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Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland
Report on the Dietaries of Scotch Agricultural Labourers


By ROBERT HUTCHISON of Carlowrie, Kirkliston
[Premium—Twenty Sovereign.]

A CAREFUL investigation of popular dietetics forms a subject of interesting research, from the accurate study of which much practical good may be anticipated if it leads to the adoption of any improvement; and the present is certainly the time to make such an inquiry, when the course of events arising out of the recent prevalence of rinderpest, and consequent enhanced valise of butcher meat and other articles of daily food, threatens to retard and impede, if not entirely to throw back for a time, the spontaneous improvement of the dietaries of the rural population of the country.

The school of Lienig have, doubtless, done much good, but their statistical basis seems too narrow, and they have, perhaps, at so early a period of the inquiry, formulated the ingesta of various dietaries too precisely and minutely, and hence the results of their theories have not obtained such practical and popular support and trial as the elaborate nature of their investigations deserves, and which the general confidence theoretically placed in their system appears to suggest. The difficulty, moreover, of undertaking experiments, or of obtaining returns upon a satisfactory scale, and with an equality of fairness in all points, leaves the matter still vague, and as regards the agricultural dietary in Scotland at least, susceptible of munch further useful investigation. For if the daily consumption of nutritive food by the Scotch peasant and his family can be proved to be inadequate in many cases to the maintenance of the body in physical and muscular health and strength, any improvement upon such a state of the social condition of this class of the population would be most invaluable, seeing there can be no doubt that an insufficient supply of the nourishment required by the animal wants of the body is productive of an impaired condition of health, derangement of the functions of the system and consecluent disease, and in extreme cases, where the absence of proper nutriment reaches the point of privation, of starvation and death. Without, however, going so far as to expect to find in the low-fed population of the country extreme cases of starvation, even in isolated instances, to be common, there can be no doubt that we may naturally expect to hear of some families amongst the poorer classes in remote rural districts, who do not feed themselves adequately. This idea receives an appearance of truth, when we find in some places in the agricultural mainland of Scotland, that the death-rate of the population is far above what it might be expected to be, considering the salubrity of the situation; while in those localities also, many of the peasantry who do survive to advanced years are generally martyrs to chronic catarrh and rheumatism; and although, doubtless, the ailments referred to arise in great measure from the peasant's regardlessness of exposure to cold and damp, still an insufficient diet may have much to do with the matter, and it is therefore quite fair to infer that, with more attention to a proper and adequate dietary, or by an assimilation of the dietary of these districts to those of other quarters similarly situated, where the mortality exhibits a decreased ratio, the death-rate of the low-fed population would be lessened. Take, for example, and by way of comparison between two districts where a dissimilar dietary prevails, the following statistical figures, calculated from the "Eighth Detailed Annual Report of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in Scotland, 1866." In the agricultural districts of Moffat (Dumfriesshire) the salubrity of which cannot be denied, the percentage of deaths is 1.747; in Glencairn parish (Dumfriesshire), it is 2.142; in Kirkmabreck district (Kirkcudbrightshire), it is as high as 2.755; and in the rural portion of Newton-Stewart parish (Wigtonshire), it is 1.945. In all these localities the fare of the agricultural classes is very poor and scanty, and the use of peasemeal is almost unknown. On the other hand, in the Border counties to the eastward, where the diet is more liberal, and the use of peasemeal, rendered palatable by admixture with barley-meal, is very common, if not general, and forms a considerable portion of the daily food of the same classes, we find the death-rate is a good deal lower. In the parish of Traquair (Peeblesshire), for example, it is only 1.015 per cent.; in Drumelzier (Peeblesshire), it is 1.435 per cent.; in Yarrow (Selkirkshire), I.400; and in Linton (Jedburgh), it is only 0.493 per cent. It must, therefore, be evident that the primary classification of foods into "heat-producing" or respiratory food (carbonaceous), and "flesh-forming" food (nitrogenous) is, if attended to in practical use, highly important; and it is an inquiry worthy of more consideration than has hitherto been given it, whether the labouring classes might not with advantage partake more liberally than they do in their daily dietary of a mixture of pease and beans with other farinaceous food, so as to render the mixed dish or bread really palatable. In India, where animal diet is not allowed at all, the Brahmins understand the advantages of the use of such a diet as we recommend; and the laity who dare to eat of "Brahmin's food" (a mess of rice and lentils), are punished. The most palatable and wholesome way in which we advise the use of pease or beans, is in the form of soup, made with a very little suet, or dripping, or pork-bone. Cooked in this manner, pease or beans (dry) afford an agreeable dinner, and a diet possessed of highly nutritive value.

Local distinctions or peculiarities of diet may exercise an important influence in determining the particular localisation of any epidemic or disease amongst a given class; and to form a proper and accurate estimate of the sanitary condition of any section of the community, it is necessary to give due consideration to the usual diets (as to nature, quantity, and quality), of the district. Hence an investigation, like time present, amongst the agricultural population, whose sanitary arrangements are universally known to be very deficient, and greatly behind those of England, acquires a special value of its own; and with the view of making the inquiry as exhaustive as possible, we have appended a number of instances selected from different districts of Scotland, both insular and mainland rural, and from as wide a geographical area as possible—choosing in each instance true typical and characteristic specimens of the classes represented.

The number of selected instances given amounts to fifty-six, and they include the dietary of ploughmen, shepherds, cattlemen, field-workers (male and female), and occasional day-labourers, with an example of miners employed in the lead-mines of Dumfriesshire, and of railway porters employed at road-side stations in agricultural districts.

The difficulty encountered in the collection of these returns was in many instances considerable, and the utmost tact was frequently requisite to obtain the desired information in detail; for the lower classes, especially in country districts, are generally averse to divulge the secrets of their domestic arrangements and mode of living—regarding the process of weighing and measuring their food with superstitious awe and fear, and hesitating sometimes to give direct replies to such occasional queries as were essentially necessary to be put to obtain accurate information regarding their dietaries and modes of life. Under these circumstances, and seeing that such a position of matters prevented the inquiry being as exhaustive as we wished, it is hoped that any omissions made in the compilation of these statistics may be pardoned, and with regard to the cases enumerated, we can assert that they may be accepted as true and typical of the great mass of the Scotch agricultural population.

Without recapitulating in detail the particulars obtained, we would merely refer those interested in seeing the different articles of food consumed at the rural labourer's table, as also the number of daily meals taken by him and his family, with other details of his family's income, to Appendix "A" of this Report and by way of analysis of the different values (dietetically) of the various substances in daily and weekly use, we have to refer to Appendix "B," where we have, in a few selected instances from different localities, endeavoured to show the amount of the probable weekly consumption of different articles of food by the labourer and his family, and have tabulated against the quantity used by each example, the relative amount of nutritive food consumed, as expressed by the equivalent number of grains of carbon and nitrogen in the respective quantities. The data upon which the calculations of these elements are based have been taken from the chemical analysis of the substances themselves, as specified by Dr Edward Srnith and Professor Lyon Playfair, in recent publications.

In submitting, without further comment, the collected information obtained in the Appendices to this Report, we may draw attention merely to such points in the returns as appear of more special interest, and as such calling for particular remark.

The first noticeable feature in the Scotch rural dietary, which must strike even the most casual observer, is its uniformity in most of the districts throughout the country. Whether inland or sea-coast, highland or lowland, the great staples for sustaining life amongst the peasantry of Scotland are oatmeal and milk. In this particular, the difference between the English and Scotch labourers is very decided; for while the use of oatmeal in the sister country is almost unknown, it forms the leading article of daily sustenance amongst 90 per cent. of the families of the labouring classes in Scotland. Indeed, so much is this the case, that amongst the fifty-six families cited in our returns (besides many others, the full particulars of which have not been yet tabulated), we find that oatmeal is invariably used, and in no instance have we been able to point out an exception to this rule amongst the rural population.

The high dietetic value of oatmeal is a very important feature, where its use is so universal in any district or country as it is in Scotland; and when taken in connection with milk as the other staple article of food and nourishment, its competency to afford a. great amount of physical nutriment is considerably enhanced, for we find that as a nutritive agent, milk is almost unequalled. Whether its use be limited to the undeveloped system of an infant, to the enfeebled and debilitated fume of an invalid, or to the brawny and muscular conformation of the hardy day labourer in any of our industrial employments, where his muscular system receives its greatest and most continued strain, we find the suitability of milk for maintaining the frame in vigour, or for nourishing or recruiting the daily waste of matter of the bodily functions, equally undeniable; while its value is still further increased from the fact of its being one of the most easily digested foods in use by the peasantry. having regard to poverty of diet in any one district, we would impress most urgently in that quarter the necessity for using every effort to increase the supply of milk, for the state of health and immunity from scrofulous disease, amongst the poorly fed and clad population, are usually in proportion to the quantity of milk accessible, and there could be no more efficient aid given to the rural agricultural population generally, in the direction of an improved dietary, than by affording them the means of obtaining; an increased supply of milk regularly. We may notice case No. 5, Appendix "A," as an instance of a very low-fed family's health being mainly supported by milk; while in the same parish of the island of Skye, case No. 7, Appendix "A," affords a very fair example of a weakly constituted family suffering from scrofulous disease, attributable in no small degree to the absence of milk from their dietary. In the neighbourhood of large towns we found the labourers complain much of the difficulty of obtaining milk, even in scanty supplies, and this scarceness of so important an article of diet leads to the substitution of treacle and water, or sugar and water, and in a very few rare instances of beer. None of these can in any way be compared (as regards nutritive properties) with milk, while the presence of such substitutes does not act upon systems having any scrofulous tendency or liability to cutaneous eruptions in the beneficial manner in which milk does, but rather the reverse.

Potatoes also forum a large proportion of the general national dietary of Scotch agricultural labourers. As an article of nutritive value, potatoes cannot be said to rank high. The cheapness of this commodity is its chief recommendation, and it may be said rather to be well adapted to the income of the labourer, than to his physical wants. He is thus enabled to consume at small cost a larger quantity or volume of this species of food than of many others, and in this way some part of its deficiency as a nutritive agent is recompensed.

The nutritive values of these three staple articles of Scotch agricultural dietaries may be stated as follows:—

The next remarkable feature in the rural dietaries of Scotland, as compared with those of England, is the largely increased amount of nutritive food obtained at a less cost. This does not arise from any relative difference in the market value of any given article of food between the two countries, but solely from the custom and modes of living of the people. Thus, we find that, according to Dr E. Smith's Report to the Privy Council, the total average amount of carbon and nitrogen obtained per adult weekly in England, is 40,673 grains carbon, and 1.594 grains nitrogen, costing per adult weekly, 2s. 11d. In Scotland, according to our Appendix, the average weekly consumption per adult, is 41,752 grains carbon, and 2094 grains nitrogen, at a cost of about 2s. 10d. Hence the economy of the relative expenditure will stand thus:—:For each shilling expended by the English labourer upon his dietary, he obtains 12,398 grains carbon, and 495 grains nitrogen; while, according to the dietary adopted by the Scotch labourer, the same sum will purchase 14,868 grains carbon, and 716 grains nitrogen. It may be necessary here to remark that, according to Dr E. Smith's calculations, the average weekly consumption of carbon and nitrogen by the Scotch peasantry is considerably higher than the amount mentioned above, according to our figures and data. Dr Smith gives the amount of carbon weekly consumed per head in Scotland as 48,980 grains, and of nitrogen as 2348 grains. This discrepancy arises from the imperfect average of area from which he computes his consumption of nutritive food, and from his omission of the insular districts, such as Skye, &c., for the returns we have obtained from these quarters materially lessen the general average of the whole country. In Skye, the dietary of the lower classes is more deficient, both in quantity and nutritive value, than in any other district of Scotland. At one time they are at the point of starvation, subsisting on what scant fare nature in that most rugged and barren tract affords, and at another, luxuriating on what windfalls come to them after a storm in the shape of an abundance of shell-fish. One family in this island we found had not seen butcher meat for five years, and there are many who never tasted beer or cheese.

For the purpose of comparing the average weekly consumpt of nutritive food by agricultural labourers, and by agricultural computed adults in Scotland, we have prepared the following table :—

which gives an excess in favour of the labourer, of

Comparing this result against the following table, calculated from the statistics given by Professor Lyon Playfair of other working classes of the United Kingdom with reference to carbon only, we find that

giving an average of 38,972½ grains carbon weekly.

The quantity of carbon, however, according to Professor Lyon Playfair, necessary to maintain in good health and muscular activity a "hard-worked" British labourer, is 43,793k grains per week; and we, therefore, find that the dietary of the average Scotch agricultural labourer contains, according to the foregoing table, nearly nth more carbon than the specified quantity; while the weekly consumpt of carbon by a Scotch agricultural adult is as nearly as possible the exact quantity which Professor Playfair states to be necessary for the support of an active (though not hard-worked) labourer, namely 41,958 grains per week.

This goes far to prove that the dietary of the Scotch agricultural population as a class, is better calculated to sustain a man in vigour and muscular health and strength, than the general articles of food daily consumed by the hard-working, low-fed population of other industrial occupations. The comparative death-rates of this class in the two countries, and of the agricultural districts in Scotland compared with the hard-worked classes of labourers s and mechanics in town districts, amply verify these remarks.

Having thus considered what may be styled the national Scotch agricultural dietary, in relation to nutritive properties, and its comparative cheapness as against the dietary of English labourers and town tradesmen, we may carry the comparison) still further, and place our Scotch average cost against that of the almost universal article of daily food amongst the poorer classes of the working population in Ireland--Indian corn meal or maize.

In this view we find that the average amount of nutritive food obtained from a given sum, by the rural population of .Ireland, is considerably larger than even that of Scotland, and is twice as great as that of England. This startling fact is to be ascribed to the very general rise made by the poorer classes of Indian corn meal, which is well known to possess excellent nutritious properties, and a very large proportion of carbonaceous and nitrogenous elements. In these particulars it may be said to be equal to oatmeal, and hence it is the difference in the market value of the two commodities which gives the total average of cost in favour of the Irish staple over that of Scotland.

The low-fed agricultural population of Scotland may be divided into four classes:—

1. Shepherds or ploughmen (married men), generally with families, residing in cottages upon the fai nis which they are hired to cultivate, and engaged by the year or half year. Of this class and their average dietaries, good examples from different localities will be found in Appendix A, Cases Nos. 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 25, 36, 39, 43, &c.

2. Ploughmen, young roes (unmarried), similarly engaged to Class l., but sleeping in bothies on the farm, and boarding or victualling in their master's kitchen. Cases of this class will be found in Nos. 10, 48, 54, &c.

3. Field labourers (male and female) living either in separate cottages with married ploughmen's families as lodgers, or in bothies (where females only), and, in point of social condition, living similarly to Class 1. Instances of this class are given in Cases Nos. 3, 20, 23, &c.

4. Occasional labourers employed in field-work, residing in their own rented houses, not necessarily upon the farm where they are employed, but frequently in wdjacent viIl<ages or hamlets, and having sometimes to travel two or three- miles daily to and from their work, and therefore carrying their lui(l-clay meal or dinner with theirs, or having it carried by one of their family, to the scene of their occupation. Examples of this class occur in Cases 11, 22, 25, 26, 27, 32, 34, 37, 38, 55, &c.

Tabulating the weekly average amount of nutritive food consumed by these classes, we find---

Thus, as a rule, Class II. fare the best, and in many districts consume more regularly butcher meat as a daily article of food. They do not, however, remain long in their situations, chiefly owing to their dislike to the supervision exercised over them, and to the restraint laid upon their habits by their masters, as must be the case when these evince any interest in and care of those boarded under their roofs. This class is generally found throughout the northern and north-eastern comities, and chiefly in some of the districts of Aberdeenshire. Class I. may be subdivided into two sections, 1. Shepherds; 2. Ploughmen. Of these subdivisions the shepherds are the better fed; indeed they are a. better paid class generally, if not the best paid portion of the agricultural population and are frequently men of superior shrewdness and intelligence, and distinguished by greater thrift than the other rural labouring classes in Scotland. Good examples of the class occur in cases 49 and 50. They are, of course, met with in those large sheep-tracts which abound in the Highlands and pastoral districts of Scotland, and may be regarded in point of dietary as considerably above the average of the Scotch peasant, and as occupying a position in that respect to which it would be very desirable to raise the ordinary run of ploughmen throughout the country. The other subdivision referred to (ploughmen) includes the great mass of the Scottish peasantry or hinds. This class is numerically stronger than the other sub-division of Class I. (shepherds)and Classes II. and IV. added together, and includes about 80 per cent. of the entire rural agricultural male labourers in Scotland. They are met with, under slightly varying phases of social condition and habits, throughout all the Scotch counties where the ploughshare is used, or arable land is found. We find then, as might be expected of a class so widely spread, under various systems of husbandry, and differing in many particulars as to wages, modes of payment, and terns of engagement; but throughout all the counties we find that their dietary is very much the same, differing only in minor points of detail, and almost universally composed of the staple of Old Scotland—oatmeal porridge and milk, or at least of oatmeal prepared in various ways and milk. With than the use of butcher meat, as an article of daily food, is unknown, and, unless in cases such as are cited in Nos. 4, 15, 16, 20, 33, &c., where a pig is allowed to be kept, they and their families seldom partake of animal food at all, unless in times of sickness or upon rare occasions.

Amongst this class the use of tea as a beverage is not so common, although rapidly creeping into daily use, as in the case of shepherds, or even in that of Classes III. and IV.; and, where it is indulged in, it is restricted chiefly to the labourer's wife, or used by the family upon Sundays; and we find its consumption is most general in Wigtownshire. (See Cases 53 and 55).

Much has been done of late years to improve and ameliorate the social condition and comfort of this class, and were the ploughmen, of their own accord, to advance proportionately in moral duties and in attention to sanitary measures for the comfort of their homes and families, their well-being as a class would be greatly augmented, and an additional stimulus given to landlords and tenants to extend to them still further a helping hand. Mere cry for larger wages, and combination against their masters, will never raise the status of the peasantry. Reasonable requests will never be refused by liberal and kindly-disposed masters, such as the Scottish tenant farmers generally are; and there seemed little need for the coercion upon this point which was recently attempted. The ploughmen must themselves prove their desire and willingness, unaided if necessary, to improve their position, morally and socially, by a more conscientious and kindly interest in their master's well-being and the duties assigned to them, and by a more careful attention to the education of their children, and to inculcating iii their families habits of frugality, cleanliness, and tidiness; and then, doubtless, the happiness and comfort of the rising generation of ploughmen will, when their day of labour reaches its meridian, outstrip those of their fathers.

It is much to be regretted that the old mode of paying this class of labourers, to a great extent in kind, is now becoming comparatively obsolete, through the more general custom of an almost exclusively money payment; for we maintain that no mere pecuniary remuneration will so satisfactorily, adequately, and comfortably support and aliment a ploughman and his family, as when certain defined perquisites (otherwise unattainable except as wages) are continued. Where a cow's keep is allowed, for instance, and is made part of the bargain between master and servant, or when permission to keep a pig is given, and is calculated as part of the wages, we find that not only are these privileges not productive of the petty jealousies and annoyances usually alleged against them, but that, in such cases, the well-being and dietary of the family is materially improved. This is abundantly evident in many of the cases cited in our appendix, and of which the following table affords conclusive proof, as showing the average number of grains of nutritive food consumed weekly by a labourer and his family when a cow is kept by them, as compared with the case of one where the permission to keep a cow does not exist.

Classes III. and IV. are generally the worst fed of the rural population, and vary but little from each other in point of dietary. Socially and morally the condition of many of those designated under Class III. may be regarded as a blot upon the otherwise fair escutcheon of agriculture. Farm bothies occupied by single women employed as field-workers, frequently mere girls, without supervision, and under little or no control after working hours, without almost any article of household furniture other than a mere pallet of straw, destitute of the proper means of cooking their scanty meals, dirty, and slovenly, are unfortunately too numerous in many rural districts. in the midst of so much destitution—so far as comfortable accommodation and arrangement are concerned—we may expect to find the poorest fare in daily use, Yet it is surprising to see how much even in cases of this description, the national dietary does for the health of the labourer, and how much nutritive diet is obtained even under such adverse circumstances. As a class, however, the state of the bothy resident admits of much improvement, and no other mode seems to be so good, or so likely to attain this desired result, so, far as their dietary is concerned, than the practice of more generally paying this class a considerable part of their wages 'im kind. This would go far to remedy many evils, and we could cite cases (No. 3, for example) where the benefits arising from partial payments in kind have been very decided. In the example referred to, the average weekly consumpt of nutritive food is 40,269 grains per adult. It is objected to this proposal; that the recipients would simply "sell" the potatoes, milk, meal, or fuel so given them; but admitting that possibly some surplus portion may be so disposed of, we still think that a more liberal quantity will be reserved and consumed than is used under the money payment system, and most likely what is "sold" might be more properly said to, be bartered for groceries or provisions of nutritious value. Those of Class IV., who occupy their own homes in villages or hamlets, are better off than those who lodge in or occupy bothies, and they have frequently other little comforts which go far to ameliorate their condition. In fact we find that, invariably throughout Scotland, the family system of living is much the best; and although, in married life, the ploughman's great "millstone" is often his "large small family," that grievance exists only for a time, for if the children's upbringing, is

"Mixed wi' admonition due,"

and

"Their masters' and their mistresses' command
The younkers a' are warned to obey,
And mind their labours wi' an eident hand,"

he, by-and-by, finds them to become to him a "paying concern;" and in many of our returns the earnings of' the family will be seen to be by no means inconsiderable.

We do not by this mean to recommend the early sending of the agricultural labourer's children to field-labour; such a practice is unfortunately much too prevalent, and the result is that the education of the rural youth of both sexes is by far too much neglected and stinted, and many of those branches (such as writing and arithmetic), which would greatly aid them in after-life in raising themselves in the scale of social life, are, if overtaken at all, merely glanced at in a cursory manner. This mode, therefore, of increasing the income of a labourer's family is to be deprecated most strongly,—the price paid for such improvements in the dietary, by the premature earnings of the children, is a burden and mortgage over the whole family for the future, and is certain to result in moral degradation and deterioration. Nor should the labourer's wife regularly assist in outdoor occupations of the farm; this may be all very well for a few weeks during harvest, or occasionally, when, through any emergency of the weather or lateness of the season, much additional assistance is required; but, it is better, if possible, to avoid withdrawing the mother of a family from her housekeeping and maternal duties, as it tends to detract from the comfort of the ploughman's home, and consequently from his dietary, and maintenance in full, healthy, and robust physical ability for labour.

Taking the average weekly requirement of nutritive food of a man to enable him barely to subsist and avert, starvation, as 30,100 grains carbon, and 1400 grains nitrogen, and of a female, as 27,300 grains carbon, and 1260 grains nitrogen, we find that in none of the examples cited, nor in any of the returns we have obtained from any part of Scotland, mainland or insular, does the dietary of this country fall so low as these figures. Poor diets, we find, tell least upon those without families, and insufficient diet affects the wife and children more than the father of the family. This may be accounted for, either from the labourer being fed in his employers house in some instances; or, having to work, he must eat, and thus comes in for a. better share at the pittance allotted to the sustenance of his family's life. The size of the ploughman's family affects the variety and quantity of the diet.

It only remains for us now to notice one or two local peculiarities of dietary and social condition of the agricultural labourer, reported to us from different quarters. In Sutherlandshire, an article of pretty general use exists, called "crowdie." This is simply corded milk made into a sort of cheese, but not pressed in the cheese-press. It sells at 2½d. and 3d. per lb. In Skye, the use of shell-fish amongst the poor people is very general. In this district the subsistence of the low-fed population is very precarious. They may be well off the one month, and exceedingly poor the next. An ordinary labourer gets 1s. for ten hours' work, and a, woman 6d., both without food. Employment is not regular, and they seldom work a full day. They have, however, little windfalls occasionally, and many go south to harvest and to public works. Yet throughout the island there is quite as little abject poverty as in any part of Scotland. Poor-rates in Bracadale parish are 1s. 6d. per pound; but in some parts of the island, as in Sleat district, they are as high as 6s. per pound; and in these localities some extreme cases of poverty of diet occur.

In Leadhills district (Dumfriesshire) nearly all the villagers (miners) keep a cow each. These are grazed upon the "common" ground; and their owners unite yearly, and rent a piece of hill-pasture, for which they pay from £50 to £60 per annum, and upon which they raise hay for the winter's keep of their cows. This will cost, when allocated, about 15s. a-year per cow. Some of the villagers, in lieu of a cow, keep a few sheep.

In Lochfine district chiefly Irish labourers are employed. The bothy system principally prevails. One Irishman will work as much per day as two Highlanders. The Highlanders are generally poor, and cannot afford to send their children to trades. When they grow up they migrate to the lowlands of Scotland, where wages are higher, and readily find employment in public works, or as porters, and many as policemen. On their return home, some of those who have been engaged on railway works or other large public contracts, take to farm service, and make excellent workers. The Irish population come and go a good deal.

Throughout the various districts of Scotland, we find that, contrary to the custom in England, on Sundays when the family dietary is better and more liberal than usual, there is less cooking as a rule on that day in Scotland than on the other days of the week. The use of beer in Scotland as an article of general diet among the agricultural population is quite unknown.

In conclusion, we arrive at the following results from the foregoing inquiry:-

1. That the Scotch agricultural labourer and his family, as a class, are plainly but well fed.

2. That in all the districts of Scotland the average dietary is considerably above the amount necessary for the bare sustenance of life and vigour.

3. That the nutritive value of the average rural dietary in Scotland is very high, and considerably exceeds that of the dietaries of England and Ireland usually adopted by similar classes of the population.

4. That an equal amount of nutritive food is obtained by the Scotch peasant at less cost than by the English hind.

With the view of improving the dietary of the Scotch agricultural labourer and his family, we suggest

1. That a more general use of pease meal (or dried pease), beans, and Indian corn meal mixed with potatoes, and taken as part of the usual diet, be adopted.

2. That where no butcher meat is obtainable, a larger quantity of cheese than is at present used be consumed in lieu of animal food.

3. That to each rural labourer's family not less than a Scotch pint of sweet milk (3 imperial pints) be allowed daily; and that with a view to this most important article of food being regularly obtained, the quantity named should form part of time labourer's wages; or that instead of this allowance, a cow's keep and accommodation for a cow be allowed by the farmer.

4. That the payment of wages in kind should be continued, and that coals as well as meal and potatoes should form part of such payment by the Masters.

5. That the money wages be paid weekly instead of half-yearly, or in partial monthly payments to account, as is at present the case on most farms in the Lothians and elsewhere.

6. That with the view of improving the cooking of the peasant's diet, besides the allowance of coals above referred to being given, each cottage should be provided by the landlord with a suitable "fixed in" grate for cooking, having a boiler attached; and where practicable, a small boiler should be erected for the use of each cottage, either for boiling food for their pig, or for domestic purposes other than cooking, so as to relieve the use of the kitchen fire.

7. That a larger piece of garden ground than is generally given should be allotted to each ploughman's cottage.

8. Unless special accommodation for the purpose be provided, cottagers should not be allowed to keep lodgers; for this practice defeats the efforts of the landlord to provide each family with requisite and sufficient "living space," the due and proper amount of which is absolutely necessary to the continued health and vigour of the cottager. If crowding and airlessness be permitted, filth and disease are engendered; and if this state of matters exists along with insufficient food, the low dietary then becomes the certain aggravator of a predisposition to disease.

APPENDIX. A

CAITHNESS-SHIRE.

1. Parish of Reay. Shepherds.—J. R. Family above ten years, 2; below, 3. Makes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £20 in money, 7 bolls meal, 30 to 60 chains potatoes, keep for 8 ewes and cow, 3 tons coals or 25 loads peats, and 3 pints sweet milk daily. Wages of family, one at 9d. and one at 1s. per day. When a cow is kept £2 a.-year is deducted from wages; no pigs or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, brose at 5 A.M. before turning out, porridge and milk, at 11 am., with tea. or coffee afterwards; of family, porridge and milk or treacle at 9 A.M. Dinner with family at 6 P.M., potatoes and dried herrings, or potatoes and fresh fish, or sometimes pork and meat.. Tea, wife tales tea and oatcake at 4 P.M. Supper with family at 9 P.M., brose, and bread with butter or porridge and milk or treacle. Health extremely Good.

Remarks.—In this district farms on the sea-coast are often supplied with a boat, by which means the men supply themselves with fish from June to end of October. Where no boat is kept, they fish on the lochs. Where sheep are extensively kept, a few die during winter and spring, and these, though not fit for the market, are wholesome for use and the ploughmen and work-people buy the mutton at 2d. to 3d. per lb. The shepherds are well paid, getting from £15 to £20 per annum, and the perquisites named. They are a very intelligent class, and remain long in the same situation.

2. PARISH OF Reay. Ploughmen.—G. C. Family above ten years, 4 below, none. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £10 in money, 8 bolls meal, 60 chains potatoes, 3 tons coals, and 3 pints sweet milk daily. Wages of family, three at 1s. per day each. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, brose at 5 A.M. before starting to work, porridge and treacle at 11 A.M.; of family, porridge and milk or treacle. Dinner with family, potatoes and milk, or fish and potatoes, or potatoes and pork. Tea, none. Supper with family, brose or porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—Ploughmen with large young families are unable to buy beef or pork, and they frequently run into debt to the small country shopkeepers, and when the yearly term comes round they remove to some other situation, leaving the debt unpaid. When in need of a few shillings, they are in the habit of taking meal to the shopkeepers, getting from 60 to 75 per cent. of its value; and when they buy groceries it is quite common to pay for them in meal. They are a very sober class.

3. PARISH OF Reay. Female Farm-workers.—J. W. Unmarried. Takes meals at home. Rent free, and fire provided. Yearly wages, £6 in money, 4½ bolls meal, and 2 pints milk daily. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, brose or porridge with milk or treacle. Dinner, potatoes and fish, or brose and milk. Supper, porridge and milk, or tea and bread, or bread and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—This case is the usual diet of outworkers (female) on large arable farms in this district. They are chiefly accommodated in bothies, which require the master's supervision.

SUTHERLANDSHIRE

4. PARISH of Golspie. Shepherds.—J. S. Family above ten years, 1; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £4, 5s. per annum. Yearly wanes, £19 in money, 6, bolls meal, 1½ boll potatoes, and quart of sweet milk daily. Keeps a pig and poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk; of family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, tea., with oat bread and fish, or oat bread and crowdie, or oat bread and eggs; and on Sundays, broth made of fresh meat, or salt pork and potatoes. Supper with family, porridge and milk, or potatoes and fish (salt herring), with milk or tea. health very good.

Remarks.—When milk is scarce the children get treacle and water to their porridge, but it is observed that under this diet they soon lose flesh and are not nearly so lively, nor do they seem to thrive.

INVERNESS-SHIRE

5. PARISH of  OF Bracadale (SKYE). Hind.—A. M`A. Family above ten years,: 3; below, 1. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £1, 10s. per annum. Yearly wages, £12. Keeps cow and poultry.

Breakfast, oatmeal porridge and milk, or potatoes and fish; of family, oatmeal porridge and milk, or potatoes and fish. Dinner with family, oatmeal and potatoes with milk or coffee. Supper with family, oatcake, butter, and tea, or potatoes and milk. Health excellent.

Remarks.—This is the case of a hind in regular employment, and is a fair specimen of this class in this part of the Island of Skye.

6. PARISH OF BRACADALE (SKYE). Labourer.—A. M'P. Family above ten years of age, 4; below, 2. Takes meals at home in winter only, from home from spring till end of harvest. Rent £1. Weekly wages, 15s.; idle in winter. Wages of family, 2s. 6d. per week all year. Keeps poultry only.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, when away—at home, potatoes and fish; of family, potatoes and fish. Dinner, bread and coffee, or bread and cheese and piece of bacon, when away—at home, potatoes; of family, potatoes. Supper, tea and bread when away—at home, potatoes or meal-brose, sometimes potatoes or fish; of family, potatoes or meal-brose, sometimes potatoes and fish. Health fair.

Remarks.—This case represents the poorest, class here. The labourer leaves his home for the south of Scotland in spring, where he is employed from April till end of harvest at any work he can find, generally on railway contracts and at harvest work. He returns about end of October. Several of his family are out at service.

7. PARISH OF BRACADALF (SKYE). Labourer.—K. C. Family over ten years, 2; below, 4. Takes supper only at home; on Sundays, takes all his meals at home. Rent, £1, 10s. Weekly wages, 12s. Wages of family, 3s. per week. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast, potatoes beat, and oatcake or oatmeal brose; of family, potatoes. Dinner, oatmeal brose, or potatoes and oatcake; of family, potatoes and fish. Supper with family, tea and oatmeal cake, or coffee and fish. Health—man, scrofulons ; family subject to cutaneous eruptions.

Remarks—This is the case of a dyker and drainer; he earns as much as any of his class and occupation, and he lives at home all the year.

ABERDEENSHIRE.

8. PARISH OF ALFORD. Ploughman.—B. C. Family above ten years of age, 1; below, 3. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £24. Wages of family, 9s. per week. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk; sometimes tea or coffee and bread. Dinner with family, oatmeal brose and milk or vegetable broth and potatoes. Supper with family, bread and beer and cheese, or bread and milk, or potatoes and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—The keeping of poultry is often the cause of differences between master and servants, and leads to removal from situations here. A cow is allowed in a few cases.

9. PARISH OF ALFORD. Day Labourer.—D. C. Family above ten years of age, 2; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent, £3. Weekly wages, 15s. Wages of family, 9s. per week. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast with family at 6 A.M., porridge and milk; sometimes tea or coffee with oatcake or wheaten bread, which is now a good deal used. Dinner with family at 12 noon, oatmeal brose and milk, or potatoes and milk, greens soup made with a small piece of meat occasionally. Supper with family, potato soup, or bread and milk, or bread and tea, or bread and beer with cheese. Health very good.

Remarks.—The use of butcher meat was increasing a good deal, till the present high price checked it in this district.

10. PARISH OF OYNE. Ploughman.—A. B. Unmarried. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £22. Keeps no cow, pig, or poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk. Dinner, vegetable broth, with potatoes and cheese. Supper, brose or porridge, with milk and oatcakes. Health excellent.

Remarks.—This is the case of a hind who gets his meals in his master's kitchen. The small farmers here seldom get butcher-meat themselves. Some old people who live in cottages on the farms in this district often take oatcakes and tea to dinner.

11. PARISH OF OYNE. Day Laborrer.—D. S. Family above ten years, 4. Rent, £2, 15s. Weekly wages, 15s.; wages of family, one at £2, 10s. a-year, two at £4 and £6 a-year. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge or brose, with milk or beer. Dinner with family, potatoes with turnips or green kail, or porridge and milk. Supper, tea or coffee with oatcakes or loaf-bread; of family, porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—This is the case of a day-labourer. He takes his meals at home daily if working near his house; if employed at a distance, his meals are carried to him by his wife or one of his children.

12. PARISH of FOVERAN. Ploughman.—W. B. Family above ten years, 1; below, 6. Rent, £3, including fire. Yearly wages, £12 in money, and 6½ bolls meal. Keeps cow, pig, and poultry.

Breakfast with family, oatmeal porridge and milk, or brose and milk. Dinner with family, oatmeal porridge and milk, or tea and fish and loaf-bread, or potatoes and milk. Supper with family, porridge and milk, or potatoes and milk.. Heath good.

Remarks.---When a cow's keep, say £8 per annum, is not allowed, milk from the farm-house is given, value say £4 per annum, the balance going to the ploughman's money wages.

13 PARISH OF NEW DEER. Labourer.—A. D. Family above ten years, 3; below, 6. Takes meals at home. Rent, £4 per annum. Weekly wages, 12s. during winter, 14s. during summer. Keeps no cow, pig, or poultry.

Breakfast, brose with molasses, or porridge and beer; of family, porridge and beer. Dinner, potatoes and milk, or sometimes herrings and potatoes, or kail brose, or oatcake and beer; of family, potatoes and milk. Supper with family, turnip brose or porridge and beer. Health good.

Remarks.—In this parish agricultural labourers fare very poorly. They sometimes purchase a barrel of the cheaper herrings, to be used with potatoes by the head of the family for dinner. Beef is never seen within their houses, nor is the luxury of tea indulged in.

14. PARISH OF ST NICHOLAS. Artisan occupied at Railway and Docks.—W. B. Family above ten years, 1; below, 5. Takes meals at home. Rent, £2. Weekly wages, 13s.; wages of family, 2s. 6d. per week. Keeps no cow, pig, or poultry.

Breakfast with family, oatmeal porridge and milk. Dinner with family, potatoes with lard, and milk or oatbread. Supper with family, oatmeal porridge and milk; on Sundays, tea and wheaten bread and butter. Health good.

Remarks.—The diet in this case is rather inferior to and less varied than that of labourers here, but this is doubtless owing to the large family who are depending upon him for support.

KINCARDINESHIRE

15. PARISH OF BANHORY-TERNAN. Ploughman.---W. S. Family above ten years, 1; below, 4. Takes meals at home. Rent, £3, 10s. Yearly wages, £17 in money, 6 bolls oatmeal, and 2 pints sweet milk daily. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk; wife, tea and oatcake and butter; family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, potatoes with broth or pork, and milk and bread. Supper with family, porridge and milk, or tea and bread and butter. Health good.

16. PARISH OF DURRIS. Ploughrnan.--J. A. Family above ten years, 2; below, 4. Takes meals at home. Rent, £3. Yearly wages, £17 in money, 6½ bolls oatmeal, and 2 pints sweet milk daily. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, or porridge and treacle; wife, tea and bread and butter; family, porridge and milk, or porridge and treacle. Dinner with family, pork broth and potatoes, or fish and potatoes, or milk and potatoes. Supper with family, potatoes and milk, or greens and tea and bread. Health very good.

PERTHSHIRE

17. PARISH OF CRIEFF. Ploughman.—P. R. Family above ten years, 3; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £6. Yearly wages, £27. Wages of family, two sons out at trades, who dine at home on Sundays. Keeps no cow, pig, or poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk; wife takes tea and bread and butter. Dinner with family, potatoes and broth, and boiled meat, of which broth is made, or herrings and potatoes, or dried white fish and potatoes sometimes cheese and bread, and potatoes. The, wife takes tea, bread and butter. Supper with children, porridge and milk, or ham and potatoes and milk. Health good.

Remarks.—This is the case of a. foreman ploughman, and thus above the average. Deduct £5 from the yearly wages, and the case is an average one.

18. PARISH OF CRIEFF. Day labourer. J. C. Family above ten years, 2; below, none. Takes meals at home. Rent, £4. Weekly wages, 12s. Keeps no cow, pig, or poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, broth and meat used in it, say pork or beef, and potatoes and bread. Tea, only wife takes tea and bread and butter. Supper with family, cheese with bread and milk and butter. Health good.

Remarks.—This is the dietary of an ordinary day labourer, i.e., a man working daily on the farm, but not fed in the farmers house, and having no allowance, nor a house, nor living in a bothy. Such usually live in a cottage, for which they pay a yearly rent.

19. PARISH OF MUCKART. Ploughman.—P. W. Family above ten years, 2; below, 3. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £19 in money; meal, £6; potatoes, £2; milk, £1, 10s.—in all, £28, 10s. Cow, pig, or poultry, none.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner, broth of vegetables, bread and cheese or bread and bacon; family, broth and bread and butter. Tea with family, tea with bread and butter. Supper with family, porridge with treacle or milk. Health excellent.

FIFESHIRE

20. PARISH OF SALINE. Plough man.—H. K. Family above ten years, 3; below, 1. Takes meals at home. Rent, £4. Yearly wages, £29, 17s. Family all at service. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk, rarely tea and bread and butter. Dinner with family, broth and bacon and potatoes, or cheese, milk, and potatoes. Tea with family, tea with bread and butter. Supper with family; only in winter takes supper, potatoes, cheese, and milk. Health excellent.

Remarks—Wages stated include the value of meal, milk, and potatoes. The ploughman's statutory allowance in this district of articles paid in kind is - 6½ bolls meal per annum, 1 pint sweet milk daily or three chopius skimmed milk, 4 bolls potatoes or a few pecks planted hi place. In money, £17 to £20, according to proficiency.

21. PARISH OF SALINE. Ploughman. A. K. Unmarried. Takes meals at home. Yearly wages, £27, 7s.

Breakfast, porridge and milk. Dinner, broth and bacon and bread, or cheese, bread, and milk. Tea and bread. Supper, in winter only takes supper. bacon or cheese with bread and milk. Health excellent.

Remarks.-This is a fair average specimen of an unmarried ploughman of the district, who lodges with married men or in a separate cottage. His wages include the value of meal, milk, and potatoes.

22. PARISH OF KINGHORN. Field Worker. D. D. Family above ten years, 1; below, none. Takes meals at home. Rent of house free, worth £3. Weekly waves, 12s.; wages of family, 6s. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk, or brose. Dinner with family, broth with bacon and bread, or with cheese and bread. Tea with bread and butter. Supper, potatoes and milk or brose, or cheese and milk and bread. Health good.

Remarks.-Cattle feeders (male) get 6d per week extra, and potatoes £2, 10s. per annum. They generally live in a cottage or neighbouring village, and work on the farm as required. Get victuals during the harvest, porridge and milk for breakfast, beer and bread for dinner, and porridge and milk for supper.

23. PARISH of KINGHORN. Ploughman..-W. V. Unmarried. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £35, 10s.

Breakfast, brose or porridge and milk. Dinner, cheese or bacon and bread and milk. Tea and bread and butter. Supper, brose or porridge and milk, or potatoes and milk. Health good.

Remarks.-Live in bothies generally, and are, strong and robust.

24. PARISH OF KINGHORN. Ploughman. W. N. Family above ten years, 2; below, 4. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £3. Yearly wages, £35, 10s.; wages of family, 12s. per week. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, broth and bread with pork, or cheese, or sometimes fish. Tea with bread and butter. Supper with family, porridge and milk in summer, potatoes and milk in winter. Health excellent.

Remarks.-Wages made up thus:-in money, £18; house and garden, £3; coals driven, £1,16s.; harvest victuals, £1; potatoes, £2, 10s.; meal, £5, 4s. milk, £4-in all, £35, 10s.

25. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Female Labourer.-N. B. Family above ten years, 2; below, none. Takes meals at home. Rent £1, 10s. Weekly wages, 5s.; wages of family, one earns 5s. per week. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, potatoes and herring, or pork broth and bread. Tea with butter and bread. Sapper, none. Health excellent.

Remarks. Very thrifty.

26. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Female Labourer.--F. S. Family above ten years of age, 2; below, 1. Takes meals at home. Rent, £1, 10s. Weekly wages, 5s.; wages of family, one earns 5s. per week. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, potatoes and herring, or pork broth and bread. Tea with bread and butter. No supper. health good.

Remarks.-One child is at school.

27. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Female Labourer. J. S. Family above ten years of age, 1; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent, 1, 10s. Weekly wages, 5s. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, potatoes and herring, or pork broth and bread. Tea with bread and butter. Supper none. Health good.

Remarks.—Children are at school. Very industrious.

28. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Female labourers.—B. R. Family above ten years, 3; below, none. Takes meals at home. Rent, £1, 10s. per annum. Weekly wages, 5s.; wages of family, two at 5s per week each. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, potatoes and herring, or pork broth and broad. Tea with butter and bread. No supper. Health excellent.

29. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Ploughman.—J. T. Family above ten years, 2; below, 4. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £2, 5s. per annum. Yearly wages, £30. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast, porridge and milk; family, porridge and milk, or tea and bread. Dinner, pork broth and potatoes; family, pork broth. Tea and bread with family. Supper with family, bread and milk. Health middling.

Remarks.-Dwelling-house is not very comfortable or good.

30. PARISH or KINGSBARNS. Ploughman.—A. A. Family above ten years, 2; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £2, 5s. per annum. Yearly wages, £30. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, pork broth and potatoes and bread. Tea and bread, with family. Supper with family, milk and bread. Health good.

Remarks.—Occupies a good house of two apartments, and garden plot attached, containing about 200 yards.

31. PARISH of KISGSBARNS. Ploughman..—D. V. Family above ten year, 4; below, 4. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £2, 5s. per annum. Yearly wages, £17 in money, 6½ bolls oatmeal, 8 bolls potatoes, and 14 gills sweet milk daily. Wages of family, four earn each 5s. per week. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, pork broth with bread and potatoes. Tea and bread with family. Supper with family, bread and milk. Health excellent.

32. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Land Labourer.—J. S. Family above tell years, 2; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent, £2, 5s. per annum. Weekly wages, 12s. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, pork broth, potatoes, and bread. Tea and bread with family. Supper with family, milk and bread, or potatoes and milk. Health good.

Remarks.—A land labourer, not a yearly servant. In bad weather, if there is much broken time, his wages will be a little less, being only paid for working hours employed.

33. PARISH OF KINGSBARNS. Ploughman.—J. G. Family above ten years, 4; below, 3. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £30; wages of family, four at 5s. per week each. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast, porridge and milk; family, porridge and milk, or sometimes tea and bread. Dinner with family, pork broth with bread and potatoes. Tea and bread with family. Supper with family, potatoes and milk. Health excellent.

ARGYLESHIRE

34. PARISH OF TARBERT (LOCHFINE). Labourer.—D. M'K. Family above ten years, 2; below, 3. Takes meals at home. Rent free; pays £2 a-year for cow's grass. Weekly wages, 13s. Keeps cow and poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk, and tea and bread afterwards. Dinner with family, bread and milk, or potatoes and milk, or herrings and potatoes, or braxy soup. Wife takes tea and bread. Supper with family, porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—This is a fair specimen of a Highland labourer in this district. He buys annually two cwt. of braxy at 5s. per cwt., and 100 herrings occasionally at 2s. per 120. In this district many Irish are employed, and each will do twice as much as a Highlander.

35. PARISH or TARBERT (LOCHFINE). Shepherd.—D. S. Family above ten years, 5; below, 2. Takes meals at borne. Rent, £3 per annum. Yearly wages, £26 ; wages of family, £29 per annum. Keeps a pig and poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, and tea with oatcake and butter afterwards family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, braxy soup, or potatoes and milk, with sometimes a herring and oatcakes. Supper with family, porridge and milk. Health good.

36. PARISH OF TALBERT (LOCHFINE). Ploughman.—D. M. Family above ten years, none; below, 3. Takes meals at hone. Rent, £2 per annum. Yearly wages, £23, 10s. in money, 6½ bolls meal, 12 bushels potatoes, and 1 pint skimmed milk daily.

Breakfast with family, tea and oatcakes. Dinner with family, herring and potatoes, or vegetable broth, or potatoes and milk. Supper with family, porridge and milk. Health very good.

STIRLINGSHIRE.

37. PARISH OF MUIRAVONSIDE. Labourer.—J. D. Family above ten years, 2; below, 1. Does riot take meals at home. Rent, £2 per annum. Weekly wages, 12s. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, porridge and milk; family, tea and bread, or porridge and milk. Dinner, broth and potatoes, with a small piece of meat or bacon boiled in the broth, and occasionally herring and potatoes; of family, the same. Tea, labourer takes home on week-days; fancily, tea with bread and butter. Supper, in summer, porridge and milk—in winter, potatoes and milk; family, none. Health good.

LINLITHGOWSHIRE

38. PARISH OF KIRKLISTON. Female Labourers.—C. V., A. B., E. G., P. F., living together. Take meals at home. Rent free, worth .£4 per annum. Weekly wages, 7s. each. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, brose, or porridge and treacle. Dinner, cheese and bread and butter, or broth, or porridge. Tea and bread. Supper, porridge and treacle. Health excellent.

Remarks. This return is from a bothy. The inmates are chiefly Irish or Highland unmarried girls. They are employed all the year on the land, at 1s. 2d. per day when working. Have house free. Victuals in harvest, and coals driven free—a privilege rarely required, fire being kept up by pilfered paling stobs and railing, &c. General moral conduct good; but occasional quarrels amongst themselves lead to petty warfare and blows. Diet in harvest good, being porridge and milk, beer and bread, and porridge and milk to supper.

39. PARISH OF KIRKLISTON. Ploughman.—J. S. Family above ten years, 1; below, none. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £34 Keeps a pig.

Breakfast, porridge and buttermilk; wife, tea and bread; child, bread and milk. Dinner, broth and beef; child, milk and bread. Tea and bread and butter with family. Supper with family, porridge and milk. Health good.

MID-LOTHIAN

40. PARISH OF RATHO. Ploughman.—A. T. Family above ten years, 4; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent included in wages. Yearly wages, £26 per annum ; wages of family, one at £4, 10s. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, or tea and bread and herrings; family, porridge and milk. Dinner, broth and beef; family, broth. Tea and bread and butter; family, none. Supper, bread and cheese; family, porridge and milk. Health good.

41. PARISH OF KIRKLISTON. Railway Labourer.—A. K. None of his family are at home. Breakfast and supper at home; takes all his meals at home on Sunday. Rent free. Weekly wages, 18s. Wife does not work. Keeps poultry.

Breakfast, tea and bread and butter. Dinner, before rinderpest made milk so scarce, he took milk and bread and cheese, now beer and bread and cheese; family, when at house, take broth and bread with beef or cheese. Tea, bread with tea, or broth, or porridge with milk, sugar, or beer; wife takes tea and bread. Health very good.

Remarks.—This labourer is employed as a "gaffer" on the railway.

42. PARISH OF CRAMOND. .Ploughman.—J. W. No family. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £34. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, porridge and milk. Dinner, vegetable broth, or beer and bread. Tea with bread and butter. Supper, porridge with milk or sugar. Health good.

Remarks.—In suburban parishes it is often difficult for the labouring classes to obtain a regular supply of milk, as the adjoining large towns consume the whole supply, either by contract or by giving a better price for the article.

HADDINGTONSHIRE

43. PARISH OF HADDINGTON. Labourer.—J. H. Family above ten years, 3; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Weekly wages, 12s.; wages of family, 13s. Keeps cow and pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk. Dinner, herrings and potatoes, or pork, broth, and bread, or bread, cheese, and milk. Tea and supper in one meal—parents, tea and bread and a piece of pork, or porridge and milk family, porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—Where no cow is kept £5 to £6 is allowed in lieu thereof. No poultry are allowed. In East Lothian generally, the hind has £11 in money and a free house and garden, besides potatoes, barley, beans, and oatmeal.

PEEBLESSHIRE

44. PARISH OF EDDLESTON. Ploughman.--D. B. Family above ten years, 2; below, 1. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £20 in money, 8 stones barley, 128 stones potatoes, fuel carted free, and 3 pints sweet milk daily. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk, and tea and bread afterwards. Dinner with family, milk and potatoes, or broth and potatoes, and bacon occasionally. Supper, porridge and milk, or cheese and bread and milk; family, porridge and milk. Health good.

ROXBURGHSHIRE

45. PARISH OF CASTLETON. Labourer.--R. N. Family above ten years, 1; below, 2. Takes meals at hone. Rent £2, 10s. per annum. Weekly wages, 15s. Keeps cow and poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, and tea with bread and butter; family the same. Dinner with family, broth and potatoes and bacon, or cheese and milk and bread and butter. Supper, potatoes and milk and bread, or tea with bread and butter. Health excellent.

LANARKSHIRE

46. PARISH OF CRAWFORD. Miners employed at Leadhills.—J. R. Family above ten years, 2; below, 6. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Weekly Wages, average from 10s. to 20s. as the bargain turns out. Keeps a cow, pig, and poultry; sometimes keeps two or three sheep and no cow.

Breakfast, tea, bread, and butter, with cheese or a herring; family, porridge and milk. Dinner, tea with haul or bacon and eggs, or broth and piece meat family the same. Tea with bread and butter; family, porridge and milk. No supper when tea is taken. Health good.

Remarks.—The health of young men and middle-aged is pretty good generally, but that of old men is not at all robust. Tea is very much used by this class at all diets. It would be better for them if more substantial food were more used. The piece of common grass land for grazing, belonging to the villagers, admits of their keeping cows easily; some, however, instead of a cow, graze two or three sheep.

47. PARISH OF CRAWFORD. Drainers and Outworkers.—P. A. Family above ten years, 2; below, 2. Takes breakfast and supper at home daily; dinner at home on Sundays only. Rent £2, 10s. per annum. Weekly wages, 15s.; wages of family, 6s. per week. Keeps cow, pig, and poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk, or tea with bread and butter, and cheese. Dinner, milk with bread and butter, and a piece of cheese; family, broth, bread, and a piece of pork; sometimes tea, bread and butter. Supper, porridge and milk, or beat potatoes and milk; family, porridge and milk. Health good.

Remarks.—This district not being an arable agricultural one, there are few field-workers employed. The case stated is that of a drainer, of which class there are a good number employed. Few women are employed for field labour here; their diet where employed is the same as the case given.

48. PARISH OF CRAWFORD. Ploughman..—P. S. Unmarried. Takes meals daily in master's kitchen. No rent. Yearly wages, £20. Keeps no cow, pig, or poultry.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, with bread and milk afterwards. Dinner, broth or potato soup, with meat and potatoes, and bread. Supper, porridge and milk, with bread and milk; sometimes meat, potatoes, and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—There are very few married ploughmen in this district; the farms are principally sheep farms. The shepherds are always married men. The unmarried ploughmen board and lodge in the farm-house.

49. PARISH OF CRAWFORD. Shepherd.—J. N. Family above ten years, 2; below, 4.tfakes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, paid chiefly in kind, worth £30 a-year, 10 bolls potatoes, 65 stones oatmeal, 8 tons coals. Keeps cow, pig, and poultry.

Breakfast with family, porridge and milk, and tea with bread and butter afterwards. Dinner with family, bread, butter, milk, and cheese; broth or potato soup, with a piece of salt meat or pork and potatoes. Supper with family, tea and bread and butter, or porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—The shepherd's wages vary, being 40 to 50 sheep when paid in sheep only, or 65 stones oatmeal, and £30 in money and cow's keep. Sometimes two cows allowed per annum, and 10 bolls potatoes of 4 cwt. to the boll.

DUMFRIESSHIRE

50. PARISH OF MIDDELBIE. Shepherd.—W. A. Family above ten years, 4; below, 1. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £3 per annum. Yearly wages, £30; wages of family, three are at service. Keeps cow, pig, and poultry free of charge.

Breakfast with family, oatmeal porridge and milk, or milk anti bread. Dinner with family, potatoes, butter, and milk, and often inferior mutton. Tea, with bread and butter. Supper wit It family, oatmeal porridge and milk. Health good.

Remarks.—This labourer is a shepherd, a class better paid than the average labourers on farms in the district.

51. PARISH OF MIDDLEBIE. Ploughman.—J. P. Family all out at service. Takes meals at home. Rent free, worth £4 per annum. Wages, 11s. per week, say £28 per annum. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast, oatmeal porridge and milk. Dinner, coffee and bread. Tea and bread. Supper, none. Health good.

52. PARISH OF MIDDLEBIE. Out-door Female Workers.—E. B., A. C. Take meals at home. Rent free. Weekly wages, 6s. each. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, tea. and bread, or brose. Dinner, coffee and bread. Tea and bread or brow, or porridge and milk. Health good.

WIGTOWNSHIRE

53. PARISH OF NEWTON-STEWART. Ploughman.—P. N. Family above ten years, 2; below, 2. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages, £21 in money, 5 bolls meal, and 4 bolls potatoes. Keeps a pig.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, and tea and oatmeal cake after it; family, porridge and milk. Dinner, frequently tea and oatcake and butter, or potatoes and herring and milk, or broth of vegetables and a little suet, family, the same. Supper, porridge and milk, or tea with oatcake and butter; family, porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—Tea and oatcake and butter is frequently the diet of husband and wife at all the three meals daily.

54. PARISH OF NEWTON-STEWART. Single Labourers, Male and Female, living in their Masters' houses.—A. W. Takes meals at home. Wages not specified.

Breakfast, porridge and sweet milk and oatcake, and milk afterwards. Dinner, broth with meat (bacon chiefly) and potatoes, oatcake and milk afterwards. Supper, porridge and milk. Health excellent.

Remarks.—This is the best fed class of the agricultural population in this district.

55. PARISH OF NEWTON-STEWART. Field Workers.—J. L. Family above ten years, 3; below, 3. Takes meals at home. Rent, £3 per annum. Weekly wages, 15s. Keeps pig and poultry.

Breakfast, tea with oatcake and butter; family, sometimes porridge and milk, and frequently tea, oatcake, and butter. Dinner, husband, penny loaf of wheat flour and cheese or butter to it, and milk or cold tea as "sap;" family, tea and oatcake. Supper with family, tea with oatcake and butter, or porridge and milk. Health very good.

Remarks.—In this class tea forms a part, if not the principal part, of every diet.

AYRSHIRE

56. PARISH OF KILMAURS. Ploughman.—J. S. Family above ten years, 2; below, 4. Takes meals at home. Rent free. Yearly wages,. £21 in money, 5 bolls oatmeal, 5 bolls potatoes, 1 pint (Scots) sweet milk daily, and fuel driven. No cow, pig, or poultry allowed.

Breakfast, porridge and milk, and sometimes tea and oatcake afterwards; family, porridge and milk. Dinner with family, oatcake and vegetable broth and potatoes, or milk, cheese, and oatcake. Tea, wife takes tea and oatcake. Supper, porridge and milk or tea with oatcake and butter, or milk and bread; family, bread and milk, or porridge and milk. Health excellent.

APPENDIX B

PROBABLE WEEKLY CONSUMPT OF FOOD

CAITHNESS-SHIRE.

1. PARISH OF REAY. J. R.—Description of Food.—Labourer: Breadstufl's (including bread, rice, flour, barley, pease, &c), 3 lbs.; oatmeal, 9 lbs.; fish, 3 lbs.; meat or bacon, 1 lb.; butter, 4 ozs.; sugar (or treacle), 8 ozs.; potatoes, 7 lbs.; tea, 1 oz.; coffee, 1 oz. Total, 23 lbs. 14 ozs. Milk, 7 imperial pints. Family: Breadstufl as above, 6 lbs.; oatmeal, 16 lbs.; fish, 1 lb.; meat or bacon, 1 lb.; butter, 1 lb.; sugar (or treacle), 1 lb.; potatoes, 20 lbs.; tea, 1 oz. Total, 46 lbs. 1 oz. Milk, 14 imperial pints. Remarks.—This family may be taken as labourer and 21 adults. Abstract.—Labourer, 52,047 grs. carbon, 2761k grs. nitrogen. Total, 54,808 grs. per week. Family per adult, 37,410 grs. carbon, 1677 grs. nitrogen. Total, 39,087 grs. per week.


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