both on the outside of plantations and in hedgerows, although attaining moderate size, much cut by the winds, and all one-sided, and leaning and growing towards the east, or as it were growing away from the blast, having a very stunted appearance, and in many cases covered with galls, and the leaves having a dry and curled unhealthy appearance.

The Turkey Oak grows more quickly, and does not seem to suffer from the wind to nearly the extent of the common oak, and where they are growing side by side, the Turkey oak is growing healthy and vigorous in exposed places, where the common variety has a very scrubby and unhealthy appearance.

Scarlet Oak does not stand the wind in this quarter, and in moderately exposed situations is far from doing well.

Ash.—This tree, when growing in hedgerows, where the soil has been well prepared, attains moderate size, but on the margins of plantations it makes less progress, and from its not being a first-class shelter tree, nor profitable unless clean grown, the writer does not consider it a good hedgerow or margin plant in exposed positions. If, however, it is growing in exposed situations, intermixed with other trees, it makes considerable growth, and in suitable soils will be found more profitable than many other hardwood varieties.

Elm, Scotch or Wych, and English.—The former stands well in exposed hedgerows and plantations, and although not growing to extra large size, is a good shelter plant, from its having numerous branches and twigs, which yield to the breeze, without being much injured, and as it is in most cases much more upright and less blown or one-sided than the ash, the writer considers it a better margin plant for exposed plantations than any of the above-named trees. The English elm is less hardy, but in a good dry loam attains a large size even in exposed situations, and in some instances doing equally well alongside of the wych elm, growing to a large size, good shape, and with healthy foliage.

Sycamore grows well, in some instances attaining good size and age in extremely exposed situations, while in others it is not doing well while young, nor attaining average size at advanced age. A small plantation, which is about ten years old, in an exposed place, has had the sycamore cut down, and died off to near the ground by the severe winds. On the other hand, some hedgerow and margin of plantation trees are doing moderately well and maintaining a good shape and healthy appearance, and where the ground is at all suitable, it is much to be recommended for planting in exposed situations, both for ornament and shelter, as well as for profitable purposes. From the round shape and the closeness of its branches and foliage, it is a first class shelter tree when it arrives at an average age and size.

Beech, where the soil is dry and light, is growing well in exposed places, and from the length of time it retains its foliage in their weathered state, makes it a good tree for shelter, but where the soil is heavy and stiff it makes slow progress, and dies at an early age.

Chestnut, Spanish.—Few are to be seen growing in exposed situations, and where there are any much exposed to the winds they are in a very unhealthy state, and have made but small progress. They are generally dead, or dying towards the top, and the stem of the tree more or less covered with spray. It is therefore not at all adapted for exposed planting.

Chestnut, Horse.—This, like the last-noticed variety, is not well adapted for severe exposures, as both buds and branches are very liable to destruction by even moderate winds.

Lime, seldom seen in exposed positions, and the few the writer has seen, show inadaptation to a very windy site. The young shoots die away year after year.

Poplar, Black Italian, is not growing well, nor making much wood in exposed places, and none of them have anything like a healthy appearance; in most cases their branches dying and young spray taking their place.

Common Black Poplar, growing to a larger size, and having a much better shape and healthier appearance than the last-named variety, and even where growing in hedgerows, and very much exposed, has attained considerable size, but when large it has a tendency to have its branches broken or destroyed by the wind.

The Lombardy Poplar appears to be very hardy, and grows to a good size, but from its upright growth does not give great shelter unless planted very close, but when so planted it answers the purpose well in its young state.

Huntingdon Willows are, as a rule, one-sided, and don't grow to a large size, but in the most exposed situations and near the sea they are the means of producing good shelter.

The Birch is generally growing well in moderate windy positions, and although leaning to one side has in many cases a pretty good top, and from its adapting itself to poor soils will thrive in high and exposed situations, where few other deciduous trees would grow to any size.

Common Alder, wherever it is to be seen here in very exposed situations, is a mere scrab, and in most cases covered with seed, and therefore not well adapted for planting in the face of severe winds.

Wild Cherry or Gean trees are not numerous in exposed places, but stand the storm very well while in their young state, and have a healthy and ornamental appearance, but they are apt to be damaged when old by the wind breaking their branches.

The Mountain Ash grows well, having a good shape and all the appearance of good health, and is much to be recommended as an ornamental and shelter plant in exposed sites.

The Service Tree is a little one-sided, but not in any way disfigured by the wind, and may be considered very hardy.

Laburnum appears to stand the wind moderately well, but in few cases attains much size, and is liable to have its limbs broken off' at the joints.

Common Thorns grow well in hedges, and as single specimens are a little one-sided, but have, however, good tops, and produce good shelter.

Sloe or Black Thorn grows in abundance in the hedges in exposed situations near to the sea, and seems to thrive well.

Evergreen Oak succeeding well wherever planted, and has the appearance of being very hardy. It grows to a large size and of good shape, with healthy foliage in very exposed positions. In few cases is it blown or one-sided, and therefore a first-class tree for planting, either as ornament or shelter, in exposed situations.

Holly.—The common holly is very numerous in the hedges, both kept low as a fence, and left to grow at its own accord. It has the appearance of making a good hedge plant in exposed places, as it grows very close, and where growing as a tree or shrub, although much blown to one side and cut by the wind, attains considerable size, and makes progress in very exposed places. The writer has cut down trees of eighteen inches diameter, which were blown and grown so much to one side that they had the appearance of being switched with a hedging knife, so straight and close was the surface of the branches and foliage, and still having a very green and healthy appearance.

Hazel is growing to moderate size in extremely exposed situations, but where growing alongside of the common thorn, is much more wind-blown and one-sided, and also less hardy than the thorn.

Elder is growing well in very exposed situations, and from its fastness of growth is a good nurse plant in suitable ground in exposed situations.

Portugal Laurel when growing in the face of the wind does not make great progress, and is very much one-sided and cut by the wind on the exposed side.

The Common Laurel is rather thin of foliage. It takes, however, a good upward growth, although not very bushy.

The Arbutus is growing in moderately exposed positions in a very healthy state, having beautiful foliage, and well covered with flowers and fruit.

The Common Dog Rose is also growing freely in a wild and rambling state in exposed hedges.

Scots Fir in many cases appear very one-sided from twelve to twenty years planted, and very bare of branches on the exposed side, having an almost flat appearance; while much older trees with a clean stem have their tops one-sided. But in most cases the old trees have a healthy appearance, and not much cut by the wind.

Austrian Pine everywhere shows a very healthy and robust appearance, with their branches growing well out against the wind, and even where the stem and whole tree is blown towards the east by the prevailing winds, the branches and foliage retain their position and colour. This variety, although not making much more upward growth than the Scots fir, grows more stiff, with abundance of branches and foliage, and is therefore much to be recommended as a margin plant in exposed plantations.

The Pineaster is not numerous here, but in the few instances to be met with they have not the healthy nor hardy appearance of the Austrian pine, and are in most cases blown to one side.

Larch does not appear to be at all hardy in very exposed situations, and shows signs of decay at a very early age. Many trees under twenty years of age have died back several feet from the top, the writer having cut down many of them, with several leaders striving for life in the face of the wind; while others within the plantation were perfectly healthy, although the tops were a little bent by the wind. The writer does not find the larch to be much more hardy than the common spruce, and in some cases not equal to it.

Common or Norway Spruce are generally one-sided and browned in the foliage in the exterior or margin of exposed plantations, and not in any way adapted for extremely exposed situations.

Silver Fir.—The writer cut down several trees of large size a few years ago, which were growing in a very exposed situation amongst hardwood trees. They had overgrown all the trees near them, even one or two Scots firs were not half their size. and on several very exposed places has he seen the silver much larger than the Scots fir, although not being of good symmetry, nor of a very ornamental appearance.

English Yew.—Many of good size, and generally blown and one-sided when exposed to prevailing winds. They appear to be of average hardiness.

Cedar of Lebanon, although growing to considerable size, is generally a little one-sided, with its top growing as it were away from the blast.

Cedrus Deodara does not succeed well where in any way exposed, is very much one-sided, and far from having a strong healthy appearance. Does not stand nearly so well as the last-named variety.

Wellingtonia gigantea is growing well in moderate exposures, but the writer has not had an opportunity of noticing its adaptability to stand extreme exposures.

Weymouth Pines do not succeed in exposed situations, and in moderately windy positions are much one-sided.

Cupressus macrocarpa grows well out against the wind, and has a beautiful and healthy appearance, very hardy; well worth planting in moderate exposures.

Cupressus Lawsoniana grows moderately well in exposed situations, and keeps its shape fairly well.

Thujopsis borealis makes more luxuriant growth in the same exposure than the Cupressus Lawsoniana, and from the strength of its foliage appears to be more hardy, and better suited for exposed planting.

Many other varieties of plants might be noticed, such as privet, Berberis of variety, dogwood, snowberry, and other evergreen and deciduous shrubs, but the writer considers it unnecessary to refer in this paper to the smaller varieties of shrubs. During the last few years the writer has planted rather extensively in exposed situations, both in quantity and variety of plants, including the common kinds of forest trees and shrubs, viz.:—Common, Turkey, and scarlet oak, ash, Scotch and English elm, sycamore, maple of variety, beech, birch, poplar, willow, silver alder, elder, common and variety, sea buckthorn, common and black thorn, evergreen oaks, hollies, arbutus, yews, guilder rose, mock orange, lilac, spiraes of sorts, privet of sorts, Mahonia, Berberis, Weigellias, sweet briar, Lonicera in variety, snowberry, dogwood, Leycesleria formosa, &c, Scots fir, Austrian pine, Pineaster, Corsican pine, American spruce, &c. All are too young, however, to be noticed specifically in illustration of the subject of this paper, but a few general remarks may be made regarding them. As a general rule, the sycamore, maple, and wych elm have been found to be the most hardy and most suitable deciduous trees for planting in exposed situations, and the Austrian pine the best coniferous, or fir tree, for that purpose. The evergreen oak, arbutus, and holly, the best evergreen shrubs of large size, and the sea buckthorn, wild cherry, elder, and mountain ash, of small sized trees, and shrubs of the deciduous kinds; and of small shrubs, tamarix and snowberry, although many of the others may prove better in different soils than those named. The writer has found the silver alder (Alnus incana) very hardy in its young state, but he has no experience of its growing to a moderate size or age. The Corsican pine grows well in very exposed situations in its young state, but from its being a bad rooter, it may become unsuitable as it grows up. It is, however, when young a fast grower, and stands the exposure well. The Pinus maritima, although highly recommended side plant, has not succeeded in the writer's experience where the ground is stiff or in any way inclined to be damp.

In forming plantations in exposed situations it will be found advantageous, if not almost necessary to ensure success, to make the plantation of as large an area as the circumstances of the case will admit of, as trees will in many cases grow, and even thrive, when planted in large masses, which would actually starve in small clumps or belts. Another important matter to be attended to is the thorough preparation of the soil, by trenching or ploughing, draining, &c, and great care should be taken in selecting the most hardy and suitable varieties of trees, and those that are likely to succeed in the soil into which they are to be planted. The plants used should be small, and well transplanted ; and those that are known to stand severe winds and gales, without taking into consideration their being of little value as timber trees, should form the margin of the plantation, while the more valuable varieties may be used towards the interior, even if less hardy, providing that the soil is suitable. In this way the less valuable class provides shelter for their more profitable neighbours.

In every case it will be found to be judicious to plant thickly, with the view of shelter, and to thin early, for the purpose of maintaining and bringing up the trees in a healthy and hardy state, and so that they may not be drawn up, but take girth along with their height.


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