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Scottish Education - Schools and University
Appendix V. Universities


THE UNIVERSITIES.
(By Professor DARROCH, Chair of Education, Edinburgh.)

Changes in the Art curriculum. Since 1906 the most important change has been the passing of new ordinances regulating the granting of degrees in Arts in the Universities of Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh. As yet, the University of St Andrews has not brought itself into line with the other three universities, but it is understood that the authorities there are engaged in the framing of an ordinance with a similar object in view.

The ordinances of the three universities named are drawn up in almost identical terms and effect fundamental changes in the organisation of the Arts faculties.

The first change effected is, that, under the new conditions, instead of the present one Winter Session, the Academical year will extend to twenty-five teaching weeks and will be divided into three periods or terms. Along with this extension of the session, it is proposed to reduce the number of lectures or of formal class-meetings from 100 to 75 and to extend and to develop tutorial work in connection with the various classes. With the longer session, and by the provision of tutorial assistance, it is hoped that more individual attention may be paid to students than under the present system.

The second change introduced by the new ordinances is the reduction of the number of subjects which may be included in a degree course. In the Aberdeen and Edinburgh ordinances it is enacted that "the curriculum for the ordinary degree in Arts shall consist of five subjects of which two subjects shall be studied for two Academical years.. .provided that it shall be in the power of the Senatus with the approval of the University Court to reckon courses in two cognate subjects as two courses in one subject."

The ordinance of the University of Glasgow differs slightly from those of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. In the former it is laid down that "the curriculum for the ordinary degree of Master of Arts shall consist of five or six subjects." If a five-subject degree is selected, then two of the subjects must be studied during two sessions: if a six-subject degree is chosen, then one subject must be studied during two sessions, and of the other five subjects, two must be cognate (e.g. Logic and Moral Philosophy) and these must be studied in separate sessions.

The effect of these new regulations is to give entire freedom to the universities in the framing of curricula for students, and it now becomes possible to establish a degree course which shall include neither Latin nor Greek nor Mathematics. Thus e.g. a university may approve a course which includes French and German studied during two sessions along with English, Moral Philosophy and Logic studied during one session. The third change is the power given to each university to frame its own courses of study without reference to the other universities. Under the new ordinances the Senatus and University Court of each university has power to make from time to time regulations regarding "the selection of subjects for the curriculum, their classification as cognate, and the order in which they are to be studied, and also regarding the standards of the degree examinations and the conditions of admission thereto." Moreover power is also given to the Senatus and University Court to include or exclude any subject of university study in a graduating course and to establish new courses for Degrees with Honours.

Other changes in curriculum. Early in 1907 the University of Edinburgh obtained approval of an ordinance giving them power to establish the degree of Bachelor of Science in Forestry, and arrangements have now been made for a complete course of instruction in Forestry. In July, 1907, a new ordinance regulating degrees in Medicine and Surgery was also obtained by the same university. The principal features of the ordinance are the increased opportunities given to students for taking each of the four professional examinations in separate sections, and the holding of degree examinations in December as well as in spring and summer.

Changes in Bursary Regulations. New ordinances dealing with the regulations as to the award of Bursaries and Fellowships have also been promoted by the Universities of Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh, the object being to allow the university authorities greater freedom than before in regard to the selection of the subjects in competitive examinations and in the award of bursaries.

New Chairs and Lectureships. During the past two years, several important additions have been made to the teaching staffs of the universities. The following are the most important:

UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS.

(1) Lectureship in Diseases of the Skin
(2) Lectureship in Diseases of Children
(3) Lectureship in Latin
(4) Lectureship in English and Philology
(5) Lectureship in Mathematics

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW

(1) John S. Dixon Chair in Mining
(2) Lectureship in Physical Optics
(3) Lectureship in Celtic
(4) Lectureship in Psychology
(5) Lectureship in Early and Middle English
(6) Lectureship in Social Economics
(7) Lectureship in Pathological Histology

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN

* (1) Lectureship in Constitutional Law and History
* (2) Lectureship in International Law
(3) Lectureship in Geology
(4) Lectureship in Forestry
(5) Lectureship in English
(6) Lectureship in Study of Fisheries

* By the establishment of these lectureships Aberdeen has now a fully constituted Faculty of Law, and is able to prepare students for the LL. B. degree.

UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

(1) Lectureship in Geography
(2) Lectureship in Economic History
(3) Lectureship in Mercantile Law
(4) Lectureship in Statistics and Mathematical Economics
(5) Lectureship in Forest Botany
(6) Lectureship in History of Medicine

I. Imperial Grants. At the present time, the Scottish Universities receive from Imperial funds an annual grant of 72,000 (42,000 under the Act of 1889 and 30,000 under the Act of 1892). In view of the fact that the newer universities of England and Wales have received large grants within recent years, a conjoint representation was made to the Chancellor of the Exchequer for increased assistance for the Scottish Universities. A favourable reply was received and a Treasury Committee with the Earl of Elgin as Chairman has recently been appointed to inquire into the needs and claims of the universities.

Under Clause 16, Sub-section (b) of the Education (Scotland) Act of 1908, the universities may also participate in the Education (Scotland) Fund in respect of yearly maintenance expenditure.

II. Carnegie Trust Grants. The Carnegie Trustees in their second quinquennial distribution from October 1st, 1908, to September 30th, 1913, have allotted the following sums to the respective universities.

St. Andrews 37,500 (7,500 annually for 5 years)
Glasgow 50,000 (10,000 annually for 5 years)
Aberdeen 40,000 (8,000 annually for 5 years)
Edinburgh 52,500 (10,500 annually for 5 years)

III. Private Benefactors. During the past two years, the Universities of Scotland have received several notable private benefactions. The most important are the following:-

UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS

From

(1) Andrew Carnegie, Esq., LL.D., for additional library accommodation at St Andrews 10,000
(2) Andrew Carnegie, Esq., LL.D., for erection and equipment of physical laboratory at Dundee 14,500
(3) Professor Purdie for chemical research laboratory at St Andrews 9,000
(4) Mrs Bell Pettigrew for the erection of a museum at St Andrews 6,000
(5) From the estates of the late Jane Moncrieff Arnott and of her father the late James Moncrieff Arnott, Esq., of Chapel, Fife (about) 7,000

UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.

From

(1) James S. Dixon, Esq., LL.D., Fairleigh, Bothwell, for the endowment of a Chair of Mining (in addition to 10,000 previously given) 6,500
(2) From the trustees of the late Mr T. Graham Young, Glasgow, towards the endowment of a Lectureship in Metallurgical Chemistry 5,000
(3) From the Bellahouston Trustees for the acquisition and equipment of a new recreation ground 2,500
(4) From the Right Honourable Lord Newlands for the purpose of providing additional income for Snell exhibitioners at Oxford 10,000

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN.

From

(1) The late Colonel Alex. Milne, C.I.E., for bursaries for poor students 9,170
(2) The late Mr William Knox, Grain Merchant, Aberdeen, for Scholarships in Arts and Bursaries in Medicine and Divinity 5,000
(3) The late Dr John Wight, Aberdeen, for Medical bursaries 3,000
(4) The Hon. A. McRobert, Cawnpore, for Cancer Research Fellowship per annum 400

UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.

From

(1) Sir John Jackson, C.E., London, an endowment to be called "The Professor Tait Memorial Fund" to encourage Physical research per annum (about) 200
(2) William McEwan, Esq., LL.D., an endowment for the upkeep of the McEwan Hall 6,450
(3) From the estates of the late Jane Moncrieff Arnott and of her father the late James Moncrieff Arnott, Esq., of Chapel, Fife 22,320.


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