930 Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland 1885

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Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland
The Agriculture of the County of Dumbarton


By John M'Neilage, Fernburn, Kilcreggan.
[Premium—Twenty Sovereigns.]

Dumbartonshire is a small county, lying chiefly on the western seaboard of Scotland. Though twenty-fifth in respect of size, it is one of the first Scottish counties in respect of interest and importance, possessing as it does features of note for intelligent men of every class. To the historian, it presents, besides much else, clear intimation of Roman supremacy and civilisation; to the geologist, it exhibits a variety of rock formations, and one or two special phenomena, such as Dumbarton Castle rock and the ancient sea-margins of Roseneath and Cardross. The economist can find in it an epitome of all the industries; the tourist will remember it as the county of Loch Long and Loch Lomond; and the agriculturist will be interested to note that it combines, as perhaps no other county does, three principal branches of his profession, viz., sheep, dairy, and arable farming. It is chiefly in the last capacity that we mean to treat of the shire at present. Our purpose is, to give an account of the various modes of farming pursued within it, and report on the progress made by the agricultural and other industries during the last five-and-twenty years. To this end, we will commence with a few general notes and statistics. The county covers, exclusive of water and foreshores, a space of 154,542 acres, and comprises twelve parishes. Unlike most other counties, it is not an undivided whole, but consists of two portions, removed apart six miles. The western, or principal portion, containing ten parishes, lies along the waters of the River and Firth of Clyde. In shape it rudely resembles a segment of a circle, cut off by an irregular broken line; and in length, between extremes, it measures about 35 miles, in breadth 18 miles. Its boundaries are - on the north, Perthshire; on the east, Stirlingshire and Loch Lomond; on the south, Lanarkshire, and the River and Firth of Clyde; and on the west, Loch Long and Argyllshire. Of the 138 miles, which measure the bounds of its landward portion, 82 are along water—a circumstance having an important agricultural bearing, as it infers a great part of the land to lie on the slope, and, in so far as the water is sea-water, it implies an amelioration of the winter climate.

The eastern, or smaller division of the county, containing two parishes, is an irregular, somewhat oblong tract of land, covering 19,030 acres; its length 12 miles, and its breadth averaging 4½ miles. Its boundaries are—Stirlingshire and Lanarkshire, the former enclosing on the north, the latter on the south.

Geology, &c.—The county is one which presents both Highland and Lowland scenery in their perfection. The two northern parishes are little else than a region of lofty rugged mountains and wild glens, forming a landscape which has much wild grandeur, but little of a pleasant green nature on its face. The southern division presents a striking contrast, being altogether of a lower, greener, and more undulating character. The reason for this contrast must be sought for in the geological history of the two divisions. The northern one, comprising Arrochar, Luss, and a great part of Row and Roseneath parishes, is the oldest; and consists of mica schist, which apparently has at one time been upheaved by violent volcanic pressure, and subsequently subjected to glacial and other powerful watery influence, giving it the wild ridge and valley aspect it now has.

The valleys run from north-west to south-east. Between Tarbet and Luss, dikes of greenstone, felspar, and porphyry have been thrust through seams in the mica schist. Clay beds, formed at the same time as the schist rocks, from the more finely ground particles of the original granite, afterwards became, by the action of pressure and heat, the slate formations of Luss and Roseneath.

The southern portion of the county, divided from the northern by a line drawn from the south-west corner of Roseneath to a little north of Ross Point on Loch Lomond, belongs mostly to a later formation, viz., the sandstone. This formation produces a much less steep and rugged landscape than the other; and the eye can easily detect, by the change from wild heath and abrupt slopes to green fields and gentle undulations, where the schist of the north gives place to the sandstone of the south. The parishes included in this latter formation are Cardross, Bonhill, Kilmaronock, Dumbarton, West Kilpatrick, and part of

East Kilpatrick. Between the schist and the sandstone there intervenes a narrow stripe of transition rock, in the shape of graywacke, which, entering the county at the south-west corner of Roseneath, passes north-east to Rossdhu on Loch Lomond. The sandstone reveals itself, first, in that breadth of conglomerate rock, or Old Red Sandstone, which enters the county at the extreme south-east of Roseneath, and passes north-east parallel to the graywacke, including in its area great part of Cardross, Row, and Bonhill parishes. The hill of Ardmore, in Cardross, lies on the southern boundary of this formation; it takes in the Killeter range on the north; and the island of Inchmurrin, in Loch Lomond, is also part of it. Proceeding south, and above the Old Red, and evidently distinct from it, we find abundance of various kinds of sandstone. In Kilmaronock, both grey edge freestone and flag freestone prevail. The whole eastern section of Cardross lies on that red sandstone, whereof great part of the Vale of Leven towns are built. Quarries for building material are found at Dalreoch and Renton. In East and West Kilpatrick yellow sandstone underlies great part of the soil, existing, not in a uniform mass, but revealing itself here and there.

In this quarter the sandstone has been rent and overlaid by the trap rocks, forming the Kilpatrick Hills. The same rock seems also to be found in Duncryne Hill in Kilmaronock, and Dumbarton Castle rock—those huge cones rising so solitarily from the surrounding plains. The eastern wing of East Kilpatrick, and the whole eastern division of the county, belong to the Coal Measures. Limestone, whinstone, coal, bituminous shale, and small beds of ironstone are found in these districts. Cumbernauld parish is formed of a series of ridges of trap rock, running from east to west in parallel lines; a considerable quantity of yellow sandstone is also found within it.

It is computed that there are in Dumbartonshire 99,400 acres of mountain land. The rest of the county is divided among the several soils as follows :—Loam, 6050 acres; clayey soil, 30,970 acres; sandy or gravelly soil, 25,520 acres; peat soil, 720 acres : and a very little marl.

Climate.—With respect to the meteorology of the shire, we regret our inability to give any statistics or scientific information; but, of the main section it may, we think, be affirmed that it is moderately fortunate, both as regards heat and moisture. It is pretty well sheltered from the east winds, which are so detrimental on the opposite coast; and though its situation on the western seaboard exposes it to moist winds from the Atlantic, yet this is not without its compensating circumstances. For, if the sea occasionally causes rain in summer, it also brings neat in winter. That season is generally comparatively mild in all the seaward parishes, the snow never lying long in the inhabited parts of Roseneath, Row, and Cardross. The northern portion of the county, with its high cloud-attracting hills and wind-swept glens, is doubtless well rained upon, and snowstorms, when they come, are apt to be severe.

The climate of the detached section is also somewhat less genial than in many parts of Scotland. In the Cumbernauld portion of it especially, the temperature, owing to the height at which the whole district stands, is generally cool; its situation also exposes it to east winds from the one sea and west winds from the other, on which account rainy weather is apt to be prevalent.

Population, &c.—According to the census returns of 1881, the population is 75,333 souls, giving an average of 279 persons to the square mile. It is, however, very unevenly distributed. The parishes of Arrochar and Luss cover more than one-third of the whole area of the county, and yet they have but one-sixtieth part of the population. The crowding of the inhabitants into the southern portion is, in part, owing to the more arable and habitable nature of those parts; but the chief reason is, of course, the extensive industries carried on in the Vale of Leven, Dalmuir, and elsewhere. The Yale of Leven itself contains three-eighths of the whole population.

The large population on the arable part of the shire, and its contiguity to Glasgow, have caused a great amount of dairying to be carried on within it. There is hardly a farmer in the southern parishes who is wholly an arable farmer; the attention of the majority is divided between the dairy and the field. It should be stated, that for much of the permanent pasture, which is such a useful adjunct to a dairy-farm, farmers of to-day, in Dumbartonshire, are indebted to the labours of their ancestors. Steep, rocky places, which no one now thinks of cultivating, have, in olden times, been diligently farmed. Consequently, they now constitute good pasture land, being covered with grass, instead of heather and sprits. In fact, traces of an anterior cultivation are met with all through the county. On the Kilpatrick braes, on the hillsides of Row and Roseneath, and even on the rugged mountain slopes of Loch Long, there are patches of green, and traces of the plough, which show the spots whence, in the middle of last century, the household had its meal, and very often the smuggler his malt. By way of more effectively presenting a view of the agriculture of the county, we mean to treat of it in sections of one or two parishes each, going over these in geographical order. In accordance with this method, we will begin with an account of the systems of farming-pursued in

Arrochar and Luss Parishes.

The district included in these two parishes is a land of towering-rugged mountains and remote glens—a land of wild heath and barren rock, sparsely populated by men, but well inhabited with sheep. Along the whole eastern side of the district lies the far-famed Loch Lomond; and the proudest rival of Ben Lomond, to be seen for miles around, is Ben Vorlich, in the parish of Arrochar—a mountain rising 3094 feet above the level of the sea. The parishes combined make a total of 57,676 acres—an acreage equal to more than a third part of the whole extent of the county. Yet, from a purely agricultural view, the district must be deemed of little importance. In Arrochar parish, arable farming is reduced to a few inconsiderable patches about the various hotels and sheep-farmers' houses; and in Luss, the dozen or so medium-sized farms, from Luss village downwards to the Fruin, comprise the whole of the arable land. The district derives the greater part of its wealth and importance from the extensive sheep farming that is carried on within it. All of it belongs to one proprietor (Sir James Colquhoun), and is parcelled out into sheep-farms of various sizes, carrying-stocks ranging from 400 to 2500 sheep.

The mountains of the district are nearly all of one geological formation, but between one and another of them great differences in height and external aspect are to be observed. The hills above Luss, in particular, are lower in elevation and greener in appearance than any of those further up. Some slopes are quite covered with heather, giving a dark unrelieved aspect to the landscape ; while others are so rugged and devoid of vegetation, as to suggest a doubt whether anything can subsist upon them. However, such hills are by no means so profitless as they appear. Innumerable shelves occur on their rugged sides, bearing patches of good grass, quite accessible to sheep.

The greenness of some hills is, in great part, owing to the prevalence of brackens—a species of vegetation much disliked by the flock-owner, as it kills good grass, and is itself quite uneatable by sheep. He would much prefer heather, as, besides allowing grass to grow amongst it, it affords a bite to the flock in the winter and spring months. However, the complaint is, that heather is dying out—being allowed to grow too old. In different seasons, sheep feed on different kinds of vegetation. In spring time, a species of bayonet grass comes up, which, supplemented with a little sprits and young heather, constitutes their sustenance for a time. In summer, a variety of good grasses present themselves; and in winter, the remainders of the summer's grass, with a free use of heather, tide the flocks over till the spring. In the summer, the sheep sleep on the mountain tops, and in the morning may be seen running down in a body to commence feeding on the lower slopes. Working, or rather eating their way up, they are found near the hilltops in the heat of the day, because there they enjoy greater freedom from flies. In winter, they haunt the lower slopes of the hills.

A curious fact in the natural history of sheep, is the attachment they have to their own hillside, and the sagacity with which they can distinguish it from any other. Lambs that have only been six months on the ground, and then have spent other six months wintering in remote regions, on returning to their native farm, in a short time find their way back each one to his original spot. It is probably very much owing to this characteristic that a flock always divides itself into distinct lots or companies. On no farm of any extent does the whole body of the sheep mass together, and range the pasture promiscuously. Every flock naturally divides into as many distinct companies as there are separate hillsides on the farm. These detachments of sheep are called "hirsels;" and on the same hillside will the same "hirsel" be found grazing day after day, the members of it hardly ever wandering, though unconfined on all sides. If they do stray, the ease with which they can be ordered into their proper places proves the strength of this preference for their native spot. The shepherd merely gives a loud whistle in the hearing of the wanderers, and immediately each one, alarmed, moves off, and makes straight for his own grazing ground. This circumstance, and the fact that the hill which sheep are lambed upon, is the one on which they will best thrive, also gives rise to another noticeable feature of sheep-farming, viz., that however often a farm changes its tenant, it hardly ever changes its stock. The same stock, or its descendants, is found year after year on a farm, though meanwhile perhaps two or three different occupiers have held it. An incoming tenant always takes over the existing stock at a valuation, and experience has proved this to be the only advisable plan. We have heard of a case in which the new tenant, thinking the valuation too high, preferred to stock the farm with animals from the outside; but the mortality among the new comers was so great, as clearly to prove the danger of transplanting sheep to a strange hillside. Such facts are perhaps familiar to all acquainted with sheep-farming; but as they are interesting in themselves, and may possibly prove new to some readers, we think they should find a place here.

Sheep stocks in this district range, as we have said, from 400 to 2500 in number—from 1200 to 1400 being an average stock; and as for the breed of sheep in vogue, it is, of course, the "Blackfaced" all over. One or two of the stocks are of the ewe kind, but all the rest are mixed ewe and wether stocks, from some of which part of the wether lambs are sold. A few of the tups are reared at home, but the majority are bought in at the autumn sales, from breeders in Campsie, Fintry, and the south generally. They are sent to the hill about the 24th of November —one tup to thirty ewes being the proportion generally observed. Tupping time is a very taxing season to the shepherds, who must be on the hill every day regulating matters. Sometimes a ram wanders away in the night time to a neighbouring flock, causing the shepherd a long journey and much trouble to bring him back. For fear of breeding in, tups are not used more than two seasons on the same hillside, and after another two years on a different hillside, their place is filled with fresh comers. After tups are taken from the hill, they are fed on oats and Indian corn on the low grounds. A period of calm weather and frost is much desired by flockmasters at tupping time, as the contrary circumstances have an effect in rendering the ewes barren. A proportion of barren ewes there always is, especially among the young ones or "gimmers;" but at speaning time, a result of three lambs to four ewes is usually obtained. Young ewes begin to bear at two years old. Draft ewes in this district are not sent away at any particular age; but after their fourth crop of lambs is perhaps the commonest time. Lambing time comes on about the middle of April, and constitutes another anxious season to the shepherds, who, for the space of a fortnight, can hardly ever be off the hill. The wether lambs are cut between the 20th and 30th of May, and speaning time for all the lambs is about the end of August.

From that period onwards till the end of October, a great exodus of sheep stock goes on throughout the district. First comes the departure of the wether shot lambs. These seldom go to the butcher, but are sold through the medium of the Perth sales, the Glasgow market, and sometimes by private bargain, to farmers and graziers, who buy in every year to keep up a flying stock. Until recently a fair was held at Luss in the end of August, at which great numbers of these lambs were disposed of; but the growing popularity of Perth and other sales has caused this fair to become extinct.

A great departure of three-year old wethers next takes place throughout the district. On some of the smaller farms these are sold off all at once; but on the larger farms they go away in lots, according as they come into condition for the market. The majority of these find their way, via Balloch, to the Glasgow market, and are mostly bought up by fleshers in town. Last year (1883) they drew 37s. per head or thereby; twenty-five years ago their price was 10s. less. Draft ewes are disposed of through the same medium, and soon are distributed throughout those numerous Lowland farms, whence cross lambs are supplied to the spring and summer markets. The last great detachment of sheep stock which leaves this district consists of hoggs going away to winter quarters. The inclemency of the weather on these mountain sides necessitates the removal of the tenderer members of the flock to more genial regions during the cold months.

About the end of October, most of the hoggs are drafted off to moor edges in Stirlingshire, vacant pastures in Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, &c, and especially to Fife. This last-named shire has been a good deal run upon of late years as a place of wintering for hoggs. Compared with other districts, it has been found greatly more healthy, the mortality there being not much over half what it is in other parts.

Hoggs in the lower portion of the district are despatched by train from Balloch; those in the upper regions are driven to Crianlarich, on the Callander and Oban line, and thence trucked to winter quarters. Each hogg, between travelling expenses and payment for its keep from 1st November till 1st April, costs the farmer about 7s. This charge forms a very heavy item in the flock-owner's yearly expenditure. Fife hoggs go away about the middle of October.

Clipping and dipping are important operations on a sheep farm. Clipping begins about the 17th of June for hoggs, wethers, and yeald ewes; milk ewes are not clipped till a month later. Of wether fleeces, a good clipper will accomplish about sixty in a day, beginning at nine o'clock and ending at six; of milk ewe fleeces, ten more, on account of the better rise of new wool to be found on them. The average yield of wool is 4½ wether fleeces and 6 ewe fleeces respectively to the stone of 24 lbs.

The wool is generally sold on commission by a wool-broker in Glasgow. Dipping operations are performed about the end of October. This method of preserving sheep from disease and vermin has, in Dumbartonshire, almost wholly superseded smearing. Dipping compositions of several kinds are used, varying in strength according to the height at. which the sheep will range. The operation is performed in a large trough, at the upper end of which is an inclined platform, sparred to prevent the hoofs from slipping. On this platform the sheep run up after being dipped, and while there all the superfluous drippings run off and flow back into the trough. Milk ewes and wethers are dipped once a year; but lambs get a dip or two more, being dipped when speaned in August, and then again in October, and generally again when they return from winter quarters. Into the October dip of lambs a half pound of grease is put, as a protection from cold. Clipping and dipping being times when all the flock are supposed to be present, an opportunity is then taken of counting them over, and these are the only times when the numbers of large flocks are accurately known.

A bill of mortality, which never fails to be filled up, tends to make this counting a lighter task than it would otherwise be. All the year round, causes are at work which produce a death-rate in the flock. About the month of October, and even earlier, the disease called "braxy" begins to attack the lambs. This disease is supposed to be brought on most frequently by eating grass covered with hoar frost. About 2 lambs in 20 are lost by it before going to wintering, and at winter quarters still further losses are sustained—1 lamb in 20 being generally sacrificed to "braxy" in Fifeshire, and perhaps double that number in other places. In the springtime, when dry east winds prevail, the disease called "trembling" usually sets in, and takes off its quota ; and on every extensive farm a number of sheep are lost every year, nobody knows how, only the numerous bogs, caverns, and swollen burns, which exist in these mountain districts, supply a likely explanation. Upon the whole, a frosty winter is better for sheep than an open one, for supposing they grow lean, their health remains more firm; whereas in some of the wet stormy winters we have had of late years, the mortality among every kind of stock has been such as to swallow up all the profit, and make sheep-farming a failure.

The extensive sheep-farming of this district is not carried on without a good deal of hired assistance. On some smaller holdings the farmer is his own shepherd; on some larger ones, he and his sons are equal to the task of management; but in the generality of cases, one or two hired shepherds are employed. These are partly married, and partly single. The first named are paid at the rate of from £12 to £20 a year, with from one to three cows, and generally leave to rear a stirk; also an allowance of meal, and if peats are not to be had, also coals, and liberty to plant potatoes with the cows' manure. Single shepherds get about £12 per half year, with bed and board.

The farmers themselves are a very intelligent, courteous class of men. Most of them take a hand in the common duties of the farm. Rents have risen and fallen within ten years, and the rate just now per sheep is from 3s. to 4s.

Arable Farming in Luss Parish.

At the south end of the parish, from the village of Luss downwards, round the shoulders of the Shantron Hill, and by the sides of the Fruin, a tract of land is found suitable for arable farming. On the banks of the stream, and on the level tract along the loch side, sandy alluvial soil prevails, of a fine porous nature, and great depth, needing no drains. On the slopes of the hill above, plats of the same soil occur, but in general the higher grounds consist of a mixed clayey and mossy soil, on a tilly bottom. The average size of farms is a hundred acres each; and the rotation followed is the six-years' one. Very good crops are sometimes raised on the alluvial lands by the Fruin.

Potatoes.—The ground there is specially well adapted for potatoes, and 9 or 10 tons of "red bogs" is a result quite attainable in a good year. However, "Champions" and "Walker's" earlies are the sorts more commonly planted, with a yield in general of 6 or 7 tons per acre. A market for potatoes is found in Helensburgh and the Vale of Leven. Except on farms which have dairies, turnips are not much cultivated. Manure is carted from Alexandria and elsewhere, and on some farms is liberally applied—from 25 to 30 tons an acre, with 3 or 4 cwt. chemicals being the allowance.

Oats.—"Hamilton" and "Flemish" oats are the varieties most popular in the district. The yield varies, from 30 to 60 bushels per acre, according to the position of the field; and the weight ranges from 36 to 41 lbs. per bushel. Wheat and barley, which were once somewhat prevalent, have now ceased to be sown.

Hay.—Hay is a crop that yields well on the alluvial lands by the Fruin—about 2 tons an acre being attained. The clover thrives finely on these lands, almost choking the grass; and subsequently the pasture proves excellent. Hay is a very saleable commodity, there being such a number of public works, &c, in the Vale of Leven and so many gentlemen with carriage horses in Helensburgh.

Dairying.—Dairying is carried on to some extent on farms at the extreme south of the parish. From 12 to 20 cows are kept on each of these, and milk is conveyed every morning to dealers in Renton and elsewhere. The other farms keep no dairies, unless the few milk cows necessary to supply the household can be called such. On these farms a few young cattle are reared every year, and are readily bought by dealers and graziers. The majority of the tenants here are sheep as well as arable farmers, having a tract of moorland attached to their holdings capable of carrying 300 or 400 sheep. The management of their flocks is conducted in much the same fashion as we have described in the preceding pages.

Roseneath and Row Parishes.

These parishes being contiguous, and possessing many features in common, may suitably be treated of together. Roseneath is a very compact, self-contained parish, bounded as it is on three sides by the sea, and on the fourth or north side by a march dike between two proprietors. It lies within a peninsula, which narrowly misses being an island—the peninsula, namely, which separates the water of Loch Long from those of the Gare-loch, and which, at its point of junction with the mainland, is only a mile in breadth. The parish is in length about 7 miles, in breadth about 2 miles, and, excluding water and foreshores, contains 8462 acres, whereof about one-fifth is arable. Physically considered, Roseneath is a long, elevated tableland of slaty rock, heath-covered on the higher slopes and the top, but lower down well cultivated, and wearing a belt of green nearly all round. A portion of the peninsula at the south end, divided off by a shallow dale, is of a red sandstone formation. On the broad level lanks of this formation are found Roseneath Castle, with its fine old woods and the extensive fields and fine steading of the home farm.

This latter is the largest arable farm in Dumbartonshire, extending to 473 acres arable, and is at present let under a nineteen years' lease. For many years prior to 1859 this farm was in the hands of Mr Lorne Campbell, chamberlain to His Grace the Duke of Argyll. Mr Campbell was a first-rate agriculturist, as well as a wise estate manager, and his name is still well remembered in the district. He also took a somewhat prominent part in Highland and Agricultural Society affairs, and was their enumerator for Dumbartonshire when the Society first began to gather agricultural statistics.

Soil.—The soil on this red sandstone portion is of a more excellent kind than prevails throughout the rest of the parish. It is a deep, sandy soil, resting on a bottom of gravel or conglomerate rock. Patches of clay occur at intervals through it. The rest of the parish consists partly of a medium soil tending to clay, and partly of a light sandy soil; both kinds of soil rather thin, and resting sometimes on clay, but more commonly immediately on the rock. Around the shores of the peninsula, a strip of sharp land is found very suitable for green crop. One of the best farms in the parish, viz., the "Clachan," is largely composed of this soil. Much of it, however, has been taken away from the other farms by the growth of the coast villages of Kilcreggan, Cove, Clynder, and Peaton.

Row parish is about 8 miles long and 3 miles broad, and, excluding water and foreshores, contains 20,126 acres, of which about one-fifth is arable. A belt of land along the Gareloch, and another tract in the bottom of Glenfruin, comprise all that is arable in this parish. The remainder, constituting four-fifths or thereby of the whole, is unreclaimed heath, suitable for sheep.

Soil—-The soil on the arable lands of the Gareloch is, toward the north, of a medium kind, upon a bottom of blue clay; southward, about the town of Helensburgh, stiffer soil occurs, resting partly on till and partly on grey freestone. The shore lands are of a genial, sandy nature, but the extensive feuing consequent upon the growth of Helensburgh and Row village has rendered these lands almost wholly unavailable for farming purposes. Agriculture, therefore, confined to the uplands, has been somewhat less happily situated, especially as regards green crop. However, a compensation for this is found in the good market for dairy produce, which such places as Helensburgh and Row have opened up.

In Glenfruin, a considerable tract of deep alluvial soil is met with. Sharp, light soil, on a gravel and till bottom, constitutes the remainder of the arable portion. The greater part of the land in this district is valued at 20s. per acre, the best land rising in value to £3 or thereby. Farms commonly range from 90 to 190 acres arable.

The six-years' rotation is the general estate rule, and is followed with such variations as are common in these times. On a great number of farms, not only arable and dairy, but also sheep farming, is carried on; a piece of moorland, capable of grazing from three to four hundred sheep, being attached to the holdings.

Oats.—"Hamilton," "Potato," and "Sandy" oats are the kinds prevalent in the district. About 4 bushels are taken to seed an acre, new seed being usually brought in every second or third year. To encourage crop at starting, and obviate danger of the grub-worm, one farmer top-dresses with ½ cwt. nitrate and salt per acre; and another harrows his ground level before sowing, and afterwards top-dresses with ammonia and nitrate. On the best farms 48 bushels per acre of a crop is realised; on the others from 12 to 20 bushels less. The weight varies from 37 to 42 lbs. per bushel. In Row parish the bulk of the thrashing is done by the travelling mill. Into Roseneath this institution has not yet penetrated, the principal farmers there having good mills of their own. A considerable quantity of the grain is sold as horse corn; a part of it is also milled, and some meal sold. The smaller farmers have not generally much straw to sell, but a good deal of this commodity is disposed of by the larger farmers to gentlemen with carriage horses, and others.

Wheat.—Wheat is a very scarce grain in the district. It is perhaps not found statedly on any save the Roseneath home and "Clachan" farms, where very good crops of it are raised.

Hay.—Sowing for this crop takes place on some farms about a week after oat sowing, when seed—to the amount of 2 bushels perennial rye-grass and 5 or 6 lbs. clovers—is put in. " Timothy " meadows are becoming somewhat common, the unprofitableness

of green cropping inducing a number of farmers to devote areas of their land to the raising of successive crops of Timothy grass. One farmer's method is to clean his ground very thoroughly, then sow it down with Italian and Timothy seeds, including clovers, crop for three or four years in succession, top-dressing each time with long dung or dung and nitrate of soda. Ryegrass hay yields from 25 to 50 cwt. per acre. This is a crop easily sold, there being such a number of carriage and other horses kept in Helensburgh and the coast villages of the locality.

Potatoes.—The district is now more a late than an early growing one, so much land adapted for the latter having been taken away by the increase of populous places. It has, however, one farm within it long noted for early potato culture, viz., the Roseneath home farm. Forty years ago, ere the Ayrshire early potato trade had developed, Mr Lome Campbell, tenant of that farm, was one of the first suppliers of potatoes to the early market in Greenock. Every year he had smacks regularly plying to convey potatoes from the field to the town. These were retailed from the boat-side. In the year 1849 or 1850, off a 14 acre field, Mr Campbell's drawings grossed £560 or thereby. In raising potatoes this eminent agriculturist adhered strictly to the six-years' rotation arrangement, always making them the second crop after lea. He never applied aught to the crop save farm-yard manure. Under a succeeding tenant, Mr John Marjoribanks, good crops of potatoes were also raised—12 tons per acre being not an uncommon return. Mr Marjoribanks very often planted the crop in lea ground. He dosed it well with bone dust and guano—applying 8 cwt. per acre, in the proportion of 2 parts bone dust to 1 of guano. Under the energetic and skilful management of the present tenant, Mr Thomas Kerr, the farm bids fair, seasons favouring, to sustain its former reputation in this as in other respects. Mr Kerr uses but a small quantity of artificial stuffs, believing firmly in the virtues of good farm-yard manure.

A considerable breadth of "Dalmahoys" and other early sorts are found on his, and on some of the other farms in the district; but, as we intimated, early growing is a subordinate feature of farming here. The "Regent" and the "Champion" are now the, prevalent kinds. The first to introduce "Champions" into Roseneath parish was Mr Robert Orr, Meikle Aiden Farm, who, eight or nine years ago, set a few acres of them. Since then they have become very prevalent, farmers feeling them to be the most dependable crop they could raise. A good deal has been done in this district in the way of planting potatoes in lea ground. One method is, to turn the land over with the trench plough, thereby burying the turf out of the way of the drill plough; then scatter dung upon this ploughing, and in spring harrow over the ground, and draw drills at a different angle. Another and speedier method is, to furrow the land very deeply with a common plough, drawn by three horses; then broadcast dung, &c, all as before. From 15 to 30 tons farm-yard manure, and from 5 to 8 cwt. chemicals per acre, are applied for this crop—dung being sometimes ploughed in. Digging of early potatoes begins in the end of July; "Champions " are not ready till the middle of October. Potatoes are consumed in Greenock, Helensburgh, and the several villages of the locality. Part of them are sold personally by the farmer to shops and families, the rest being disposed of through dealers and commission agents.

Turnips.—A great quantity of turnips are grown, both of the "swede" and yellow varieties. In Glenfruin, however, no "swedes" are sown. Some farmers have more turnips than potatoes, having to feed large numbers of milk cows during the winter. On some farms turnips are raised with short dung, of which about 20 tons an acre are allowed, supplemented with chemicals to the amount of 5 cwt. for yellow turnips, and 2 or 3 cwt. more for "swedes." This crop yields from 15 to 25 tons per acre throughout the district. The "Swedish" part of the crop causes a good deal of trouble, on account of its liability to disease after being lifted. The method one farmer adopts, and which he finds very successful, is to pit them with the shaws on them, taking care not to break the skin in any way. Another plan is, to leave the crop in the ground, and earth it up with the double-reisted plough. A few turnips are sold off the larger farms, but in general this crop is all required for feeding purposes.

Beans and Cabbage.—Beans are not very prevalent as a crop. On many farms, where they have been tried, they have proved discouraging. This is more especially the case in Rose-neath parish. Cabbage is becoming more common, and, if set in good farm-yard manure, thrives very well.

Manure.—Farmers get manure from Helensburgh and Greenock. The latter is the chief resource of Roseneath farmers, the greater number of whom import from one to five boat-loads of Greenock dung every year. Imported city dung costs about 2s. per ton; long dung, from 3s. to 4s. more. Considerable use is also in Roseneath parish made of sea-ware. In tempestuous weather large quantities of it are usually cast up on the shores opposite the several farms. Farmers in Glenfruin drive manure from the Yale of Leven and from Helensburgh. They also employ lime to some little extent as a top-dressing for grass.

Dairying.—Dairying is largely prosecuted in the district. Stocks range from 15 to 30 cows. Nearly all the dairies are

engaged in supplying sweet milk to the populations of the various towns and villages of the locality. Milk is despatched twice a day in summer, and is usually sold to the consumer directly by the farmer. In winter many of the milk carts go only once a day, customers being fewer. The great body of these customers are Glasgow families on their annual coasting sojourn, who require large quantities of dairy produce.

The cows are out all night from the beginning of June till the end of September. In Roseneath the method of winter feeding for long pursued on one of the principal dairy farms was as follows:—Two hot meals daily; a pailful each time of boiled turnips, with ¾lb. bean-meal added; also three fodder-ings of straw and raw turnips, 5 turnips per head being allowed each time. In summer the cattle get a bean-meal drink daily. In the Helensburgh district a higher style of feeding is pursued, three hot meals per day being given, with draff, cotton-cake, &c, added to the bean-meal.

From 8 to 12 quey calves are reared on most farms every year, more rearing being done now than was fifteen years ago. Calves get warm milk for three weeks or thereby, and thereafter skimmed milk and linseed, or other similar food.

The moorland attached to some holdings in Roseneath is used for no other purpose than summer grazing to stirks. A portion of these are sold at Carman Fair, or otherwise, as three-year-old queys in calf. Good prices are obtained for them, from £10 to £15 each being the range. A number of them are also taken into the byre in lieu of cows drafted out. These latter are usually sold to dealers and cowfeeders from the city, who are always on the lookout for saleable cattle. Old cows and cattle generally, from the Roseneath district, are preferred by cowfeeders and others, as, from their comparatively more hardy upbringing, they thrive better when put on richer feeding.

Sheep.—In Row parish one or two large sheep farms are to be found, which are carried on in much the same way as has been described in the section relating to Arrochar and Luss parishes. The sheep stocks carried on the hill grazings attached to the arable farms number from 150 to 400, and are mainly of the blackfaced breed. Some are mixed ewe and wether stocks, and some are ewe stocks with Leicester rams. The produce of these latter are, to a great extent, sold fat to Helensburgh and other butchers, and a number of them are disposed of for hogging purposes. On some farms "braxy" has been so virulent as to cut off half of the lambs; and one farmer contemplates giving up sheep stock altogether, and adopting cattle in their stead. On some farms a hundred or so cross lambs are bought in in September, and wintered on the foggage.

Horses.—In Row a great number of horses are bred, every farmer rearing a foal or two in the year, and goodly number of stud-book Clydesdales are found in the parish. In Roseneath, however, horse rearing for a long time has been little practised. The farm horses kept are of a mixed character, but some stables show a collection of very strong useful animals.

Cardross Parish.

This is one of the most fertile and highly cultivated portions of Dumbartonshire. The parish is in length 7 miles, in breadth 2½ miles or thereby, and, exclusive of water and foreshores, contains 8264 imperial acres, of which about three-fourths are arable. Advantageously situated as it is for the trade of such populous places as Helensburgh, Dumbarton, and Glasgow; its soil good, and its whole exposure sunny and pleasant, naturally it has become a centre of busy skilful farming, and through its length and breadth has been brought under the plough.

Its general description is that of a long tract of level land along the Firth of Clyde, with a background of gently ascending uplands, rising to a moderate height behind; the whole clothed with greenness, and studded with mansions, villas, and numerous farm-houses. The uplands are of a very undulating-nature, so much so that on the farm of Ardoch, towards the east of the parish, there is no single field that can be all seen at once. The scenery of the lower portion has two striking features, viz., the hill of Ardmore, a strange irregular headland, protruding very oddly from the main body of the parish; and secondly, that immense breadth of land laid bare by the receding tide. At ebb tide the waters of the Firth retire from ¼ to 1¼ mile beyond high water-mark, leaving an immense breadth of foreshore.

By the Ordnance Survey, Cardross is stated to have 2655 acres of foreshore, while no other parish in the county has more than 360.

Soil.—The soil of the main body of the parish is a sandy loam of a variable depth, and a very red colour. The prevalence of this hue is owing, no doubt, to the presence of the red sandstone element, which formation abounds greatly in the district. All along the shore this soil rests immediately on the sandstone, and as the fields are very level, and the rock near the surface, drainage is a matter of considerable difficulty. Drains, in some cases, are cut twelve inches into the freestone. On the second tier of fields this soil becomes very deep, and porous in the bottom, requiring comparatively little drainage; on the uplands it is thinner, and rests on a bottom of till.

Samples of other soils are also found. Patches of moss occur in the uplands, and patches of clay among the sandy fields of the shore; while, towards the eastern boundary of the parish, an area of a stiff clayey nature is found, suitable for growing beans, or for brickmaking purposes. The average value of land is £2, 5s. per acre. Farms range in size from 100 to 200 acres. The six-years' rotation is the rule on some Cardross estates, but on others the tenant is not bound to any course of cropping. On some of the best land a rotation is pursued of two potato crops, two hay crops, and one corn crop, in the following order:— 1st, potatoes out of lea or stubble land; 2nd, oats; 3rd, potatoes with dung; 4th, hay; 5th, hay.

Oats.—"Hamilton," "Potato," and "Sandy" oats are the varieties chiefly grown, "Hamilton" being the favourite kind. On the level lands seed, to the amount of 4 bushels per acre, is sown, but on the uplands a bushel more is thought needful for a good crop. A mixture of imported and homegrown seed in equal proportions is, in general, sown every year; sometimes the crop is top-dressed with 3 cwt. chemicals per acre. Harvest begins in the first week of September on lands near the shore, on the uplands about ten days later. In an average season the yield on the lowlands will be 48 bushels per imperial acre, on the uplands 12 bushels less. The weight varies from 38 to 42 lbs. per bushel. The strip of land round the corn-field, necessary to be cleared for a roadway to the reaping-machine, is sometimes sown with vetches for the cattle, and sometimes with an earlier kind of corn. The greater part of the thrashing in this parish is done by the travelling mills. Farmers in general use all their own oat straw on the premises, foddering their dairy stock with it, and selling the greater portion of their hay. The oats are to a considerable extent made into meal, some farmers regularly supplying shops and private families with the commodity. A proportion goes for horse corn, and a quantity is bought up by the local miller and other grain merchants. A chance sample of grain comes to be sold as seed corn.

Wheat.—A considerable breadth of wheat is grown in the parish—chiefly on the lower grounds. Its place in the rotation is always after the potato crop. Sometimes police manure is ploughed in as a fertiliser for this crop. Wheat sowing takes place about the second week of October, when from 3 to 4 bushels "Hunter's White" or "Woolly-ear" are taken to seed an acre. Seed is imported every year. Wheat harvest comes on about the end of August; and a crop of from 3 to 3½ quarters per acre, weighing 60 lbs. per bushel, is usually realised. Sometimes the yield reaches 6 quarters, and sometimes it falls as low as 18 bushels. Wheat is all sold in Glasgow, either directly to a grain merchant, or through a commission agent. Of late, the profits arising from wheat have been very insignificant, and less of it is now grown in this parish. The good price obtained for the straw, however, somewhat balances the deficiency.

Hay.—This is a crop that yields well in the district. About 2 bushels "perennial ryegrass," 5 or 6 lbs. clover seed, and a little "Italian" per acre are commonly sown for it. It is usual to top-dress for this crop either in winter with short dung, or in spring with 3 cwt. hay manure, or 2 cwt. nitrate and bones per acre. Hay-making is commenced on some of the earlier lands in the first week of July, and the yield will average 35 cwt. per acre. A ready sale for hay is found throughout the district; great quantities are sold off the rick to public companies in the Vale of Leven, cowfeeders, gentlemen with carriage horses, and others; and altogether farmers will dispose of two-thirds of their hay. The cattle are usually put on the clover about the begining of September. Sometimes the clover is cut, and given to them green, and sometimes it is dried, and put up for future use.

Potatoes.—This crop is a very prominent feature of farming in the parish. From an early period, Cardross was famed for its potatoes, and till this day it retains its reputation as one of the earliest potato-growing parishes north of Ayrshire. The stated place for potatoes is the second crop of the rotation, but sometimes, in the interests of a healthy crop, they are made the first. When planted in lea ground, they are manured with merely 10 cwt. guano or chemicals per acre. When potatoes are to be planted in stubble land, it is a very usual practice to plough in from 25 to 30 tons of farm-yard manure per acre, burying the dung only a moderate depth. In the spring time the land is harrowed and deeply drilled, and the crop started with 10 cwt. chemicals per acre. All the farmers believe in letting the manure lie six weeks or thereby on the land before ploughing. Another plan is, to plough stubble land very early, and when frosty weather comes broadcast a like quantity of manure upon it, letting it lie there till the time for harrowing and drilling. This system of ploughing in the dung is becoming very prevalent, as it saves labour, and hastens on operations in spring. Some farmers, however, adhere to the old method of putting manure in the drills: 25 tons of long dung and 5 or 6 cwt. chemicals per acre being the usual quantities allowed. Eight tons per acre is counted a good return of this crop. Early potatoes are commonly ready for digging by the middle of July. In general, all the earlies, and a great part of the late sorts, are sold by the acre to dealers from Helensburgh, Dumbarton, Greenock, &c.; but sometimes the farmer digs his earlies himself, and sells them through a commission agent. "Champions" and "Magnum Bonums" are pitted, to be sold off gradually during the winter and spring months. Potato pits are covered—firstly, with a layer of straw, secondly with a coating of earth, and lastly with another layer of straw, to defend them from the rain, &c. It should be added, that the potato culture of this parish includes the growing of all the kinds from the earliest to the latest. "Red Bogs" and other early sorts are found chiefly on the shore lands ; on the uplands equal proportions of "Regents," "Champions," and "Magnum Bonums" are to be seen.

Turnips.—From 5 to 10 acres of these are grown on farms here; but farmers on the shore lands do not sow so many as those on the uplands. A quantity, both of "swedes" and softer turnips, are raised. The best way to "catch a braird" is found to be by ploughing the stubble land early in winter, and in spring working it with the grubber two or three times. As in other places, a difficulty is found in preserving turnips after they are out of the ground, a plan, recommended by a farmer here, is to store them in good dry weather in a shed—putting them up in steep pits not too wide, and covering them with a thin coating of earth or well-drawn straw. By this means they are kept both warm and airy, and so prevented from heating.

Beans.—On the stiff lands to the east of the parish a few acres of these are grown. The method is to make them the first crop of the rotation. Dung is ploughed into the lea, and the beans are sown broadcast, harrowed, and otherwise treated the same as corn. Sometimes they are sown in drills, and started with 8 cwt. bean manure per acre.

Manure.—A considerable quantity of manure is made in the various farm-yards, owing to the number of cattle kept. This is supplemented by imported manures from Helensburgh, Dumbarton, and especially Greenock. From this last-named place nearly every farmer takes in three or four boat-loads of long and short dung every year. The home manure being the richest, is applied as far as possible to the early potato crop. Police dung, sea-ware, or compost is sometimes spread on hay stubbles, by way of improving next year's grass.

Dairying.—Dairying is largely prosecuted in the district. From 15 to 35 cows are kept on each farm, and the produce— chiefly in the form of fresh butter and butter milk—is sold in Helensburgh and Dumbarton. Some of the dairies are in the sweet milk trade, sending that commodity to the above named towns and to Glasgow. In summer, butter is made five times a week; in winter, only three or four times, and is sold off the cart to shops and private families. Cows are well fed, getting bean meal twice a day all the year round. In winter, when housed, they get three hot meals per day, each time a pailful of boiled turnips, mixed with bean meal and draff. Besides these hot meals, they get three fodderings of hay or oat straw, generally with raw turnips or potatoes superadded. On the best farms the cattle are out for a few hours every day, even in the winter months. A considerable amount of rearing goes on on every farm. From eight to twelve of the best calves— calved from December to July—are reared for that purpose. Calves get warm milk for a month, and thereafter for three or four months a preparation of calf-meal. Many, however, still use porridge and milk, supplemented with linseed, as a nourishment for calves. Cast cows are usually sold to cowfeeders in Greenock and other places. They are very often disposed of after their third calf.

Sheep, &c.—A large number of sheep and other feeding stock are grazed in the parish. The principal sheep stock is that of Colin Campbell, Esq. of Camieseskan, who, on the grounds of Camieseskan House and the hill above, keeps a mixed stock of 16 score greyfaced and 20 score Leicester sheep. For the benefit of the flock, a tract of reclaimed land on Colgrain Hill is cropped every six or seven years with corn, followed next year by grass and rape. This latter mixed crop will graze twelve sheep per acre, the ordinary pasture four. At tupping time, which comes on in the end of September, one ram to forty-five ewes is the proportion observed. Tups are all Leicesters. At speaning time, a result of three lambs to every two ewes is usually obtained. The ewes are grazed up till the middle of November; from that time till the grass is ready again, they get each ½ lb. Indian meal refuse (or as it is called "Paisley meal"), with chopped straw and pulp turnips daily, increasing the "Paisley meal" from ½lb. to 1½ lb. when lambing time draws near. This "Paisley meal" is found superior even to oilcake as food for milk ewes. Lambing time comes on about the end of February. The greyfaced tup lambs are castrated about six weeks after birth. All the produce of the greyfaces are sold fat to the Helensburgh butchers, beginning with those from nine to twelve weeks old. Ewes are drafted out after their third or fourth crop of lambs, and sold by auction at the Dumbarton weekly sales. About 110 greyfaced lambs are bought in every year from the stock of Mr Cowan of Lurg, Fintry. The Leicester flock at Camieseskan has long enjoyed a reputation for its sterling qualities, and purchasers are readily found for tups and shot lambs. The rams are sold in September, bringing good prices. Some farmers keep a regular stock of Leicester or other sheep ; others buy in a hundred or so greyfaced hoggs or three-year old blackfaced wethers, putting them on the foggage, and selling them about the New Year. Scope for feeding sheep is also found in the extensive breadths of rape and grass which are raised off the early potato land. After that crop is lifted in July, the ground is sown with grass and rape, which in favourable circumstances soon springs up, and is available for pasture. From a piece of potato land which he had sown with rape, and subsequently pastured for four or five months with hoggs, a farmer recently raised a crop of oats. Corn after potatoes does not usually thrive well, but this time the yield proved excellent. The permanent pasture of Cardross Park is under a flying stock of bullocks, and so also is the grazing ground of one or two farms where no dairy is kept, or where otherwise there is scope for pasturage.

Horses.—The farm horses are mostly of the Clydesdale breed, and are a strong, handsome class of animals. A considerable number are reared in the district, the good prices obtainable for pure bred Clydesdales being a powerful inducement.

Other Industries.—The only other industries of note carried on in the parish are the Turkey-red dyeing and bleaching industries of Renton; but these will be considered under the heading "Industries of the Vale of Leven."

Bonhill and Dumbarton Parishes.

Bonhill parish occupies a tract of land round the south-west corner of Loch Lomond. The Vale of Leven, with its fine breadth of level plain, runs through the centre of it, and its eastern and western boundaries are found along the summits of the heights which flank Loch Lomond and the Vale on either side. Great part of the ground, therefore, lies on the slope, some of it having an eastern and some of it a western exposure. The parish is 5 miles long and 2 miles broad, and, excluding water, covers an area of 8373 acres, of which about five-sixths are capable of cultivation. But a great part of the best and most arable land is not available for agriculture. This is a parish of public works, and great mansion-houses, where, consequently, land has other uses to serve than the raising of crops. Of mansion-houses there are no fewer than six within it, some of them old, all of them large, magnificent residences standing amid extensive policies. The pleasant situation of the parish by Loch Lomond is, no doubt, the principal reason for such a collocation of fine mansions. Public works are found chiefly in the Vale of Leven. There the Messrs Orr Ewing have their large Turkey-red dyeworks. Around these and other establishments the populous towns of Alexandria and Jamestown have sprung up, and within the last twenty years have increased so greatly as to almost completely absorb all the arable land in the Vale. Agriculture, therefore, driven from the plain, has been forced to betake itself to the heights, chiefly those of the eastern side, up which it has made surprising progress.

Soil.—The soil in the Vale of Leven, where there still remains one large farm, is of a sharp gravelly nature, resting on a very porous subsoil. This land requires no drains ; indeed, the complaint is that it disposes of the moisture too quickly. The soil on the western slopes is principally a light loam, with a clay element through it, resting on a bottom of grey freestone. Areas both of a peaty and a heavy clayey nature are also found. On the eastern side both grey and red freestone prevail. In the upper regions these formations come very near the surface, and are covered with a light sandy soil mixed with soft earth. A dampness, caused by surface water, and by springs bursting out of the freestone, renders some portions of these uplands very unhealthy, so much so that grass gets choked with fog after the first year. The highest fields have a covering of a light mossy soil, and the lowest slopes consist of medium soil resting on a bottom of red till.

Dumbarton is the parish immediately adjoining Bonhill on the south-east. It lies wholly on the east side of the River Leven. The parish is historically the most interesting, and provincially the most important in the county, containing as it does the famous Castle rock, and old town of Dumbarton, which is the capital of the shire, the place where justice is dispensed and other public business conducted. The parish is 5 miles long and 2 miles broad, and, excluding water and foreshores, contains 8290 acres, of which something less than a quarter is arable. The greater portion of the parish is an extensive moor, presently under a large flock of blackfaced sheep. The arable part is found in the Vale of Leven and on its eastern slopes.

Soil.—The soil in the Vale is a strong loam, resting partly on sand and partly on clay—a soil different from that which prevails at the north end of the valley, and not so suitable for green crop. On the lower slopes light loam resting on the same subsoils occurs, while on the uplands tracts both of heavy land and light mossy soil are found. The value of land in the district averages £2 per acre, the best land being rented at £3. Farms are usually about 160 acres in extent, though some are nearly double that acreage. Both cropping and dairying are vigorously prosecuted, the industrial towns in the vicinity supplying a convenient market for produce. The six-years' rotation is the formal lease regulation, but in effect no uniform course of cropping is followed throughout the district. On some farms a five-years' rotation is pursued; and on others an approach has been made to continuous cropping, with the accompaniment of a very liberal application of manure.

Oats.—"Hamilton" oats is the most prevalent kind. In general farmers sow a mixture of home and imported seed every year, but entirely new seed is on some farms sown every second or third year; 4 bushels per acre for the heavy land, and 5 bushels for the lighter soils, is the amount used in sowing. To obviate the danger of the grub worm, as well as to procure an early harvest, one farmer sows his oats very early—about the end of February—and rolls the ground well. As a means to the same end, some farmers harrow the ground prior to sowing the seed. The yield varies from 42 to 60 bushels per acre, according to soil and season, and the average weight will be 40 lbs. per bushel. On lower farms harvest begins in the first week of September—a week later on the uplands. A great part of the thrashing is done by the travelling mill. Top-dressing of corn is not common, but sometimes the lea corn crop is encouraged by ploughing in an allowance of police manure. A great part of the corn grown in the district is consumed on the various farms, either as meal or horse corn. Most farmers also dispose of a little of these commodities to customers; and one farmer sells his grain statedly for seed corn.

Wheat.—On the level lands of the Vale a considerable amount of wheat is grown. "Hunter's White," "Woolly-ear," and "Squarehead" are the favourite varieties; sometimes police manure is ploughed in for this crop. Wheat sowing takes place in the beginning of October, when seed to the amount of 3 bushels per acre is put in. The average yield will be 28 bushels per acre, and the weight 60 lbs. per bushel. At the present price of wheat, one farmer means to use his wholly for feeding purposes in the dairy. Wheat straw finds a ready market in the district, owing to the amount of litter required for carriage horses.

Hay.—For this crop various quantities and proportions of seed are sown. In one instance, 3 bushels perennial ryegrass and 5 lbs. clover per acre is the mixture used; in another, 1½ bushels Italian, 1 bushel ryegrass, and 5 lbs. red, white, and alsyke; and in another, 2½ bushels ryegrass, including Timothy and Italian seeds, and 5 lbs. clover. The yield varies from 25 to 30 cwt. per acre. On some lower farms the clover is so luxuriant as to be almost an inconvenience, causing repeated teddings of the hay in order to dry it. As in other parishes, farmers here sell great part of their hay, foddering their dairy stock almost entirely with corn straw. Sometimes the crop is top-dressed with a mixture of nitrate and bones, but such treatment is not general. One farmer varies his five-years' rotation by taking a second crop of hay, top-dressing the stubbles of the first crop with 15 tons police manure per acre. He finds this as effectual a way of keeping the land in condition as pasturing for a year would be.

Potatoes.—On all farms a considerable amount of potatoes are grown. The very early sorts are only found on a few farms ; but "Walker's Earlies," "Regents," and "Champions" are general crops. Manure for potatoes is very commonly put in the drills, about 25 tons long dung and 5 cwt. chemicals per acre being the quantities allowed. The ploughing in of the dung is also not an uncommon practice. When this is to be done, all the farm-yard manure is put on the stubble at the end of the year. After lying on the ground for six weeks, it is ploughed in; in spring the ground is harrowed, and drills for the potatoes drawn at right angles to the previous ploughing. A farmer in the district recently green-cropped a cold-bottomed field seven years continuously, ploughing in the manure in this way, and starting the potatoes in spring with 10 cwt. bone meal and salt in equal proportions per acre. This treatment has resulted in making what was once the worst pasture on the farm to be nearly the best. A return of from 8 to 10 tons per acre of potatoes is usually obtained. Much of the potato land here is very unhealthy, necessitating a smart uplifting of the crop for fear of disease. The majority of the potatoes are consumed in the towns of the Vale of Leven. Farmers generally dispose of the earlier sorts by the acre to dealers or agents, reserving the "Champions" and other late sorts for gradual sale to shops and private families. The sowing of rape on the early potato land, which we saw practised to some extent in Cardross parish, is not attempted here. The headriggs also are merely kept clean, and manured in preparation for the wheat or corn crop.

Turnips.—On each of the lower farms about 2 acres "Swedish" and 4 acres yellow turnips are raised, but on the uplands "swedes" are not found. It is not an uncommon procedure to plough in the manure for this crop, and start it in the spring with 5 or 6 cwt. chemicals per acre. Police manure is very often used for this purpose, about 25 tons per acre being allowed; and if the same weight of turnips is obtained in return, the crop is counted a fair one. Few turnips are sold, the quantity raised being usually no more than suffices to feed the cattle in the winter months. On some farms a quantity of beans and cabbages are regularly grown. Beans are harvested about the beginning of October, and yield on an average 40 bushels per acre. These two crops are used exclusively for feeding purposes in the stable and dairy.

Manure.—Besides farm-yard manure, whereof a great quantity is made in the district, long and short dung is largely obtained from Dumbarton and other towns of the Vale of Leven. A considerable portion of the byre manure made in Alexandria is not available for agricultural purposes, being bought up by public works, to be used in dyeing. Police manure costs 1s. per ton, other manure from 1s. 6d. to 3s. more. Gas lime is made use of on some of the mossy lands; and a compost, made of road scrapings, weeds, ditch cleanings, &c, is sometimes spread on the young grass, with a view to improve the hay crop.

Dairying.—An extensive dairy business is prosecuted throughout the district. Stocks are very large, in some cases amounting to 48 head of cattle; but 25 is an average number. Constant sale for sweet milk is found in Dumbarton, Bowling, and the towns of the Vale of Leven. About half of the farmers dispose of their milk wholesale to a dealer in town, the other half retail theirs personally to private families. Generally the dealer comes twice a day to the farm and lifts the milk. In the evening he takes away only as much warm milk as is bespoken by customers, leaving the rest to be lifted on the morrow as skimmed milk and cream. As the supply of milk has to be kept up winter and summer alike, farmers are often under the necessity of buying in a few back calving cows at the beginning of winter.

On all the farms a number of young beasts are reared every year—10 or 12 of the best queys, calved from February till May, being preserved for the purpose. The calves get warm milk for three weeks, and thereafter a mixture of pease meal or linseed meal and milk, gradually diminishing the quantity of milk. A few farmers rear exclusively with a view to keep up stocks, selling no queys. They farrow and feed off a number of the older cows every year, filling their places with a like number of queys brought in at 2½ years of age. In general, however, a number, both of young and mature milk cows, are disposed of yearly. Dealers and cowfeeders readily buy them, either by private bargain or at the Dumbarton weekly sales. With a view to improve their stocks, several farmers have availed themselves of bulls bred in the famous Auchendennan herd. Of this herd some account will be found further on. Its headquarters were in the parish of Bonhill.

Sheep, &c.—Besides milk cows, a number of sheep and other stock are grazed in the district. One or two farmers do a little business as graziers, having tracts of pasture land on which they graze Ayrshire stots, back calving cows, and sheep. Some farmers also buy in a hundred or two grayfaced hoggs in September, wintering them on the foggage till April. If. is in this district that the chief cattle-dealing business of the shire goes on. Dumbarton tryst, once a great cattle fair, though now somewhat shrunken in importance, is held on the 1st Wednesday of June on Carman Hill. At this fair great numbers of milk cows, bullocks, and horses are wont to change hands.

An important horse fair, popularly known as the "Moss of Balloch," is held annually at that place on the 15th of September; and for the last year or two, a weekly sale has been held at Dumbarton on Wednesday, where milk cows and other kinds of cattle are sold.

The Industries of Dumbarton. Dumbarton is a considerable town of 14,172 inhabitants. Its existence reaches back to a very early period. So long ago as 1221, it had become large and important enough to be formed into a royal burgh; and for many years previous to that time it was doubtless a populous place, deriving its name, and the reason of its existence, from the famous Castle rock. Nevertheless, the Dumbarton of to day, venerable though it be in years, has no appearance of antiquity. It is altogether a handsome, modern, busy town, the capital of a shire, and the seat of an extensive shipbuilding trade. Modern Dumbarton dates from thirty years ago. At that time, a spirit of renovation and progress seized the town, and in the course of a few years made such improvements on its aspect, that one of its eighteenth century inhabitants would hardly recognise it. As the zeal for improvement was great, so the need for it was equally so. The town was neither well watered, lighted, guarded, or cleansed. Owing to the brisk shipbuilding trade, even then going on, it had also become much too small for its population; and for a town which depended so entirely on the building of ships, to have such a shallow, unnavigable river as the Leven then was, was a sign either of poverty or lack of enterprise. An influential body of the citizens was in favour of improvements in all these respects; but a pertinacious number for awhile frustrated their efforts. At last, in 1854, a new progressive council adopted the Harbour Act, empowering them to raise public funds for improvement of the river. In 1857, a still more progressive council obtained from Parliament a special Burgh Act, giving them authority to levy taxes for a comprehensive set of improvements, including a water scheme. Previous to that time, by the energetic action of some capitalists, the limited accommodation difficulty had been met, many new buildings having been erected in the town, and a whole new suburb added across the Leven; and thus, in the course of a few years, Dumbarton had transformed herself, and from being a small antiquated place, on the banks of an unnavigable river, had become an extensive modern town, well appointed in every respect, and provided with a good waterway to the open sea.

As a market town, and the seat of a sheriff court, Dumbarton doubtless derives some wealth and importance ; but the main foundation of its prosperity is the extensive shipbuilding carried on within it. A development of this industry is the chief fact in the modern history of the town. Old firms have grown to many times their original dimensions, many new firms have arisen, and a general increase in wealth and population has resulted.

The two principal building yards are owned by Messrs William Denny & Brothers and Messrs Archibald M'Millan & Sons. These are well-known firms, who since their establishment have contributed a respectable quota to the immense sum total of Clyde shipbuilding. Messrs Denny & Brothers are a very old firm, beginning business back in one of the earlier decades of the century. Their history has been one of development and progress. In 1844, when the application of iron to shipbuilding had begun to revolutionise the trade, the firm was one of the foremost in adopting the new material. In 1845 they launched 3 iron steamers, and in 1847 no less than 6. Their business increased year by year ; and comparing the two 6-year periods, ending 1850 and 1856 respectively, we find that in the first they launched 26 vessels, of a gross tonnage of 6003, and an aggregate nominal horse-power of 1327; in the next period they launched 35 vessels, of a gross tonnage of 28,591, and an aggregate horse-power of 6142—that is, the ships built were not only more numerous, but also much larger. In 1867 the firm removed to a larger and more convenient yard, on the north side of the river, called the Leven Shipyard. This yard at first covered 15 acres, and provided accommodation for building six 3000 ton vessels. It had within it a tidal basin capable of receiving two large steamships, with space for shifting. By the side of this basin were erected shear-legs capable of lifting 50 tons. In this yard, for many years, the firm carried on an extensive and growing business. In course of time, however, they began once more to find themselves straitened for room ; and in 1881 they acquired, and annexed to the Leven Shipyard, a 27 acre area of land immediately to the east. In this they formed another tidal basin of much greater capacity than the last, and erected thereat shear-legs twice as powerful as the former—lifting 100 tons. Thus their yard now covers 42 acres, and is provided with two tidal basins or docks, and two pairs of powerful lifting apparatus. They have room within it to build, simultaneously, seven steamers of from 350 to 600 feet long, and each from 2000 to 8000 tons gross; and have space, besides, for the construction of eight paddle steamers or barges—of which the firm have always a few on hand. These latter are chiefly for customers in India, China, Buenos Ayres, and the colonies, to which places they are shipped in pieces, ready for reconstruction. A branch from the North British Railway runs through the yard, and a complete system of portable railroads—narrow gauge (by Decan-ville, France)—forms a network all over it. This latter is for the use of workmen in all the departments, and does away with the necessity for hand barrows, jankers, &c. Other appliances, completing the equipment of the yard, are electric lighting and telephonic communication. The furnace sheds are illuminated by electricity; and arrangements are being contemplated for lighting up by the same means the counting-house, drawing office, joiners' and upholsterers' shops, as well as ships in course of construction on the stocks. Telephonic communication has been completely established between the counting-house and all the shops and departments of the yard, as well as with the private residences of all the partners. Establishments in town, with which the firm have constant dealings, such as Dennyston Forge, Hardie & Gordon's Foundry, and Denny & Co.'s Engine-works, are also in like manner connected with the counting-house; and in a few weeks hence direct telephonic communication will be established with Glasgow. Since the early days of the firm shipbuilding has made rapid strides, and has grown a very great and scientific trade. Messrs Denny & Brothers have ever been forward to adopt such useful inventions and improvements as have from time to time arisen, either in modes of working or in styles of constructing and finishing vessels.

The following figures, kindly furnished by the firm, will give an idea of the progress of their business, and of the Dumbarton shipbuilding industry in general, during the last quarter of a century:—In 1861 there were employed in the yard 879 hands; in 1884 the number of employees was 1826. The average number employed during the five years ending 1865, was 1023 ; the average number during five years ending 1883 was 1409. During the period of five years ending 1865, there were launched 45,716 tons; during the period of five years ending 1883, the tonnage launched was 96,100.

The other large shipbuilding yard in town is owned by Messrs Archibald M'Millan & Sons. This is a very long-established firm, the senior partner of it being the oldest shipbuilder on the Clyde. The firm have acquired special fame as builders of sailing vessels, and on several occasions have turned out the largest ships of that class. The industry has grown on their hands so much that they have twice had to extend their yard greatly. Their employees have increased from 200 in the year 1853 to over 1000 in 1883 ; and the average rate of wages paid has risen from 15s. to 25s. per week. In the ten years ending 1856, they launched 17,988 tons ; in the ten years ending 1875 the tonnage launched was 71,500 tons; while for the last few years their annual output has been 14,000 tons. From first to last, the firm have built 312 vessels of all descriptions, making an aggregate of 230,000 tons. Two other kindred firms which have arisen are Messrs Birrel and Stenhouse, who started in 1871; and Messrs M'Kellar & Co., dating from 1872. At a busy season the combined employees of these number about 1000. When trade is brisk, it thus appears that the aggregate number of hands employed in Dumbarton yards in recent years is something like 4000. Thirty years ago, the sum total of workmen did not much exceed 2000, a fact showing great development and progress.

Engineering and founding are important adjuncts of shipbuilding. Both industries are vigorously prosecuted in Dumbarton. The most important engineering establishment is that of Messrs Denny & Co. The firm began operations in 1851. Since then they have increased to four times their original dimensions, and just now are putting extensive additions to their already large premises. They produce the largest and highest class of engines and boilers required at the present day. Of late years they have employed 800 men.

Messrs Paul, another engineering firm, have also developed their business considerably. In 1860 they took a new departure, entering into the steam crane and winch trade. In the making of these and other labour-saving apparatus for shipboard, they have acquired considerable celebrity ; and in 1867 took a prize at the Exhibition for a steam windlass and winch which they exhibited. In 1866 they extended their premises, and added boiler-making to their other business, and again in 1875 they further enlarged their workshops. Their staff of workmen has increased in number, growing latterly to 200 hands.

Levenbank Foundry and Engine Work was started in 1856. By alterations at various times, it has been made three times its original size, and at busy seasons gives work to 160 men.

Dennyston Forge, a large well-furnished work, was started in 1855. At that time it was provided with three Nasmyth hammers, the heaviest weighing 5 tons, and could turn out forgings 12 tons in weight. In 1865 the establishment was made three times larger, and provided with other two hammers, the heaviest weighing 10 tons, being the only one of the weight in Scotland. Ten years later, when another Nasmyth hammer was added, the number of these powerful implements in operation in the Forge was nine, and forgings up to 20 tons in weight could be turned out.

Besides these mentioned, which are the principal firms of the town, there are several brassfounders, saw-mills, rope and tan works, &c, some of which have been started by the expansion of shipbuilding, and all of them benefited by it. The valuation roll and census returns corroborate this account of progress. The following are the valuations of the burgh at three periods since 1856. For 1856-57, £12,881, l1s. 2d.; 1859-60, £18,622, 10s. 8d.; and 1883-84, £55,101, 11s. 6d. The following are the census returns for the last thirty years;—In 1851 the population of the burgh was 4590, in 1861 it had increased to 8268, in 1871 it was enumerated at 11,423, and in 1881 it was ascertained to have reached 14,172.

The Industries of the Vale of Leven. The Yale of Leven, with its fine verdant plain, its winding river, and picturesque hills on either side, has a natural beauty about it, which, in the absence of any other feature of interest, would make it well worth visiting. In effect, however, the scenery of the Vale is one of its least noticeable features, as huge public works and populous towns have long been so conspicuous as to quite eclipse nature. The Yale of Leven is, in fact, one of the most busy and thickly-inhabited districts in Scotland. Four populous villages are found within it, viz., Jamestown, Bonhill, Alexandria, and Benton, the combined inhabitants of which, in. 1881, numbered 15,603 souls. These find employment chiefly in the great Turkey-red dyeing and calico-printing establishments carried on on the banks of the river Leven. The existence of these establishments is to be accounted for by the constant supply of pure soft water which that river affords, thus enabling the bleaching, dyeing, and printing processes to be prosecuted at all times. From an early period the Vale was celebrated for it bleachfields. Dal-quhurn was started as a work of that description in 1715. The first printwork was commenced at Levenfield in 1768, and in 1776 another one, called the Cordale, was established.

Dyeing is applied to cloths and yarns, and includes the following operations:—Bleaching goods to give a clear bottom ; saturating them repeatedly in olive oil and soda ; mordanting to give affinity for dyeing stuffs; dyeing by madder, garancine, or alizarine; and cleaning or brightening by soap, in boiler, under pressure. Printing is done chiefly by machinery, though block printing has revived to some extent. The cloths and yarns are mostly bought in from Lancashire manufacturers, and when finished are sold both for home and foreign trade. Of yarns and cloths exported, by far the largest portion are sold as plain Turkey-red ; the remainder are printed with designs peculiar to the taste of the Hindoos and Mahommedans, consisting of peacocks, elephants, &c. Within the last twenty-five years wonderful improvements have taken place in connection with the processes of Turkey-red dyeing and calico printing, and in the adoption of these the Vale of Leven firms have certainly not been behind. One of the chief of those improvements was the adaptation of artificial alizarine to dyeing purposes. In early times madder, a vegetable extract, was the agent employed, subsequently garancine, a preparation of madder, was made use of; but in 1868 alizarine was discovered, an agent better adapted than any of the former for producing a bright fast colour. By substituting alizarine for madder, dyers did not exchange one colouring agent for another—they merely availed themselves of a purer quality of the same element; for the colouring principle is one and the same in madder, garancine, and alizarine, only in the last it exists in its purest and most concentrated form. Alizarine is extracted from coal-tar.

Of the five firms in the dyeing and printing trades, three of them carry on Turkey-red dyeing and printing. These are— Messrs Archibald Orr Ewing & Co., Messrs John Orr Ewing and Co., and Messrs Stirling & Co. The other two firms—Messrs James Black & Co. and Messrs Guthrie & Co.—are chiefly engaged in madder printing alone. In addition to garment and muslin goods, these latter firms produce great quantities of furniture prints, cretonnes, twills, figured dimity, chintzes, &c. The last twenty-five years have witnessed a remarkable expansion of the Vale of Leven dyeing and printing industries. From time to time additions have been made to all the works, and the buildings of the three larger firms now cover an area of 10 acres each. These larger works have branch railroads carried through them, to convey coal and export goods. In 1876 we find the three dyeing and printing firms—Messrs A. Orr Ewing and Co., Messrs J. Orr Ewing & Co., and Messrs William Stirling and Co.—employing 6000 work people, paying £150,000 per annum in wages, and producing, when in full operation, 10,000 pieces cloth and 25,000 lbs. of yarn daily.

In 1857, on the three works presently owned by Messrs A. Orr Ewing & Co., there were employed 1223 persons,—the amount disbursed, in wages and tradesmen's accounts, was £44,000 per annum or thereby. In 1878, on the same works, upwards of 2000 people found employment, and £90,000 was paid in wages and tradesmen's accounts. This firm, when in full operation, turns out over 12,000 lbs. of yarn and nearly 5000 pieces of cloth per day,—a larger amount than was produced in Great Britain in 1843. Messrs John Orr Ewing & Co. now produce over eight times the amount they did in 1860. In 1876, they consumed 32,130 tons of coal, and in wages paid £54,460. Their business has increased considerably since then, and they now employ 1600 hands, which is double the number employed twenty-five years ago. At Dalmonach Printworks (Messrs Black & Co.) there are at present employed from 800 to 900 persons; twenty-eight years ago, the number was 613. The firm have twenty-five printing machines, printing from one to sixteen colours, and capable of producing 25 million yards printed goods in a year. At Messrs Guthrie & Co.'s print-work there were employed twenty-eight years ago 308 people; when busy, the number now is 600. In fact, it has been computed that the number of employees and output of goods have at least doubled in twenty-five years. In 1835 the amount paid in wages by all the firms in the Vale was something like £8800; the sum disbursed in 1856, for the same purpose and for tradesmen's accounts, was £132,000 or thereby. In 1875 the payments for like purposes would reach £200,000; and at the present time (1884), it is calculated that the expenditure upon wages and accounts cannot be much under £300 000.

This great expansion in the industries of the Vale of Leven has brought about a corresponding increase in the population. In 1851, the inhabitants of Cardross and Bonhill parishes, where the Vale of Leven villages are found, numbered 11,221; in 1861 they had increased to 13,227. In 1871 the census returns from the villages alone reveal a total of 10,247 inhabitants. Ten years later this total had grown to 15,603, and it is believed that if these four villages—Jamestown, Bonhill, Alexandria, and Renton—were now enumerated, their combined populations would amount to something like 18,000.

The number of new houses erected, and old ones rebuilt, gives the whole district a new aspect. Public works, dwelling-houses, &c, are all of a red colour; the former being constructed of brick, the latter chiefly of the red sandstone abounding in the locality. Messrs A. Orr Ewing & Co. are extensive property-holders, having built the greater part of those substantial well-appointed houses which constitute the village of Jamestown. This firm have also, of late, made considerable additions to their already extensive works; and so likewise have Messrs William Stirling & Sons.

Kilmaronock Parish.

This is largest arable parish in Dumbartonshire. Its length is 6½ miles, its breadth 4 miles, and its extent 10,325 acres, of which about five-sixths are arable. The parish presents a great variety of surface. The western end of it is of a very undulating nature,—the land rising and falling twice between Loch Lomond and the upper boundary, so that some farms have a northern and some a southern exposure. Going eastwards, it loses this undulating character, and becomes a wide plain, sloping slowly downwards to Loch Lomond. At the eastern end, in the angle formed by the River Endrick and the Loch, there is an alluvial tract so level as to require drainage by machinery.

Soil.—The soil of the parish is, to a great extent, of a light sandy description, and of a red sandstone hue, very thin, and resting partly on the aforesaid rock and partly on a bottom of red till. Patches of it are of a more clayey nature ; and towards the east of the parish a tract of distinctly heavy soil occurs resting on a tilly bottom. In the centre of the parish a large area of moorish land is found, interspersed with peat mosses; and in the extreme north-east there lies the alluvial level we have spoken of. This last, despite the difficulties attaching to drainage, is very superior arable land, and is valued at a rate the highest of any in the parish, viz., £2, 10s. per acre. The rest of the land ranges in value from 15s. to 25s. per acre. Farms vary in size from 90 to 150 acres. The rotation followed is commonly the six-shift, though on most farms there are fields which lie out in pasture for a much longer time than that rotation admits of.

Oats.—A great variety of oats are tried in the parish, but "Hamilton" and "Flemish" are the prevalent kinds. Seed is sometimes completely renewed every second year. The yield varies from 30 to 48 bushels per acre, and the average weight will be 40 lbs. per bushel. The number of cattle kept on some farms leaves little either of the grain or the straw for the market, but of the corn sold the greater part goes to feed horses. Some farmers sell a quantity of meal to shops and families.

Wheat, &c.—Wheat is a grain quite unknown in the district, and barley, which was once a staple crop, is now almost obsolete. The reasons for the discontinuance of barley are to be found in the unprofitable figure to which it is now reduced, and the fact that barley straw makes very poor fodder.

Hay.—The yield of hay varies from 30 to 40 cwt. per acre. A great part of the land is capable of growing good hard-grown hay, and the raising and selling of this crop forms a considerable item in the rural economy of the parish. About 2½ bushels ryegrass seeds, mixed with a sprinkling of Timothy and Italian, and 5 or 6 lbs. clover, is the quantity used by some farmers to seed an acre. Top-dressing with chemicals is somewhat freely practised. One farmer recently sowed down a good part of his land with Timothy grass, and cropped it continuously for eight years, top-dressing with police manure every second year. Hay is disposed of in Alexandria, Dumbarton, Tarbet, and other places, near and remote. In the delivery of large orders of hay, farmers assist each other.

Potatoes.—The earliest sort of potato grown in the parish is "Walker's," but of these only a few are planted. The raising of seed potatoes for early growers was once a prominent feature of farming here; but, though this branch of potato culture is still to some extent prosecuted in the mossy lands of the parish, it has now given place, in the majority of cases, to the growing of "Champions" and other late and hardy kinds, for general purposes. The great prevalence of disease, seven or eight years ago, is the reason for this departure from the raising of the earlier potatoes. From 6 to 8 tons per acre is counted a fair return in this crop. Manure is generally put in drills, and the amount applied varies from 25 to 30 tons per acre. A proportion of chemicals continues to be used, but the general feeling in this parish is somewhat against these manures. One farmer, however, after a number of experiments, has come to be strongly in favour of potash, used singly, as a fertiliser for potatoes. In a potato field, manured in drills after the usual fashion, he reserved a few drills where he applied nothing but potash. He found that this part not only yielded as fair a return of potatoes, but also bore as good a crop of corn next year. This circumstance, combined with the fact that potash is a cheaper commodity to buy than good byre or stable manure, has made him strongly in favour of it, and this year he has set his potatoes with nothing else, applying 7 cwt. per acre. The majority of potatoes grown are consumed in the Yale of Leven, being usually sold through a commission agent, who for his services receives 1s. per bag of 2 cwt. One farmer, with a number of cattle to feed, uses his potatoes for that purpose whenever they fall below 6s. per bag.

Turnips.—Both Swedish and other turnips thrive in the parish, though on some farms, where the soil is thin, the former sort is not grown. About 4 lbs. per acre of seed is sown, and a crop varying from 15 to 25 tons is obtained. Turnips are sometimes pitted in heaps of a cart-load in each. Some farmers sell a portion of their turnips in the Yale of Leven, but in general this crop is all required for feeding purposes at home.

Beans and Mashlum.—A moderate breadth of beans and mashlum is also to be found in the parish. Dung is ploughed in for both crops, and a result of 40 bushels beans, and 32 bushels mashlum, per acre is usually obtained. A method sometimes adopted for mashlum is to broadcast dung on the ploughed land, harrow it over, then draw a light furrow for the seed.

Manure.—The bulk of the manure imported into the parish is short dung from Glasgow and the Vale of Leven. Glasgow police manure, delivered in Kilmaronock, costs 3s. per ton. Farmers also deal considerably in chemicals—the backwardness of the soil having tempted them into a pretty free use of these manures. If lime could be had, it would be preferable to chemicals. Lime was forty years ago the mainstay of farmers in this parish, but the costliness of it for many years back has prevented its use.

Dairying.—From 12 to 20 milk cows are kept on the majority of farms, and by the sale of dairy produce farmers derive a great part of their income. The greater number send sweet milk to Glasgow every morning by train. Some supply the same commodity to families in the Vale of Leven, and a great number churn the milk, and sell butter, &c, in the populous towns of the Vale. The cost of conveying sweet milk to Glasgow by rail is three farthings per gallon. Farmers have a standing grievance against railway officials, in regard to the rude way their butts are used on the return journey. The disrespect manifested by all carrying companies towards "empties," is fully illustrated in the abused condition of these butts. For three months in summer the price obtained from milk dealers in Glasgow is 6d. per gallon, in mid winter 5d. more. From the other dairies a milk cart with butter and milk is in summer despatched, three or four times a week, to Renton, Alexandria, &c. In winter only one or two expeditions will be made, or perhaps none at all. Butter milk is in part devoted to the feeding of calves. Rearing of dairy and feeding stock goes on to a considerable extent. On one or two farms rearing is the exclusive business done with cattle. One farmer has as many as 60 beasts, housed in winter, and several others have from 40 to 50. Bull calves, calved before March, are reared and sold at two years old, as bullocks, to dealers and graziers. Those calved after that month never thrive so well, and so are not made use of in that way. Queys are brought in at two years old, and are for the most part taken into the byre, instead of cows drafted out for sale. Milk cows are seldom kept till they are old; they are usually sold when mature to cowfeeders. These transactions generally take place about January. The principal stock in the parish is that of Mr Reid of Portnellan. The ancestors of this stock came from Ayrshire seventy years ago, being brought thither by Mr Reid's father. It is one of the few herd-book stocks in Dumbartonshire, and has a wide reputation. Mr Reid's bulls are bought by breeders from Ayrshire, to whom the qualities of the stock are known by-tradition. He likewise rears and finishes off a number of Ayrshire bullocks, and buys in a number of cows in the spring, with 36 a view to selling them off in October as back-calvers. Cattle fairs are held at Drymen in the east of the parish in April and May, and at Balloch in the west in October. It is customary for dealers to come round previous to these occasions and buy up marketable cattle, engaging with the farmer to have them to hand on the day of the fair.

Kilpatrick Parishes. The district comprised in these two parishes is a very populous one, both as regards men and cattle. Well-filled villages and large dairies are the prominent features of it. Its contiguity to Glasgow is the chief reason for its large population. The district includes an extensive area of low country and a tract of hilly land. The Clyde bounds it for a considerable distance towards the south, and its northern boundary is found along the summit of the Kilpatrick Hills. These hills begin at Dumbuck, in the extreme west of the district, very near the Clydeside. Going eastward, they recede farther and farther from the river, leaving a triangular space of land between. This latter constitutes the arable part of the parishes. The whole district, excluding water and foreshores, covers an area of 16,847 acres, of which about four-sevenths are arable. The Kilpatrick Hills are of a moderate height, and have a rather green appearance, a circumstance owing to previous cultivation, probably in days when they were parcelled out among a number of small lairds. The lowlands between the heights and the Clyde are of a very undulating character. In East Kilpatrick the whole face of the country resolves itself into a number of knolls, with broad hollows between. These knolls are for the most part earthy throughout, and are composed in some cases of stiff clay mixed with boulders, and in other cases they consist of fine sand of a great depth.

Soil.—The soil along Clydeside is a strong loam, with a sandy element through it, suitable for grass or grain—not so suitable for green crop. Higher up, in the western parts of West Kilpatrick, a breadth of sandy loam occurs. Eastwards the soil grows stiff, and rests on a tilly bottom. On the main body of East Kilpatrick areas both of sandy loam and stiff clayey land are found. The whole northern farms of these parishes, lying along the base of the Kilpatrick Hills, have a soil of a light loam, not unmixed with boulders, and resting immediately on the whinstone. The average rate per acre for land is £2, 5s., the Clydeside lands rising in value to £1 more. Farms range in size from 100 to 150 acres, though one or two are nearly 300 acres in extent.

Rotation.—More cropping is done in the western parish than in the eastern one. In the latter, great part of the land on every farm lies out in pasture for seven or eight years at a time. The part, however, devoted to tillage is on that account apt to be somewhat continuously cropped, ploughing of hay stubbles being a common occurrence. The need for plenty of pasture for the large dairy stocks kept, and the aptitude of the soil for growing good grass, are the reasons for this limited tillage. In West Kilpatrick, the six-years' rotation prevails, though on some of the best farms a four-years' shift has been used. Fields here and there are also allowed to lie out in grass for a period of years.

Oats.—"Hamilton" and "Potato" oats are the kinds prevalent in the district. Seed is very commonly renewed every three years. The yield varies from 36 to 60 bushels, according to soil and season, weighing from 38 to 42 lbs. per bushel. The encouragement of the corn crop, by top-dressing or ploughing in manure, is not often practised, though sometimes farmers in East Kilpatrick use a soap-waste compost as a top-dressing to needful spots. Harvest comes on in the Clydeside farms about the beginning of September, on the higher grounds perhaps ten days or a fortnight later. The greater part of the thrashing in this district is done by the travelling mill, every farmer having three or four services of it in a season. After reserving for home consumption, the balance of the oats is generally sold in Glasgow, either to grain merchants or for horse corn. A considerable amount of straw also finds a market in that city. Little meal is sold by Kilpatrick farmers.

Wheat.—Wheat is largely sown on the lower farms. The place for wheat in the rotation is always after green crop. "Woolly-ear" is the variety mostly in favour, whereof about 3 bushels are taken to seed an acre. Wheat sowing begins about the end of October. The crop is sometimes top-dressed with a little nitrate, but the chief fertiliser allowed is the unexhausted manure of the green crop. Wheat harvest arrives about the end of August, when from 32 to 48 bushels per acre are realised, weighing in a good year over 60 lbs. per bushel. The grain is all sold to the merchants in Glasgow, and the straw finds a ready sale as litter ; some of it also goes to manufacturers as stuffing for mattresses.

Say.—For this crop something like 2 bushels perennial ryegrass, 5 lbs. red clover, and 2 lbs. white are sown. Alsyke is by some farmers used, and by others avoided, the latter alleging that the cattle do not like it. Haymaking commences about the 3rd of July on the best lands. Considerable use is made, throughout the district, of timber centres or "bosins" in the building of ricks. These "bosins" are composed of three uprights, from 7 to 9 feet high, joined together at the top, and at the bottom expanded about 3 feet apart. Around this extinguisher-shaped stand the rick is built, and by reason of the hollowness caused in its centre dries much more quickly. As a further means to speed and economy in the management of the hay crop, may be mentioned the large open sheds which some steadings are provided with. These sheds may be about 75 feet long and 30 feet wide, and consist merely of pillars 14 feet high, and 12 feet or thereby apart, supporting a galvanised iron or slate roof. In these some 25 tons of hay can be stored, with as much safety and half the labour necessary to build a stack. The hay is not stored in a solid mass; it is put so as to leave transverse lanes through it every 12 or 14 feet, so that ventilation is secured. "Timothy" meadows are somewhat common in the district. On the home farm of Milngavie Mains (A. Campbell Douglas, Esq.), a 23 acre field has been sown down with "Timothy" and perennial rye-grass. This was top-dressed two years ago with short dung from the neighbouring town, and the two crops raised since then have averaged nearly 3 tons per acre. One of the principal farmers in East Kilpatrick has also sown down part of his land with "Timothy" grass, and has cropped it for six. years in succession. He top-dresses every second year with 15 tons per acre farm-yard manure, the other years he applies a top-dressing of 4 cwt. of nitrate per acre. The yield last year was 5 tons, and this year he realised a return of 4 tons per acre. A farmer in West Kilpatrick has also for many years had a very good "Timothy" meadow. This field, which extends to 6 acres, was overspread, near the beginning of his lease, with harbour dredgings to the depth of 4 inches. The cost was somewhat heavy at the time, but the result has fully justified it. With the aid of a little top-dressing, he has yearly had a return of from 4 to 5 tons per acre of hay. A feature of farming in the western parish is the use made of liquid manure in the raising of grass. A barrel cart for applying the liquid, and a pumping apparatus at the dung-stead for filling the barrel, are appurtenances of every farm. In the spring the liquid is sprinkled on the grass lands, and in summer it is applied at intervals to the pasture, improving its appearance in a few days. This is the only part of Dumbartonshire where such a process is carried on, and the reason probably is, that the abundance of liquid available, on account of the very large dairies kept, gives farmers special facilities for the practice.

Potatoes.—A few "Red Bogs" and other early sorts are planted, but generally speaking early growing is not a feature of farming here. Thirty years ago it was a very noticeable feature, farmers in the district having the first chance of the early market, but since the railway has brought Ayrshire and Cardross within a few hours' distance of Glasgow, Kilpatrick has found itself outdone. The former place is able to have potatoes to hand a fortnight, and the latter eight days earlier, than the best farms of these parishes. In the western division a few "Red Bogs" are met with, but in general the "Regent" is the earliest potato raised, and between it and the "Champion" the potato land is divided. Growing potatoes in lea was, fifteen years ago, somewhat freely practised, and is still occasionally done, but the results have not proved very favourable. About two-thirds of the green crop break is planted with potatoes, which on a good many farms will mean from 20 to 27 acres. Dung is most generally put in drills, except on some steep places, where it is ploughed in. About 25 tons farm-yard manure is applied for the crop, supplemented by chemicals. One farmer's method is to spread 35 tons farm-yard manure as early as possible on the stubble land. He ploughs this in in the month of February, and in spring he starts the crop with 4 cwt. Cross's potato manure to the acre. This method he finds more favourable for the wheat crop. Uplifting of "Red Bogs" takes place about the end of July; the "Regents" are dug six weeks later. From 8 to 10 tons per acre of a crop are usually realised. A part of the potatoes on every farm is sold growing to a dealer from Glasgow. The selling of a part through a commission agent is also becoming common. "Champions" and other kinds, reserved for future use, are put up in the open field in pits, composed of 2½ bags to the lineal yard. These are covered in the same way as was described for the parish of Cardross. Bowling and other villages in the district consume a considerable part of the potato crop, but the bulk of it finds its way to Glasgow.

Turnips.—No great breadth of turnips is raised in this district, the amount grown by each farmer being little more than suffices for winter feeding to his own cattle. From 5 to 8 acres are sown on every farm. Manure for turnips is always put in drills, and from 4 to 5 tons less is applied than for potatoes. On some lands "swedes" are apt to go wrong with a disease that renders them so hard as to be almost past boiling. Both kinds of turnips are pulled and cleared off the ground by the middle of November. One method of preserving turnips practised in this district is, to put them up in pits 4½ feet wide, cover them first with a coating of dry straw, and then with a layer of potato shaws.

Beans and Cabbage.—On most farms 1 or 1½ acres of cabbage are grown, and on many farms an extent of 2 or 3 acres of beans is also found. The cabbage are generally of the "Drumhead" kind, and are treated very much after the gardener's method, being dibbled in 2 feet apart. About the end of September they are ready for cutting, and a portion of them is given daily to the dairy stock till they are exhausted.

Beans are chiefly used as feeding for horses. Commonly they are not thrashed at all, but boiled on the stalk along with the turnip, being previously crumped in the cutting machine.

Manure.—On account of the number of cattle kept, a considerable amount of manure is made on each farm. Further supplies of dung are obtained from Glasgow and neighbouring villages, being driven therefrom at intervals of leisure, and binged up. On some of the East Kilpatrick holdings, where sandy loam prevails, nothing but long dung is used, police manure being found almost useless. On the stiffer lands considerable quantities of the latter kind of manure are used with good effect as a top-dressing for grass. Good use has also in some cases been made of harbour dredgings. Manure in this district is at present plentiful and cheap.

Dairying.—Dairying on a very extensive scale is carried on. Stocks in general range from 25 to 35 head of cattle, though some farmers have 40 and even 60 milk cows. A few dairies are engaged in the making of butter, but the great majority are sweet milk dairies. Glasgow is the chief destination of the produce, to which a great quantity is sent daily. The milk is delivered early in the morning (sometimes about 6 o'clock) to a dealer in town; the last night's milking being sent in as skimmed milk and cream. In winter 1s. per gallon is the price obtained ; in summer when milk is more plentiful, and many consumers are out of town, the price falls to 8d. per gallon. In order to deliver their milk, farmers have a journey of from 6 to 8 miles to make every morning. This necessitates very early rising on the part of all concerned—3.30, or a quarter of an hour earlier, being the time at which most farmer's households are astir. On many of the farms, where stocks are not so large, and where grass is more plentiful, the cows are out all night from June till August. After that, the darkness of the morning makes the gathering of them more a matter of time and difficulty, and so they are not left out during the night. In the larger dairies, where grass is scarcer, and where also much time would be spent gathering the stocks, the cattle are housed up at night all the year round. The latter arrangement obtains more especially in West Kilpatrick. The necessity which presses upon farmers to have the greatest amount of milk to hand in the shortest time, combined with the scarcity of pasture, also gives rise, in the western district, to another noticeable feature, namely, the almost entire absence from the byres of young cattle of all kinds. The stocks are not kept up by rearing; they are flying stocks, composed of mature cows, bought in when in calf or milk. These cows are not allowed to calve again, but are farrowed and sold to the butcher, being fed well with that view. Thus a constant buying and feeding off of milk cows goes on throughout the parish. Paisley weekly sale is the principal mart for the purchase of these cows, and a constant market for fed-off beasts is found in Glasgow. In East Kilpatrick, where grass is more plentiful, more rearing goes on, some half a dozen of the best calves being kept for the purpose every year. A considerable number of cattle are also bought in, especially about the beginning of winter, when farmers have usually to buy a few back-calving cows, to keep up the winter's supply of milk. Dairy cattle are extremely well fed, especially in the western parish. In that district, owing to the disproportion between the size of the dairies and the amount of the pasture, a system of feeding more resembling a cowfeeder's than a farmer's is carried on. The cows get draff and bean meal mixture, even in summer. In winter they generally get three hot meals of turnips, bean meal, and draff, with three straw fodderings and one of hay daily. Small potatoes are also given them during that season.

Horses.—Horse breeding is prosecuted to some extent in the district. Some remarks on this subject will be found in the section relating to the "Clydesdale Horse."

Sheep, &c.—Grazing of sheep, bullocks, and other stock is largely carried on, especially in East Kilpatrick. The Kilpatrick Hills are chiefly under sheep, and suit that class of stock very well, covered as they are with a mixture of heather, bent, and good grass. Some farmers summer graze cattle on them, and winter sheep. Mr A. Campbell Douglas pursues the following system:—He buys in at two years old from the Falkirk Tryst three score Highland bullocks and queys, winters them on the lower grounds, and puts them on the hill grazing in summer; and after another winter on the low lands, feeds them off for the market. On the hill where these bullocks and queys have grazed in summer, he winters sheep. Sheep stocks on the Kilpatrick Hills are mostly ewe stocks. They number on an average 600 each. Leicester tups are bought in from good breeders. The produce are all disposed of in the Glasgow market, partly for hogging purposes and partly for the butcher. Ewes are drafted out at five years of age, and are sold for crossing purposes to Lowland farmers. They bring from 2s. to 4s. more from this quarter than those from northern farms. Hoggs are usually wintered on some of the arable farms of the district. The blackfaced breed has been greatly improved here, during the last twelve years, by careful selection of rams from good stocks. Among successful breeders may be mentioned Mr Archibald Coubrough, High Craigton Farm, who during recent years has won no less than nine medals at local or Highland and Agricultural Society's Shows.

Other Industries.

This is a very industrial region. At Knightswood, and Garscube in East Kilpatrick, coal mines have been in operation for nearly a generation. Twenty-five years ago it is computed there were from 200 to 300 miners employed in the parish. About fifteen years thereafter the number had risen to nearly 900, consequent upon the opening at Garscadden of seven new pits by Messrs Merry & Cunningham. These pits were both for coal and ironstone mining. A year ago, however, with the exception of the Chapel Hill Colliery, they were abandoned, on account of the unprofitable figure to which iron was reduced. At the Chapel Hill Colliery from 50 to 60 men and boys are still employed, and the output averages 250 tons per week. There are also several bleach and dyeworks in the parish. As a sample of the progress made by these, it may be stated that the Burnbrae Dyeing Co., which twenty-eight years ago employed 50 hands, now employ 400. But perhaps the most notable industries in all respects are those of Clydebank and Dalmuir, in West Kilpatrick. In these places are to be found the extensive shipbuilding yards of Messrs Thomson and Messrs Napier, Shanks, & Bell; the repairing yard and workshops of the Clyde Trustees; the colossal machine work of the Singer Manufacturing Co.; the premises of the North British Chemical Co.; and other works.

Messrs Thomson established themselves at Clydebank in 1872. When in full operation they employ nearly 3000 men. Their yard covers 50 acres, and is one of the first on the Clyde as regards size and completeness. It includes both engineering and boiler-making departments, and has within it a dock capable of receiving the largest vessels. Among the modern and effective appliances wherewith the yard is replete, may be mentioned a pair of shear-legs capable of lifting 120 tons and travelling 40 feet, and a steelyard weighing from 28 lbs. to 120 tons. They have turned out, since their establishment at Clydebank, 400,000 tons of shipping. In this sum total is included almost all the magnificent steamers of the "Cunard" line and Macbrayne's Highland service. The "America," their latest achievement, is one of the fastest vessels afloat.

Messrs Napier, Shanks, & Bell began operations in 1877. The first years of their term of existence were coincident with a depression in trade, nevertheless they have turned out a respectable amount of work. They have built 4 large " Clan " line steamers, 3 steamers for Japan, 2 for the River Plate, &c.; and altogether have turned out about 40,000 tons. They employ, when at their busiest, 1100 hands, and are famed for their substantial work.

The North British Chemical Co. make three-fourths of all the iodine used; they also manufacture the bromide, carbonate, nitric acid, and sulphates of commerce; and employ about 100 hands.

Mr Spencer, of the "Vulcan" Forge, Dalmuir, began business in 1881. He turns out both iron and steel forgings in a finished state, and at the present slack season employs 20 men.

The Clyde Trustees' workshops were established at Dalmuir in 1866. The repairing of the large fleet of dredgers and hopper barges employed in their ceaseless river workings, is the business carried on there. Their staff has grown from 63 to 242 hands, all select men, and steadily employed.

The "Singer" Manufacturing Co. are not yet in full operation. Their works are most extensive, covering 40 acres, and are very handsome and well built. They include a gas-work and commissariat department. The company have also a locomotive engine of their own, and the length of their private rails reaches 5 miles. They employ at present 2500 males and 800 females, and turn out 10,000 machines per week. With them is incorporated the Babcock & Wilcox Co., a firm producing patent unburstable boilers, and said to have six months' work before them.

Around these large industrial establishments a new village has lately sprung up. Twelve years ago, the old classical village of Yoker was the only populous place in the locality, but shortly after that time building took a start two miles westward, and has gone on, till now it has resulted in another large handsome village, viz., Clydebank. In the year 1871 the population of the neighbourhood was only 462 ; in 1881 it 'had increased to 2752; while in all probability it has now grown to nearly 4000. The annual valuation in 1871 was £1512; while last year it was within a few pounds of £15,000. About two miles inland from Clydebank is to be found Dun-tocher, with its three or four large silent mills. Forty years ago, this locality was the scene of a most prosperous cotton-spinning and weaving industry, carried on by Mr William Dunn. After his death a variety of causes conspired to discourage the industry, and twenty-two years ago it became extinct. In 1874 James Carlisle, Sons, & Co., thread manufacturers, bought the Faifley Mill, and have run it since, employing about 130 hands. In the neighbourhood is found Auchentoshan Distillery, where spirits are still made with peats in the old fashion. About a dozen hands are here employed, and the output averages 250 puncheons yearly.

Kirkintilloch Parish.

Kirkintilloch parish is the westmost portion of the detached part of Dumbartonshire. The parish is of a somewhat rectangular shape, 5 miles long, and averaging 2½ miles broad. It is bounded on the north side by the River Kelvin, and on the south for some distance by the River Luggie, and may be roughly described as a tableland rising between the valleys of these two rivers. The surface of the parish is of a rather undulating nature, here and there rising into hills, and is almost wholly arable. The best soil is that lying in the Kelvin Valley, a strip of fine strong loam of a deep alluvial nature, very good for growing corn, turnips, or grass, but not so well adapted for potatoes or wheat. Above this, on the slope, there is a strip of gravelly soil suitable for potatoes. Eastward from Kirkintilloch, there is an area of light, kindly soil, very good of its kind, but hardly of sufficient depth, and resting on a tilly bottom. Southward, towards Woodilee, there is a stretch of heavy clayey land with a close bottom; but the great body of the parish eastward has a surface of light moorish earth, interspersed with knolls of clay. The soil here cannot be said to be of a superior kind, being cold and damp, not adapted for wheat or early potatoes. It is, however, relieved with occasional patches of a kindlier nature, which give the farmer more advantage. The value of land in this parish varies from £1 to £3. Farms range in size from 60 to 150 acres, though one or two of them are much larger. They carry from 15 to 25 cows, and keep three or four horses going. The farmers are all hard-working men, and in field and dairy are usually well assisted by their families, though most of them keep a ploughman and dairymaid. The six-years' rotation is that nominally followed in the district, but a variety of circumstances have of late conduced to render that rotation unsuitable, and we believe the majority of farmers now follow whatever course suits them best. One farmer pursues an eight-years' rotation, manuring twice in the shift. Many others have adopted a system in which a succession of two or three hay crops plays a principal part; while a few have varied the process, by ploughing hay stubbles, and making an attempt at continuous cropping.

Potatoes.—The potatoes grown in this parish are chiefly of the later sorts. In the mossy lands to the east of the parish great quantities of seed potatoes are raised. On some farms "Regents" and "Red Bogs" are found, but the "Champion" is by far the most grown. The ground is prepared for the potatoes in the usual way, and manured to the amount of 24 tons long dung and 3 or 4 cwt. chemicals per acre, put in drills. Sometimes the manure for the potato crop is sown broadcast and ploughed in, and the crop started in the spring with an increased supply of chemicals. This is found to save time and labour. The average yield in a good season is from 8 to 10 tons per acre. A market for potatoes is found in Glasgow and neighbouring towns and villages. Potato culture, however, is not a very encouraging branch of farming here. The soil and climate are naturally somewhat unkindly; this circumstance made the potato disease so specially virulent in this district during the late bad seasons, that in eight years there has only been one really favourable potato crop. In consequence of this, a diminished breadth is now grown, and the planting of the earlier sorts has been all but abandoned.

Turnips.—The turnips raised are chiefly of the softer kinds, "swedes" being little in favour. The level lands along the Kelvin are very suitable for this crop ; a few, however, are grown on every farm, being so essential for feeding purposes in the dairy. They are manured to much the same amount as potatoes, and will yield about 15 tons per acre in an average season.

Wheat.—The quantity of wheat grown in the parish was never very large, but it has of late become less and less, on account of the bad seasons. In an average year, about 32 bushels per acre would be realised, weighing 60 lbs. per bushel, but in a bad year it might fall to 18 bushels.

Oats.—This grain is extensively grown, being well adapted to the soil and climate. The kinds chiefly sown are "Hamilton," "Sandy," and "Providence" oats. The average yield will be 36 bushels per acre, weighing 40 lbs. per bushel. Harvest begins in the east of the parish about the first week of September—in the west end a week earlier. Corn seed is in general changed every year, but there is one instance in which the farmer has sufficient variety of land to get all the benefit of a change without importing seed from the outside. The travelling thrashing mill visits the district, but gets hardly so much patronage as in other parts of Dumbartonshire. In general, little more meal is made than suffices for the farmer's household; the bulk of the corn goes to feed horses—either his own or his customers'—or is sent to the grain merchant in Glasgow.

Hay.—This is an important item of farming in this locality. Being a crop both easily raised and easily sold, and more adapted, in its growing state at least, to the wet seasons we have had of late, it has naturally come to be an important one to the farmer, in days when other crops are failing him. "Perennial ryegrass" and "Clover" seeds is the staple sowing, "Timothy" hay being little in favour as yet; and it is a common custom to take two crops in succession off the same sowing. The second crop is usually top-dressed with short dung or other manure. The average return of hay will be about 30 cwt. per acre. The tendency of the small clover seed to become nonproductive, through being too deeply buried, is obviated in one instance by the farmer rolling the ground well before sowing the seed, and after it is sown harrowing it over with a bush harrow. By this means the tiny seed is kept near enough the surface to have a chance of springing. Immense quantities of hay are in this district sold off the rick; contractors in Glasgow and elsewhere, coalmasters and cowfeeders, &c., are the merchants. In the latter end of August orders of 10 tons and upwards are being daily delivered ; and as no individual farmer has means within himself of conveying such a quantity within a reasonable time, it is the prevalent custom for each farmer to help his neighbour. A great many farmers sell the whole of their hay, and fodder their beasts with oat straw.

Manure.—Long and short dung is imported from Glasgow and elsewhere—farmers in the west using the canal as a means of transit, those in the east the railway. Gas lime is also a good deal in requisition, as it is found very beneficial for improving the pasture. Chemical manures are likewise used in due abundance, though of late with a good deal of grumbling at their non-efficiency.

Dairying.—Dairying is the chief system of farming in this parish. Proximity to such populous places as Kirkintilloch, Kilsyth, Glasgow, Coatbridge, and the numerous mining villages of the Monkland district, has made a market for all kinds of dairy produce ; consequently every farmer has become a dairyman, and finds his milk trade the most profitable part of his business. Dairy stocks range from 15 to 30 cows—all, of course, of the Ayrshire breed. About one-half of the farmers ply the sweet milk trade—the other half sell butter milk and butter. Glasgow is the chief destination of sweet milk, to which a few send it by rail, but the majority prefer to deliver it personally; in which case they are under a necessity of bestirring themselves very early in the morning—about 4 o'clock or thereby—and drive a milk cart daily to the city, some of them going a distance of 9 or 10 miles. Three kinds of milk are sent in, viz., sweet milk, skimmed milk, and cream. These are valued over head at one price per gallon, which price varies according to the season—in summer being about 5d. per gallon, in winter 9d. or 10d. The chief market for butter milk is found in Kirkintilloch, Kilsyth, Coatbridge, and the various villages of the Monkland district. Butter is churned three times a week in summer, twice in winter, and a like number of expeditions is made on the cart to the market, The milk is retailed on the street, and the butter is sold by the "print" or the lb. to private families, or in lots to shopkeepers. Sometimes butter is powdered, and sold by the keg. In midsummer the dairy cattle lie out all night, but about the beginning of September farmers begin to take them in, and by the end of the month they are all housed up for the winter. An element which in this district enters largely into the feeding of milk cows is cabbage. From a half to a whole acre of them is grown on a good many farms. In the interval between the end of the hay foggage and the uplifting of the turnips, they are found very suitable for feeding dairy stock, and have besides an improving effect on the milk. For winter feeding, besides turnips, draff, linseed meal, and cake are the stuffs employed. Of these latter the cattle get a little, even in summer. A considerable amount of rearing is carried on in the district, most of the calves calved between December and June being kept for the purpose. One or two farmers in the sweet milk trade do not rear any. The calves, after being kept for a short time, are sent to Glasgow, where there is a ready sale for veal. Stots in this district are sold when two years old to graziers. Queys are either sold when three years old in calf, or are taken into the dairy to fill up vacancies caused by the removal of older animals. The proceeds of the sale of dairy cattle form a considerable item in the income of the farmers in this quarter.

Horses.—Farm horses are in the main of the Clydesdale sort, and a good deal of attention is paid by some farmers to the breeding and rearing of them.

Other Industries.—Kirkintilloch is very agricultural, but not exclusively so. Various other industries are carried on within it. In particular, there has of late years been a great development of coal and ironstone mining—Messrs Baird & Co. and other proprietors having opened in the east of the parish over a dozen pits, chiefly for ironstone. In the town of Kirkintilloch, also, several industries have within ten or fifteen years sprung up, such as weaving, ironfounding, and chemical manufacturing. In consequence of this the town was kept busy, even through the recent dull times, and much increase in its size and population has resulted. The neighbouring village of Lenzie has also largely increased within the last dozen years, having come greatly into favour with the Glasgow folks as a country residence. The census returns give clear proof of the progress of the parish in industrial and other respects—a population that in 1871 was 8527, and in 1861, 8179, having in 1881 grown to 10,590.

Cumbernauld Parish.

Cumbernauld is the neighbouring parish to Kirkintilloch— both combined forming the detached portion of Dumbartonshire. In an agricultural respect, this parish possesses many features in common with Kirkintilloch, and therefore, though it be considerably the larger parish, we shall say the less upon it. The parish is of an irregular shape, 7 miles long, and 3½ miles broad. Its general description is that of an extensive tract of plain country, rising gradually higher toward the east, very flat and uncultivated in its eastern regions, but westward more green and undulating. In the eastern end there is an extensive tract of heath called Fannyside Moor ; patches of heather are here and there discernible among the farms ; a great part of the arable land tends to grow heather if let alone; and upon the whole it is evident that the face of the country here for miles around was once waste moorland.

Soil.—The predominating soils in Cumbernauld are moss and clay, both of them of a cold and damp nature, very unfavourable to good farming. Towards the north-western boundary, there is a tract of kindlier soil, but it is rather thin, and rests on a cold bottom. A sample of distinctly superior land is, however, found on the farm of Auchenkiln, near the centre of the parish —deep loamy soil, where almost the only wheat in the parish is grown, and which is capable of yielding about 10 tons per acre of potatoes. The eastern portion of the parish is, as a whole, much the poorer district. In the western part, the rotation of crop is chiefly the six-years' shift, but eastward tillage becomes less and less common, some of the land being so poor as to require 3 acres per head to graze a cow. Another disadvantage is the damp nature of the climate. The whole district stands at a high altitude (about 730 feet above sea-level), and is exposed to both east and west winds, on which account it gets a large share of cold and wet. Summer frosts are common; harvest is very late in the east end of the parish, not coming on till the third week of September; and in the springtime, we have been told that farmers here are sometimes curling while those in other places are busy ploughing. Altogether, it is evident that agriculture in Cumbernauld is carried on under rather disadvantageous circumstances, and a style of farming such as we find in other parts of the county is not to be looked for here. The best land in the parish is rented at 30s. per acre. Farms range in size from 100 to 250 acres, though in some cases reaching 400 acres. In the western parts, where the soil is more favourable, the six-years' rotation is, as we said, pursued more or less; but eastward, on the poorer portion, a rotation in which green crop plays a less important part is largely followed. A system of six or seven years' pasture, followed by two corn crops, and one or two hay crops, is in vogue. Gas lime is ploughed into the land for the first corn crop, and the hay crops are top-dressed with the same material, or with chemical manures.

Corn.—The varieties of oats chiefly sown in the parish are "Sandy" and "Tom Finlay." The average yield will be 30 bushels per imperial acre, and the weight about 40 lbs. per bushel. As in the neighbouring parish, much of the thrashing is done by the farmer's own mill, the travelling mill getting very little employment. Some tenants at their own expense have erected steam thrashing mills.

Hay.—Perennial ryegrass mixed with clover seeds is the common sowing, and the yield will average about 30 cwt. per acre with top-dressing, or without it 20 cwt. The same ready sale for hay, and the same bustle in delivering it, prevail in this parish, as we explained in Kirkintilloch.

Potatoes.—The "Champion" is by far the most popular potato, being found most effectual in resisting disease. About 4 acres of "Champions" to one of the earlier sorts is grown through the parish. From 15 to 20 tons dung and 3 to 4 cwt. chemicals per acre are applied to the potato crop, and the yield will reach 6 or 7 tons per acre in an ordinary season. This is, however, an average statement—on some farms the figures will be much higher, both as regards manure and yield. On the farm of Auchenkiln, for instance, so liberal is the application of manure, and so kindly the soil, that a yield of over 10 tons per acre of potatoes is sometimes realised. Potatoes are usually pitted, and sold off gradually through the winter.

Turnips.—About 8 acres or so of Aberdeen yellow or "Purple-top" turnips are grown on every farm—as many, and no more, than is necessary for winter feeding for the cattle. The ground in the parish is not very well adapted for turnips, the stiff land taking enormous labour to bring it into condition for them, and the mossy land being in a wet year so boggy as to give no green crop a chance.

Manure.—Since tolls were abolished, a greater quantity of manure has been brought into the parish, but previously the import of it was comparatively small, and consisted to a large extent of chemical stuffs. Now, however, long and short dung, and especially gas lime, are being imported more abundantly, though the amount is still somewhat inadequate. Liming is one of the principal needs of the soil here; lime abates its stiffness, and supplies an antidote to its coldness, but the price of lime (14s. per ton) has been too prohibitive these many years back to allow of its being freely used. Plenty of limestone exists, and forty years ago a limestone quarry was carried on in the parish, from which farmers were well supplied with lime at a cheap rate, but since this concern stopped little liming has been done.

Dairying.—Dairying is carried on to the same universal extent as in Kirkintilloch. On account of the remoteness of the parish from Glasgow and other populous places, the greater part of the farmers churn their milk, and sell butter and butter milk in Kilsyth, Coatbridge, and other mining villages. This class of dairy produce not being under a necessity of being delivered early in the morning, is more suitable for dairymen in remote districts. Despite the distance, however, some of the farmers send sweet milk to Glasgow, several of them driving 14 miles every morning for the purpose of delivering their milk.

Other Industries.—The only other industries of consequence carried on in the parish are whinstone quarrying and fireclay mining. Seven years ago, the latter industry was begun by the Glenboig Fireclay Co. opening a pit in the neighbourhood of the Caledonian Railway Station. Here they have also extensive works for grinding, burning, and manufacturing the clay. Whinstone suitable for making causeway blocks, kerbstones, &c, is found in great abundance in the parish, and an old, and of late years a growing business in the quarrying and dressing of causeway material has been carried on. Two hundred men find employment at present in the quarries at Condorrat, worked by Mr Faill. Two extensive industries which once prevailed in the parish, it may be mentioned, are now extinct, viz., handloom weaving and flax-growing. In 1841 it is calculated there were 600 looms going in the parish; but after that time this industry declined, and became all but extinct, owing to extensive machine-weaving works being started. About the date to which this report extends, flax-growing was a prominent feature of farming in the parish. About £18 per acre was realised off this crop, and on farms unsuitable for green crop flax was no bad substitute for potatoes as a part of a rotation. Foreign competition, however, reduced the price of flax below the possibility of profit, and the growing of it has now altogether ceased.

General Remarks, &c.

In this section we mean to make a series of remarks on the various crops, &c, with a view to bring out the difference between the present and the past. A perusal of the foregoing-accounts of the several parishes shows a considerable uniformity among those of them that are arable. In each of them there is a diversity of soils, a gradation in the size of farms, and a vigorous prosecution of dairying. In each of them the potato is the principal green crop, and the oat the principal white crop. The dearest land in the county is probably that found on some of the Clydeside farms of West Kilpatrick, where £3, 7s. 6d. is paid for an acre. The earliest green crop land is no doubt that of Cardross shore-fields, where the potatoes are dug about the middle of July; for white crop the earliest ground is found in West Kilpatrick, on some farms of which haymaking is commenced by the first week of the same month. The area available for tillage is now much less than it was in 1857. In that year there were in Dunbartonshire 40,277 acres under a rotation of crops ; in 1883 the breadth under rotation was only 28,510 acres—i.e., a third less. The increase of towns, mansions, and public works since the former year accounts for this great decrease of the arable land. In 1861 there were 6321 dwelling-houses in the county; in 1883 these had increased to 15,567; and when public works, churches, railways, &c, are further taken into account, this great diminution in the arable land is quite explicable.

Oats.—The "Hamilton" oat is that which prevails most extensively in Dumbartonshire. It is moderately early, and grows good long straw. The greater part of the oats grown in the county is, we believe, consumed by horses. Farmers everywhere have a good market for horse corn, consequent upon the growth of industrial towns and coast villages, with their posting establishments, gentlemen's carriages, and contractors' carts. But while this department of business has grown large and important on the farmer's hand, another branch has decreased, and become insignificant, viz., the sale of meal. Farmers generally report that this has fallen off to a trifle. A change has passed upon the diet and domestic management of the people. The universal adoption of baker's bread has rendered oat cakes obsolete; the growing popularity of tea as an evening meal has banished the "halesome parritch " even from the farmer's table, and though porridge and milk are still prominent on the breakfast table of the working and middle classes, yet the meal is no longer purchased from the farmer. Instead of buying in from him at the time of new meal a substantial quantity, as was the thrifty custom of former days, consumers now supply themselves with stones or half stones of it at the grocer's, and the grocer in turn is supplied by some merchant in Glasgow. A few figures from the books of the Roseneath parish miller will illustrate the shrunken condition of the Dumbartonshire farmer's meal market. In the season 1848-49, the miller passed through his hands 1217 or thereby bolls of meal at 140 lbs. per boll. In the season 1854-55 his turnover was 733 bolls or thereby, while for the last twelve years the amount has never much exceeded 360 bolls. In 1852, the tenant of South Ailey farm sent to the mill grain equal to 55 bolls of meal; in 1870 the portion reserved for the mill produced 25 bolls meal; while in 1883 no more grain than sufficed for 11 bolls of meal, was sent to the mill. In 1857 the tenant of Little Aiden farm brought home from the mill 110 bolls of meal in 1871 his supply of meal was 74 bolls, while in 1883 it had fallen to 17 bolls. These figures show the very limited nature of the farmer's meal transactions under the altered condition of the times. That in circumstances of an increased population, the farmers sale of meal should have become so insignificant, betokens a great alteration both in regard to the quantity of the article that people use and in their way of procuring it.

Wheat.—The chief wheat-growing parishes are Cardross and West Kilpatrick, but more or less of it is grown in every arable parish, except in Kilmaronock or Kirkintilloch and Row. Wheat in this county is never raised off summer fallow land—green crop always precedes it. The shire, however, does not approach the front rank in growing this crop. In weight and colour of grain it falls behind the eastern counties. In a year when Mid-Lothian yields 44 bushels per acre, Dumbarton only produces 32 bushels. There were last year 1124 acres under this crop, as contrasted with 2141 acres in 1857.

Barley and Bere.—There were in the last-mentioned year 1077 acres under barley in the county; in 1883 the breadth under this crop only amounted to 224 acres. This great falling off in the raising of barley is to be accounted for, no doubt, by the three following circumstances, viz., the limited area of land now available for cropping in general, the indifferent profits arising from this kind of produce, and the fact of the inferiority of its straw. As illustrative of the prices of grain, &c, we here subjoin figures, showing the average fiars' prices for two periods of five years.

For the two five-year periods, ending respectively 1862-1883—

Potatoes.—In 1857 the breadth in the county under potatoes amounted to 2500 acres; in 1881 there were no less than 3304 acres under this crop. It thus appears that, while by reason of the more limited area available for cultivation, every other crop has suffered curtailment, potatoes have not only held their own, but increased by 800 acres. This betokens a great development of potato culture. In fact, the raising of this crop might almost be called the keynote of Dumbartonshire arable farming during the past quarter of a century. Other crops, such as grass and turnips, have been curtailed to give it scope ; and it is with a view to raise good potatoes, and plenty of them, that such innovations as the green-cropping of lea and hay-stubble land have been brought into practice. It is the requirements of the potato crop, also, that have given the chemical manure merchants such a run of custom. The good market made available, by the growth of the populations of the shire and the surrounding district, has been the chief cause for this extensive potato culture. In some years very good prices were obtained. For a special crop, a farmer twenty-five years ago received £60 per acre, and £38 per acre has been quoted as a sum received about ten or twelve years ago. Of late, however, this crop has received a check. There were last year only 2425 acres of potatoes in the county, i.e., 900 acres less than in 1880. The prevalence of disease, especially among the earlier sorts, and the low figure to which this kind of produce has fallen, on account of the greater quantity now flowing into the market from remote districts, have mainly contributed to thus diminish the crop. Dumbartonshire as a whole is not an early growing county. In Cardross earlies are, of course, plentifully grown, and on several areas of choice land throughout the rest of the county they are also statedly raised; but the "Regent" and other of the later sorts have been found most suitable for the majority of farms. Within the last two or three years the ravages of disease, have frightened farmers into a general adoption of the "Champion," which is now the most popular potato in the county. "Magnum Bonums" and "Reading Heroes" are also well represented.

Turnips.—There were last year 1470 acres of turnips in the county; twenty-seven years ago the turnip crop covered 2622 acres. Were it not the feeding necessities of dairy stock, we believe the acreage of turnips would be much less, as Dumbartonshire farmers have to a great extent ceased to raise them for purposes of sale. The chief use for turnips throughout the county is to feed milk cows; very few sheep or bullocks are turnip-fed in this county.

Beans.—This crop has also assumed much smaller dimensions. There were last year 391 acres under it, compared with 632 acres in 1857. It is with beans, probably as it is with turnips —they have ceased to be an article of sale, and are grown chiefly for home consumption.

Hay, &c.—There were last year 14,484 acres under rotation of grasses in the county; twenty-eight years ago the breadth under these was 20,691 acres. This diminution is, no doubt, owing mainly to the decrease in the area of the arable land ; but it is also to some extent referable to the more continuous cropping now practised—a great part of the land formerly worked on the six-years' rotation being now wrought on a five or even a four-years' shift. The area under rotation grasses last year was 1200 acres greater than that in 1881. We find that this increase has been mainly obtained by restricting the potato crop. Last year, when the rotation grass area was 1200 acres greater than in 1881, the breadth under potatoes was less by 880 acres. The extent under permanent pasture was also nearly 400 acres greater than in the former year ; thus showing that a movement in the direction of more grass and hay crop had set in.

Permanent Pasture.—Of permanent pasture there were last year 18,407 acres in the county. This is a pretty steady quantity in the agricultural returns. During the last seven years the lowest amount returned was that in 1882, viz., 17,673 acres; the highest is that of last year, viz., 18,407 acres. The greater part of this amount is made up of those fields and areas of land which on every farm are allowed to lie out in pasture for the benefit of the dairy stock. In some parishes more of such pasture lands are found than in others. East Kilpatrick and Cumbernauld probably show the greatest proportion of such grass lands. There is a very fine tract of permanent pasture to be seen on Roseneath home farm—an area of land, 16 acres in extent, called Kilcreggan Green. This Green was once diligently farmed, but since Waterloo, at any rate, it has not seen the plough, and it has for long been one of the finest specimens of grass to be found anywhere. Many a pic-nic and excursion party has dined and danced on its pleasant sward. Meadows of bog hay, such as we find in Luss, Glenfruin, and Kilmaronock, are also included in this return of permanent pasture.

Reclamation, &c.—There were last year 46,917 acres under crops, bare fallow, and grass. This represents the total area within the county devoted to arable farming. This acreage would have been much less were it not for the reclaimed land, which from year to year has been added. To our knowledge, there have been some 500 acres of reclamation done within the last thirty years. The most of this work is in the Row and Roseneath district. The land reclaimed has been mainly mossy upland. Twenty-five years ago, 50 acres of such land were taken in hand on the farm of Torr, Row. The landlord (Sir James Colquhoun) opened the drains, the tenant (Mr Duncan M'Farlane) supplied tiles and filled in the drains. The ground was partly moss and partly loam. Mr M'Farlane applied to it 40 barrels of lime per acre—lime being 1s. 4d. per barrel. When first turning it over, he had two men going behind the plough trimming the furrow and removing stones. The land was put through a course of cropping, growing specially good turnips; and, upon the whole, neither landlord nor tenant have had reason to regret the trouble or expense connected with the undertaking. Another good sample of reclamation is to be found in the improvements effected on the farm of Mamore, Roseneath, by which about 100 acres have been added to the arable land. The proprietor (the Duke of Argyll) executed fencing and drainage, the tenant (Mr James Clement) doing cartages, and agreeing to pay 5 per cent. on the landlord's outlay. Drains were made 2 feet 6 inches deep and 15 feet apart, and laid with tiles 3 inches in the bore. Mains were dug 3 feet 6 inches deep, and laid with tiles 4 to 6 inches in the bore. Mr Clement ploughed up the land, and applied to it between 40 and 50 barrels of lime per acre—lime being £1 per ton without cartage. About £20 per acre was expended to bring the ground into condition. After a course of crops, the land was laid out in pasture, and Mr Clement has the satisfaction of knowing that, whereas the farm when he came to it, ten years ago, could hardly carry a dozen cattle, it is now able to graze 80 head. Mr Matthew Howie, Clachan farm, Roseneath, has also brought into arable condition a rough tract of land called Campsail Hill. This tract, extending to upwards of 50 acres, was subjected to preliminary blasting and draining in his predecessor's days, but considering how it was infested with whins and stones when Mr Howie took it in hand fourteen years ago, his work has all the merit of a reclamation. In West Kilpatrick, about 30 acres of marsh lands have been reclaimed through the operations of the Clyde Trustees.

Manures.—The past twenty-five years have witnessed a great change and advance in respect to manures. More manure, and of better quality, is now being made in the farm-yards, the higher style of feeding adopted for milk cows resulting in an improvement in this respect. More long and short dung is also being imported by farmers. Formerly importation was done after a somewhat cautious fashion, and in some districts consisted mainly of city dung. Now great quantities of the better manure are being imported, some farmers using no other. But the greatest difference between the past and the present is observable in the universal use now made of chemical manures. Thirty years ago, small quantities of guano were being imported by farmers, but their mainstay as an extra fertiliser was lime. Now lime is in almost entire abeyance, and chemicals are in varied and abundant use by nearly all farmers, crops sometimes being raised with nothing else. In districts where tolls or freights have made the importation of good old-fashioned dung rare, the portable artificial stuffs have been made to do duty instead, which must be accounted an evil. The over-cropping which has sometimes been practised has also made the use of chemicals necessary as a stimulant to nature; and lastly, the prevalence of ungenial weather has induced farmers to resort to them, by way of encouraging crops under adverse conditions. The discovery and application of chemical manures is no doubt one of the beneficent improvements of modern times; nevertheless the limit of moderation and usefulness has in recent years been sometimes overpassed. Many farmers are now expressing a less favourable opinion of these manures, and resolving upon a more temperate use of them in the future.

Leases, Rotation, &c.—Nineteen years' leases are the rule throughout the county. The new tenant gets possession of houses and pasture at Whitsunday, the outgoing tenant being bound to sow down the land with grass seeds for his benefit. Rents are paid at Whitsunday and Martinmas. The regulations of some newer leases are not nearly so stringent as in old ones. Tenants on some estates have perfect freedom as to rotation of crops, and on others the exigencies of the times have more or less tended to make rotation rules a dead letter; so that tenants in general have now more liberty. The six-years' rotation was formerly that prevalent in the county, and it still holds good to a great extent, but five and four years' courses of cropping are now pursued on a large proportion of the land, and the uniformity in farm management which once obtained is much broken.

Steadings and Roads.—On some estates succession arrangements have prevented additions and improvements being done, but in general steadings are good and of modern construction. On the Luss and Kilmahew estates (the first owned by Sir James Colquhoun, the second by John W. Burns, Esq.) the farm buildings are exceptionally good. Steadings on the former underwent a thorough renovation twenty-five years ago. Of late years much work has also been done by the proprietors in Roseneath parish in the way of building and improving farm steadings. In particular, a first-rate new steading has been erected on Clachan Farm, provided with a hay-shed, covered court, and steam thrashing mill. The interior of the byre is done with cement—floor, grupes, and stall divisions being all of that material. The milk-house shelves, &c, are also of cement—thus insuring coolness. On the Gartshore estate, Kirkintilloch—the property of the late Mr Whitelaw's trustees—great improvements in the way of fencing, draining, building, and planting have within the last six years been executed, chiefly under the management of Mr Park, factor. Throughout the county not a few of these useful adjuncts to a farm, viz., hay-sheds, have been erected, the prevalence of wet summer weather having rendered them necessary. The shire is in general well supplied with farm and county roads. The Roads and Bridges Bill has proved a boon to some farmers, and a grievance to others. Those who formerly had no toll to pass with produce, now find the road tax a heavy burden.

Servants.—There were at last census 2055 persons, other than farmers themselves, connected with agriculture in the county—of these 207 were farmers' sons. There were in all 410 farmers, whereby it appears that nearly every second farmer had a son to assist him in the work. Agricultural labourers numbered 1015, and female servants 745. Twenty-five years ago, it is computed there were in the county 1988 men servants employed in farms. This proves, we think, that holdings are now not only fewer, but that they are managed with fewer hands. Wages have greatly risen during the period of our report. The most notable rise is in the price of female labour. Dairymaids have doubled their hire, £20 to £24 per annum being now the fee of a good one; whereas formerly, £10 to £12 would suffice. From 20s. to 22s. is now a married ploughman's weekly wage ; twenty-five years ago from 14s. to 16s. would be deemed sufficient, with a free house. An unmarried ploughman, boarded in the house, is now paid at the rate of £16 or £17 per half year; formerly he was thought well paid with £10. Out-door workers, such as hoers and weeders, now get from 1s. 8d. to 2s. per day, as compared with 1s. or 1s. 3d. in previous times. Harvestmen now receive from 4s. to 5s. per day. Though servants have thus had their wages so much raised, we are bound to report that, as a whole, they have not been equally careful to improve the quality of their work. We have heard frequent complaints of the faithlessness and useless-ness of servants. It is alleged that, as a class, they have degenerated. We are informed of several cases in which masters have engaged three or four servants in succession, not one of whom appeared. When they do begin work, it is not long till many of them manifest traits of character which render them an affliction. There is a case in which a farmer had to relinquish a lucrative milk trade, simply because he could not get servants combining competency and honesty. Of course, there are good and bad in every rank and profession ; but it would appear from the testimony of well-informed persons, that among farm-servants the bad is beginning to preponderate to a greater extent than formerly. In the management of their business there is now a general tendency among farmers to shorten operations and minimise labour. Connected with this subject, may be mentioned the general adoption of labour-saving machines, which has taken place throughout the county during the last twenty-five years. The most notable of these is perhaps the reaping-machine. Employed at first by only one or two of the larger farmers, it has gradually gained popularity, till now there is hardly a farmer in the county without it. It has alike rendered obsolete the reaping hook of the Irish gangsman and the more modern scythe. Another very useful labour-saving apparatus is the raking-machine. This, though a comparatively simple contrivance, is a very serviceable one. The steam travelling thrashing mill is also a notable farm machine. The bulk of the thrashing in the county is now done by it. It began to go its rounds twenty-five years ago, and since then it has gradually gained favour. At first it was a cumbrous affair drawn by horses, but latterly steam has been applied to its locomotion. The wearing done of so many tenant's thrashing mills, and the greater speed of the traveller's work, are probably the main reasons for such an adoption of it. A day's service of it will result in the thrashing of from 40 to 60 quarters, and will cost the farmer in all about £5,—£2 or thereby being for the use of the machine, and the balance for the necessary staff of workers. Sometimes corn is passed into it off the stook.

Farmers.—By the census returns of 1881, it appears that there are in all 383 occupants of holdings in the county; in 1857 the number was 593. In thus appears that agriculturists as a body have decreased to less than two-thirds of their former number. The explanation of this circumstance is no doubt found in the diminution of the arable land—so many farms being blotted out by the increase of populous places ; and in the greater size of holdings—a general movement in that direction having been made by landlords some years ago. In every parish farms have been doubled or tripled in extent, by the annexation of adjoining ones; and in many cases one tenant now holds as much land as formerly sufficed for three or four. Another notable fact in this connection is the change which has passed upon the personel of the tenantry during the past twenty-five or thirty years. In every part of the county, farms, formerly held by one family from generation to generation, have passed into the hands of strangers. In Roseneath and Kirkintilloch parishes, for example, hardly a remnant remains of the old tenantry. This has come about partly by natural causes, and partly by the more commercial spirit in which proprietors now manage their land.

Dairying.—There were in 1883, 7072 milk cows and heifers in Dumbartonshire; in the year 1857 these only numbered 5159. Milk cows have thus during twenty-five years increased by nearly 2000. The reason for this is found in the great development of dairy farming which that period has witnessed. The number of cows kept has changed from 5159 to 7072, and the method of managing them has also greatly altered. Formerly very few farmers in the county lived by the sale of sweet milk. Dairy produce was disposed off in the form of butter and cheese; much milk was also devoted to the rearing of young cattle. The population of the shire was comparatively small, and many of the non-agricultural portion kept cows, whereby they were independent of the farmer. Glasgow also, being a much more circumscribed place, could get a sufficient supply of milk without going beyond her own district. But now, since such a number of populous places have sprung up in the county, since Glasgow has locally extended herself several miles nearer to some portions of Dumbartonshire, and since the railway has brought other parts within an easy distance of the city, a great sweet milk and fresh butter industry has arisen and developed year by year. The making of cheese has, in consequence, been wholly dropped, and the portion of milk devoted to calf-rearing has been reduced to a minimum. The sweet milk trade has been mostly taken up by farmers in the near neighbourhood of towns and villages; those in remoter parts have become purveyors of butter and butter-milk. The dairying industry, thus arising by the increase of population, has become one main source of income to the farmer. The flow of ready money secured by it is one reason why so many have adopted it. Realising its profitableness, the landlord has raised the rent; and the "good market for dairy produce" has become a usual feature in the advertisement of a Dumbartonshire farm. Neverthless, there are not wanting signs that this branch of farm industry has now reached an acme. The supply all over the county is about equal to the demand, and the cost price and selling price of produce have now approached pretty closely together. As an article of commerce, dairy produce has been remarkably steady in price. For the last twenty-five years it has never fluctuated, but risen gradually, till now its value is 30 per cent. enhanced. Twenty-five years ago, milk was retailed at something like 1s. per gallon, now the price of a gallon is 1s. 4d. Fresh butter formerly was 1s. per lb., now its price per lb. is 1s. 6d., rising to 1s. 10d. or 2s. in the winter months. A noticeable result of this development of dairying is the higher style of feeding now adopted for cows. Bean meal, draff, and oilcake are now used to an extent not dreamed of at the beginning of the period on which we are reporting. Indeed, an opinion is expressed that proper bounds have been exceeded in this respect, and that cattle would be healthier and longer lived if a more natural style of feeding were resorted to. The scarcity of grass is, on many farms, the reason for such an artificial style of feeding cattle. Desirous of cropping as well as dairying, farmers cannot afford as much pasture land as the stock would require, and so are forced to supplement with draff, bean meal, &c. Side by side with a vigorous prosecution of dairying, an extensive rearing of young cattle goes on throughout the county. There were last year within it 3991 cattle under two years of age. This would perhaps mean about 2000 calves, which represents one-third or thereby of the whole produce. Under present auspices, calf-rearing is less happily carried on than of yore. Large milk-selling and generous treatment of the calves cannot well go together. Both the calf and the customer want the warm milk, and of course as the former can produce the ready money he gets the article. In West Kilpatrick, where, as we have described, dairying is carried to a height, calves are found so much in the way that they are not reared at all.

Exhibitions of live stock are held annually at Dumbarton, Helensburgh, and Kirkintilloch; the first open to the county, the second to the western district only, and the third divided into two sections, the one confined to the parish, and the other open to all comers. Concerning the general quality of the Ayrshire stock exhibited at these shows, there is some difference of opinion. As might naturally be expected, in a county so devoted to dairy-farming, it is not so much the rearing of fancy animals as the attainment of a heavy supply of milk that is aimed at; hence very frequently at the shows the best animals are not those reared in the county, but those purchased at Ayr and other shows famed for this class of stock. A herd, however, which has always come well to the front in local and Highland and Agricultural Society Shows, is that of Mr John Martin of Auchendennan, in Bonhill. This herd, the dispersion sale of which was such an event in the agricultural world, was founded fifteen years ago by Mr Martin. Ambitious to have as fine a selection of Ayrshires as Scotland could produce, he spared neither labour nor expense in the undertaking. He collected his stock from all the best breeders, looking to style and substance. Convinced, in course of time, that cattle after the fashionable show pattern were not fitted to serve useful purposes in the dairy, Mr Martin remodelled his stock, so as to produce animals of a better and more profitable type. Most of the calves were reared. Bulls were sold yearlings by auction, bringing from £8 to £18 each, and in some cases more. The heifers were brought to calf, calving at 2½ or 3 years old. Old cows were also sold, bringing good prices. The fame of Mr Martin's herd brought buyers from all quarters to these sales ; and many of the yearlings were bought by farmers in the county; others had the services now and then of " Old Burn-house" or other of his famous bulls. At the dispersion sale, on the 15th April 1884, the herd was scattered all over the country, many of them going to England. Some extraordinary prices were obtained, of which the following are samples:—29 cows gave an average of £19, 8s. 8d. each; 19 three-year olds gave £20, 12s. each on an average—the highest individual price being 40 guineas for "Betty II." of Orchardton; 14 two-year olds gave an average of £14, 18s. each; and 15 quey stirks made the good average of £12, 4s. each. Amongst the bulls equally high prices were realised. The three-year old "Quicklime" made 60 guineas, and the two-year old "Midian" 20 guineas; 16 bull stirks gave the very substantial average of £16, 7s. 7d. each— the highest individual price being 26 guineas; while 20 calves made an average of £3, 6s. 2d. each—individual animals amongst them going as high as £7 or £8 each. Other Dumbartonshire herds, which have made their mark at shows, are those of Portnellan (referred to in the Kilmaronock section of the paper), Tillichewan, and Aitkenbar farms, in the Vale of Leven district, and that of Milliken in East Kilpatrick, and a number of dairy herds in the same locality, all of a very high standard of excellence.

Horses.—There were last year in the county 1785 horses connected with agriculture; 545 of these were kept solely for breeding purposes. In 1857 there were in all 1826 horses connected with agriculture. The decrease thus indicated in the number of agricultural horses is a parallel fact to the decrease of farms, which is also known to have taken place in the county. An element in the horse class which has very much increased since twenty-five years ago, is milk cart ponies. The increase of them is, of course, owing to the great development of dairy farming. The "Clydesdale" is the chief farm horse in Dumbartonshire. As his history and doings are a subject of considerable importance, we here subjoin a separate account of it.

Clydesdale Breeding in Dumbartonshire.

For more than a quarter of a century Dumbartonshire has occupied a prominent place as a horse-breeding district. Important and largely attended horse fairs are held annually at the Moss of Balloch, and Carman Hill, near the town of Dumbarton ; and although the latter has somewhat fallen into disfavour during recent years, the former, held in September, still continues to be largely patronised. Horses are also a prominent feature of the exhibitions of live stock held at Dumbarton, Helensburgh, and Kirkintilloch. These shows have contributed not a little to the advancement of agricultural enterprise in breeding ; and the district selection of a well-bred stallion since 1875 has also greatly furthered this important, and now fairly profitable department of the farming interest. The whole eastern district of the county is noted for horse breeding; and the portions of the western sections remarkable in this respect are the parishes of Cardross, Luss, Dumbarton, and the Kilpat-ricks. About forty years ago horse-breeding was vigorously carried on in the parish of Roseneath. Mainly through the efforts of the late Mr Lome Campbell, good horses were made use of. The Messrs Orr, of Meikle Aiden Farm, had a fine breed of grey mares, which frequently were successful competitors at local shows; and from these mares a rather noted race of superior horses, bred by Mr Duncan M'Farlane, Torr, Helensburgh, had their origin. The first great impetus the breeding of heavier Clydesdale animals in the western district received was about the year 1855, when Mr John Glen, Lettrualt, Helensburgh, introduced "Clydesdale Tam" (175), a Lanarkshire horse descended from two famous prize-takers. " Clydesdale Tam" was patronised by Mr Lorne Campbell, Mr Duncan M'Farlane, and others. The produce of this horse were generally animals of quick, fiery disposition, but distinguished by the superior excellence of their feet and legs. The writer has distinct recollection of a remarkably smart mare named "Nancy," owned by the Messrs Campbell, Little Aiden, Kilcreggan, the daughter of this horse; and a description of her may give an idea of the class of Clydesdales reared in the county about thirty years ago. She was a good brown, with a slight "ratch" on face, and dark coloured legs : her limbs were well formed and beautifully planted, while the feet were very good and sound. The great difference between her and the fashionable style of Clydesdales now was the absence of a great quantity of hair about the legs, a feature which is a doubtful advantage to the draught horse. So active was she that she was occasionally run in hackney carriages, and this activity was inherited by all the progeny of "Clydesdale Tam" (175). Mr Lorne Campbell also

bred a mare after the same sire, which was sold at Mr Marjoribanks' displenishing sale in 1875, a remarkably fresh old mare. The greatest of all the descendants of the horse in question, however, was "Garibaldi" (312), bred by Mr Lorne Campbell, and sold when three years old to the late Mr John Barr, Bar-rangray, Erskine. This horse was the progeny of a Kintyre mare, and gained first prize when three years old at the Highland and Agricultural Society Show at Perth in 1861, but unfortunately died shortly afterwards. His best known descendants were the noted mare "Rosie," owned by the Duke of Hamilton, and winner of first prize at the Highland and Agricultural Society and other Shows, and "Young Garibaldi" (972), popularly known as "Brewster's ring-eyed horse." Off "Clydesdale Tam" (175), the energetic tenant of Torr had two mares, named respectively "Jess" and "Mall." The first of these was dam of two horses which became first prize winners at the Highland and Agricultural Society Shows, viz., "Lord Clyde" (478) and "Prince of Wales" (670). The last-named horse gained the Renfrew district premium in 1866, and was exported to Australia. "Clansman" (150) and "Glenlee" (363) were amongst his sons; and when we point out that the former was sire of "Pride of Scotland" (602), and the latter of "Belted Knight" (1395), we have established such a connection between the best of the past and the best of the present as will make valid the claim of Dumbarton to be a select breeding district. "Lord Clyde" (478), it may be further pointed out, was the great-grandsire of the mare "Moss Rose," the centenary champion of 1884. "Mall," the second mare at "Torr" referred to, was dam of "Sir James" (782), a horse of good reputation, which also found his way into Highland and Agricultural Society premium lists. Shortly before the beginning of the period reported on, Mr D. Riddell became tenant of Kilbowie, Duntocher, and for many years this was the headquarters of one of the largest stallion-owning establishments in Scotland. Mr Morton, who was tenant of Dalmuir Farm, was also a famed breeder about twenty-five years ago. It was at his farm that "General" (322), the sire of the famous horse "Prince of Wales" (673), sold when eighteen years of age by public auction for £945, was foaled; and on the same farm, about fifteen years later, the showyard favourite "Bessie Bell" first saw the light. Mr William Park, Balquhanran, Dalmuir, was also a famous breeder a quarter of a century ago. His name frequently appears in prize records, and as breeder of "London Maggie" (84), the famous prize-taker; he enjoyed a world-wide reputation. In the earlier years, the leading horse breeders in the eastern district of the county were the Messrs Moffat, Shirva, Kirkintilloch, and Anderson, Smithston, Cumbernauld. These gentlemen were breeders and owners of high class animals, which found their way into the records of the largest exhibitions, and the descendants of which are amongst the most noted of present day sires; for example, "Darnley" (222), a son of one of the Shirva horses. During the whole of the preceding quarter of a century, the name of Garscadden Mains has been familiar to all fanciers of the Clydesdale breed. Here Mr Alexander Buchanan and his son David have owned and reared many prize winners at Dumbarton, Glasgow, and the Highland Society's Shows. Perhaps the most famous animals which have hailed from this farm were the mare "Garscadden Maggie" (41), winner of first prize at the Highland and Agricultural Society's Show at Aberdeen in 1876, and third at Edinburgh in 1877; and the Stallion "Druid" (1120), winner of first prize at Highland and Agricultural Society's Shows at Dumfries in 1878, and. at Kelso in 1880, and first and champion cup at the Royal International Show at Kilburn in 1879.

The second great impetus the general breeding of Clydesdales received was about 1866, when the well-known sire " Samson " (741), (locally known as " Logan's " twin), was for two seasons located in the county, previous to his going to be "Keir" stud horse. Many fine mares were left by this horse, and three entire horses, all named " Young Samson," and numbered respectively 1373, 1374, and 1375 in the Clydesdale Stud-Book. The two latter were bred by Mr M'Farlane off the mares formerly referred to, and both went to the island of Bute ; the former was bred by Mr Glen, Lettrualt, Helensburgh, and was exported when rising three years old. He, however, left his mark on the mares in the county by proving the sire of "Roseneath Rosie" (422), bred by Mr John Marjoribanks, Roseneath Farm, and sold at his displenishing sale in 1875 to Mr Thorn of Barremman, and while in his possession, the dam of the well-known mare "Mary Gray," which became the property of Mr Lawrence Drew, Merryton, and in his hands gained numerous premiums both in England and Scotland. She was sold at the Merryton sale, in April 1879, to Provost Waddell, Bathgate, and with him also secured many prizes until she died 1882. In 1871 the Auchendennan Clydesdale stud was founded, and it soon became apparent that the banks of Loch Lomond were to be the seat of a first-class breeding stud of Clydesdale mares. In 1874 the first grand success was achieved in the birth of "Prince George Frederick" (644), which gained numerous showyard premiums, including two first prizes in his native country, and the sweepstakes at Chicago, Illinois, in 1882. The crowning success of the stud was achieved in 1879, when its representatives gained first premiums in three out of five female classes at the Highland and Agricultural Society's Show at Perth as well as fourth in the only other class in which they were exhibited. In the autumn of that year, a draft sale was held and amongst noteworthy prices realised were the following: "Damsel," foaled on the farm 1875; sire Crown Prince (207), dam Darling (241), £525. "Effie Deans," bred in Galloway, three years old, £210. "Annot Lyle," bred in Ayrshire, yearling, £231. The first of these mares was exhibited eleven times at all sorts of shows, and was ten times first and once second, viz., when a yearling at Glasgow in 1876. "Effie Deans " was exhibited seven times, and was six times first at different national shows. "Annot Lyle" was the champion yearling filly of 1879. In 1883 the stud was again strongly represented in the showyards. "Alice Lee" and "Diana Vernon," the latter own sister to Damsel, being first and third at the Royal Show at York, and second and third at Glasgow in May. Both were sold at very high prices, for exportation to Adelaide, South Australia, before the Highland Society's Show came round in July, and with two high class stable companions, went to form an addition to the stud owned by Hart Brothers, Beefacres Farm, Paradise. "Damsel" was also, in 1879, purchased by a New Zealand fancier, and landed there in safety.

In April 1884 this fine stud was brought to the hammer, and sold without reserve. The attendance of the public was very large, and the following sale list records the prices realised:— "Knockdon" (242), 14 years old, and in foal, £52, 10s.; "Ranee" (244), 12 years old, yeld, £105; "Lady Peveril," 4 years old, yeld, £283, 10s.; "Bride of Lammermoor" (2506), in foal, £320, 5s.; "Swertha" (2505), in foal, £299, 5s.; "Barbara," in foal, £168; "Jeanie Deans" (246), 9 years old, and in foal, £139; "Lady of Avenel," 3 years old, with foal at foot, £73, 10s.; "Darling"(241), 16 years old, and yeld, £78, 15s.; "EffieDeans," £52, 10s. "Edith Plantagenet," yearling filly, never exhibited, £315; "Lord Fitzlyon" (1747), £100, 16s.; "Sir Hildebrand," yearling colt, never exhibited, £204, 15s.; "Magnus Troil," yearling colt, never exhibited, £44, 2s.

The following list of horses which have been engaged to travel the county under arrangement with a local committee, and on very favourable terms, will show that some of the best animals of their class have left their progeny in the county. The district society was formed in 1875, and in that year "Topsman" (886) was secured. In 1876, "Disraeli" (234), the first prize three-year old of his year, was engaged, but the results of his breeding were not equal to the expectations entertained of him. In 1877 and 1878 his sire "Farmer" (286) was the chosen of the committee, and, true to his reputation, the county now reaps the benefit of this selection. "Ivanhoe" (396), which in the two preceding years was the Glasgow premium horse, was in 1879 the Dumbarton Society horse, and then the enthusiasm of the breeders flickered for two years, and no Society horse was engaged. In 1882 the brisk American demand for Clydesdales caused a revival of the enthusiasm, and the happiest choice of all, made by the Dumbarton Committee, was brought into the county, viz., "Belted Knight" (1395), the sire of the highest priced yearling ever sold. The yearling referred to was "Edith Plantagenet," bred by Mr Houston, Whiteleys, Dumbarton. In 1883 the Keir bred horse "Newman" (2305) was chosen, and this year "Belted Knight" (1395) has again been engaged on very high terms, viz., £120 premium—80 mares guaranteed at £2 each at service, and £3 additional for every mare left in foal.

In conclusion, it may be stated that no county of the same dimensions sends out more gentlemen, who are entrusted by their brother breeders with the onerous duty of judging at shows. The names of Messrs Martin, Auchendennan; M'Farlane, Torr; Calder, Colgrain; Fleming, Tillichewan; Reid, Port-nellan; Simpson, Drumfork; Renwick, Dalmuir ; Brock, Barns of Clyde; Buchanan, Garscadden Mains; Wilson, Langfaulds; M'Nair, Westerton; Coubrough, Craigton; Houston, Whiteleys; M'Kinlay, Ardoch; and others, will at once occur to those interested in Clydesdale breeding.

Summary of Changes, Improvements, &c.

The past five-and-twenty years has been a period of innovation and unrest all the world over. A spirit of revolution has been at work, altering and re-altering the face of things, and in the Dumbartonshire agricultural world this spirit has had full sway. Great alterations and developments have taken place, which it would astonish a farmer of former times to look upon. We have noted these to some extent in a previous part of the report, and we shall here merely summarise and bring them into one view. The main cause of these changes has been the great increase of population in and around the county, consequent upon industrial progress. Between 1851 and 1881 the population of the whole county increased from 46,995 to 75,333; old towns and villages extended themselves greatly, and new ones sprang up. The contiguous towns of Glasgow and Greenock have also grown immensely; and teeming populations have arisen in Coatbridge and the Monk-land district, adjoining the eastern section of the county. By this means, new and convenient markets for produce have been opened up, quickening the pulse of agriculture. Bents have risen, and farming altogether has become a faster and more competitive business. Some departments of it have increased to great proportions, others have dwindled and become extinct. A large return and a quick one has more and more become the farmer's aim, leading to the adoption of many new methods and machines.

The following, we think, are the chief changes, developments, and improvements which have taken place. There has, firstly, been a change in rents and prices. Rents in general have risen 25 per cent. in as many years. Eight or ten years ago they went by the run, a rash and venturous spirit having seized competitors for farms. In not a few cases, landlords who had thus let farms at a fancy figure, had shortly to take them off the tenant's hands, or else to substantially reduce the rent. Wages, as we before related, have gone up to a marked degree—men's having advanced 30 per cent. or thereby, and females' having almost doubled. Tradesmen's accounts have risen over 20 per cent. Formerly a set of horse shoes cost 4s. or thereby, now 6s. is very often paid. A new cart was formerly purchased for £11, now it costs £14. Movement has also taken place in the values of cattle and produce. Twenty-five years ago, a good milk cow would be priced at £8 or £9, now from £17 to £20 has to be paid for such an animal. A good farm horse, that would sell formerly for £25, will now fetch £50 or thereby. Of late, the foreign demand for pure bred "Clydesdales" has had a very elevating effect on the value of that class of stock; farmers with good mares have found the rearing of these animals one of the best paying stocks on the farm. The variation in the prices of grain does not, however, bear such a favourable aspect on the farming interest. Wheat, in the face of an increasing cost of production, has fallen from 42s. per quarter in 1857, to 33s. 6d. in 1883 ; and this year (1884), we believe, a further fall is announced. Barley, bere, and oats per quarter, and oatmeal per boll, are each about 1s. less than they were twenty-five years ago. Hay has not moved much from its old price, viz., from £4 to £5 per ton. Potatoes, for a considerable number of years, constituted one of the farmer's most valuable crops, fluctuating, however, so that profits were variable. Sometimes £30 was obtained for an acre of early potatoes, sometimes the price fell to £20, but generally £4 or £5 more was realised. Of late, however, potato prices have become very depressed, and for two or three years £20 per acre has not often been obtained. Dairy produce has all along been one of the most lucrative commodities on the farm. Prices have risen from 30 to 50 per cent. Milk, twenty-five years ago, was 1s. per gallon retail, now the price is 1s. 4d. Butter, during the intervening period, has risen from 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb. retail. The sale of milk, the sale of milk cows, the sale of horses, and for a considerable number of years the sale of potatoes, have thus been the most profitable branches of the Dumbartonshire farmer's business. There has also been a considerable change in the size of farms, a movement in the direction of larger holdings having taken place all through the county. There has been a considerable change in details of farm management to the six-years' rotation having to a great extent been set aside; and machinery having also been largely adopted, to the exclusion of manual labour. There has been a change too, in the sources from which the farmer draws his income, milk and potatoes having become fruitful sources, whereas grain and meal have become of much less account. Markets at a distance have likewise to a great extent been exchanged for markets at the door.

The following are the two principal developments which have supervened. First, there has been a development of potato culture. The extent of this development we have before indicated. It has drawn in its wake an increase of ploughing, an increase of chemical manuring, and such innovations as the green-cropping of lea and hay-stubble land. There has, secondly, been a development of dairy-farming. This has brought about a much higher style of feeding in the dairy, and an advance in the quantity and quality of manure.

The following we would set down as the chief improvements effected during the past five-and-twenty-years. There has, firstly, been a considerable amount of reclamation done; to our knowledge, some 500 acres have been thus treated. There has been a substantial improvement in steadings. There has been a general adoption of useful labour-saving machines. Contact with these has taught farmers to be something of mechanics, in like manner as working with artificial manures has given them a smattering of chemistry. There has been an improvement in farm implements—ploughs, harrows, grapes, forks, &c, having become neater and more effective. There has been an improvement in live stock. Dairy cattle are better fed, and of greater size, than they were thirty years ago; and with respect to both horses and cows, farmers are now more careful in mating, so as to improve the breed. There has, lastly, been an improvement on the farmers themselves. They have grown more skilful and enterprising both as regards crops and cattle. They have also become more refined and gentlemanly in their ways. Their steadings, as a rule, are clean and orderly, many of their dwellings being fronted with well-kept flower gardens. We have pleasure in testifying that, as a class, we found them kindly, courteous, and intelligent. To the farmers in general we beg, in conclusion, to tender thanks for their cordiality and readiness to impart information; but our obligations are more especially due to all those gentlemen connected with the agricultural or other interests of the county who, by revision services or otherwise, have assisted us in preparing this report.


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