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THE PRACTICE OF COOKERY
CHAPTER I. - SOUPS


PREPARATORY REMARKS ON SOUPS AND GRAVIES

     Every utensil employed in a kitchen must be kept scrupulously clean, and a cook ought to take especial care that all her sauce-pans be in good order. Brass pans are preferable to preserving in, and cast-iron and double block-tin are the best sort in use for every other purpose; their covers should be made to fit closely, and the tinning of the cast-iron pots and pans always renewed as soon as it is observed to be wearing off. While new, they may be easily kept clean by washing then regularly with hot water, and rubbing on them, when quite dry, a little whitening with leather or flannel. After long use, they will require occasional scouring with fine sand; and before they are used, they ought always to be rinsed out with hot water, and wiped with a clean cloth. A landlady will find it good economy, and for her advantage in other respects, to provide plenty of stone-ware and earthen vessels, and also common dishes for the kitchen, that the table-set may not be used to keep cold meat on.

     In boiling soup, less water is used in a digester than in a common pot, as in the digester no steam can escape.

     To extract the strength from meat, long and slow boiling is necessary, but care must be taken that the pot is never off the boil. All soups are the better for being made the day before they are to be used, and they should then be strained into earthen pans. When soup has jellied in the pan, it should not be removed into another, as breaking it will occasion its becoming sour sooner than it would otherwise do; when in danger of not keeping, it should be boiled up. It never keeps long with many vegetables in it. The meat used for soups or broths cannot be too fresh. When any animal food is plain boiled, the liquor, with the addition of the trimmings of meat and poultry, makes good soups and gravies, as do also the bones of roasted or broiled meat. The gravies left in the dishes answer for hashes, and the liquor in which veal has been boiled, may be made into a glaze by boiling it with a ham bone till reduced to a third or fourth part, and seasoning it with the necessary herbs and spices.

     All soups and gravies must be carefully skimmed; and when any grease or fat still remains, it may be removed by laying a piece of thick white blotting paper upon the surface, and repeating it till the ft is taken off, or by adding a little flour and cold water mixed together, and letting it boil a few minutes.

     In boiling weak soups, the pan should be uncovered that the watery particles may escape. Cow-heel jelly improves every sort of rich soup; and for thickening, truffles, morels, and dried mushrooms, may be used with advantage. 

     Should brown gravy or mock-turtle soup be spoiling, fresh made charcoal, roughly pounded, tied in a little bag and boiled with either, will absorb the bad flavour, and leave it sweet and good. The charcoal may be made by simply putting a bit of wood into the fire, and pounding the burnt part in a mortar.

MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

Put half a pound of fresh butter, with six large onions sliced, three cloves of garlic, some chopped parsley, and sweet marjoram, into a stew-pan; let it stew over a slow fire till of a light brown colour; cut in small pieces five pounds of lean beef, and let that stew till the gravy be extracted, and then put in three quarts of boiling water, and half a pound of scotch barley, and let it simmer four hours very slowly; mix four table-spoonfuls of currie-powder with cold water, and add it to the stock; take out the beef, and rub the barley through a sieve, to thicken the soup. Cut a fowl in joints, skin it, and put it in a stew-pan with a piece of butter, and let it stew till quite tender; the stew-pan must be kept closely covered: this to be added to the soup, the last thing, with a pint of boiling milk, and the juice of two lemons. Boiled rice must always be served with this soup.

ANOTHER MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

Make a strong stock of the bones of roasted beef, mutton, and fowl; while it is preparing, put into a stew-pan, with six ounces of butter, three quarts of sliced turnip, two quarts of carrots, and eight large onions also sliced; let them stew upon the stove till tender; then add three quarts of the prepared stock, a large slice of the crumb of bread, and two table-spoonfuls of currie-powder; let them stew four or five hours; strain it through a tammy cloth, with two wooden spoons, taking care that no bones be left amongst the vegetables; if too thick to go through, add more stock. Then cut a fowl in pieces, fry it in a frying-pan with butter, and add it to the soup; after it has boiled a little, draw it to the side of the stove, and let it simmer, that the grease may be taken off. A little good beef stock, in addition to that made of the bones, will be an improvement. It is sometimes thickened with whole or ground rice, instead of bread, and ought to be made upon a stove.       

ANOTHER MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

Cut off the meat of four pounds of a breast of veal into bits about two inches by one. Boil the bones and trimmings in three quarts of water for two hours, with some whole pepper, and a little allspice; skim it well, strain, and add the veal previously fried in butter, with four onions minced; boil it for half an hour. Mix with cold water two table-spoonfuls of currie-powder, the same of arrowroot, and a tea-spoonful of salt; stir this into the soup, and simmer it gently till the veal is quite tender.

MULLAGATAWNY, OR CURRIE BROTH

Make about two quarts of strong veal broth, seasoned with two onions, a bunch of parsley, salt and pepper; strain it, and have ready a chicken, cut in joints and skinned; put it into the broth, with a table-spoonful of currie-powder; boil the chicken till quite tender, and a little before serving, add the juice of a lemon, and stir in a tea-cupful of cream. Serve boiled rice to eat with this broth.

MULLAGATAWNY.

Boil slowly in two quarts of water one pound of split pes, half an ounce of butter, two onions sliced, a little salt, cayenne, and two blades of mace. When the peas are tender, put in a large fowl, cut in joints and skinned, two quarts of boiling water, or stock, if the soup be required very rich; twenty minutes before serving, add a large table-spoonful of currie-powder, and the same of ground rice.

CALF’S-HEAD SOUP, OR MOCK TURTLE.

Parboil a calf’s head, take off the skin and cut it in bits about an inch and half square; cut the fleshy parts in bits, take out the black part of the eyes, and cut the rest in rings; skin the tongue, and cut it in slices, add it all to three quarts of good stock, and season it with cayenne, two or three blades of mace, salt, the peel of half a lemon, and half a pint of white wine, with about a dozen of forcemeat balls; stew all this n hour and a half; rub down with a little cold water, two table-spoonfuls of flour, mix well amongst it half a pint of the soup, and then stir it into the pot; put in the juice of half a large lemon, and the hard-boiled yolks of eight eggs; let it simmer for ten minutes, and then put it all in the tureen. When eggs are scarce, boil two eggs hard, pound the yolks in a mortar with a pinch of salt, adding the yolk of a raw egg; when well mixed together, put them on a table dusted with flour, roll them in the form of a small sausage, and cut them into very small equal parts; round every piece in the palm of the hand with a little flour, and put them on a plate as they are done; give them a boil in boiling water, then put in fresh cold water; drain them through a tammy before putting them into the soup, ragout, or any dressed dish.

ANOTHER CALF’S-HEAD SOUP.

Scald and clean thoroughly a calf’s-head with the skin on, boil it an hour gently in three quarts of water, and parboil it with some sweetbreads. Cut off the meat, slice and fry of a light brown in butter two pounds of grave bee, one of veal, and one of mutton, with five onions cut small; put all into the liquor, adding the bones of the head broken; rinse the frying-pan with two quarts of boiling water, and put it to the meat, and other things, with two whole onions; a bunch of sweet herbs, and twice their quantity of parsley; the peel of one lemon, four cloves, a little allspice, salt, and black pepper, with a slice of the crumb of bread dried before the fire; let all this stew slowly for five hours, strain it, and when cold, take off all the fat. Cut the meat of the calf’s-head, tongue, and sweet-breads, in small square bits, add them to the soup, and when it has boiled, mix very gradually with a large table-spoonful of cayenne, and yolks of eight or ten hard-boiled eggs, and the same number of forcemeat balls; a pint of white wine, - Madeira is the best, - and just before serving, add the juice of a lemon. Forcemeat with five table-spoonful of salt, one of white pepper, the grated peel of a lemon, some nutmeg, and boiled parsley chopped; bet the yolks and whites of two eggs, roll the balls the size of the yolk of an egg, and fry them of a light brown in boiling dripping.

ANOTHER CALF’S HEAD SOUP.

Take as much as is required of not very strong veal, or beef stock, in which six onions have bee boiled; brown two ounces of butter, and thicken it well with flour, then add the stock by degrees; when it boils, put in the calf’s-head cut in small pieces, and some fried forcemeat balls; season it with salt and pepper. The peel of half a lemon improves it.  When it has boiled twenty minutes, add two table-spoonfuls of catsup, three of essence of anchovies, and as much lemon pickle as will make it a pleasant acid. To give the soup a good colour, and to enrich the flavour, may be added a large table-spoonful of flour, mixed perfectly smooth in a teacupful of cold water, and stirred gradually into the soup, after which let it boil a few minutes.

ANOTHER CALF’S HEAD SOUP.

Cut half a pound of lean veal in small pieces, fry it of a light brown in butter; cut off the meat in small pieces from the bones of a cow-heel that has been boiled tender, put it into a stew-pan with the veal and two quarts of beef gravy, mace, and three cloves, stew it slowly an hour, then add a large glass of Madeira, or any whit wine, the green part of a leek, some parsley, and lemon thyme chopped small, lemon peel shred fine, and the juice of a half a lemon. Let it stew very gently an hour and a half. Serve it with forcemeat balls, and the yolks of hard-boiled eggs. 

BROWN GRAVY SOUP.

     Take fifteen pounds of a leg or shin of beef, cut off the meat in bits, rub the bottom of the pot with butter, put in the meat, let it brown for nearly an hour, turning it constantly; break the bone, and take out the marrow, which may be kept for a pudding, but it is considered better than butter to brown the meat with; put to the meat fourteen perfectly clean, and add six good-sized red onions, one carrot cut in three, one head of celery, a good handful of whole black and Jamaica pepper mixed; let this boil very gently ten or twelve hours closely covered, if upon a fire, bit if done upon a hot plate not to be covered; strain it through a cullender, and then through a hair sieve, into a large pan to be kept for use. Return the meat and bones into the pot with three or four quarts of hot water; let it boil nearly two hours, and strain it off. This makes good stock for gravies, stews, and any made dishes.

     This gravy soup keeps perfectly good for three or four weeks. When it is to be boiled to send to table, first boil vermicelli, or macaroni, in a little salt and water, till tender; stain it, and add it to the soup just before serving. This soup is quite pure, and requires no clearing. It is a most convenient thing to have in a house in cold weather, as it is always ready for use; and; served with dry toast to eat with it, makes an acceptable luncheon.

     The trimmings of meat, giblets, and bones, may be boiled with the beef for this soup.

ANOTHER BROWN GRAVY SOUP.

Cut down three pounds of gravy-beef, and put it on in a stew-pan with three onions cut small, and two ounces of butter; let it brown well, stirring it to prevent the onions from burning; then add four quarts of water, one head of celery, of carrots and turnips two each, with some whole black pepper and salt; boil it gently for four hours; strain it; and the next day take off the ft. When it is heated, add some vermicelli, previously boiled in water, and serve it after boiling ten minutes.

CURRIE SOUP.

Mince small three or four onions, according to their size; put them into a sauce-pan with two ounces of butter, dredge in some flour, and fry them till of a light brown, taking care not to burn them; rub in by degrees a large table-spoonful and a half of currie-powder, till it be quite a paste; gradually stir in three quarts of grave soup, mixing it well together; boil it gently till it be well flavoured with the currie-powder;

ANOTHER CURRIE SOUP.

Boil a shank of veal for stock; strain, and let it stand till cold; take off all the fat. Skin and cut a large fowl into pieces; boil it, and add the water it was boiled in to the stock, with two large table-spoonfuls of currie-powder, the same of onions finely minced, one ounce of butter mixed with flour; put in the fowl, and let it simmer for three hours; and a little before serving, stir in two table-spoonfuls of rich cream.

SOUP CRESSY.

Slice twelve large onions, and fry them pretty brown in a quarter of pound of fresh; scrape and clean two dozen of good red carrots; boil them in four quarts of water till quite soft, pound them in a marble mortar, mix them with the onions, and add the liquor in which the carrots were boiled, a bunch of sweet herbs, pepper, salt, a blade of mace, and two or three cloves; let them all boil about an hour, then rub them through a hair sieve; put it on again to boil rather quickly, till it be as thick as rich cream. Put a little dry boiled rice in the tureen, and pour the soup over it. If the carrots are large, one dozen will found sufficient.

ANOTHER SOUP CRESSY.

Wash clean, and cut small, eight carrots, eight turnips, three heads of celery, and six onions; put them in a stew-pan with a quarter of a pound of butter and a slice of ham, stew them gently for an hour stirring them constantly; when they begin to brown, add as much gravy soup as will fill the tureen; let it boil till the vegetables are sufficiently tender to pulp with a spoon through a sieve, after which put it on the fire and boil it half an hour; skim, and season it with pepper and salt. This soup should be as thick as melted butter. Two pounds of beef boiled in four quarts of water till reduced to three, will answer for the soup.

SCOTCH HARE SOUP.

Skin the hare, taking care to preserve the blood; cut the hare in pieces, wash it clean, cut off the fleshy parts of the back and hind legs; put all the rest on in a stew-pan with a table-spoonful of butter; keep the cover on close, and let it stew half an hour; stir it now and then. In another sauce-pan put about two ounces of butter, and three tablespoonfuls of flour; brown it nicely. Mix the blood with the four quarts of cold water, strain it, and with the rest of the meat add it to the browned butter; stir it constantly, and when it boils put it to the hare which is stewing, and add one carrot, one head of celery, and three large onions cut small; season with pepper and salt. Let it boil from two hours to two hours and a half, according as the hare may be young or old. Just before serving, pick out all the bones, the carrot, and celery.

ANOTHER SCOTCH HARE SOUP.

Cut off all the meat in large pieces; stew the bones in three quarts of water with two heads of celery, five or six onions, some black pepper, salt, and cold-meat bones. Have ready half a pound of rice, well browned, and add to it two ounces of browned butter; break the blood of the hare well in water, strain and add it cold to the browning; stir it constantly till it boils, then add the stock strained, and the pieces of the hare, and stew it all together till sufficiently done.

HARE SOUP.

Cut the hare in joints as for a fricassee, and put it in a stew-pan, with a little allspice, three blades of mace, some salt, and whole black pepper, a bunch of parsley, a sprig of lemon thyme, one of winter savory, four quarts of water, a slice of ham, and four pounds of lean beef, two carrots, and four onions cut down; let it boil till it be reduced to three quarts; separate the hare, and strain the soup over it, and add a pint of port wine; boil it up before serving.

FRENCH HARE SOUP.

Skin and wash perfectly clean two young hares; cut them into small pieces, and put them into a stew-pan, with two or three glasses of port wine, two onions stuck with two cloves each, a bunch of parsley, a bay leaf, of thyme, sweet basil, and marjoram, two sprigs each, and a few blades of mace; let the whole simmer upon a stove for an hour. Add as much boiling broth as will entirely cover the meat; simmer till it be soft enough to pulp through a sieve, then strain it, and soak the crumb of twopenny loaf in the strained liquor; separate the bones from the meat, pound the meat in a mortar, and rub it along with the liquor through a sieve; season with pepper and salt, and heat the soup thoroughly, but do not let it boil. Forcemeat balls, made of the hare, may be added to this soup. 

JUGGED HARE.

In five quarts of water, put a pound of scrag of mutton, one of gravy beef, one of a shank of veal, and a slice of ham, all cut small; two turnips, two carrots, three onions chopped, a little mace, salt, and pepper; stew these ingredients for three or four hours, and strain the soup. The next day cut a hare in small pieces, season it with pepper, salt, half a grated nutmeg, and the peel of a small lemon; put it into a stone jar, and fill it up with the prepared soup; put a bung in the jar, tie a bladder and a bit of linen over, and set it in a pot of cold water; as it wastes, fill it up with more boiling water, and let it boil three hours. When cold, take off the fat and pick out the lemon peel. This quantity will make two tureens full, and when to be used is thickened with a table-spoonful of flour, kneaded with a small bit of butter, and half a pint of port wine to each dish. It will keep perfectly good for a fortnight.

VENISON SOUP.

Boil down in five quarts of water two pounds of a shank of veal, or a fowl, and a five pounds of the breast of venison cut small; two or three onions chopped, some whole white pepper and salt, with a quarter of a pound of lean ham. Let it stew till it be completely boiled down, when all the strength will be extracted; rub it through a sieve, thicken it with a little butter, kneaded in flour, and add a pint of Madeira, and boil it for a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes.

BEEF BOULLI.

Put six pounds of a leg or shin of beef on, in six quarts of water; when it boils, skim it well; add a table-spoonful of whole pepper, three large red onions, and one carrot; let it simmer for six or seven hours; when the meat is tender, cut off a piece of it and lay it aside. Wash and clean thoroughly two ox feet; blanch them in cold water for twelve hours, and boil them in fresh water about five hours. The next day, take off the fat from the strained soup; boil it, and add the piece of beef, and the gristles of the ox feet cut small, and let all boil together for a few minutes. Serve with dry toast cut into dice.

WHITE SOUP.

Blanch in cold water for twelve hours two pounds of very lean beef, put it into a pot, with a knuckle of veal, five quarts of water, two carrots, two turnips, and four middling-sized onions, a table-spoonful of white pepper, a little mace and salt; let this boil four hours, or till the strength be extracted, strain it, and the next day take off all the fat. Blanch half a pound of sweet almonds, pound them in a mortar, with a little water to prevent their oiling; mix them with the soup, and let it boil for a short time, and just before serving, add a pint of rich cream; do not allow the soup to boil after the cream is stirred in. A good substitute for cream is the same quantity of milk, boiled and mixed with a dessert-spoonful of arrow-root.

ANOTHER WHITE SOUP.

Boil together a knuckle of veal, a fowl, or two chickens skinned, a carrot, a turnip, an onion, some salt, and a little whole white pepper; take out the chickens when tender, cut them in joints, and add them to the soup when strained; beat up the yolks of nine eggs, mix them with a pint of cream and a table-spoonful of well-boiled rice; stir it gradually into the soup, and heat it gently before serving. A cow heel that has been previously boiled, cut up in pieces, may be used instead of chickens.

ANOTHER WHITE SOUP.

Take a good knuckle of veal, or two or three short shanks; boil it about four hours, with some whole white pepper, a little mace, salt, two onions, and a small bit of lean ham; strain it, and when cold take off all the fat and sediment; beat up the yolks of six eggs, and mix them with a pint of good cream, then pour the boiling soup upon it by degrees, stirring it well; and if it is liked, add the best part of the gristles.

ANOTHER WHITE SOUP.

Put on, in four quarts of water, a knuckle of veal, six pounds weight, a quarter of a pounds of lean ham, or bacon, two slices of the crumb of bread, one ounce of blanched sweet almonds, put in whole; six middling-sized onions, two heads of celery, some whole white pepper, three blades of mace, a bunch of parsley, and a sprig of thyme; stew all these gently for eight hours, strain it, and when cold take off all the fat; boil it, and just before serving, take it off the fire, and stir in very gradually a pint of thick cream.

ANOTHER WHITE SOUP.

Boil in four quarts of water, four pounds of veal, and a fowl, with some whole white pepper, a little mace, and three middling-sized onions whole, and a bunch of parsley; let it boil three hours, strain it, and put it on again to get quite hot, and, just before serving, stir in gradually half a pint of cream with the yolks of three eggs well beaten. Do not let it boil, as that will make the eggs curdle.

ANOTHER WHITE SOUP.

Stew in three quarts of boiling water, till quite tender, a knuckle of veal, with a quarter of a pound of whole rice, three whole onions, a bunch of parsley, a little sweet marjoram, and two or three blades of mace, and some salt; a little before the soup is strained, add two anchovies; strain through a hair sieve, and then through a silk one, or tammy; put it again upon the fire, and stir in half a pint of rich cream, or a pint of milk with the yolks of two eggs beat up in it; let it be hot, but not boiling. If it is required to be richer, boil a fowl in the stock, with two ounces of pounded blanched sweet almonds.

ANOTHER WHITE SOUP.

Put on, in five quarts of water, four pounds of a shank of veal; break the bone well, let it simmer till it be reduced nearly half; boil a tea-cupful of whole rice till very tender, pulp it through a cullender, strain the liquor, and add the rice; season with salt and white pepper, let it simmer for nearly an hour, and add, a little before serving, the yolks of six eggs beaten extremely well. 

MOOR-FOWL SOUP.

It may be made with or without brown gravy soup: when with the former, six birds are sufficient; when with moor-fowl only, boil five in four quarts of water; pound the breasts in a mortar, and rub it through a sieve; put it, with the legs, backs, and three more moor-fowl, cut down in joints, into the liquor; season with a pint of port wine, pepper, and salt, and let it boil an hour. When only six birds are used, pound the breasts of three or four.

PIGEON SOUP.

Make a strong beef stock, highly seasoned as if for brown soup; take six or eight pigeons according to their size, wash them clean, cut off the necks, pinions, livers, and gizzards, and put them into the stock; quarter the pigeons and brown them nicely; after having stained the stock, put in the pigeons; let them boil till nearly ready, which will be in about half an hour, then thicken it with a little flour, rubbed down in a tea-cupful of the soup, season it with half a grated nutmeg, a table-spoonful of lemon juice or of vinegar, and one of mushroom catsup; let it boil a few minutes after all these ingredients are put in, and serve it with the pigeons in the tureen. A better thickening than flour is, to boil quite tender two of the pigeons, take off all the meat and pound it in a mortar, rub it through a sieve, and put it, with the cut pigeons, into the strained soup.

To make partridge soup, partridges may be substituted for pigeons, when only four birds will be required; pound the breast of one.

ANOTHER PIGEON SOUP.

Take eight pigeons, cut down two of the oldest, and put them, with the necks, pinions, livers, and gizzards of the others, into four quarts of water; let it boil till the substance be extracted, and strain it; season the pigeons with mixed spices and salt, and truss them as for stewing: pick and wash clean a handful of parsley, chives or young onions, and a good deal of spinach, and chop them; put in a frying-pan a quarter of a pound of butter, and when is boils, mix in a handful of bread crumbs; keep stirring them with a knife till of a fine brown; boil the whole pigeons, till they become tender, in the stock, with the herbs and fried bread. If the soup be not sufficiently high seasoned, add more mixed spices and salt.

GIBLET SOUP.

Clean very nicely two sets of giblets; parboil them. Take the skin off the feet; cut the gizzards in quarters, the necks in three bits, the feet, pinions, and livers, in two, the head in two also, first taking off the bill; boil them till nearly done enough in a quart of weak gravy soup with an onion. Have ready boiling some rich highly-seasoned brown gravy soup; add the giblets and the liquor they have been boiled in, with some chopped parsley: take out the onion, and thicken the soup with a bit of butter kneaded in flour. If the giblets are not perfectly sweet and fresh, do not add the weak soup they were boiled in. Half a pint of white wine may be added a little before serving, but it is good without.

KIDNEY SOUP.

Cut down two kidneys; fry them a little in butter and flour; stew them in a quart of highly-seasoned gravy soup till tender, ten add two quarts more of the soup, and thicken it with browned flour and butter.

OX CHEEK SOUP.

Separate the bones from the meat, and break the bones; cut the meat into pieces the length of a finger and the breadth of two; put a quart of water to every pound of meat, with a little salt, set it on a gently fire, and skim it well during the first boiling; after it has stewed gently two hours, add carrots, turnips, onions, celery, a head or two of cabbage, and a bunch of sweet herbs, pepper, salt, and a quarter of a pound of vermicelli; let it stew two hours and a half longer, skim it, and take out the herbs and bones. Chesnuts are a good substitute for vermicelli.

ANOTHER OX CHEEK SOUP 

Wash the cheek clean, and cut it in small pieces; stew it till tender, in four or five quarts of water, with turnips, thyme, parsley, black-pepper-corns, and a few peas; strain off the gravy and let it stand till the next day; then take off the fat, and cut the meat in small pieces from the bones, and stew it a little longer in the gravy with six or seven onions sliced and fried a light brown, some carrots, and a celery cut small, a little salt, and cayenne.

SHEEP’S HEAD BROTH.

After having the sheep’s head and trotters singed, which is done with a red-hot iron (the head and trotters are usually sent for this purpose to a blacksmith’s forge), split the head, and take out the brain, which is not used; cut out the white of the eye, and rub the head and feet well over with it; let them lie for two hours, then wash them very well in luke-warm water, and rinse them thoroughly. Cut out the tough membrane from between the toes, and lay them in cold water for two hours. Put on two gallons of water, and three quarters of a pound of Scotch barley: when it boils, put in the head, trotters, and neck of the sheep, of carrots and turnips a quart, when cut down in dice; add a little salt, cover the pot closely, and let it boil four hours; take off the scum as it rises; put in some chopped onions about an hour before serving. Boil some whole carrots and turnips, or cut them in half, to put around the head, trotters, and neck in the dish. In summer, green peas are a great improvement to this broth.

SCOTCH BARLEY BROTH.

In two gallons of cold water, boil six ounces of barley; when it boils, skim it, and put in a fowl and one pounds of beef, or three pounds of the beef without the fowl; add three pounds f carrots and turnips, and three onions, cut very small. If greens are to be used, they will only require to be boiled an hour, and one ounce more of barley is requisite. Skim it when the vegetables come to a boil, and keep the pot boiling constantly for five hours. The fowl ought to be taken out when boiled enough, and heated in the broth, so as to be served up with it, or in another dish.

Or it may be made exactly in the same manner as the Sheep’s Head Broth of the last receipt, substituting for the head, ribs of mutton, beef, veal, or fowl, and is better to be composed of a variety of these meats.

SCOTS KALE.

Put barley on in cold water, and when it boils take off the scum; put in any piece of fresh beef, and a little salt; let it boil three hours, have ready a cullender full of kale, cut small and boil it till tender. Two or three leeks may be added with the greens, if the flavour is approved of. This broth is also made with salted beef, which must be put in water over night to soak.

LEEK SOUP, WHICH IN SCOTLAND IS CALLED COCKY LEEKY.

Wash and clean three or four dozen leeks; cut the white and tender green part in bits about an inch long, and wash them again, and put them to drain in a cullender or sieve. Have ready boiling four quarts of stock, made from beef, seasoned with pepper and salt; put in the leeks, and boil them gently for three hours, adding a fowl time enough to allow it to be well boiled, and serve it in the tureen.

BEEF BROSE.

After any large pieced of beef has been taken out of the pot it was boiled in, skim off the fat with part of the liquor, and boil it in a sauce-pan. Have ready in a  bowl oatmeal that has been toasted brown before the fire; pour in the boiling liquor, and stir it a little; if too thick, add more liquor, and send to table quite hot.

RICE VEAL BROTH.

Wash clean six pounds of a knuckle of veal, and cut it in two; put it into a sauce-pan, with four quarts of boiling water, half a pound of rice well washed, a little mace, white pepper, and salt, and a handful of chopped parsley; let it boil for three hours. Serve part of the meat in the tureen with the broth. The thick part of the knuckle may be sent up as a separate dish, with parsley and butter poured over it.

THICK BEEF SOUP.

In eight quarts of water, boil gently for seven hours, skimming it well, eight or ten pounds of a shin or leg of beef, and a bunch of sweet herbs; strain it; the next day, take off the fat, and cut all the gristly and sinewy parts from the bones, add them to the soup, with some leeks, onions, celery, pepper, salt, and ten or twelve ounces of Scotch barley parboiled; boil it gently for two or three hours. This stock or jelly will keep good for weeks in cold weather.

BEEF OR MUTTON SOUP.

Boil very gently, in a closely covered sauce-pan, four quarts of water, with two table-spoonfuls of sifted bread raspings, three pounds of beef cut in small pieces, or the same quantity of mutton chops taken from the middle of the neck; season with pepper and salt; add two turnips, two carrots, two onions, and one head of celery, all cut small; let it stew with these ingredients four hours, when it will be ready to serve.

RICE SOUP.

Boil in four quarts of water the scrag end of a neck of veal and one pound of lean ham, till it be reduced nearly half, skimming it carefully; season with white pepper, and two blades of mace; strain it, and boil in it till tender three quarters of a pounds of rice, which has been well washed.

VEAL SOUP.

Skin four pounds of a knuckle of veal; break, and cut it small, put it in a stew-pan with two gallons of water; when it boils skim it, and let it simmer till reduced to two quarts; strain, and, when required for the table, season it with white, pepper, salt, a little mace, a dessert-spoonful of lemon juice, and thicken it with a large table-spoonful of flour, kneaded with an ounce of butter.

SOUP MAIGRE.

Cut small four ounces of sorrel, sixteen ounces of celery, and six or eight onions. Fry them in six ounces of butter, and stew them three or four hours in three quarts of water. Season with pepper, salt, and a little mace, and thicken it with a large table-spoonful of flour, mixed in a tea-cupful of the soup. Beat up the yolks of two eggs in half a pint of cream, put it into the tureen, with a large slice of bread toasted and cut in dice, and then pour in the stewed ingredients.

ANOTHER SOUP MAIGRE.

Brown half a pound of butter in a sauce-pan, and stew it for a quarter of an hour with the following ingredients, all washed clean and chopped, small, - four cabbage lettuces, two handfuls of spinach, the same of chervil, one handful of white beet leaves, and one of sorrel, three carrots scraped down, some pepper and salt; add five pints of boiling water, and a large slice of the crumb of bread cut thin and dried before the fire. Stew it gently for two hours; and a little before serving thicken it with the beaten yolks of three eggs, with half a pint of cream or good milk. A pint of green peas and the tops of asparagus may be added.

SOUP SANTE.

Stew four large onions, peeled and cut small, with four white lettuces, a handful of spinach, and a slice of grated bread, for an hour, in a quart of broth and a quarter of a pound of butter; then add three pints more of broth, skim off all the fat, and boil it a quarter of an hour; season with pepper and salt. Before serving, add half a pint of good cream.  A pint of green peas, added with the other vegetables, is a great improvement.

OLD PEAS SOUP.

Put a pound of split peas on in four quarts of water, with roast beef or mutton bones, and a ham bone, two heads of celery, and four onions; let them boil till the peas be sufficiently soft to pulp through a sieve, which may be in two or three hours; strain it, put it into the pot with pepper and salt, and boil it nearly an hour. Two or three handfuls of spinach, well washed and cut a little, added when the soup is strained, are a great improvement; and in the summer young green peas in place of the spinach. A tea-spoonful of celery seed, or essence of celery, if celery is not to be had.

ANOTHER OLD PEAS SOUP.

Boil in five quarts of water one pint of split peas, an ounce of butter, four pounds of beef, two carrots, three turnips, four heads of celery, three onions, some salt and black pepper; boil them till the peas are dissolved and will easily pulp; put it all through a sieve, then put the soup over the fire with three ounces of butter and a table-spoonful of flour, and boil a small bit of lean ham in it, till it is time to serve; take it out before dishing, and have ready some celery stewed in butter, and fried bread cut in dice, and dried mint rubbed very fine, to send to table with it.

ANOTHER OLD PEAS SOUP.

Boil in four quarts of water a shank of ham, or a piece of bacon, and about half a bound of mutton or salt beef, and a pint of split peas; boil all together very gently till the peas are quite soft, strain them through a hair sieve, and bruise them with the back of a spoon till all is pulped through; then boil the soup gently for one hour before serving.

Thin slices of bread, toasted and cut in dice, to be served with it,. either upon a dish or in the soup it in the soup, it should be fried in butter, and dried mint rubbed fine sent to table in a small dish. It may be also made with fourpence worth of bones, boiled for some hours in four quarts of water, with a carrot, a head of celery, three onions, some pepper and salt, strained, and the next day the fat taken off, and the peas boiled in the liquor with a little bit of butter, till sufficiently tender to pulp through a sieve.

GREEN PEAS SOUP.

Shell a quart of green peas not very old; put the shells into a gallon of cold water, with a bit of bacon or mutton; boil them till very soft, pour the liquor through a hair sieve, and bruise the shells with a spoon till nothing remains but the skin. Pound in a marble mortar a handful of spinach, mix it with a little of the liquor, and strain it through a sieve, and boil it gently with the rest of the liquor for half an hour, then put in the quart of peas, and when they are boiled the soup is ready.

ANOTHER GREEN PEA SOUP WITHOUT MEAT.

Put into a gallon of water a quart of old green peas, and boil them till they are perfectly soft; pulp them through a sieve; slice seven or eight onions, and fry them in butter; put them to the liquor that has been pulped, add a large lettuce, and a little mint cut very small, and a pint of young green peas; boil all together till the peas are tender, then stir in a table-spoonful of butter till it is quite melted, and put pepper and salt to season it.

SPRING SOUP.

Put on, in four quarts of water, a knuckle of veal cut down, and a quarter of a pound of lean ham, or a gammon of bacon; a quart of green split peas; cut small three or four onions, three turnips, a little parsley, thyme, celery, and one leek; stew them all together till the peas are very soft; take out the meat, and press the remainder through a fine sieve; season the soup with pepper and salt. Cut small like peas a bunch of the tops of asparagus, the hearts of two or three cabbages, cutting off the top part and the outside leaves, and a little green mint; stew them till tender, keeping them of a good green, and add them to the soup a quarter of an hour before serving. If it should not be green enough, pound some spinach, squeeze the juice through a cloth, put about a quarter of a pint into the tureen, and pour in the soup. This is the best method to make green peas soup of a good colour.

CUCUMBER SOUP.

Make some broth with a neck of mutton, a thick slice of lean bacon, an onion stuck with three cloves, a carrot, two turnips, some salt, and a bunch of sweet herbs; strain it; brown with an ounce of butter the crumb of a French roll, to which put four large cucumbers, and two heads of lettuce cut small; let them stew a quarter of an hour, and add to them a quart of the broth; when it boils, put in a pint of green peas, and as it stews, add two quarts more of the broth.

BEET ROOT SOUP.

Boil till tender two roots of beet, and rub off the skin with a coarse towel; mince them finely, as also two or three onions; add this to five pints of rich gravy soup, so as to make it rather thick; then stir in three or four table-spoonfuls of vinegar, and one of brown sugar; let it boil, and throw in some fricandellans made up in the form of corks, and rolled in flour.

ASPARAGUS SOUP.

Cut into pieces about four pounds of lean beef; put it into a stew-pan with a calf’s foot, two or three onions, two heads of celery, some whole pepper, salt, three or four cloves, and an ounce of butter; let it stew gently for half an hour; then add a quart of warm beer, and about a gallon of beef stock, or water; let it simmer for some hours; strain, and take off all the fat; and twenty minutes before serving, add asparagus tops cut small, and the crust of a French roll toasted.

HERB SOUP.

Wash and cut small twelve cabbage lettuces, a handful of chervil, one of purslane, one of parsley, eight large green onions, and three handfuls of sorrel; when peas are in season, omit half the quantity of sorrel, and put a quart of young green peas; put them all into a sauce-pan, with half a pounds of butter and three carrots cut small, some salt and pepper; let them stew closely covered for half an hour, shaking them occasionally to prevent their adhering to the pan; fry in butter six cucumbers cut long-ways in four pieces; add them, with four quarts of hot water, half a French roll, and a crust of bread toasted upon both sides; and let the whole boil till reduced to three quarts, then strain it through a sieve; beat up the yolks of four eggs with half a pint of cream, and stir it gently into the soup just before serving.

TOMATA SOUP.

Wash, scrape, and cut small the red part of three large carrots, three heads of celery, four large onions, and two large turnips; put them into a sauce-pan, with a table-spoonful of butter, and a half a pound of lean new ham; let them stew very gently for n hour, then add three quarts of brown gravy soup, and some whole black pepper, with eight or ten ripe tomatas; let it boil an hour and a half, and pulp it through a sieve; serve it with fried bread cut in dice.

VEGETABLE SOUP.

Pare and cut small one dozen of common-sized onions, five large yellow carrots; wash and put them in a stew-pan with two ounces of butter, cover it closely; and when the vegetables are a little soft, add to them four quarts of well-seasoned gravy soup made of roast beef bones, and let it stew four or five hours; rub it through a tammy, put it on the fire, boil and skim it before serving.  

ANOTHER VEGETABLE SOUP.

Boil in two quarts of water till reduced to one, a quart of old green peas, a few of the pea shells, a sprig of mint, and two or three onions; strain and pulp it through a sieve. Stew the following ingredients in as much water as will cover them, and season with pepper and salt: - a pint of young peas, two or three onions sliced, the same number of cucumbers cut into square pieces, some lettuce stalks scraped and cut into bits about an inch long, and two ounces of butter; add this to the pulped liquor, and boil it up. To improve the colour of the soup, half a tea-cupful of spinach juice, may be added before taking it off of the fire.

ANOTHER VEGETABLE SOUP.

Of carrots and turnips, when cut into dice, one quart of each, four onions slices, and one quart of peas. Boil, in three quarts of water, the four onions, half the quantity of carrots, turnips, and peas; when they are quite soft, rub them through a sieve, season with pepper and salt, add the rest of the vegetables, and boil them till tender. This soup may be made with the addition of a little fresh beef dripping, or a small beef bone.

WINTER VEGETABLE SOUP.

To every gallon of water allow, when cut down small, a quart of the following vegetables: - equal quantities of turnips, carrots, and potatoes, three onions, two heads of celery, and a bunch of sweet herbs; fry them brown in a quarter of a pound of butter, add the water with salt and pepper, and boil it till reduced to three quarts, and serve it with fried toasted bread.

ANOTHER WINTER VEGETABLE SOUP.

Peel and slice six large onions, six potatoes, and four turnips; fry them in half a pound of butter or very fresh dripping; toast a crust of bread brown and hard, put it, with two or three heads of celery cut small, some herbs, pepper and salt, with the fried vegetables, into five pints of water, to stew gently for four hours; then strain it through a sieve, add a little carrot and celery cut small, and some chopped parsley, one anchovy or red herring, and a little cayenne; boil it till the vegetables are tender.

ONION SOUP.

Stew till perfectly tender, in about five pints of weak veal or beef stock, two dozen of onions, peeled and sliced, three turnips, one parsnip, two carrots, two heads of celery, without the green part, a bunch of sweet herbs, half an ounce of white pepper, a little salt, and a quarter of a pound of ham; when sufficiently tender, press all the ingredients through a tammy, and let the soup stand till cold; pound the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, mix them with a pint of thick cream, and stir it into the soup and heat it, but be careful not to boil it; new milk and the yolks of six eggs will answer instead of cream. Toast a piece of bread the size of a small roll, and put it into the soup before serving it.

ANOTHER ONION SOUP.

Boil in four quarts of water six pounds of a knuckle of veal, with a dessert-spoonful of whole white pepper, and few blades of mace; when the meat is so much boiled as to leave the bone, strain off the stock. The following day boil nine or ten large Spanish onions in milk and water, till sufficiently tender to pulp through a sieve; take the fat off from the top of the stock, boil it up, and add the onions with about a quarter of a pound of fresh butter worked with two heaped table-spoonfuls of sifted flour of rice, and a little salt; boil it gently for half an hour, stirring it constantly, and, a little before serving, stir in half a pint of rich cream.

CARROT SOUP.

Make a rich stock with a shin of beef, a quarter of a pound of lean ham, a fowl, or a piece of veal, a bunch of sweet herbs, two onions, a carrot, black and Jamaica pepper, salt, and three cloves; strain it, and when cold take off all the fat; clean and boil, till they become very tender, the red part of twelve or thirteen carrots, according to their size, and two turnips; pound them in a mortar; pound half a pound of cold roast-beef , or beef steak; warm it, and rub it with the carrots through a tammy or sieve; add this to the soup, and serve it boiling hot.

Stock made with bones may be substituted for fresh beef stock.

ANOTHER CARROT SOUP.

Wash, scrape, and slice ten or twelve carrots; put them, with an ounce and a half of butter, into a stew-pan, cover it closely, and let them stew till sufficiently soft to press through a tammy or hair sieve; add the pulp to as much well-seasoned stock as will make it of the thickness of rich cream, and boil it for twenty or thirty minutes.

ANOTHER CARROT SOUP.

In three quarts and a half of well-seasoned stock, boil the red part of six or seven large carrots, four onions sliced, two heads of celery, and three turnips. When quite soft, pulp it through a sieve, add a bit of butter and a tea-spoonful of sugar, and let it boil a quarter of an hour before serving. 

HOTCH POTCH.

Cut in dice a good quantity of young turnips and carrots, and with one or two lettuces cut very small, the tops of some cauliflower, and a pint of full-grown peas; boil them gently in four quarts of boiling water for two hours; cut in neat chops a loin, or the best end of a neck of mutton, add them to the vegetables, with salt, pepper, and some onions cut small; let them boil an hour and a half, then add three pints of green peas, and boil half an hour longer, when it is ready to serve.

ANOTHER HOTCH POTCH.

Put on, in three quarts of water, a small bit of the neck of mutton, or any scraps, one quart of carrots and turnips when cut in dice, and some salt; boil them gently for an hour, then add a little cauliflower, lettuce, parsley, and onions cut small; boil a quart of full-grown peas in another sauce-pan, till sufficiently tender to press through a sieve; add it to the soup, taking out the bits of mutton, with three pints of young peas, and some nice mutton chops, and let it all boil till they are done enough. If the soup be too thick, a little before serving pour in some boiling water.

WINTER HOTCH POTCH.

Boil in two quarts of water, for two hours or more, if not perfectly tender, one pound of peas with half an ounce of butter, or a little fat; pulp them through a sieve; put on, in a separate sauce-pan, a gallon of water, three pounds of mutton chops, some salt and pepper, a pound and a half of carrots, the same of turnips, cut small; boil till the vegetables become tender, which may be in about two hours; then add the strained liquor, and let it boil a quarter of an hour.

SOUP LORRAIN.

Boil in four quarts of water, till reduced to three, a knuckle of veal, one pound of lean beef, and one pound of mutton, a carrot, a turnip, a bunch of parsley, and a little lemon thyme, some salt and white pepper; then strain the liquor; pound very finely in a marble mortar all the white meat of a large roasted fowl, with a quarter of a pound of blanched almonds, and the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs; boil in milk the crumb of a French roll, and pound it with the other ingredients, and stir it all well into the soup; let it boil gently for ten minutes before serving.

VERMICELLI SOUP.

The day before it is required, make four quarts of good stock, and boil in it one carrot, one turnip, four onions, one or two parsley roots, three blades of mace, salt, and some white pepper; strain it, and before using, take off all the fat; boil in some of the liquor the crumb of three French rolls till soft enough to mash smooth; boil the soup and stir well in the mashed rolls; boil it for  quarter of an hour, and before serving, add the yolks of two eggs beaten with three table-spoonfuls of cream; boil in water two or three ounces of vermicelli for fifteen or twenty minutes; strain and put it into the tureen, and pour the soup upon it.

VERMICELLI A’ LA REINE.

Blanch about a quarter of a pound of vermicelli in boiling water; drain it, and throw it into some rich well-seasoned stock; when tender, take it out of the soup, and put it into the tureen; thicken the soup with eight well-beaten eggs, mixed with half a pint of cream, and pour it, when quite hot, upon the vermicelli.

MACARONI SOUP.

Make a good stock with a knuckle of veal, a little sweet marjoram, parsley, some salt, white pepper, three blades of mace, and two or three onions; strain and boil it. Break in small bits a quarter of a pound of macaroni, and gently simmer it in milk and water till it be swelled and is tender; strain it, and add it to the soup, which thicken with two table-spoonfuls of flour, mixed in half  pint of cream, and stirred gradually into the soup. Boil it a few minutes before serving.

ANOTHER MACARONI SOUP.

Boil for three hours very quickly, in five quarts of water, seven pounds of veal, a little salt, a dessert-spoonful of white pepper, and three or four blades of mace; strain it off, put it into a sauce-pan, and keep it hot upon  stove. Mix five table-spoonfuls of flour with two ounces of butter, put it an iron-tinned sauce-pan, and stir it over the fire till it be melted; add half a pint of the strained stock, and then gradually mix the whole together, and keep stirring constantly till it thickens, and then add two ounces and a half of macaroni, previously boiled in milk and water for eight minutes; stir it again till it boil. Take the pan off the stove, and stir in by degrees about three quarter of a pint of rich sweet cream, and just let it boil before serving.

SOUP A’ LA REINE.

Pound, in a marble mortar, the white meat of three cold roasted fowls, and half a pound of sweet almonds blanched; add a little cream whilst pounding. Boil this with four quarts of well-seasoned veal stock, then strain it, and just before serving, stir in a pint of cream.

ANOTHER SOUP A’ LA REINE.

Boil, in three quarts of veal stock, the crumb of two French rolls, two heads of celery, two onions, some salt, a pound and a half of cold roast veal, pounded in a marble mortar, and four ounces of sweet almonds, pounded with a little of the stock; boil all together for half an hour; rub it through a sieve, boil it for a short time, and before serving, scald a pint of cream, and stir it by degrees into the soup.

POTAGE A’ LA REINE.

Draw, wash, and clean three chickens, or young fowls; put them into a stew-pan, with a bunch of parsley, and some well-seasoned boiling veal stock; let it stew for an hour; take out the fowls, and pounds all the meat to a fine paste in a marble mortar, with the crumb of two penny loaves, previously soaked in the soup, and the yolks of three or four hard-boiled eggs; rub all through a sieve, and add it to the soup, stirring it well. Put a quart of rich cream on the fire, and stir it till it boils, and then mix it with the soup, and serve it quite hot.

POTAGE A’ LA VIERGE.

Boil a piece of the crumb of bread about the size of an egg in a quart of rich stock, pound in a mortar the white meat of a cold roasted fowl and a few sweet almonds; put these together, and rub them through a tammy, adding a little cream, or half a pint of milk; season it well, and keep it hot in a water-bath till it is to be served, when two quarts of stock made quite hot, but not boiling, may be added.

A SIMPLE SOUP.

Cut small one pound of carrots, one pound of turnips, a half a pound of onions, one lettuce, a little celery, and a handful of parsley; stew them for twenty minutes with a quarter of a pound of butter, some salt and pepper; then put them in three quarts of stock, made with two pounds of veal, and add one quart of green peas, and let it stew for three hours. Press it through a sieve, and boil it up before sending it to table.

PRUSSIAN SOUP.

In seven pints of water boil, till reduced to five, one pound of lean beef, cut in small bits, one pint of split peas, three quarters of a pounds of potatoes, three ounces of ground rice, two heads of celery, three leeks, or onions, seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little dried mint; strain it through a cullender.

STOVE OR SPINACH SOUP.

Boil in two quarts of water three sliced onions. Pick and clean as much spinach as will make two large dishes, parboil and put it in a cullender, to let the bitter water drip from it; let cold water run upon it for a minute or two, and then press out the water. Knead two ounces of fresh butter, with a table-spoonful and a half of lour; mix it with the spinach, which boil for fifteen minutes in the water and onions, then put in half a pint of cream, or good milk, some salt and pepper, and boil it for fifteen minutes more. In the season of green peas, a quart added with the spinach is a great improvement. It is common to boil a lamb’s head and pluck with the soup, and send them to table in the tureen. The soup is then called lamb’s stove; but with the peas it is quite as good without.  

POTATO SOUP.

Potato soup is made with beef or mutton scraps, boiled in water till the strength be extracted. Strain the liquor, and put it into the pot; after washing some potatoes, scrape off the skin, cut them into quarters with some onions, season with pepper and salt, and boil them an hour and a half in the strained liquor, then press them through a cullender, and put the soup on to boil a little time. It may be made very good with butter only, a quarter of a pound of which is added after the potatoes have been put through the cullender. Half a pint of cream, or good milk, may be added just before serving.

POTATO FLOUR SOUP.

Have three pints of gravy soup boiling on the fire. Mix, in half a pint of cold soup, six spoonfuls of potato flour, and stir it into the sauce-pan, first drawing it to a side; put it on the fire again, and continue to stir it till it becomes thick, and in five minutes serve it.

For the gravy soup, water may be substituted, to which a bit of fresh butter, a little salt, and the beaten yolks of two eggs, may be added; or milk may be used, seasoning it with sugar, a spoonful of orange-flower water, and, if liked, the beaten yolks of eggs.

OYSTER SOUP.

Boil in water the crumb of two twopenny rolls, with a few blades of mace, a tea-spoonful of whole white pepper, and four onions cut small. Pick out the spice and rub the bread and onions through a hair sieve, then add it to three quarts of well-seasoned strong veal stock. Rub down three ounces of butter, with a table-spoonful of flour, and mix it gradually with half a pint of the soup, and then stir all well together. When it has boiled a short time, add with their liquor half a hundred or more of fine oysters, and let the whole simmer for ten or fifteen minutes.

If the soup is not quite salt enough with the liquor of the oysters, a little salt may be added.

LOBSTER SOUP.

Cut small a dozen of common-sized onions; put them into a stew-pan with a small bit of butter, a slice or two of lean ham, and a slice of lean beef; when the onions are quite soft, mix gradually with them some rich stock; let it boil, and strain it through a fine hair sieve, pressing the pulp of onions with a wooden spoon; then boil it well, skimming it all the time. Beat the meat of a boiled haddock, the spawn and body of a large lobster, or of two small ones, in a marble mortar; add gradually to it the soup, stirring it till it is as smooth as cream; let it boil again and scum it. Cut the tail and claws of the lobster into pieces, and add them to the soup before serving it, and also some pepper, cayenne, white pepper, and a glass of white wine.

Forcemeat balls may be added to oyster soup and lobster soup, made as directed under the article “Forcemeat for Fish.”

CRAPPET HEADS, OR FISH SOUP.

Put on in boiling salt-and-water two haddocks, and the tails, fins, and roes of six; in a quarter of an hour take out the roes and fish; let the liquor boil for an hour longer, and strain it. When cold, pick all the fish from the bones, and pick out the strings and skin from the roes; peel and chop two onions, put them on the fire in cold water, and when it boils pour off the water; take half a pound of shortbread in crumbs, two tea-spoonfuls of salt, one and a half of white pepper, and one of grated nutmeg – mince all these ingredients, mix them together thoroughly, and bind them with two beaten whites of eggs. Have ready six heads of haddocks, skinned, and the eyes taken out; make up a large ball of the forcemeat; stuff the heads, and tie them round with a coarse thread. Boil the liquor; thicken it with flour kneaded in butter; add some parsley and a little pepper, two table-spoonfuls of mushroom, the same quantity of walnut catsup, and half a pint of white wine. Skin and cut two haddocks in three or four pieces each, and put them with the heads into the stock, and boil them till they are sufficiently done, which may be in about a quarter of an hour.

Hard biscuit pounded may be used in place of shortbread, when a little fresh butter must be added. If any of the forcemeat is over, make it up in small balls.

WATER SOUCHY.

Make a stock with three or four flounders, two onions, and a bunch of parsley boiled in three quarts of water till they are soft enough to pulp through a sieve; then season the liquor with pepper, salt, and some parsley chopped, and boil in it a few flounders, with the brown skin taken off, or some nicely-cleaned perch or tench. Serve in a tureen, and with slices of bread and butter to eat with it.

PEPPER POT IN A TUREEN.

Stew gently in four quarts of water, till reduced to three, three pounds of beef, half a pounds of lean ham, a bunch of dried thyme, two onions, two large potatoes pared and sliced; then strain it through a cullender, and add a large fowl, cut into joints and skinned, half a pound of pickled pork sliced, the meat of one lobster minced, and some small suet dumplings, the size of a walnut. When the fowl is well boiled, add half a peck of spinach, that has been boiled and rubbed through a cullender, season with salt and cayenne. It is very good without the lean ham and fowl.

SOUP FOR THE POOR.

Wash an ox head very clean; break the bones, and cut the meat in pieces; put it on in thirteen gallons of water, with a peck and a half of potatoes, half a peck of turnips, the same quantity of onions, and some carrots – peel and cut them all down; a handful of pot-herbs and two quarts of oatmeal; season with pepper and salt; cover the pot closely, and let it stew till the next morning; add as much hot water as may have wasted in boiling, letting it stew for some hours longer, when it will be fit for use. This soup will be found very good for a family dinner.

SOUP FOR AN INVALID.

Cut in small pieces one pound of beef or mutton, or part of both; boil it gently in two quarts of water; take off the scum, and when reduced to a pint, strain it. Season with a little salt, and take a tea-cupful at a time.

CHICKEN PANADA.

Skin a fowl; cut it in pieces, leaving the beast whole; boil it in three pints of water till perfectly tender; pick off all the meat, and pound it finely in a mortar, and mix it with the liquor it was boiled in; rub it through a sieve, and season it with salt.

RICE AND MILK.

To every quart of good milk, allow two ounces of rice; wash it well in several waters; put it with the milk into a closely-covered sauce-pan, and set it over a slow fire; when it boils take it off; let it stand till it be cold, and simmer it about an hour and a quarter before sending it to table; and serve it in a tureen.

CREAM OF RICE SOUP.

Mix one or two table-spoonfuls of sifted flour of rice with a little good stock, rather cold than hot; add this to some boiling stock, and keep stirring till it boils; and let it boil till sufficiently thick.

The flour of rice may be made as follows: - Wash in several waters a pound of rice; wipe it in a clean towel, and when perfectly dry, pound and sift it through a sieve.

FRIARS’ CHICKEN.

Put four pounds of a knuckle of veal into four quarts of water; boil it gently for two hours; strain it off; cut three chickens, or two young fowls, into joints, skin them, and when the broth boils put them in; season with white pepper and salt; let them boil a short time, and add a handful of parsley chopped small; when the chickens are boiled tender, have ready six or seven well-beaten eggs; stir them quickly into the broth one way, immediately before taking it off the fire.

This broth may be made entirely of veal, instead of chicken.

ANOTHER FRIARS’ CHICKEN.

Clean and wash three chickens; skin and cut them into joints; put them, with the livers and gizzards, on in two quarts of cold water; when it boils skim it; season with salt and white pepper. In half an hour add a handful of chopped parsley, and let it boil for half an hour longer. Beat well the whites and yolks of four or six eggs, and, just before serving, stir them very quickly one way into the broth.

PORTABLE SOUP.

Put on, in four gallons of water, ten pounds of a shin of beef, free from fat and skin, six pounds of a knuckle of veal, and two fowls; break the bones and cut the meat into small pieces; season with one ounce of whole black pepper, a quarter of an ounce of Jamaica pepper, and the same of mace; cover the pot very closely, and let it simmer for twelve or fourteen hours, and then strain it. The following day, take off the fat, and clear the jelly from any sediment adhering to it; boil it gently upon a stove, without covering the sauce-pan, and stir it frequently till it becomes very thick and in lumps about the pan. Put it into saucers about half full, and when cold lay the cakes upon flannel to dry before the fire or in the sun; keep them in a ten box, with white paper between each cake. About an ounce weight will make a pint of rich soup; pour boiling water upon it with a little salt, and stir it till it dissolves. It also answers well for gravies and all brown sauces.

OX-TAIL SOUP.

Steep in cold water, for some hours, two ox tails cut into bits; put them into a sauce-pan with four quarts of cold water, a bunch of sweet herbs, a dessert-spoonful of whole black pepper, three onions, two carrots, and one turnip; cover it closely, and when it boils skim it, and let it simmer for three hours; carefully take off all the fat; add a table-spoonful of vinegar and half a pint of port wine. Take out the vegetables and herbs before serving.

ANOTHER OX-TAIL SOUP.

Cut the ox tails into bits, steep them in cold water, and boil them in three or four quarts of well-seasoned rich brown stock; add of carrots, turnips, and onions, when cut into dice, about a pint and a half; and simmer it all together till quite tender.

RABBIT SOUP.

Cut one or two rabbits into joints; lay them for an hour in cold water; dry and fry them in butter till about half done, with four or five onions, and middling-sized head of celery cut small; add to this three quarts of cold water, a pound of split peas, some pepper and salt; let it stew gently for four or five hours, then strain and serve it.

MEG MERRILIES’ SOUP.

Cut a hare in pieces, and save the blood; reserve some bits of the meat and the liver to make forcemeat balls of, and put the rest of the hare into a sauce-pan with six quarts of water; season with four onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, pepper, and salt; stew it gently for two hours; in another sauce-pan put the blood and the water the hare was washed in, stir in two heaped table-spoonfuls of rice flour, to make it the consistence of gruel, and when it boils mix it with the stock. Take two partridges, or moor-fowl, if they are fresh, or part of both; skin and cut each other them into four pieces, brown them in butter in a frying-pan, and add them to the soup, with about three pints of carrots and turnips neatly cut and parboiled. Make the forcemeat balls as follows: - Mince the liver and meat very finely with rather more than half its quantity of fat bacon or butter, one anchovy, a little lemon-peel, and lemon-thyme, pepper and salt, grated nutmeg, with a well-beaten egg; fry them of a light brown in clarified beef dripping, fresh lard, or butter; drain them before the fire, and add them to the soup half an hour before serving; and pick out all the loose bones of the hare.

TURTLE SOUP. (To dress a turtle weighing one hundred and twenty pounds)

Having cut off the head close to the shell, hang up the turtle till next day; then open it, bearing the knife heavily on the back of the animal in cutting it off all round; turn it on its end, that all the water and blood may run out, then cut the flesh off along the spine, sloping the knife towards the bones so as to avoid touching the gall; and having also cut the flesh from the legs and other members, wash the whole well and drain it. A large vessel of boiling water being ready on the fire, put in the breast shell, and when the plates will separate easily, take them out of the water; boil the back and belly in water till the softer parts can be taken off easily; but before they are sufficiently done, as they are to be again boiled in the sauce, lay them to cool singly in earthen vessels that they may not stick together; let the bones continue to stew for some time, as the liquor must be used for moistening the sauces.

All the flesh cut from the body, the four legs and head, must be stewed in the following manner: - Lay a few slices of ham on the bottom of a large stew-pan, and over the ham two or three knuckles of veal, then above the veal, the inside flesh of the turtle, and that of the members over the whole, adding a large bunch of sweet herbs, such as sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon-thyme, a handful of parsley, and green onions, and a large onion stuck with six cloves. Then partly moisten it with the water in which the shell is boiling, and when it has stewed some time, moisten it again with the liquor in which the back and belly have been boiled. When the legs are tender, take them out, drain, and put them aside to be afterwards added to the sauce; and when the flesh is completely done, drain it through a silk sieve, and mix with the sauce some very thin white roux; then cut all the softer parts, now sufficiently cold, into pieces about an inch square, add them to the sauce, and let them simmer gently till they can be easily pierced; skim it well.

Next chop a small quantity of herbs, and boil them with  little sugar in four bottles of Madeira till reduced to two; then rub it through a tammy, mix it with the turtle sauce, and let it boil for a short time. Make some forcemeat balls as follows: - Cut off about a pound of meat from the fleshy part of a leg of veal free from sinews or fat; soak in milk about the same quantity of crumbs of bread; when quite soft, squeeze and put it into a mortar, together with the veal, a small quantity of calf’s udder, a little butter, the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs, a little cayenne, salt, and spices; pound the whole very finely, then thicken the mixture with two whole eggs and the yolk of a third; throw a bit into boiling water, and if not sufficiently firm, add the yolk of another egg, and for variety some chopped parsley may be mixed with half of the forcemeat. Let the whole cool, so that it may be formed into balls about the size of the yolk of an egg, poach them in boiling water, and add them to the turtle. Before serving, mix a little cayenne with the juice of two or three lemons, and add it to the soup. It is generally preferable to prepare the soup the day before it is required for use, and it will be best heated in a water bath, or flat vessel containing water, which is kept always very hot, but not allowed to boil. By the same method, sauces, stews, and other made dishes, my be kept hot.

When the fins of the turtle are to be served as a side dish, they must be first parboiled, then skinned, and stewed in a little turtle sauce, with some port wine, and seasoned with cayenne, salt, and a little lemon juice, and thickened with butter and flour.

Fricandeaux and blanquettes may also be made of the flesh of the turtle, in the same way as those of veal.


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