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THE PRACTICE OF COOKERY
CHAPTER XI -
GRAVIES, SAUCES, FORCEMEATS, AND OTHER THINGS


Browning for Made Dishes. – Put into a sauce-pan one pound of good brown sugar; stir is constantly over a slow fire; boil it till it is as thick as a treacle, and resembles it in colour; take the pan off the fire, and stir it for a minute or two, and pour in very slowly a quart of boiling water, stirring constantly; put it again on the fire, and boil it for a little; pour it into a bowl, and when cold, bottle it. This browning will keep good for a year, and very little of it serves for colouring Soups, Gravies, or Sauces.

To Clarify Butter. – Put the Butter, cut into slices, into a nicely-cleaned brass pan; stir it gently till dissolved; when it boils, draw the pan to the side of the fire, skim it, and let it boil gently a second time, and if any scum again rises, take it off; let it settle for two or three minutes, and strain it gently through a sieve which has a piece of muslin laid into it.

Fresh Beef Suet, picked free from skin and sinews, is dissolved in the same way; it is then strained through muslin into small jars, and when cold, covered with bladder; or it may be strained into cold water, and the cake, when cold, wiped dry, folded in white paper, and kept in linen bag.

Beef Suet will keep fresh for some time if finely chopped and dredged well with flour, and kept in white paper bags in a cool place.

Beef and Mutton Drippings are clarified exactly in the manner butter is done, and each kept in a separate jar.

To melt Hog’s Lard, put it into a jar placed in a pot of water, or waterbath, strain it into clean bladders or small jars, and cover them with paper. Thus prepared, it will keep a good length of time, and is the best thing for frying fish in.

To fry parsley, wash it, pick it clean, and put it into fresh cold water; take it out, and then throw it into boiling lard or dripping, when it will instantly become crisp; it is then taken out with a slice.

WHITE ROUX, OR WHITE THICKENING FOR SAUCES AND MADE DISHES.

Melt gradually, over a slow fire, a good piece of butter, and dredge in a sufficiency of flour to make it like a thin paste; keep stirring it for a quarter of an hour, and then put it into a small jar to be kept for use.

BROWN ROUX, OR THICKENING.

Put into a nicely-tinned sauce-pan about a pound of fresh butter; melt it slowly, and dredge in flour till it becomes like a paste, carefully stirring it all the time; put it for a few minutes upon a quick fire, and then return it to where there is less heat, and stir it till it assumes a light brown colour, when it may be put into a jar.

These thickenings keep for some time.

GRAVY MADE FROM BONES.

Break into small pieces a pound of beef, mutton, or veal bones – if mixed together, so much the better; boil them in two quarts of water, and after it boils, let it simmer for nearly three hours; boil with a couple of onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, some salt and pepper; strain, and keep it for making gravy or sauces. – The bones of broiled or roasted meat, if scraped, washed clean, and boiled in less water, answer equally well for this purpose.

TO MAKE GRAVY.

Cut down into slices four pounds of lean beef, rub the bottom of the pot with butter, and put in the meat; turn it frequently till it be well browned, and do it slowly; then add four quarts of cold water; when it has boiled two hours, put in a dessert-spoonful of whole black pepper, and the same of Jamaica pepper, one carrot, and three onions; let it stew gently for four hours longer; strain it, and when it is required for use, take off the fat. This gravy answers for all made dishes when brown gravy sauce is used.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE GRAVY.

Dip a beef liver into water; wipe it, and rub over it some salt and coarse brown sugar; let it lie seven or eight days, turning it frequently; boil, in as much water as will quite cover the liver, one ounce of saltpetre, and three of common salt; wipe the liver dry, and put it into the pickle; let it lie for six weeks, then hang it to dry. Boil for an hour and a half, in a pint of water, a slice of this nearly the size of three fingers, a carrot, an onion, and some pepper; strain, and use it for gravy.

TO CLARIFY GRAVY.

Clarify gravy drawn from beef or veal, with the beaten whites of eggs, allowing one white to a quart. Gravies and soups which are to be clarified should be made very strong, and be highly seasoned.

TO MAKE GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT.

Slice three onions, and fry them brown in a little butter; add them to half a pint of water, and the same of beer, put in some peppercorns, salt, a little lemon-peel, three cloves, a little mace or Jamaica pepper, a spoonful of walnut pickle, and one of mushroom catsup, or soy and essence of anchovy a dessert-spoonful each, a small bunch of sweet herbs, and a quarter of a slice of bread toasted brown on both sides; simmer all together in a closely-covered sauce-pan for twenty minutes, then strain it for use, and when cold, take off the fat. It will taste exactly like a gravy made with meat.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT.

Knead a good deal of flour into a piece of butter the size of an egg; fry it in a frying-pan over a clear fire, stir it constantly with a wooden spoon till it become a nice brown colour, taking particular care that it be made perfectly smooth; pour in some boiling water, add a little finely-minced onion, some whole black pepper, and a little salt; put it into a small sauce-pan, cover it closely, and simmer it for a short time; strain, and mix with it a little mushroom catsup and port wine.

TO MAKE GRAVY FOR ROAST MEAT.

When the spit is taken from the meat, a good deal of gravy will run into the dish; pour in addition to this a little boiling water and salt over the under part of the bone of the beef or over the shank-bone of a leg or shoulder of mutton, taking great care not to let it run over the meat.

ANOTHER WAY IS:

About a quarter of an hour before the meat is taken from the fire, put a common dish with a tea-spoonful of salt in it under the meat; pour over it a small tea-cupful of boiling water; when it has all run into the dish, remove it, baste and froth the meat, and pour the gravy into the dish on which the roast is to be served.

TO DRAW GRAVY.

Put a few pounds of gravy-beef sliced, and a little whole black pepper, into a jar with a cover to fit closely; set the jar into a pot of cold water, and when it boils, add as it wastes more hot water, and keep it boiling gently for six or seven hours, when the richest gravy imaginable will be obtained. It may be used in that state, or reduced with water.

TO MAKE A PINT OF RICH GRAVY.

Brown a quarter of a pound of butter, dredging in two table-spoonfuls of flour, and stirring it constantly; add a pound of gravy-beef cut into small bits, and two or three onions chopped. When it becomes brown, add some whole black pepper, one carrot, a bunch of sweet herbs, and three pints of water; let it boil gently till reduced to one, then strain it. This gravy may be served with roasted turkey or fowl.

ESSENCE OF HAM FOR GRAVIES.

Pick off all the bits of meat from a ham-bone; pound it, break the bone, and put both into a sauce-pan, together with nearly half a pint of water, and a bunch of sweet herbs; simmer gently for some time, stirring it occasionally; then add a pint of good beef gravy, and some black pepper, and continue to simmer it till it be well flavoured with the herbs; strain, and keep it for improving rich gravies and sauces of all descriptions.

LOBSTER CATSUP.

Choose a lobster that is full of spawn, and weighing as nearly as possible three pounds; pick out all the meat, and pound the red part or coral in a marble mortar; when completely bruised, add the meat, pound and moisten it with a little sherry wine, mix with it a tea-spoonful of cayenne, add the rest of the bottle of sherry, and mix it thoroughly; put it into two wide-mouthed bottles, and on the top put a table-spoonful of whole black pepper; cork the bottles tightly, and tie them over with leather. It will keep good a twelvemonth, and exactly resembles fresh lobster sauce. Four table-spoonfuls heated in melted butter are sufficient for a large sauce-tureen.

OYSTER SAUCE.

Beard the oysters, and put them into a sauce-pan, with their liquor strained, a good bit of butter, a few black peppercorns, a little salt, cayenne, and a blade of mace. Simmer them gently for fifteen or twenty minutes, on no account allowing them to boil. Knead some flour into  a bit of butter, and melt it, adding a little milk; pick out the peppercorns and mace from the oysters, and pour upon them the melted butter.

ANOTHER OYSTER SAUCE.

Beard and scald the oysters, strain the liquor, and thicken it with a little flour and butter; squeeze in a little lemon juice, and add three table-spoonfuls of cream. Heat it well, but do not let it boil.

ANOTHER OYSTER SAUCE, FOR BOILED FOWL, OR TURKEY.

Put into a stew-pan, with their liquor, two dozen of oysters, and a little water; when it boils, take out the oyster with a silver spoon, and drain them upon a hair sieve; let the liquor settle, and pour it off from the sediment; beard the oysters. Put into a stew-pan, with one or two spoonfuls of fine flour, two ounces of fresh butter, and stir it till the flour is a little fried; add the liquor of the oysters, and a pint of cream; stir, and let this boil a quarter of an hour; then add two table-spoonful of béchamel, or a little highly-seasoned gravy, and the oysters, which must be made quite hot.

MOCK OYSTER SAUCE.

Put into a sauce-pan two or three chopped anchovies, a quarter of a pint of water, a little mace, and one or two cloves; let them simmer till the anchovies be quite dissolved. Strain it, and when cool, add a tea-cupful of cream; thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and heat it up. It may be poured over boiled fowls or veal.

ANOTHER MOCK OYSTER SAUCE.

Mix a table-spoonful of flour with two ounces of butter, three table-spoonfuls of new milk, six of good gravy, one of anchovy essence, a little nutmeg and pepper; stir it till it boil.

CHESNUT SAUCE, FOR A ROAST TURKEY.

Scald a pound of good chestnuts in hot water for five minutes; skin them, and stew them slowly for two hours in white stock, seasoned and thickened with butter and flour. Cut a pound of pork sausages into bits about an inch long, dust them with flour, and fry them a light brown; lay them into the dish on which the turkey is to be served, and pour the chestnuts and sauce over them.

Some people prefer the fried sausages stewed a little with the chestnuts; but this method makes the sauce of a darker colour.

WHITE SAUCE, FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.

Put on, in a quart of water, the necks of fowls, a piece of the scrag-end of a neck of mutton, two blades of mace, twelve black peppercorns, one anchovy, a small head of celery, a slice from off the end of a lemon, and a bunch of sweet herbs; cover it closely, and let it boil till reduced to nearly half a pint; strain, and put to it a quarter of a pound of butter dredged with flour; let it boil for five minutes, and then add two spoonfuls of pickled mushrooms. Mix with a tea-cupful of cream, the well–beaten yolks of two eggs, and some grated nutmeg; stir this in gradually, and shake the pan over the fire till it is all quite hot, but do not allow it to boil.

TO MAKE BECHAMEL, OR WHITE SAUCE.

Cut into small pieces half a pound of veal and a quarter of a pound of lean ham; put it into a sauce-pan, with eight white peppercorns, a shallot, two cloves, two blades of mace, a bay leaf, some parsley, and a quart of veal broth or water. Let it boil till it is strong and well flavoured; strain, and thicken it with a little flour rubbed smooth in cold water. Boil it up, and mix in very slowly a pint, or nearly so, of cream.

SAUCE FOR ROAST BEEF.

Mix well together a large table-spoonful of finely-grated horse-radish, a dessert-spoonful of made mustard, and half a one of brown sugar; then add vinegar till it be as thick as made mustard. Serve in a sauce tureen.

ANOTHER SAUCE FOR ROAST BEEF.

Put into a stone jar one gill of soy, two of vinegar, two of water, a good-sized stick of horse-radish, and two sliced onions. Cover the jar closely, and set it into a pan of cold water; when it boils, let it simmer for two or three hours.

TO MAKE A QUART BOTTLE OF FISH OR MEAT SAUCE.

To half a bottle of vinegar, put one ounce of cayenne, two cloves of garlic, one table-spoonful of soy, two of walnut, and two of mushroom catsup. Let it stand for six days, shaking it frequently; then add the remaining half of the bottle of vinegar; let is stand another week, strain, and put it into small bottles.

PINK SAUCE, FOR FISH.

Put into a pan, or wide-mouthed jar, one quart of good vinegar, half a pint of port wine, half an ounce of cayenne, one large table-spoonful of walnut catsup, two of ditto of anchovy-liquor, a quarter of an ounce of cochineal, and six cloves of garlic. Let it remain forty hours, stirring it two or three times a-day; run it through a flannel bag, and put it into half-pint bottles.

FISH SAUCE.

Mix well with two ounces of melted butter, of mushroom catsup, essence of anchovies, and lemon pickle, a table-spoonful each, a tea-spoonful of soy, and a little cayenne. Boil it before serving.

ESCAVECKE SAUCE, FOR COLD GAME, FOWL, OR MEAT.

Beat, in a marble mortar, the following ingredients: - Five cloves of garlic, six cloves of shallot, as much pounded ginger as will lie upon a sixpence, and the same of cayenne, a table-spoonful of coriander seed, and a little salt. Pour upon them, boiling hot, a pint of the best white wine vinegar; add the peel of a lemon, cut very thin. When cold, put the whole into a bottle, cork it tightly, and shake it well before using.

WHITE SAUCE.

Thicken half a pint of cream with a little flour and butter, four shallots minced, a little mace and lemon-peel; let it boil, and a little before serving, add a spoonful of white wine, the well-beaten yolk of an egg, the squeeze of a lemon, and a tea-spoonful of anchovy-liquor. This sauce will answer for boiled fowls, or for a fricassee.

LIVER SAUCE.

Wash the liver of a fowl perfectly clean, and boil it four minutes in a little water; bruise it, and rub it through a sieve, with a part of the water in which it was boiled. Dust about two ounces of butter with flour; add a table-spoonful of cream, and melt it, shaking it round one way; when quite hot, put in the liver, a little pepper, salt, and grated lemon-peel and nutmeg; heat it thoroughly, and pour it round the fowl. Serve parsley and butter in a sauce-tureen.

QUIN’S SAUCE.

Half a pint of mushroom pickle, and the same of walnut pickle, three whole and three pounded cloves of garlic, six anchovies bruised, and a tea-spoonful of cayenne. Mix all together in a large bottle, shake it daily for three weeks, then strain, and bottle it for use.

ANOTHER QUIN’S SAUCE.

One pint of port wine, one of mushroom catsup, one of walnut liquor, one of essence of anchovies, and a tea-spoonful of cayenne; mix all together, and boil it for a quarter of an hour. If essence of anchovies is not to be had; boil half a pound of anchovies in a quart of water till reduced to a pint. Strain, and use it.

MELTED BUTTER.

Dust a little flour over a quarter of a pound of butter; put it into a sauce-pan, with about a wine-glass of water; stir it one way constantly till it be melted, and let it just boil: A round wooden stick, called in Scotland a thevil, is the best thing to stir butter with in melting. If the butter is to be melted with cream, use the same proportion as of water, but no flour; stir is constantly, and heat it thoroughly, but do not let it boil.

To oil butter, cut about a quarter of a pound into slices, put it into a small jar, and place it into a pan of boiling water. When oiled, pour it off clear from the sediment.

FRENCH MELTED BUTTER.

Mix, in a stew-pan, with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, a table-spoonful of flour, a little salt, half a gill of water, half a spoonful of white vinegar, and a little grated nutmeg. Put it on the fire, stir it, and let it thicken, but do not allow it to boil, lest it should taste of the flour. Or, put a quarter of a pound of butter into a sauce-pan; keep shaking it till it be melted and quite hot.

BREAD SAUCE.

Boil, in a pint of water, the crumb of a French roll or of a slice of bread, a minced onion, and some whole white pepper. When the onion is tender, drain off the water, pick out the peppercorns, and rub the bread through a sieve; then put it into a sauce-pan, with a gill of cream, a bit of butter, and a little salt. Stir it till it boil, and serve it in a sauce-tureen.

ANOTHER BREAD SAUCE.

Mix, in rather more than half a pint of milk or water, a slice of grated bread, a dessert-spoonful of potato flour, a small onion pounded, a bit of butter the size of a walnut, a few whole peppercorns, a little mace, and salt. Boil it well, pick out the spices, and mix it smooth. Serve it quite hot.

ANOTHER BREAD SAUCE.

Cut a large onion into four pieces; parboil it in water, and then boil it in milk with some black peppercorns till it be perfectly soft; strain the milk over grated brown bread; let it stand for an hour, then mix with it a good bit of butter dusted with flour; stir it till it boil, and serve it in a sauce-tureen.

FISH SAUCE.

Chop two dozen of whole anchovies, mix with them half a pint of anchovy liquor, two shallots cut small, and three pints of port wine, and one of vinegar, one lemon sliced, one handful of scraped horse-radish, and ten blades of mace, one nutmeg, twelve peppercorns, six cloves, all bruised, and one table-spoonful of flour of mustard. Boil these together about fifteen or twenty minutes; when cold, strain and bottle it, waxing the corks. It will keep good for a year. A table-spoonful improves oyster sauce, and this quantity is sufficient for a sauce-tureen of melted butter.

ANOTHER FISH SAUCE.

Two gills of mushroom catsup, the same quantity of walnut, twelve anchovies pounded, two cloves of garlic, and a tea-spoonful of cayenne. Boil all together; bottle it when cold, and shake it well when used.

TOMATA SAUCE.

Bake six tomatas in an oven till quite soft; take out the pulp with a tea-spoon; add salt, cayenne, and vinegar, till reduced to the consistence of thick cream.

ANOTHER TOMATA SAUCE.

Bake some ripe tomatas till tender; take off the skins, and rub them through a sieve. To every pound of pulp, add one ounce of salt, one ounce of white pepper; of cayenne, shallot, and garlic, half an ounce each, and one quart of white wine vinegar. Beat the whole till of the consistence of thick cream; strain it through a sieve; put it into small wide-mouthed bottles, and cork them tightly.

DUTCH SAUCE.

Beat up the yolks of six eggs; mix in a little flour, cream, salt, and lemon vinegar. Strain it through a sieve, add a small piece of fresh butter, two blades of pounded mace, and a little white pepper. Put it into a sauce-pan, and stir it till it is almost boiling.

ANOTHER DUTCH SAUCE, FOR FISH OR BOILED FOWL.

Mix, with two ounce of fresh butter, on tea-spoonful of flour, two table-spoonfuls of cold water, the same quantity of vinegar, and one well-beaten egg; put it into a sauce-pan, and stir it over the fire till it be quite hot, but do not allow it to boil.

ANOTHER DUTCH SAUCE.

Put into s stew-pan a tea-spoonful of flour, four table-spoonfuls of elder vinegar, a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, the yolks of five eggs, and a little salt; keep stirring it over the fire, and work it well till thick. If it be not curdled, it will not require to be strained. Season with pepper.

POIVRADE SAUCE, FOR COLD MEAT.

Chop finely six shallots and a handful of picked and washed parsley; mix with it a little vinegar, mustard, cayenne, oil, cold gravy, and salt.

ANOTHER POIVRADE SAUCE, FOR COLD MEAT.

Bruise the yolk of a hard-boiled egg with a little salt; add mustard, oil, soy, chopped parsley, and chives, and pour it over slices of any cold meat.

ANOTHER POIVRADE SAUCE.

Put into a sauce-pan a little butter, two onions sliced, carrots, and parsnips cut, a clove of garlic, two shallots, two cloves, thyme, basil, a laurel leaf, and a dust of flour; moisten with a glass of port wine, a glass of water, and spoonful of vinegar; let it boil half an hour; season with pepper and salt, skim and strain it. In this sauce any cold roasted meat may be warmed up.

SAUCE FOR PIKE.

Mix with a pint of cream a table-spoonful of anchovy sauce, the same of soy, and two of catsup, a piece of butter rolled in flour; put it into a sauce-pan, and stir it one way till nearly boiling.

WHITE SAUCE FOR PIKE.

Simmer, till half wasted, two table-spoonfuls of white wine, one of vinegar, half a small onion, and some grated nutmeg; add a piece of butter rolled in flour, then a small tea-cupful of cream; heat it thoroughly, stirring it all the time, and taking care that it do not boil.

FISH SAUCE.

A quart of port wine, half a pint of best vinegar, one pound of bruised anchovies, one ounce of mace, and one of cloves, half an ounce of black pepper, one large onion, and the peel of one lemon; boil all these ingredients together over a slow fire till a pint is wasted; then strain, and bottle it, and keep it closely stopped.

SAUCE FOR BOILED BEEF.

Mince a large onion, parboil it, and drain off the water; put the onion into a sauce pan, with a table-spoonful of finely-chopped parsley, some good gravy, and one ounce of butter dredged with a little flour. Let it boil nearly ten minutes, and add a spoonful of cut capers, which must be thoroughly heated before the sauce is served.

A SAUCE FOR ANY SORT OF MEAT.

Boil and strain three table-spoonfuls of gravy, two of vinegar, a blade of mace, a little pepper, salt, and a large sliced onion.

SAUCE TOURNEE.

To a little white thickening, add some stock drawn from the trimmings of veal, poultry, and ham; do not make it too thick. Boil it slowly with a few mushrooms, a bunch of parsley, and some green onion; strain and skim it well, and use it as required.

German sauce is made as the sauce tournee, adding the beaten yolks of two or more eggs, and is used for ragouts, fricassees, and any made dish which may require a rich white sauce.

SAUCE D’ATTELETS.

Take of finely-minced parsley, mushroom, and shallots, a table-spoonful each; fry them with a little butter, and then dredge in a little flour; moisten the mixture with some good stock, season it with pepper and salt, and boil it till it begins to thicken; then take it off the fire, and add the well-beaten yolks of two or three eggs. Stir it well all the time it is making. – This sauce is generally used instead of butter, when crumbs of bread are to be put over any thing.

A SAUCE.

Mix together a pint of vinegar, two shallots or heads of garlic, a tea-spoonful of cayenne, three large table-spoonfuls of Indian soy or mushroom catsup, and two of walnut pickle. Let it stand a week shaking it daily; strain, and bottle it for use.

CRAB SAUCE.

Bread the claws; pick out all the meat from them, and the breast, taking part of the inside; mix it with some melted better, add a little salt, lemon-juice, or vinegar, and stir it till quite hot.

LOBSTER SAUCE.

Bruise the body; add it to some thick melted butter; pull the flesh into small bits, and mix all together with some rich beef gravy; boil it up, and before serving, add a little salt, and squeeze in a little lemon juice.

ANOTHER LOBSTER SAUCE.

Pound very finely the spawn of a lobster; rub it through a sieve; mix it with a quarter of a pound of melted butter, then add the meat of the lobster cut into small bits. Make it quite hot, but do not allow it to boil.

SAUCE ROBART, FOR BEEF STEAKS, OR MUTTON CHOPS.

Put into a sauce-pan a little gravy, two ounces of butter dredged with flour, a small slice of raw ham, and two or three minced onions; when the onions are browned, dust in a little more flour, and add nearly a pint of gravy, a little salt and pepper, a tea-spoonful of mustard, and a table-spoonful of vinegar. Boil it for some minutes; strain and serve it.

A SAUCE FOR BROILED MEAT, GAME, OR POULTRY.

Bruise the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs with a little water and salt; bone one anchovy, mince it, and a small onion, two shallots, a little parsley and tarragon, and a few capers; mix them with the egg, add a table-spoonful of fine oil, a little mustard, two table-spoonful of lemon, and one of tarragon vinegar; mix all exceedingly well together, put it into a sauce-tureen, and serve it with the broil; or it may be served with cold veal.

A BUNCH OF SWEET HERBS.

Is made up of parsley, sweet marjoram, winter savory, orange and lemon thyme – the greatest proportion of parsley.

TO PREPARE ONIONS FOR SEASONING.

Peel and mince three or four onions; put them into a sauce-pan with a little cold water; let them boil till quite tender, and then pulp them with the liquor through a hair sieve, when it may be mixed with any made dishes or sauces.

CELERY SAUCE.

Clean nicely, and cut into small pieces, the white part of two or three heads of celery; boil it in a little white stock; season with white pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg. When it is tender, add a piece of butter rolled in flour, and three table-spoonfuls of cream; heat it, but do not let it boil. Pour it over turkey or fowl.

SAUCE PIQUANTE.

Put a little chopped shallot and a few spoonfuls of gravy into a sauce-pan; let it boil till the gravy be nearly boiled away, but not burned to the bottom of the sauce-pan; add as much braise as may be required for the sauce, season with pepper and salt, boil it a few minutes, then add a little lemon juice, sugar, and a tea-spoonful of garlic vinegar.

N.B. Braise is an onion stuck with cloves, and boiled till tender in gravy and white wine.

WHITE ITALIAN SAUCE.

Peel some mushrooms, and throw them into a little water and lemon juice, to keep them white. Put into a stew-pan two-thirds of sauce tournee, and one-third of good veal stock, two table-spoonful of finely-chopped mushrooms, and half a table-spoonful of washed and chopped shallots; let it boil till well flavoured, and then serve it. The mushrooms should be as white as possible.

WHITE SHARP SAUCE.

Boil with a little tarragon, or tarragon vinegar, if the tarragon is not to be had, four table-spoonfuls of sauce tournee, and two of good stock; boil and strain it; put it again on the fire, and thicken it with the beaten yolks of two eggs, a small bit of butter, a little salt and cayenne. Just before serving, stir in a spoonful of cream.

WHITE SAUCE FOR FISH.

Four anchovies chopped, two glasses of white wine, a large one of vinegar, an onion stuck with three cloves, and cut into quarters; let all these simmer till the anchovies dissolve; strain it, and add a quarter of a pound of butter kneaded in a table-spoonful of flour. When it has melted, stir in gradually, one way, half a pint of cream, taking care that it do not boil. When thoroughly heated, serve in a sauce-tureen.

PARSLEY AND BUTTER.

Pick and wash clean a large bunch of parsley; tie it up, and boil it for a few minutes in water; drain and chop it very finely, add to it some melted butter, and made it quite hot. It is better to be made thick with parsley.

Fennel sauce may be made in this same way.

ONION SAUCE.

Boil twelve or more onions in water; when it boils, pour it off, add more hot water, and when the onions are tender, strain and mash them in a bowl, add a piece of butter, a little salt, and one or two spoonfuls of cream. Heat it before serving. An apple may be boiled with the onions.

Sliced onions, with a little pepper and vinegar poured over them, may be served with roasted partridges, or mutton.

APPLE SAUCE.

Pare, core, and slice some apples; boil them in water with a bit of lemon-peel; when tender, mash them; add to them a bit of butter the size of a walnut, and some brown sugar. Heat, and serve in a sauce-tureen.

EGG SAUCE.

Boil three or four eggs about a quarter of an hour; put them into cold water, take off the shells, cut three of the whites, and four yolks, into small pieces; mix them with melted butter, and heat it well.

SHRIMP SAUCE.

Pick some shrimps nicely from the shell; put them into melted butter, add a table-spoonful of lemon pickle and vinegar; heat it.

HERB SAUCE.

Pick and wash some green mint; add, when minced, a table-spoonful of the young leaves, to four of vinegar, and put it into a sauce-tureen, with a tea-spoonful of brown sugar.

MINT SAUCE.

Pick and wash some green mint; add, when minced, a table-spoonful of the young leaves, to four of vinegar, and put it into a sauce-tureen, with a tea-spoonful of brown sugar.

SHALOT SAUCE.

Boil a few minced shallots in a little clear gravy and nearly as much vinegar; add a few peppercorns and a little salt; strain, and serve it in a sauce-tureen.

SORREL SAUCE.

Pick and wash some sorrel; put it into a stew-pan with a little water; stir it, to prevent its burning, and when it is tender, drain and mince it finely; fry it for half an hour in a stew-pan with a little butter, then dredge in a table-spoonful of flour, moisten it with boiling cream, and let it stew on a slow fire for an hour; add a little salt, and if too acid, a little sugar. Before serving, thicken with the beaten yolks of four eggs.

MAITRE D’HOTEL MAIGRE.

Put into some nicely-melted butter a little chopped parsley, salt, and lemon juice; one or two minced shallots may be added, and heat it all together.

THE VELOUTEE.

Boil quickly about the same quantity of good stock, and of sauce tournee; when the sauce is thick, add some boiling cream, and let it boil up twice; season with a little salt, and strain it through a tammy.

CAPER SAUCE.

Chop some capers, and add them to melted butter, with a table-spoonful of lemon pickle; heat it well, taking care not to let it boil after the capers and lemon pickle are put in.

THE OLD CURRANT SAUCE FOR VENISON.

Boil in water, for a few minutes, an ounce of nicely-cleaned currants; add three table-spoonfuls of grated bread, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, four cloves, and a glass of port wine; stir it till it boil, and serve it hot.

HORSE-RADISH SAUCE, TO EAT WITH HOT OR COLD MEAT.

Mix a tea-spoonful of mustard, a table-spoonful of vinegar, and three of cream; add a little salt, and as much finely grated horse-radish as will make the sauce the consistence of onion sauce.

ANOTHER HORSE-RADISH SAUCE.

Boil, in half a pint of milk, two table-spoonfuls of grated bread; add three ounces of butter, a little salt, and three or four table-spoonful of scraped horse-radish.

SAUCE FOR HASHES AND MADE DISHES.

A pint of port wine, twelve anchovies chopped, a quarter of a pint of vinegar, as much beaten pepper as will lie on half a crown, two or three cloves, a blade or two of mace, a nutmeg bruised, one small onions minced, two bay leaves, a little lemon thyme, marjoram, and parsley, and a piece of horse-radish about the length of a finger, split into quarters; put all into a sauce-pan, and let it simmer till the anchovies are dissolved; then strain it, and, when cold, bottle it for use.

GREEN GOOSEBERRY SAUCE.

Boil some green gooseberries in water till soft, and sweeten them with brown sugar.

PUDDING SAUCE.

Mix with half a pint of melted butter two wine glasses of sherry, and a table-spoonful of pounded loaf sugar; make it quite hot, and serve in a sauce-tureen, with grated nutmeg on the top.

YANDEE PUDDING SAUCE.

Beat together a large table-spoonful of fresh butter, four of pounded sugar, and a little nutmeg; add a dessert-spoonful of brandy, or sherry; heap it up upon a small dish, and grate a little nutmeg or orange-peel over the top. To be served with pancakes, or any sort of pudding.

FISH SAUCE.

A table-spoonful of anchovy juice, one of soy, and two of mushroom catsup, mixed in a quarter of a pound of melted butter.

ANOTHER FISH SAUCE.

Three anchovies and an onion chopped, and a small bit of horse-radish boiled in some stock, then strained, and thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour.

ANOTHER FISH SAUCE.

Boil, in half a pint of water, one or two anchovies, two cloves, a blade of mace, a bit of lemon-peel, a few peppercorns, and two table-spoonfuls of port wine; strain and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.

GOBBLE SAUCE.

Two ounces of butter mixed with flour, a small cupful of cream, a dessert-spoonful of anchovy essence, a little salt, cayenne, mace, and lime-juice; add some prawns, or shrimps; stir it gently till it be quite hot, but do not allow it to boil.

FISH CATSUP.

A quart of port wine, half a pint of vinegar, three quarters of a pound of anchovies with their pickle, a quarter of an ounce of mace, twelve cloves, six races of white ginger, a table-spoonful of black pepper, a stick of horse-radish, half the peel of a lemon, three shallots, and a bunch of thyme; mix all together, stew them upon a stove for an hour; when cold, strain, bottle, and cork it tightly.

CORATCH.

Two heads of garlic cut, one ounce of cayenne, two spoonfuls of Indian soy, one spoonful of walnut catsup, half a drachm of cochineal pounded; mix these in a pint of the best wine vinegar, let them infuse for a fortnight, and then filter it through paper.

BOGUL OR CHETNA SAUCE.

Steep twelve shallots in a pint of vinegar for twelve hours; strain and mix together, with a pint of mushroom catsup, two wine glassfuls of soy, a tea-spoonful of cayenne, half a tea-spoonful of mustard seed, and the same quantity of allspice; boil, and when cold, bottle, and cork it tightly.

TO MAKE MUSTARD.

Mix very smoothly the best flower of mustard with cold water; add a little salt, and a very little sifted loaf-sugar. It will keep good for some time, if put into a small jar and covered closely; - or it may be mixed with milk instead of water, but in this way it will not keep so long.

MUSHROOM SAUCE FOR BOILED TURKEY OR FOWL.

Pick clean and wash a pint of small mushrooms; rub them with flannel; put them into a sauce-pan, with a blade of mace, a little salt, grated nutmeg, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a pint of cream; keep stirring them till they boil, then pour them round the turkey, fowl, or chicken.

POOR MAN’S SAUCE.

Chop a few shallots very fine, and mix with them a little pepper, salt, vinegar, and water, and serve in a sauce-tureen. This sauce is generally served with young roasted turkeys.

WHITE SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWLS.

Melt, in a tea-cupful of milk, a large table-spoonful of butter, kneaded in flour; beat up the yolk of an egg with a tea-spoonful of cream; stir it into the butter, and heat it over the fire, stirring it constantly. Chopped parsley improves this sauce. It also may be made melting the butter with water, and mixing milk with the egg.

SAUCE FOR BOILED CHICKENS.

Parboil the livers, bruise and mix them with one anchovy, a little shallot and parsley, the hard-boiled yolks of two, and the white of one egg, all finely minced, and make it quite hot in melted butter.

LA SAUCE ROBERT.

Cut some onions small, fry them of a fine brown, moisten them with some veal gravy, skim it, put in a little pepper and salt, and just before serving, mix in a spoonful of mustard.

SALAD SAUCE.

Bruise the yolk of a hard boiled egg with a small tea-spoonful of salt; then add a dessert-spoonful of mustard, and stir in gradually a large table-spoonful of olive oil, oiled butter, or cream;  them by degrees mix in two or three table-spoonfuls of vinegar; serve it in a sauce-tureen, or mix it with the salad. Instead of the hard egg, some persons prefer the sauce made with the yolk raw.

ANOTHER SALAD SAUCE.

Rub smooth a hard-boiled egg, beat well a raw egg, and mix them together with a little water, a tea-spoonful of salt, one of cayenne, one of black pepper, and one of mustard, a table-spoonful of vinegar, one of essence of anchovies, and five of rich cream.

The artist, as he styled himself, who invented this salad sauce, drove in his carriage to his employers, and charged them ten shillings and sixpence for each visit!

FORCEMEAT.

Mince very finely the following ingredients: Three ounces of fresh beef suet, one of fat bacon, three of raw or dressed veal, two of grated bread, a little grated lemon-peel, nutmeg, white pepper, salt, and finely minced parsley; mix all well together, and bind it with the beaten yolks of eggs; make it into balls the size of a large nutmeg, and fry them in clarified beef dripping; or use it for stuffing.

ANOTHER FORCEMEAT.

Mince, and then pound to a paste, the following ingredients: - One pound of lean veal, half a pound of suet, a quarter of a pound of lean ham, six pickled oysters, a small pickled cucumber, six ounces of grated bread; season with pepper, salt, grated lemon-peel, and nutmeg; and bind with the beaten yolks of eggs. Use it for stuffing; or make it into balls, or flat cakes, and fry them.

FORCEMEAT FOR FISH.

Pick from the bones the meat of a large haddock, or any sort of white fish; mince it finely, and add the same proportions of minced suet and of grated bread, a few chopped oysters, and some boiled parsley chopped; season with a little pounded onion, Jamaica and cayenne pepper, salt, nutmeg, and lemon-peel; mix all well together, and bind it with the well-beaten yolks of eggs; roll it into small balls, and fry them of a light brown, in fresh beef dripping. Or,

It may be made with the meat of the tail, claws, and the soft part of the body, of a lobster: pound it and half an anchovy; mix with it an equal quantity of grated bread, a few chopped oysters, and some butter; season with grated nutmeg, lemon-peel, salt, Jamaica and cayenne pepper; bind it with the beaten yolks of eggs; make it into small balls, and fry them.

STUFFING WITHOUT MEAT.

Season a quarter of a pound of finely-minced beef suet, and an equal quantity of grated bread, with grated nutmeg, lemon-peel, lemon thyme, and parsley, salt, and pepper; mix it well together, and bind with a well-beaten yolk of an egg, when it may be used for stuffing veal or fowl.

STUFFING FOR A HARE.

Parboil the liver and mince it; add an equal quantity of grated bread, double the quantity of fat bacon chopped, a bit of butter the size of a walnut. Season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, chopped lemon thyme, and parsley; bind with a beaten egg. If quite fresh, the liver may be minced raw.

FPRCEMEAT BALLS.

May be made of pounded veal or mutton, minced beef suet, or fat of veal, taking an equal quantity of meat, suet, and grated bread crumbs, adding a bit of fat bacon chopped, seasoning with salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg, and mixing all well together with a beaten yolk of an egg.

STUFFING FOR TURKEY OR FOWL.

Wash a quart of oysters in their own liquor; strain it, and put into it the oysters, with a little mace, whole pepper, and lemon-peel; when parboiled, chop small a dozen and a half, add an equal weight of grated bread, twice the quantity of finely-minced beef suet, the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, one anchovy, a little salt, pepper, nutmeg, lemon-peel, and some minced parsley; bind it with beaten yolks of two eggs. For the sauce, boil with the liquor of the oysters a pint of white stock, half a pint of white wine, one anchovy, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; strain it, and add a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour; heat it up with the remainder of the oysters.

STUFFING FOR FOWLS, PHEASANTS, OR TURKEYS.

A little hog’s lard, the liver if a fowl minced, a little parsley and cibol minced, and a very little salt; the mixture to be put inside the fowl, which is then sewed up.

GRAVY AND STUFFING FOR DUCKS.

Boil all the giblets, excepting the liver, for an hour in a pint of water, with a chopped onion, some salt, and pepper; strain, and add a very little browning, with a tea-spoonful of coratch, and one of mushroom catsup. For the stuffing, mince the raw liver with two sage leaves, a small onion, some pepper and salt, a bit of butter, and grated bread crumbs.

FORCEMEAT ONIONS.

Peel four or five large onions, scoop out the inside, fill them with forcemeat, and roast them in an oven. They may be served with roast turkey or fowl.

KITCHEN SPICE FOR WHITE SAUCE.

Pound two ounces of white pepper, a quarter of an ounce of mace; grate one nutmeg, and the peel of one lemon; mix all together in a bottle.

ANOTHER KITCHEN SPICE FOR GENERAL USE.

One ounce of black pepper, and of Jamaica pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, and ginger, half an ounce each, and eight cloves; pound and mix altogether in a bottle. A little of each kind of spice should be well dried, pounded, and kept separately in small bottles, which should be labeled.

CAYENNE PEPPER.

When perfectly ripe, take out the seeds of the capsicums, dry the pods, pull them into bits, and with the seeds, pound them to a fine powder; and to three ounces of cayenne, add one of white pepper. Mix them thoroughly; bottle, and cork tightly.

MUSHROOM POWDER.

Pick, skin, and clean half a peck of mushrooms; throw them into cold water, drain, and put them into a sauce-pan, with two table-spoonfuls of white pepper, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and five cloves pounded; simmer and shake them till the liquor is wasted away, but be careful they do not burn; lay them upon dishes, and put them into a cool oven to dry; then beat them to a powder, put it into wide-mouthed bottles, and tie leather over the corks; keep them in a dry place. Or, skin and wipe with flannel some small fresh-gathered mushrooms, lay them upon a tin, and dry them in a moderate oven, or in a Dutch oven; put them into small paper bags, and hang them near the kitchen fire, and, when required for use, rub them to a powder.

RAGOUT POWDER.

Two ounces of truffles, two of dried mushrooms, the peel of a lemon, and the same of a Seville orange grated, half a grated nutmeg, half an ounce of mace, the same of black pepper, and one drachm of cayenne; dry them all well before the fire, pound them to a fine powder, add one ounce of salt, sift the powder through a sieve, and keep it in a bottle for use.

FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.

Put into a frying-pan or sauce-pan a piece of butter; oil, and skim it, pour it from the sediment, return it to the pan, throw in two or three spoonfuls of grated bread; keep stirring them constantly till of a beautiful yellow brown, and drain them before the fire.

GLAZE, BROWN AND WHITE.

A brown glaze is made of stock clear and pale in the colour; should it not be sufficiently clear, it must be made so with the white of eggs, and run through a jelly bag; a little white wine is added, and it is then boiled until it hang to the spoon, when it may be put into a glaze kettle: this kettle is made similar to a milk kettle, and of the best block tin. When the glaze is wanted for use, the kettle is put into a stew-pan of water by the side of a stove; it should be of a beautiful clear yellow brown, and is put over ham, tongue, and many made dishes, with a brush. A white glaze is made in the same manner as the brown, substituting white for brown stock.

A RICH CULLIS, OR GRAVY.

Cut into slices some lean beef, veal, and mutton; cover the bottom of the sauce-pan with the veal, then put in a few slices of fat bacon, next a layer of beef, add a few onions sliced, and the red part of one or two carrots, a little mace, two or three cloves, some whole black and Jamaica pepper, and two or three bay leaves, above that the mutton; cover the pan closely, set it on a slow fire, and when the meat is a fine brown, mix quite smooth a small quantity of flour in water, stir it in, and then add as much boiling water as will cover the meat well, and a little salt; cover the pan closely, and let it stew an hour and a half; strain, and keep it for use; it will continue good for eight or ten days.

TO POT MUSHROOMS.

Put into salt and water a peck of clean-picked button mushrooms; take them out immediately, and wipe them with a bit of flannel; dip them into the same water, and put them into a sauce-pan with a dessert-spoonful of salt, six blade of mace, and two cloves; let them stew till half the liquor is consumed, then add two pounds and a half of fresh butter, and stew them till no liquor is to be seen at the bottom of the pan; put them into pots, and when cold, tie a bladder closely over them. 


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