(By Professor DARROCH, Chair of Education, Edinburgh.)
Changes in the Art
curriculum. Since 1906 the most important change has been the passing of new
ordinances regulating the granting of degrees in Arts in the Universities of
Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh. As yet, the University of St Andrews has
not brought itself into line with the other three universities, but it is
understood that the authorities there are engaged in the framing of an
ordinance with a similar object in view.
The ordinances of the three
universities named are drawn up in almost identical terms and effect
fundamental changes in the organisation of the Arts faculties.
The first change effected is,
that, under the new conditions, instead of the present one Winter Session,
the Academical year will extend to twenty-five teaching weeks and will be
divided into three periods or terms. Along with this extension of the
session, it is proposed to reduce the number of lectures or of formal
class-meetings from 100 to 75 and to extend and to develop tutorial work in
connection with the various classes. With the longer session, and by the
provision of tutorial assistance, it is hoped that more individual attention
may be paid to students than under the present system.
The second change introduced
by the new ordinances is the reduction of the number of subjects which may
be included in a degree course. In the Aberdeen and Edinburgh ordinances it
is enacted that "the curriculum for the ordinary degree in Arts shall
consist of five subjects of which two subjects shall be studied for two
Academical years.. .provided that it shall be in the power of the Senatus
with the approval of the University Court to reckon courses in two cognate
subjects as two courses in one subject."
The ordinance of the
University of Glasgow differs slightly from those of Aberdeen and Edinburgh.
In the former it is laid down that "the curriculum for the ordinary degree
of Master of Arts shall consist of five or six subjects." If a five-subject
degree is selected, then two of the subjects must be studied during two
sessions: if a six-subject degree is chosen, then one subject must be
studied during two sessions, and of the other five subjects, two must be
cognate (e.g. Logic and Moral Philosophy) and these must be studied in
The effect of these new
regulations is to give entire freedom to the universities in the framing of
curricula for students, and it now becomes possible to establish a degree
course which shall include neither Latin nor Greek nor Mathematics. Thus
e.g. a university may approve a course which includes French and German
studied during two sessions along with English, Moral Philosophy and Logic
studied during one session. The third change is the power given to each
university to frame its own courses of study without reference to the other
universities. Under the new ordinances the Senatus and University Court of
each university has power to make from time to time regulations regarding
"the selection of subjects for the curriculum, their classification as
cognate, and the order in which they are to be studied, and also regarding
the standards of the degree examinations and the conditions of admission
thereto." Moreover power is also given to the Senatus and University Court
to include or exclude any subject of university study in a graduating course
and to establish new courses for Degrees with Honours.
Other changes in curriculum.
Early in 1907 the University of Edinburgh obtained approval of an ordinance
giving them power to establish the degree of Bachelor of Science in
Forestry, and arrangements have now been made for a complete course of
instruction in Forestry. In July, 1907, a new ordinance regulating degrees
in Medicine and Surgery was also obtained by the same university. The
principal features of the ordinance are the increased opportunities given to
students for taking each of the four professional examinations in separate
sections, and the holding of degree examinations in December as well as in
spring and summer.
Changes in Bursary
Regulations. New ordinances dealing with the regulations as to the award of
Bursaries and Fellowships have also been promoted by the Universities of
Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh, the object being to allow the university
authorities greater freedom than before in regard to the selection of the
subjects in competitive examinations and in the award of bursaries.
New Chairs and Lectureships.
During the past two years, several important additions have been made to the
teaching staffs of the universities. The following are the most important:
UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS.
(1) Lectureship in Diseases
of the Skin
(2) Lectureship in Diseases of Children
(3) Lectureship in Latin
(4) Lectureship in English and Philology
(5) Lectureship in Mathematics
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW
(1) John S. Dixon Chair in
(2) Lectureship in Physical Optics
(3) Lectureship in Celtic
(4) Lectureship in Psychology
(5) Lectureship in Early and Middle English
(6) Lectureship in Social Economics
(7) Lectureship in Pathological Histology
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN
* (1) Lectureship in
Constitutional Law and History
* (2) Lectureship in International Law
(3) Lectureship in Geology
(4) Lectureship in Forestry
(5) Lectureship in English
(6) Lectureship in Study of Fisheries
* By the establishment of
these lectureships Aberdeen has now a fully constituted Faculty of Law, and
is able to prepare students for the LL. B. degree.
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
(1) Lectureship in Geography
(2) Lectureship in Economic History
(3) Lectureship in Mercantile Law
(4) Lectureship in Statistics and Mathematical Economics
(5) Lectureship in Forest Botany
(6) Lectureship in History of Medicine
Imperial Grants. At the present time, the
Scottish Universities receive from Imperial funds an annual grant of £72,000
(£42,000 under the Act of 1889 and £30,000 under the Act of 1892). In view
of the fact that the newer universities of England and Wales have received
large grants within recent years, a conjoint representation was made to the
Chancellor of the Exchequer for increased assistance for the Scottish
Universities. A favourable reply was received and a Treasury Committee with
the Earl of Elgin as Chairman has recently been appointed to inquire into
the needs and claims of the universities.
Under Clause 16, Sub-section
(b) of the Education (Scotland) Act of 1908, the universities may also
participate in the Education (Scotland) Fund in respect of yearly
Carnegie Trust Grants.
The Carnegie Trustees in their second
quinquennial distribution from October 1st, 1908, to September 30th, 1913,
have allotted the following sums to the respective universities.
St. Andrews £37,500 (£7,500
annually for 5 years)
Glasgow £50,000 (£10,000 annually for 5 years)
Aberdeen £40,000 (£8,000 annually for 5 years)
Edinburgh £52,500 (£10,500 annually for 5 years)
III. Private Benefactors.
During the past two years, the Universities of Scotland have received
several notable private benefactions. The most important are the following:-
UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS
(1) Andrew Carnegie, Esq., LL.D., for additional library
accommodation at St Andrews £10,000
(2) Andrew Carnegie, Esq., LL.D., for erection and equipment of physical
laboratory at Dundee £14,500
(3) Professor Purdie for chemical research laboratory at St Andrews £9,000
(4) Mrs Bell Pettigrew for the erection of a museum at St Andrews £6,000
(5) From the estates of the late Jane Moncrieff Arnott and of her father the
late James Moncrieff Arnott, Esq., of Chapel, Fife (about) £7,000
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.
(1) James S. Dixon, Esq., LL.D., Fairleigh, Bothwell, for the endowment
of a Chair of Mining (in addition to £10,000 previously given) £6,500(3) From the Bellahouston Trustees
for the acquisition and equipment of a new recreation ground £2,500
(2) From the trustees of the late Mr T. Graham Young, Glasgow, towards the
endowment of a Lectureship in Metallurgical Chemistry £5,000
(4) From the Right Honourable Lord Newlands for the purpose of providing
additional income for Snell exhibitioners at Oxford £10,000
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN.
(1) The late Colonel Alex. Milne, C.I.E., for
bursaries for poor students £9,170
(2) The late Mr William Knox, Grain Merchant, Aberdeen, for Scholarships in
Arts and Bursaries in Medicine and Divinity £5,000
(3) The late Dr John Wight, Aberdeen, for Medical bursaries £3,000
(4) The Hon. A. McRobert, Cawnpore, for Cancer Research Fellowship per annum
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.
(1) Sir John Jackson, C.E., London, an endowment to be
called "The Professor Tait Memorial Fund" to encourage Physical research per
annum (about) £200
(2) William McEwan, Esq., LL.D., an endowment for the upkeep of the McEwan
(3) From the estates of the late Jane Moncrieff Arnott and of her father the
late James Moncrieff Arnott, Esq., of Chapel, Fife £22,320.