Looking backward as far as thought can reach we behold
emerging from Southwestern Asia a race of white men. They are a race
superior to all other races existing on the face of the earth in physical
and mental development, and inferior tribes disperse before them and
vanish from view.
This dominant people is known as the Aryan race, and to
them is attributed the origin of all white men. As they multiply and
spread out, subdivisions take place and the ancient Aryan becomes the
progenitor of separate clans and tribes that in time develop
characteristics peculiar to their necessities and surroundings and the
result is the several races of white men as they now exist.
Leading the vanguard from out the mists of antiquity
comes the Celt, and about the close of the glacial period appears in
Europe. He is a tall, hardy man, brave and enterprising, and not a
specially warlike savage.
He is a maker of roads and highways for the advance of
the civilization of the coming ages. He wages war upon the forests and
they disappear; on the mountains and they are passed; on the rivers and
they are spanned; on the soil and it is subdued and made to bring forth an
abundance to supply the wants of man. His conquests are
over nature's obstructive barriers and not over his fellow men.
He is a heathen, but is not addicted to the gross
idolatry of other tribes. His conceptions of the unknown are spiritual,
mythical and superstitious, but his mental tendency seems to have been to
investigate and know the reason why for the existence of things.
This tendency led him to take the initiative in matters
of discovery and invention, and his achievements in these lines were of
inestimable value to the human race. He delved into the earth and
discovered the metallic properties hidden therein ; extracted them from
the grosser particles and adapted them to the practical purposes of life.
The Celt was the father of the Bronze Age, the first
and greatest advance from savagery and barbarism toward the dawning
civilization of the world.
His domestic relations, as far as we can infer from the
condition in which he was found when history began to record events, was
peculiar to himself at that age of the world. His family ties were tender
and devoted. The wife while submitting to his authority as the head of the
family was in all other respects his equal and was treated as such. Mutual
respect and affectionate regard were accorded by each to the other. Their
spheres of action were not specifically defined, but they went side by
side into the rough turmoil of procuring a livelihood. She was his
helpmate and stood loyally by him and in the emergency of battle in
defense of the home she was found by his side, bludgeon in hand, dealing
mighty blows upon the enemy. She was stalwart and strong and was often the
better warrior of the two. Their tender regard for each other, and for
their bairns, was a racial characteristic that has followed them along
down the pathway of time.
It was no doubt this conjugal love, and affection for
kith and kin, entering into their political emergencies that led to their
peculiar form of government. As the family grew and expanded it became a
clan, loyal to each other and to their kin.
Their political combinations were peculiarly
democratic. The individual rights of every clansman were recognized and
rigidly observed. The Chieftain was elected by the unobstructed and unawed
vote of the men of the clan. Once installed in office his authority was
supreme, and prompt and implicit obedience to his commands was exacted. To
demur, or even hesitate, was proof of disloyalty and brought on the
offender condign punishment.
But while the Chief was thus absolute in authority
there were responsibilities attached to his position that it was well for
him to observe. It was within his legitimate sphere of action to look
after the general welfare of the clan-to select their location, define
their boundaries and defend the same, to regulate their relations and
intercourse with the adjoining clans, to direct and control all their
movements as a body and to command and lead in battle. He was the
conservator of the honor, dignity and glory of the clan and was accorded
the respect and obedience due to his high rank. But with all this, the
personal and individual rights of the clansmen, outside the prerogatives
of the Chief must not be infringed upon or put in jeopardy.
Any act on the part of the Ruling Power to usurp
authority beyond that delegated or conceded to him by their unwritten law
was followed by the speedy decapitation of the offender and the election
of another Chieftain. Thus ultimate authority remained with the people,
and the absolute power of the Chief was only delegated to him by the
people for purposes of orderly control and might be recalled at will and
resumed by those in whom it originally vested. This principle in Celtic
administration is older than history and has never been abandoned; nor can
its existence be traced to any of the contemporaneous tribes of men.
These pioneer tribes had infantile conceptions of
perpetuating the story of the great achievements of their race. Each
Chieftain had in his retinue a minstrel, who was the historian of passing
events and the custodian of the past glories of the clan, who on all
suitable occasions chanted or sang in heroic strain of the mighty men of
former days and with prophetic ken foretold the unfolding greatness of
impending years. Thus was diffused the learning of the age and through
these human archives preserved, transmitted and handed down along the
passing centuries. It is supposed that the ancient Celt was not skilled in
political combinations. The ties that held the clans together were simply
those of kindred blood. There was no confederation of binding force to
insure unity of action against a common enemy. It is true that each Clan
would rally to the support of their kindred when they were oppressed; and
it is true that they would wage mighty battles, but as far as organization
was concerned, they were weak as against their enemies; and though crafty
and developing a high order of military genius they were unable to
withstand the organized masses hurled against them in after years.
It is conceded by all authentic history that the Celt
was the first white man to enter Europe, but it was so long ago that the
most ancient chronicles do not say when. They peopled Great Britain,
Belgium, Helvetia, North Italy, France, Germany and Spain, and under their
culture the old world put on the regalia of a new life, gorgeous in
comparison to the blight of Turanian idolatry with which the land had been
But the Celt was closely followed by the Teuton,
another branch of the old Aryan race. These were a more powerful people
and possessed widely different racial characteristics from the pioneers.
These Teutons, though of the same race and originally
of the same language, split up into many hostile tribes, and warred with
each other and with everything else in sight. Skirting along the
Mediterranean, the Greeks occupied the Hellenes, and the Romans the
Italian peninsula; and in the course of ages they built up wonderful
civilizations. The coarser and more brutal element of the Teuton were the
Germanic tribes, whose most prominent characteristics were greed and
gluttony-and these followed fast upon the heels of the Celt, to dispossess
him of his cultivated lands and rob him of his material gains. The Celts
were scattered over wide stretches of territory, beyond supporting
distance and without efficient organization, yet it did not prove an easy
proposition to eject him. The Carthaginians warred upon him more than one
hundred years before he was forced back by Hannibal. Rome depredated upon
his commerce and despoiled his borders, while the Germanic tribes pillaged
his homes and impoverished the land. The combined world powers were
against him ; his wealth was his peril and his only defense was in his
good right arm. Justice cut no figure in the affairs of men and nations,
"Might makes right," was the slogan of the day. Beset on every side, he
necessarily fought on the defensive. His enemies were always
aggressive-bent on conquest, but there were times when he arose in his
might and made fearful reprisals upon his oppressors.
Three hundred and ninety years before Christ he scaled
the Appenines, wasted Italy and destroyed Rome. And there were other times
when his fearful resistance shook political centers of the world.
But, in the course of time we find the great body of
the race corralled on the British Islands. There, separated by the natural
divisions of the country, they became the nations, or people known as the
Britons, Scots, Welchmen and Irishmen. Other populous gens or clans had
been swept away by the remorseless wars of the continent, or absorbed,
perhaps enslaved, by the victorious hordes of barbarians and their
identity lost to history. It is known that Celts of Northern Italy became
a component part of the Roman Legions.
The British Islands had been in the possession of the
Celts from the earliest known period of time and now became their last
refuge; but the SeaHogs were not content that they should be thus isolated
and dwell in peace. Honest, simple-minded, frugal and industrious, they
soon developed the resources of the country and acquired wealth that
tempted the cupidity of the German Buccaneers; and they were assailed in
turn by the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Danes and Normans. After an heroic
resistance the Britons were driven into Wales, where they became merged
into that people and ceased to have a separate political existence.
The Scot was confined to Scotland, where he ultimately
maintained his independence and was never subdued. Wales resisted
England's encroachments for a long period of time without a thought of
submission, until at last the King of England made a peaceful proposition
to unite the destinies of the two countries by treaty, in which he
promised to give Wales a native King who could not speak a word of
English; and when the compact was ratified he presented to them his own
son, born a few days before in the Welch Castle of Caernarvon, and
thenceforth the heir to England's Crown has borne the title of the Prince
of Wales. The compact seems to have been liberal, the Welch retaining
intact their most cherished rights which have never been seriously
Ireland was overcome by force, but was never pacified.
The antiquity of the Celtic title to the British
Islands may be illustrated by a single circumstance well authenticated by
At the time of the passing of the Celts into Europe a
portion of the race remained behind and located on the Eastern shore of
the Mediterranean Sea, at the point of the joining of the three
Continents. It was here that the ancient Phoenicians subsequently dwelt
and became masters of the Sea.
The Phoenicians were of Semitic origin, but
notwithstanding the marked difference in racial habits and traits, they
and the Celts lived side by side on terms of amity and good-will.
It was many centuries after the Teutonic tribes with
their neolithic arms had passed into Europe before the secret of the
amicable relations existing between these naturally antagonistic people
was discovered by the rest of the world. The Celt had sounded the knell of
the Stone Age, and with the aid of the Phoenician was developing the
metallurgy of the Continents.
Bronze was the first metallic combination discovered
and reduced to practical purposes. At that age TIN was an essential
amalgum of bronze without which it could not be manipulated. The only tin
mines then known in the world were in Cornwall, England, and in
Wales-countries in Possession of the Celt-and the location of the mines
was known to him and the Phoenician and the secret was safely guarded by
them for centuries. The introduction and use of bronze in the form of
arms, ornaments, medallions and statuary in the far East is shown by
research to have been of very remote antiquity, long before the building
of the Temple at Jerusalem, when Solomon sent into Phoenicia for men to
complete the great edifice.
Phoenician vessels of superior construction and speed
sailed from Tyre and Sidon the length of the Mediterranean, passed through
the Straits of Gibraltar and thence to the coast of Wales, and returned
laden with the precious ore by routes not frequented by the limited coast
trade of the Sea; thus preserving the secret of their source of supply and
enabling this wonderful people to maintain a monopoly of the art for ages.
It is by this bronze key that we unlock the secret of
the ages and prove that our ancestors lived loved, flourished and
accumulated wealth on the British Islands before the Greek built Athens or
the foundations of Rome were laid.
Christianity was introduced into the British Islands at
an early period and was gladly embraced by the simple-minded,
The gentle teachings of Christ appealed to their
sympathetic natures and brought into action all that was best in their
lives and aspirations.
It would have been well for mankind had their
oppressors comprehended and practiced the lessons taught by the Nazarene.
But the German mind never rose to a comprehension of the higher principles
of Christian civilization, "Do unto others as ye would that others should
do unto you," was beyond them, and to this day they have not mastered its
The advent of the new era gave a wonderful impulse to
learning, literature and scientific progress in Ireland and Scotland, and
they became the foremost of all the nations of theearth in literature.
science and general progress, and the teachers of the nations in all the
mental developments that make men great. Ireland became the educational
centre of the world. The surrounding nations sent their brightest sons to
her shores to be trained and polished in intellectual lines and fitted for
the impending achievements of a progressive age. For two centuries she
maintained an intellectual preeminence in all the European lands. Learning
became a fad on the Green Isle among the lowly and the poor, and it is
told that hucksters on the highways and peddlers on the thoroughfares of
the cities would often cry their wares in the most elegant Latin.
But then came the Dark Ages. Barbarians from the Baltic
swept over Europe obliterating the progress of centuries. The bright green
isle was made a land of desolation. The Church founded by the great
Apostles abandoned its holy traditions and joined with dissolute civil
powers to crush out the budding seeds of religious liberty, and the age of
darkness spread over Ireland. In 1110 the Irish Synod of Rathbreasil sold
their religious independence to an Italian Pontiff (Adrian) and within the
same century the Pontiff bargained away its civic independence to a
drunken English Monarch (Henry II.) in return for a promise of payment of
Peter's pence. The wheels of progress were rolled backward ; the field of
achievement laid waste and desolated. War, murder, rapine and robbery
ensued, and untold woe and misery, such as this fair land never conceived
was the miserable lot of our old forbears.