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THE PRACTICE OF COOKERY
CHAPTER XVI - PRESERVES


PREPARATORY REMARKS ON SWEETMEATS.

All sweetmeats should be preserved in a brass pan, which must be well scoured with sand and vinegar, washed with hot water, and wiped perfectly dry before it is used.

An iron plate or a stove is preferable to a fire for preserving on; and by boiling the fruit quickly, the form, colour, and flavour, will be better preserved, and there will be less waste, than in slow boiling. A round wooden stick, smaller at the one end than the other, in Scotland called a thevil, is better adapted for stirring sugar or preserves with, than a silver spoon, which last is only used for skimming. That there may be no waste in taking off the scum, it is put through a fine silk-sieve, or through a hair-sieve, with a bit of muslin laid into it; the clear part will run into the vessel placed below, and may be returned to the preserving pan.

A silver soup ladle is used for putting preserves into the jars, which should be of brown stone, or of white wedgewood ware. After the jellies or preserves are put in, they must not be moved till quite cold, when they are covered with a piece of white paper, cut so as to fit into the jar, and dipped into brandy or rum. They are then stored in a cool dry place, and should be looked at occasionally. If in a few weeks they be observed to ferment, the sirup be first strained from the fruit, then boiled till it is thick, and again poured over the fruit, previously put into clean jars.

Sugar, low in price, and consequently coarse in quality, is far from being cheapest in the end; while that which it most refined is always the best. White sugars should be chosen as shining and as close in texture as possible.

The best sort of brown sugar has a bright and gravelly appearance.

A jelly-bag is made of half a square of flannel folded by the corners, and one side sewed up; the top bound with tape, and four loops also of tape sewed on, so as to hang upon a stand made of four bars of wood, each thirty-six inches in height, fastened with four bars at the top, each measuring ten inches, with hooks upon the corners. Twelve inches from the bottom four more bars are placed. A pan or basin is put underneath, to receive the juice or jelly as it drops through the bag.

TO CLARIFY SUGAR.

To every three pounds of loaf sugar, allow the beaten white of one egg, and a pint and a half of water; break the sugar small, put it into a nicely-cleaned brass pan, and pour the water over it; let it stand some time before it be put upon the fire; then add the beaten whites of the eggs; stir it till the sugar be entirely dissolved, and when it boils up, pour in a quarter of a pint of cold water; let it boil up a second time; take it off the fire, and let it settle for fifteen minutes; carefully take off all the scum; put it on the fire, and boil it till sufficiently thick, or, if required, till candy high, in order to ascertain which, drop a little from a spoon into a small jar of cold water, and if it become quite hard, it is then sufficiently done; or dip the thevil into the sugar, plunge it into cold water, draw off the sugar which adheres to the stick, and if it be hard, and snaps, the fruit to be preserved must be instantly put in and boiled.

TO BOIL SUGAR.

To every pound of sugar, allow half a pint of water; stir it over the fire till the sugar be entirely dissolved; when it first boils up, pour in a little cold water, and when it boils a second time, take it off the fire; let it settle ten minutes, carefully scum it, and boil it for half an hour or a little longer, and then put in the fruit.

ORANGE MARMALADE.

Allow equal weight of bitter oranges and fine loaf sugar; wash the oranges, wipe them dry, and grate off any discoloured part; cut the rind in half, and with a dessert-spoon loosen it all round to take off each of the halves entire; take the core and seeds clean from the oranges, leaving the juice with the pulp; put the skin into a sauce-pan with plenty of cold water, and cover it closely with a cloth underneath the cover; let them boil for some hours, till so tender that the head of a pin will easily pierce them; drain off the water, and while they are hot, with a silver spoon scoop out all the soft part, leaving the skins quite thin; cut them into thin parings half an inch long; clarify and boil the sugar candy high; put in the parings, and in ten minutes add the juice and pulp, and boil all together till transparent. Part of the peel may be grated to heighten the colour, and a pound and a half of sugar to the pound of oranges may be used.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE ORANGE MARMALADE.

To three pound of fruit, allow five of sugar; pare the oranges; cut the peel into thin chips, and put them into cold water; clear the pulp from the seeds and inside skin, and strew over it pounded loaf sugar; next day drain the chips, put them into a linen bag, and boil them for three hours in plenty of cold water; they are again drained and boiled, together with the pulp, for ten minutes, or till it jelly in the sugar, which has been clarified and boil candy high. In making minced marmalade, the skins must be boiled, and then finely minced with a knife. The juice of a pound of lemons is sometimes added, but in other respects the process is the same.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE ORANGE MARMALADE.

Wash the oranges, and grate off any defective part; to three pounds of fruit, allow five of fine loaf sugar; put the oranges into a sauce-pan with plenty of cold water; cover it closely, and let them boil till a straw or the head of a pin will easily pierce them; take them out, cut them into four, pick out the seeds, and slice them, skin and all, as thin as possible; break the sugar small, and to each pound allow a quarter of a pint of water; stir it till the sugar be dissolved, and when it has boiled a few minutes, take it off the fire; pour in a quarter of a pint of cold water, which will throw up all the refuse; scum it off; put it again on the fire, and if any more scum rises, remove it; add the orange slices, and boil for fifteen minutes.

LEMON MARMALADE.

Allow to a pound of lemons eighteen ounces of fine loaf sugar; grate the rind of a few; cut them into half; squeeze and strain the juice; boil the skins in the same way as those of the orange are done; scoop out the pulp and white part; cut half into thin chips or parings, and pound the other half in a mortar; pound the sugar, and pour over it the juice; stir, and let it boil for five minutes; take it off the fire; skim it; put in the parings and the pounded skins; boil it for five minutes, then add the grated peel, and let it boil for five minutes more; take it off, and stir it till half cold, before putting it into jars.

ORANGE JELLY FOR BREAKFAST.

Wash the oranges, grate off the outer rind, cut them in half, and after squeezing out the juice, put them into a pan with water in the proportion of one quart to every pound of oranges; boil them gently for an hour, or till the water is reduced to rather less than half; strain it and the juice through a sieve; to every pint of the liquor add one pound of loaf sugar; boil them together till they jelly, which may be in twenty minutes, skimming it well.

ORANGE JELLY MADE FROM SWEET ORANGES.

Wash the oranges, and grate off any discoloured part; cut them into round slices; to each pound add one lemon also sliced; put them into a preserving pan with water, in the proportion of three pints to a pound of fruit; boil till reduced to one pint; strain it through a sieve; and to every pint of the liquor, add one pound of pounded loaf sugar; boil them together for ten minutes; skim it well.

RED CURRANT JELLY.

Gather the currants upon a dry day; pick them clean, pound them in a mortar, and drip them through a tammy, or flannel bag; to every pint of juice allow a pound of fine loaf sugar; it may be broken small, and boiled with the juice; but to make the jelly beautifully clear, clarify and boil the sugar candy high; add the juice, and boil it six minutes.

A pint of white currants to every quart of red improves the colour.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RED CURRANT JELLY.

Clarify and boil, till candy high, fourteen pounds of sugar; add three pound of nicely-picked raspberries, boil them quickly for three minutes, and then put in twelve pounds of clean-picked currants, and boil them for three or four minutes, and strain it through a fine sieve.

The currants may be made into a rolled pudding.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RED CURRANT JELLY.

Gather the currants with the stalks; put them into a tub of cold water; take them out gently, put them into a sieve, and then lay them out for half an hour upon a table-cloth. Put them into a preserving pan, adding one pint of raspberries to four of currants, and as much water as to prevent their burning; allow them to become quite hot, but not to boil; shake the pan to prevent the fruit adhering to the bottom or sides; strain it through a jelly-bag. To every pint of juice allow one pound of pounded loaf sugar, and when it comes to a boil, boil it one minute. Only remove the scum when the pan it taken off the fire.

Wash and prepare black currants as the red are directed to be done; put them into a preserving pan, adding a pint of water to a quart of fruit; let it be so hot as merely to admit of its being squeezed through a thin linen cloth with the hand. To a pint of juice allow a pound of loaf sugar, and when it boils, boil it three minutes. Skim it when taken off the fire.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RED CURRANT JELLY.

Pick the currants from the stalks; put them into a preserving pan; strew a pound of pounded loaf sugar over them, and add a pint of cold water; place them over the fire till they are heated through, which may be in half an hour; strain them through a sieve; to a pint of the juice allow one pound of sugar in large lumps; let it dissolve in the juice before putting it on the fire; stir it till it boils, and let it boil quickly for ten minutes.

MAGNUM BONUM PLUMS.

Gather the plums with stalks; scald them in boiling water, and take off the skins, leaving on the stalks. If not quite ripe, they will require to be simmered a few minutes over a stove, to every pound of fruit, allow one of fine loaf sugar; clarify it, and when nearly boiled candy high, put in the plums, and boil them fifteen minutes; with spoon carefully put them into a basin, and let them stand a day or two; then boil them ten minutes, or till perfectly transparent; put them into jars; strain the sirup through a sieve, and pour it equally over them.

WHITE CURRANT JELLY.

Gather the fruit upon a dry day, and pick it from the stalks; pound it in a mortar, and drip the juice through a flannel bag. To every pint allow a pound of fine loaf sugar; break it small, and with the juice, put it into a preserving pan; stir it till it boils; skim, and let it boil exactly six minutes; or the juice may be boiled the same length of time in sugar previously clarified and boiled candy high.

TO PRESERVE YELLOW WHITE GOOSEBERRIES, CALLED THE SULPHUR.

Gather them upon a dry day, and before they are very ripe; take equal weight of finely-pounded sugar and gooseberries; top and tail, and prick them with a large needle; as they are done, strew over them a little sugar. To each pound of gooseberries, allow half a pint of white currant juice, and half a pound of pounded sugar. Put the sugar, gooseberries, and juice alternately into the preserving pan, set it over the fire, and shake it every now and then, till the sugar be dissolved, and then carefully remove the fruit from the sides of the pan. When it boils, skim it, and let it boil exactly twenty-four minutes.

The large rough red gooseberries are preserved precisely in the same way, and when they come to a boil, must be allowed to boil-for twenty minutes.

ANOTHER WAY TO PRESERVE GOOSEBERRIES.

The tops and tails being removed from the gooseberries, allow an equal quantity of finely-pounded loaf sugar, and put a layer of each alternately into a large deep jar; pour into it as much dripped currant juice, either red or white, as will dissolve the sugar, adding its weight in sugar; the following day, put all into a preserving pan, and boil it.

TO PRESERVE YELLOW OR GREEN GOOSEBERRIES.

The tops and tails being removed from gooseberries, slit them up the sides, and with a silver knife, or the top of a tea-spoon, take out the seeds, and put them, with the pulp which adheres to them, into a sieve; the juice which drains from them boil with the sugar, previously weighed in equal quantities with the fruit; then add the gooseberry skins, and boil them till perfectly clear.

GOOSEBERRY JAM FOR PUDDINGS.

Allow equal weight of the red rough gooseberries, and of good brown sugar; gather the fruit upon a dry day; top and tail them, and put a layer alternately of gooseberries and of sugar into a preserving pan; shake it frequently, skim it well, and boil it till the sirup jellies, which may be ascertained by cooling a little in a saucer.

Black and red currants may be done in this way for common use.

BLACK CURRANT JELLY 

Gather the fruit upon a dry day, pick it clean from the stalks; put into a preserving pan eight pounds, and one pint of water; bruise the currants till they get a scald; pour them into a hair-sieve, and with the hands press out all the juice, which strain through a piece of muslin; and to each pint, allow one pound of fine loaf sugar; break it small, and with the juice put it into a preserving pan; stir it till it boils; let it boil for three minutes, and skim it.

RASPBERRIES PRESERVED WHOLE.

Gather the raspberries upon a dry day, and when the sun is not upon them; weigh equal quantities of finely-pounded loaf sugar and of fruit; put a layer of each alternately into a preserving pan, shake it constantly till it boils, carefully take off the scum, and boil it for fifteen minutes; or the sugar may be clarified, boiled candy high, and the fruit added.

WHITE RASPBERRIES PRESERVED WHOLE.

Gather the raspberries upon a dry day, and to each pound allow one of sugar; clarify and boil till candy high all but one pound, which pound and sift; put the raspberries into the clarified sugar, and boil it for five minutes; take it off, and strew over the pound of sifted sugar; when almost cold, to every pound of fruit, add half a pint of dripped white currant juice, and half a pound of finely-pounded sugar; boil and skim it till the fruit be transparent.

TO PRESERVE RASPBERRIES.

Gather the fruit upon a dry day; to each pound of raspberries, allow half a pint of red currant juice, and a pound and a half of finely-pounded loaf sugar; put each alternately into a preserving pan, shake it frequently till the sugar be dissolved; carefully remove the fruit from the sides of the pan, and stir it round gently with a thevil or a silver spoon; when it boils, skim it, and let it boil twenty-five minutes; or the sugar may be clarified, boiled candy high, and the fruit and currant juice added to it.

RASPBERRY JAM.

Weigh equal proportions of pounded loaf sugar and of raspberries; put the fruit into a preserving pan, and with a silver spoon bruise and mash it well; let it boil six minutes; add the sugar, and stir it well with the fruit; when it boils, skim it, and boil it for fifteen minutes.

RASPBERRY JELLY.

Put into a jar raspberries and white currants in equal quantities; let them be thoroughly heated on the fire in a water bath, then run them through a jelly-bag, and to every pint of juice add a pound of pounded sugar; let it just boil, take it off the fire, and skim it; repeat this two or three times till it is quite clear, when it will be sufficiently done.

TO PRESERVE BLACK CURRANTS.

Gather the currants upon a dry day; to every pound allow half a pint of red currant juice, and a pound and a half of finely-pounded loaf sugar. With scissors, clip off the heads and stalks; put the juice, sugar, and currants into a preserving pan; shake it frequently till it boils; carefully remove the fruit from the sides of the pan, and take off the scum as it rises; let it boil for ten or fifteen minutes.

This preserve may be eaten with cream, or made into tarts.

BLACK CURRANT JAM.

Allow equal weight of clipt currants and of pounded loaf sugar; bruise and mash the fruit in a preserving pan over the fire; add the sugar; stir it frequently; when it boils, skim, and let it boil for ten minutes.

WHITE OR RED CURRANT JAM.

Pick the fruit very nicely, and allow an equal quantity of finely-pounded loaf sugar; put a layer of each alternately into a preserving pan, and boil for ten minutes; or they may be boiled the same length of time in sugar previously clarified, and boiled candy high.

TO PRESERVE STRAWBERRIES.

Weigh a large deep dish or milk pan, into which put the finest rose strawberries, gathered when perfectly dry; then weigh them, and to each pound allow one of fine loaf sugar, which clarify and boil candy high; pour it over the strawberries; wash out the preserving pan; return the fruit and sugar into it, and boil the strawberries for five minutes; strain them through a large sieve, and boil the sirup for twenty minutes; then with a silver spoon carefully add the strawberries to it, and, if approved, half a pint of dripped red currant juice, and half a pound of sugar, to each pound of strawberries, and boil all together for ten minutes; carefully scum it.

THE LARGE BATH, OR HAUTBOY STRAWBERRIES.

May be preserved with an equal quantity of fine loaf sugar; the sugar must be scummed and boiled for half an hour; then, the fruit being added, it is boiled for half an hour or three quarters, and carefully scummed. Or the sugar may be finely pounded, and boiled with the fruit. In this last manner, any kind of strawberry may be preserved.

ANOTHER WAY TO PRESERVE STRAWBERRIES.

Gather the strawberries in the middle of a dry day, taking care that they are quite ripe, sound, and good; the best kinds are the rose, and large scarlet pine; in gathering, pick them carefully from the stalks. Pound fine loaf sugar, and allow equal weight of each; lay the strawberries into one or two large dishes, and cover them completely over with the sugar. On the following day, put them into a preserving pan, and place them over the fire till they are heated through; do the same the next day, and on the third boil them up very fast, allowing them fifteen minutes after they come to boil all over; take them off the fire, and have ready some aired silver paper to put upon them, to take off the scum, instead of using a silver spoon, which is apt to break them.

This preserve may be eaten with cream.

This process of boiling may be completed in one day, if begun at an early hour.

STRAWBERRY JAM.

Allow equal weight of pounded loaf sugar and of the scarlet pine or rose strawberries; mash them in the preserving pan, and mix the sugar well with it; stir, scum, and boil it for twenty minutes.

POUNDED STRAWBERRIES, FOR STRAWBERRY CREAM.

Take equal weight of sugar and strawberries; pound and sift the sugar, add it to the strawberries, and pound them in a marble mortar till perfectly smooth. Put it into jars, and tie them over closely with paper. It will keep good for several months.

IMITATION WEST INDIAN GINGER.

Peel off the outer coat of the tender stems of lettuce that is shot; cut it into bits one or two inches long, and throw it into cold water; to each pound put in a tea-spoonful of cayenne, and a little salt; let it stand one or two days; allow an equal proportion of fine loaf sugar, which clarify. Soak some good ginger in hot water; slice it, and add it to the sugar, allowing one ounce and a half to the pound, and boil it for fifteen minutes; strain off the water from the lettuce, and pour over it the sirup, keeping back the ginger, with which the sirup must be boiled three times, and poured over the lettuce, two or three days intervening between each boiling; and at the last add the strained juice of one or two lemons.

RIPE MELON, TO RESEMBLE WEST INDIAN GINGER.

Pare off the rind, scoop out the seeds, and cut it into small bits; put them into salt and water for ten days; then put them into fresh water for four or five days, changing the water daily, morning and evening; scrape off the outside of some best white ginger, and put it into a thin sirup, which pour boiling hot upon the cut melon; repeat this for five or six days. Boil up the sirup pretty thick, and boil the melon in it for ten minutes. To every pint of sirup put the rind of a lemon, pared very thin, and cut into straws. This sweetmeat ought to be kept for a year before it is eaten.

A melon of six pound weight will require four pounds of refined sugar, and half a pound of ginger.

TO PRESERVE RED PEARS.

Parboil a dozen of pound of pears in water; peel them. Clarify the same weight of fine loaf sugar that there is of pears; add a pint of port wine, the juice and rind of one lemon, with a little cochineal, a few cloves, and a stick of cinnamon; boil the pears in this till they become clear and red; take them out, boil up the sirup, strain, and put it over the pears.

TO PRESERVE LARGE SMOOTH GREEN GOOSEBERRIES.

Weigh equal proportions of sugar and of fruit; with a penknife, slit the gooseberries on one side, and take out all the seeds; put them into a preserving pan with cold water; scald them; pour off the water when cold; put over and under them vine leaves, with more cold water; set them over the fire to green. Clarify the sugar; put the gooseberries into a deep jar, and pour the boiling sirup over them; in two days pour it off, boil, and put it over the fruit; repeat this till the sirup becomes thick, then put them into small jars.

TO PRESERVE THE SAME BEFORE THEY ARE RIPE.

Gather the largest-sized gooseberries, and allow an equal quantity of pounded loaf sugar; cut the gooseberries in half, and take out the seeds; wet the sugar with a little water, and put altogether in a preserving pan; carefully stir and scum them, and boil them till the sirup is clear and the fruit soft.

PRESERVED APPLES.

Weigh equal quantities of good brown sugar, and of apples; peel, core, and mince them small. Boil the sugar, allowing to every three pounds a pint of water; skim it well, and boil it pretty thick; then add the apples, the grated peel of one or two lemons, and two or three pieces of white ginger; boil till the apples fall, and look clear and yellow.

This preserve will keep for years.

PRESERVED CHERRIES.

To a pound of cherries allow three quarters of a pound of pounded loaf sugar; stone them carefully, and as they are done, strew part of the sugar over them; boil them fast, with the remainder of the sugar, till the fruit is clear and the sirup thick; take off the scum as it rises. Or they may be boiled ten minutes in an equal quantity of sugar, which has been previously clarified and boiled candy high. Part of the kernels may be added; or they may be preserved with the stones and part of the stalks. Should the sirup be desired particularly rich and thick, they may be done as strawberries.

CHERRY JAM.

Stone six pound of cherries; bruise them as they boil, and when the juice is a little wasted, add three pounds of pounded sugar; stir, and take off the scum; boil till it will jelly.

TO PRESERVE APRICOTS.

Weigh equal quantities of fine apricots and of loaf sugar. Pare the fruit with a silver knife, and take out the stone carefully; as they are done, strew a little pounded sugar over them. Boil the sugar as directed under that head; put in the apricots, and let them just simmer; take off the pan, put over it a piece of white paper, and let it stand till nearly cold; put it again on the fire, let them simmer as before, and again cool them; repeat this three or four times, and the last time let them boil till quite transparent, which they will probably be in a quarter of an hour; remove the scum carefully, and a few minutes before taking them off the fire, blanch the kernels, and add them; or the kernels, after being blanched, may be put into a small jar, covered with spirits of wine, and allowed to stand till the jars are tied up, when a few may be put upon the top of each.

If the stones cannot be easily extracted, the apricots may be divided into halves; or they may be preserved without being stoned. The Moor Park apricot, the best for eating and excellent for jam, cannot be preserved so whole as the common apricot.

ANOTHER WAY TO PRESERVE APRICOTS.

Allow equal weight of fruit and finely-pounded loaf sugar; dip the apricots into hot water; pare them with a silver knife; if large, take out the stones carefully, and as they are done, roll them well in sugar; lay them into a large dish, cover them completely with the sugar, and let them remain for thirty hours; then pour off the juice and sugar, boil and skim it; add the apricots, and boil them gently for half an hour. When to be skimmed, take the preserving pan off the fire. Blanch the kernels, and add them. The apricots should not be quite ripe.

APRICOT JAM.

Weigh equal quantities of pounded loaf sugar and of apricots; pare and cut them quite small, as they are done, strew over them half of the sugar. The following day, boil the remainder, and add the apricots; stir it till it boils, take off the scum, and when perfectly clear, which may be in twenty minutes, add part of the kernels blanched, and boil it two or three minutes.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE APRICOT JAM.

Allow equal proportions of pounded loaf sugar and of apricots; pare, and cut them small; as they are done, strew part of the sugar over them, and put the parings into cold water. Break the stones, blanch and pound the kernels, which, with the shells and parings, boil till half the quantity of water is reduced, and there is a sufficiency of the liquor, when strained, to allow three or four table-spoonfuls to a pound of apricots; put it, with the sugar and fruit, into a preserving pan; mash, and take off the scum; boil it quickly, till transparent.  

APRICOTS IN BRANDY.

Weigh equal quantities of loaf sugar and of apricots; scald them, and take off the skin; clarify and boil the sugar, put the fruit into it, and let it remain for two or three days; put the apricots into glasses. Mix with the sirup the best pale brandy, half and half, and pour it over the apricots, and keep them closely covered.

Peaches and nectarines may be done in the same way.

TO DRY APRICOTS.

Pare the apricots, and carefully take out the stones; blanch the kernels, and put them into the apricots; strew over a pound of fruit, the same quantity of finely-pounded loaf sugar, and let them stand till the sugar has extracted the juice, then boil all together gently; when the fruit is tender, take it out with care, and boil the sirup till very rich; pour it over the fruit, and in three days put it upon dishes, and dry them in the sun under garden glasses, turning them once or twice a day to keep the shape as round as possible.

TO CANDY ANGELICA.

Cut the stalks when thick and tender; put them on in boiling water, and, when very tender, drain it off, and throw them into cold water; peel off the skin, and scald them in a thin sirup, made with the same proportion of sugar that there is of fruit; heat it twice a day till the sirup is almost dried in, and then dry them under garden glasses, or in a stove, and turn them twice a day.

TO PRESERVE QUINCES.

Pare the quinces, and at the end scoop out the core. Put them into a preserving pan with water, and closely covered; let them boil till soft and of a fine red; when they are cold, put them into a sirup made with the same proportion of sugar as of quinces. The following day, boil them two or three times till clear, and the last time for twelve minutes. Cut some small quinces into quarters, put them into a sauce-pan, with as much water as will cover them; boil it fast, till strongly flavoured of the quinces; strain it through a flannel bag, and boil a pint of the liquor with a pound of sugar till it be a rich sirup, and when cold, pour it over the quinces.

TO PRESERVE CUCUMBERS.

Lay, in a strong brine of salt and water, some large, smooth, green cucumbers; put vine or cabbage leaves over them, cover the jar or pan, and keep them near the fire till they turn yellow, which may be in three or four days; take them out, wash them, and put them into a pan, with leaves under and over, and a little salt in the water; let them simmer, but not boil; when cold, if not sufficiently greened, again put them in fresh water, with fresh leaves. Take them out when cold, divide them into four, scoop out the seeds and soft part, lay them into cold water, which change frequently through the day, till it be quite clear and tasteless. Clarify the same weight of sugar as of cucumbers; soak in boiling water some white ginger; scrape it, and put one ounce to a pound of sugar, and the thinly pared rind of a lemon. Boil them with the sirup, and when cold, put in the cucumbers, and boil them slowly for half an hour; put them into jars, and in five days, boil them again for ten minutes; carefully take out the cucumbers, boil up the sirup, and when cold put it over them.

ANOTHER WAY TO PRESERVE CUCUMBERS.

Weigh equal quantities of sugar and the large smooth green cucumbers. Split them down the middle, and take out all the seeds; cover four large cucumbers, cut in this way, with cold water, mixed with a dessert-spoonful of salt; let them stand by the fireside, or in a warm place, for three or four days. Boil the sugar with as much water as will dissolve it, and as long as any scum rises; then put in the cucumbers, and simmer them for a little time. Repeat this till they are clear and green, and, the last time of boiling, add some white ginger soaked in hot water and scraped, a few grains of allspice, and the peel of a lemon cut very thin. Put the cucumbers into jars, cover them completely with the sirup, and the following day tie them over with bladder. Look at them in a week or ten days, and if the sirup be wasted, boil more, and add it when cold.

TO PRESERVE SMALL CUCUMBERS.

Weigh equal proportions of small green cucumbers and of fine loaf sugar; clarify it; rub the cucumbers with a cloth, scald them in hot water, and, when cold, put them into the sirup, with some white ginger and the peel of a lemon; boil them gently for ten minutes. The following day just let them boil, and repeat this three times, and the last, boil them till tender and clear.

TO PRESERVE ORANGES.

Take six large high-coloured and smooth-skinned bitter oranges; with a penknife cut the rinds up and down, or into the form of leaves; cut a hole in the top to admit the end of a tea-spoon, with which carefully scoop out the inside; put the rinds into cold water, mixed with half a pound of salt. After standing two days and nights, change them into fresh cold water, and change it frequently through the day; then boil them with plenty of cold water in a closely-covered sauce-pan, till the head of a pin will easily pierce them; clarify the sugar, allowing a pound to each orange; place the skins in a potting can or flat vessel, and pour the sirup into and over them. The following day pour it off, boil it up, and repeat this four times, and, at the last, add the strained juice of four bitter oranges and the prepared rinds, and boil them about eight minutes; carefully take them out, one by one, and put them into jars, and pour over the sirup so as entirely to cover them. They may be served with a rich custard put into them.

TO PRESERVE SLICED ORANGES.

Weigh a pound of oranges, add one pound and a half of loaf sugar; grate a little of the rind off each orange; put them into a pan of water, cover it closely, and boil them till the head of a pin will easily pierce the rind; cut them into slices, take out the seeds, and boil the fruit in clarified sugar till perfectly clear, which may be in twenty minutes.

DAMSON CHEESE.

Put sound fresh-gathered damsons into an earthen jar, tie it closely with a bladder, and put it into a pot of cold water; let it boil for three or four hours; add more boiling water as it wastes. Strain the juice through a sieve, and to each pint allow sixteen ounces of pounded loaf sugar; boil and stir it over a clear fire till it will jelly, which may be in three quarters of an hour; pour it into shapes, small saucers, or flat plates, to dry. Keep it in a box, with sheets of white paper between each layer. Apricot cheese may be made in this way.

TO PRESERVE SIBERIAN CHEESE.

Boil, in half a pint of water, a little cinnamon, sliced ginger, and a few cloves, till the flavour be extracted; strain, and boil it with one pound of pounded loaf sugar; skim and boil it ten minutes; let it stand till cold, and then add a pint of fine Siberian crabs, which make scalding hot in the sirup; take them off the fire till nearly cold; heat them in the same manner three times. If the under ones look clear, take them out carefully, and put them into a jar, and let the rest boil till quite clear.

TO PRESERVE JARGONELLE PEARS.

Gather pears with stalks before they are quite ripe; allow equal quantities of fine loaf sugar and of fruit. Pare the pears as thinly as possible, keeping on the stalks; cut out the black top carefully; as they are peeled, put them into cold water. Put cabbage leaves into the bottom of a preserving pan; lay in the pears, cover them with cold water, and one or two cabbage leaves upon the top; boil them thirty minutes, and lay them upon a dish. To six pounds of sugar allow a quart of water; boil and skim it, then add one ounce of white ginger, previously soaked in hot water, and scraped clean, and the juice and thinly-pared rind of two lemons. Boil the sirup ten minutes; put in the pears, and let them boil twenty minutes; take them out, put them into a bowl or deep dish; boil the sirup eight minutes, and, when cold, pour it over the pears; cover them with paper; in four days pour off the sirup, boil it eight minutes, and pour it over the pears when cold. In four days repeat this process, and do it a third time; then stick a clove into each pear, where the black top was cut out. Put them into jars, divide the ginger and lemon-peel, and pour on the sirup when cold.

PEACH JAM.

Gather the peaches when quite ripe; peel, and stone them, put them into a preserving pan, and mash them over the fire till hot; rub them through a sieve, and add to a pound of pulp the same weight of pounded loaf sugar, and half an ounce of bitter almonds, blanched and pounded; let it boil ten or twelve minutes, stir and skim it well.

TO PRESERVE FIGS.

Allow equal weight of loaf sugar and of small green figs; wipe and cut them across the top; lay them into a strong brine of salt and water for ten days. Boil them in water till the head of a pin will easily pierce them, and then lay them into cold water for four days, changing it daily. Clarify the sugar, and put in the figs while hot; heat them in the sirup three times, and the last, boil them till they look green and clear.

TO PRESERVE APPLES.

Pare, core, and quarter six pounds of good hard baking apples; finely pound four pounds of loaf sugar; put a layer of each alternately, with half a pound of the best white ginger, into a jar; let it remain eight-and-forty hours; infuse, for half that time, in a little boiling water, half a quarter of a pound of bruised white ginger; strain and boil the liquor with the apples till they look clear, and the sirup rich and thick, which may be in about an hour. Take off the scum as it rises. When to be eaten, pick out the whole ginger.

TO PRESERVE GREEN GAGES.

Gather the largest green gage plums with stalks; allow an equal proportion of loaf sugar; put vine or cabbage leaves into the bottom of a pan, lay in the fruit, cover with leaves, and fill up with cold water. When the plums rise to the top, take them off, and carefully pare off the skin, and put them upon a sieve. Drain the water from the leaves; with fresh ones again heat the plums in it, and closely cover the pan; they must be done very slowly, and will take some hours to become green. Take them out and drain them upon a sieve. Clarify the sugar, boil it for eight minutes, put in the plums, boil them gently till transparent, and carefully put them into jars. Boil the sirup a few minutes, and pour it over them when cold. In three or four days, pour off the sirup, boil it up, and, when cold, put it over the fruit.

ANOTHER WAY TO PRESERVE GREEN GAGES.

Put the plums into boiling water, pare off the skin, and divide them; take an equal quantity of pounded loaf sugar, strew half of it over the fruit; let it remain some hours, and, with the remainder of the sugar, put it into a preserving pan; boil till the plums look quite clear, take off the scum as it rises, and, a few minutes before taking them off the fire, add the kernels.

APPLE JELLY.

Pare and cut into slices eighteen large acid apples; boil them in as much water as will cover them; when quit soft, dip a coarse cloth into hot water, wring it dry, and strain the apples through it; to each pint of juice allow fourteen ounces of fine loaf sugar, clarify it, and add, with the apple juice, the peel of a large lemon; boil it till it jellies, which may be in twenty minutes; pick out the lemon-peel, and immediately put it into jars.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE APPLE JELLY.

Pare and mince three dozen of juicy acid apples; put them into a pan, cover them with water, and boil them till very soft; strain them through a thin cloth or flannel bag; allow a pound of loaf sugar to a pint of juice; clarify and boil it; add the apple juice with the grated peel and juice of six lemons; boil it for twenty minutes; take off the scum as it rises.

GOOSEBERRY CHEESE.

Top and tail some red gooseberries; put them into a jar, tie it over, and boil it in a pan of water, till the fruit will easily pulp through a fine hair-sieve; allow a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar to a pint of the juice; stir, boil, and skim it for twenty minutes; put it into saucers or small plates, dry it before the fire, and when dry, keep it between folds of white paper.

TO KEEP CURRANTS FOR TARTS.

Gather the fruit perfectly dry, and before it be too ripe, pick it from the stalks, and put it into clean, dry, wide-mouthed bottles; if the flavour of raspberries is approved, some may be added with the currants; tie tightly over each bottle a piece of sound bladder previously soaked in water; set them into a pan of cold water, with a little straw at the bottom, and a little between the bottles; put them on the fire, and when they begin to simmer, keep them in that state about three quarters of an hour, but they must not be allowed to boil; take the pan off the fire; the bladders will be raised, but will fall soon after, and sink into the mouth of the bottles; in an hour, take them out, and tie strong paper over each, and set them in a dry cool place.

The bottles may be placed in a bottle-rack, with the neck downwards.

Damsons, cherries, and gooseberries, may be done in this way; any sort will keep for a year. Cut off the stalks of the cherries, and top and tail the gooseberries.

TO KEEP GREEN GOOSEBERRIES.

Gather the gooseberries when quite formed, but not the least soft; to and tail them; fill them into wide-mouthed bottles up to the neck, and cork them slightly; place them in a copper, with sawdust or straw in the bottom, and pour in cold water to reach to the necks of the bottles; light the fire, and when the water boils up, instantly take out the bottles, and fill them up from a tea-kettle with boiling water; cork the bottles upon their sides in a dry cool place, and turn them every other day for a month. When to be used, the liquor and fruit are put into a dish, and sweetened with brown sugar.

TO SAVE SUGAR IN PRESERVING CHERRIES, GREEN CAGES, DAMSONS, CURRANTS, AND RASPBERRIES.

Gather the fruit perfectly dry, and to a pound allow five ounces of finely-pounded loaf sugar; put a layer of fruit into a wide-mouthed bottle or jar, and then one of sugar, till the vessel is full; tie tightly over it two folds of sound bladder, and put them into a copper or pan, with straw in the bottom, and water as high as the necks, and let them simmer for three hours. When the water cools, take out the bottles, and keep them in a cool dry place.

DAMSONS FOR WINTER USE.

Gather the damsons when just ripe, and perfectly sound; fill a two-gallon brandy keg, and pour over two pounds of treacle; close the keg firmly, and turn it every day.

TO PRESERVE DAMSONS.

To every pound of damsons allow three quarters of a pound of pounded loaf sugar; put into jars alternately a layer of damsons, and one of sugar; tie them over with bladder or strong paper, and put them into an oven after the bread is withdrawn, and let them remain till the oven is cold. The following day strain off the sirup, and boil it till thick. When cold, put the damsons one by one into small jars, and pour over them the sirup, which must cover them. Tie them over with wet bladder.

ANOTHER WAY TO PRESERVE DAMSONS.

Prick them with a needle, and boil them with sugar in the same proportion as in the receipt to preserve damsons, till the sirup will jelly. Carefully take off all the scum.

TO PRESERVE THE PURPLE PLUM.

Put into a stone jar a layer of fruit, and one of brown sugar, allowing one pound to a pound of the fruit; cover the jar with linen or bladder, and bake it in an oven for one or two hours. In a few weeks pour off the sirup, and boil it a short time; skim it, and when cold, pour it over the fruit. It may be eaten with cream, or made into tarts or puddings.

TO PRESERVE CRANBERRIES.

Pick and wash the cranberries; allow to every pound two pounds of good brown sugar. Pour a little water into the preserving-pan, then put a layer of cranberries and one of sugar; boil them gently for twenty minutes, and skim them carefully.

GOOSEBERRY AND RASPBERRY CAKES.

Gather the gooseberries upon a dry day, and before they are quite ripe; top and tail them; scald them, or put them into an earthen jar; tie it closely over with bladder, and place it in a pan of water; let it boil till the fruit is sufficiently tender to pulp through a sieve. To a pound of the pulp, add one pound of pounded and sifted loaf sugar, and the well-beaten white of one egg; mix all together, and whisk it for three hours; drop the cakes upon writing paper, and dry them in the sun, or upon a stove. The pulp of damsons may be done in the same way.

For the raspberry cakes, allow a pound of sugar to a pint of the fruit, measured before it is scalded, or pulped through a sieve; allow one white of an egg to each pound, and for each sort of cakes dry the sugar well, and use it while it is warm. Keep them in a tin box, with folds of white paper between each layer. The whites of two eggs being added to each pound of sugar, half the beating will be found sufficient.

QUINCE CAKES.

Boil the quinces till quite soft; rub them through a sieve, and to a pint of juice add three quarters of a pound of pounded loaf sugar; mix all well together, and make it scalding hot, but do not allow it to boil; drop it upon tins in the form of small cakes, and dry them in a cool oven, and before the fire.

SEVILLE ORANGE CAKES.

Divide the oranges in half, take out the seeds, and put the pulp and juice into a basin; boil the rinds in a sauce-pan of water, closely covered; when very tender, take them out, and dry them upon a cloth; allow to a pound of orange rinds, two of pounded loaf sugar; pound the rinds in a mortar; add by degrees the sugar, and then the juice and pulp; mix it thoroughly till thick and yellow; drop it upon tins in small cakes, and dry them under garden glasses, or in a cool oven.

If it be too thick to drop, let it stand a night.

TO DRY CHERRIES.

Gather the cherries perfectly dry, and to every six pounds allow one and a half of finely-pounded loaf sugar; strew it over the cherries in a deep dish, and let them remain twelve hours; put them into a preserving-pan; make them scalding hot; put them into a bowl; the next day again heat them; take them out of the sirup, and lay them upon sieves under garden glasses, to dry in the sun; turn them daily upon clean sieves, till quite dry; spread them upon sheets of white paper, and keep them in a box.

The sirup may be boiled till thick, and kept as a jelly, or with currants made into a tart.

TO DRY BARBERRIES IN BUNCHES.

Gather the barberries when ripe; tie the finest into bunches; bruise some of the inferior ones, and boil them in water; strain, and boil in a pint of it one pound and a half of loaf sugar to every three pounds of barberries; skim and boil the sugar fifteen minutes; put in the bunches of fruit, and simmer them for six minutes; let them stand in a china bowl till the following day, and boil them gently till clear. When cold, take them out of the sirup, and dry them under garden glasses; turn them daily.

TO CANDY CURRANTS, BARBERRIES, AND OTHER FRUIT.

Boil the fruit in clarified sugar as for preserving; take it out of the sirup and drain it upon sieves; sift over it, through a lawn sieve, till quite white, pounded loaf sugar. Place them in a cool oven, and turn and dust them with sugar till dry.

RASPBERRY VINEGAR.

Bruise a quart of fresh-gathered raspberries in a china basin; pour over it a pint of good vinegar, cover it closely; let it stand three days, and stir it daily; strain it through a flannel bag; let it drip as long as any thing will come from it, but do not press it; to a pint of the liquor put one pound of pounded loaf sugar, boil it ten minutes, and take off the scum as it rises. When cold, bottle and cork it tightly.

A glass of brandy may be added to a quart of raspberry vinegar.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RASPBERRY VINEGAR.

Fill a dry clean bottle with raspberries, and put as much vinegar as the bottle will contain; stop it closely, and let it stand for a month; then strain it, and to a pint of the liquor put a pound of loaf sugar; boil it for half an hour; skim it. When cold, bottle, and cork it tightly.

SIRUP OF CURRANTS, RASPBERRIES, OR MULBERRIES.

Pick the fruit from the stalks; squeeze the juice, and let it stand ten days or a fortnight, or till the fermentation ceases, which may be known by the scum cracking; carefully take off the scum, and pour the juice gently into a fresh vessel; let it stand twenty-four hours, and again pour it off; to one pound of pounded loaf sugar, allow thirteen ounces of the juice; put it into a preserving-span, and when it begins to boil, strain it through a jelly-bag, and bottle it when cold.

Burie pears boiled in a little of the sirup are beautiful.

BLACK CURRANT LOZENGES.

Put six quarts of clean-picked black currants into a preserving-pan; with the hand bruise them as long as the heat will admit; squeeze them through a sieve, and to every pint of juice put four ounces of good brown sugar; boil and stir it for three quarters of an hour, and then pour it thinly over saucers or small plates, and dry it for three successive days before the fire; cut it into small dice, or with a turnip-scoop; lay them upon white paper in a box. Or the cakes may be cut into lozenges as they are required.

A little dissolved isinglass may be added while the juice is boiling.

ELDER ROB.

Gather the elderberries when quite ripe; put them into a stone jar, tie a bladder or paper over the top, and place the jar in a pan of water; let it boil till the berries are very soft; strain them through a coarse cloth, and to every pint of juice allow half a pound of good brown sugar; put it into a preserving-pan, stir it, and when it boils, take off the scum, and let it boil for one hour.

CINNAMON TABLET.

To a pound of loaf sugar, clarified and boiled till it can be blown through the holes of a skimmer, allow half an ounce of pounded and sifted cinnamon, or a tea-spoonful of the oil of cinnamon; stir it well with the sugar, and press it with a spoon to the sides of the pan, to make it perfectly smooth; rub some plates over with fresh butter, and pour in the tablet. When cold, cut it into square bits. Ginger tablet may be made in this way, allowing a quarter of an ounce of ginger to a pound of sugar.

LEMON DROPS.

Squeeze and strain the juice of six good-sized lemons; mix with it pounded and sifted loaf sugar, till so thick that it is stirred with difficulty; put it into a preserving-pan, and, with a wooden spoon, stir it constantly, and let it boil five or six minutes; then drop it from the point of a knife, upon writing paper, in drops as large as a shilling. When cold, they will readily come off.

BARLEY SUGAR DROPS.

Clarify and boil the sugar to that degree, that upon dipping in a wooden stick, and plunging it into cold water, the sugar becomes crisp, and will snap; boil with it the thinly-pared rind of one or two lemons; drop the sugar upon a stone or marble slab in round drops; when quite cold, roll them in sifted loaf sugar, and lay them between layers of white paper, or fold them in little bits of square paper, and twist it at the end.

BARLEY SUGAR.

Boil the sugar as for the drops, and flavour it with lemon juice, or oil of lemons; rub a little fresh butter over a stone or marble slab, and pour the sugar along it in narrow strips; twist it while warm, and when cold, with a knife mark it across, and it will break into any lengths.


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