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The Story of a Pioneer
Building a home


It is not generally known that the meeting of the International Council of Women held in Chicago during the World's Fair was suggested by Miss Anthony, as was also the appointment of the Exposition's "Board of Lady Managers.''  "Aunt Susan'' kept her name in the background, that she might not array against these projects the opposition of those prejudiced against woman suffrage. We both spoke at the meetings, however, as I have already explained, and one of our most chastening experiences occurred on "Actress Night.''  There was a great demand for tickets for this occasion, as every one seemed anxious to know what kind of speeches our leading women of the stage would make; and the programme offered such magic names as Helena Modjeska, Julia Marlowe, Georgia Cayvan, Clara Morris, and others of equal appeal.  The hall was soon filled, and to keep out the increasing throng the doors were locked and the waiting crowd was directed to a second hall for an overflow meeting.

As it happened, Miss Anthony and I were among the earliest arrivals at the main hall.  It was the first evening we had been free to do exactly as we pleased, and we were both in high spirits, looking forward to the speeches, congratulating each other on the good seats we had been given on the platform, and rallying the speakers on their stage fright; for, much to our amusement, we had found them all in mortal terror of their audience.  Georgia Cayvan, for example, was so nervous that she had to be strengthened with hot milk before she could speak, and Julia Marlowe admitted freely that her knees were giving way beneath her.  They really had something of an ordeal before them, for it was decided that each actress must speak twice going immediately from the hall to the overflow meeting and repeating there the speech she had just made. But in the mean time some one had to hold the impatient audience in the second hall, and as it was a duty every one else promptly repudiated, a row of suddenly imploring faces turned toward Miss Anthony and me.  I admit that we responded to the appeal with great reluctance.  We were so comfortable where we were--and we were also deeply interested in the first intimate glimpse we were having of these stars in the dramatic sky.  We saw our duty, however, and with deep sighs we rose and departed for the second hall, where a glance at the waiting throng did not add to our pleasure in the prospect before us.

When I walked upon the stage I found myself facing an actually hostile audience.  They had come to look at and listen to the actresses who had been promised them, and they thought they were being deprived of that privilege by an interloper.  Never before had I gazed out on a mass of such unresponsive faces or looked into so many angry eyes.  They were exchanging views on their wrongs, and the general buzz of conversation continued when I appeared. For some moments I stood looking at them, my hands behind my back.  If I had tried to speak they would undoubtedly have gone on talking; my silence attracted their attention and they began to wonder what I intended to do.  When they had stopped whispering and moving about, I spoke to them with the frankness of an overburdened heart.

"I think,'' I said, slowly and distinctly, "that you are the most disagreeable audience I ever faced in my life.''

They gasped and stared, almost open-mouthed in their surprise.

"Never,'' I went on, "have I seen a gathering of people turn such ugly looks upon a speaker who has sacrificed her own enjoyment to come and talk to them.  Do you think I want to talk to you?''  I demanded, warming to my subject.  "I certainly do not.  Neither does Miss Anthony want to talk to you, and the lady who spoke to you a few moments ago, and whom you treated so rudely, did not wish to be here.  We would all much prefer to be in the other hall, listening to the speakers from our comfortable seats on the stage.  To entertain you we gave up our places and came here simply because the committee begged us to do so.  I have only one thing more to say.  If you care to listen to me courteously I am willing to waste time on you; but don't imagine that I will stand here and wait while you criticize the management.''

By this time I felt as if I had a child across my knee to whom I was administering maternal chastisement, and the uneasiness of my audience underlined the impression.  They listened rather sulkily at first; then a few of the best-natured among them laughed, and the laugh grew and developed into applause. The experience had done them good, and they were a chastened band when Clara Morris appeared, and I gladly yielded the floor to her. All the actresses who spoke that night delivered admirable addresses, but no one equaled Madame Modjeska, who delivered exquisitely a speech written, not by herself, but by a friend and country-woman, on the condition of Polish women under the regime of Russia.  We were all charmed as we listened, but none of us dreamed what that address would mean to Modjeska.  It resulted in her banishment from Poland, her native land, which she was never again permitted to enter.  But though she paid so heavy a price for the revelation, I do not think she ever really regretted having given to America the facts in that speech.

During this same period I embarked upon a high adventure.  I had always longed for a home, and my heart had always been loyal to Cape Cod.  Now I decided to have a home at Wianno, across the Cape from my old parish at East Dennis.  Deep-seated as my home-making aspiration had been, it was realized largely as the result of chance.  A special hobby of mine has always been auction sales.  I dearly love to drop into auction-rooms while sales are in progress, and bid up to the danger-point, taking care to stop just in time to let some one else get the offered article.  But of course I sometimes failed to stop at the psychological moment, and the result was a sudden realization that, in the course of the years, I had accumulated an extraordinary number of articles for which I had no shelter and no possible use.

The crown jewel of the collection was a bedroom set I had picked up in Philadelphia.  Usually, cautious friends accompanied me on my auction room expeditions and restrained my ardor; but this time I got away alone and found myself bidding at the sale of a solid bog-wood bedroom set which had been exhibited as a show-piece at the World's Fair, and was now, in the words of the auctioneer, "going for a song.''  I sang the song.  I offered twenty dollars, thirty dollars, forty dollars, and other excited voices drowned mine with higher bids. It was very thrilling.  I offered fifty dollars, and there was a horrible silence, broken at last by the auctioneer's final, "Going, going, GONE!'' I was mistress of the bog-wood bedroom set--a set wholly out of harmony with everything else I possessed, and so huge and massive that two men were required to lift the head-board alone.  Like many of the previous treasures I had acquired, this was a white elephant; but, unlike some of them, it was worth more than I had paid for it.  I was offered sixty dollars for one piece alone, but I coldly refused to sell it, though the tribute to my judgment warmed my heart.  I had not the faintest idea what to do with the set, however, and at last I confided my dilemma to my friend, Mrs. Ellen Dietrick, who sagely advised me to build a house for it.  The idea intrigued me.  The bog-wood furniture needed a home, and so did I.

The result of our talk was that Mrs. Dietrick promised to select a lot for me at Wianno, where she herself lived, and even promised to supervise the building of my cottage, and to attend to all the other details connected with it.  Thus put, the temptation was irresistible.  Besides Mrs. Dietrick, many other delightful friends lived at Wianno--the Garrisons, the Chases of Rhode Island, the Wymans, the Wellingtons--a most charming community.  I gave Mrs. Dietrick full authority to use her judgment in every detail connected with the undertaking, and the cottage was built.  Having put her hand to this plow of friendship, Mrs. Dietrick did the work with characteristic thoroughness.  I did not even visit Wianno to look at my land.  She selected it, bought it, engaged a woman architect--Lois Howe of Boston--and followed the latter's work from beginning to end.  The only stipulation I made was that the cottage must be far up on the beach, out of sight of everybody--really in the woods; and this was easily met, for along that coast the trees came almost to the water's edge.

The cottage was a great success, and for many years I spent my vacations there, filling the place with young people.  From the time of my sister Mary's death I had had the general oversight of her two daughters, Lola and Grace, as well as of Nicolas and Eleanor, the two motherless daughters of my brother John.  They were all with me every summer in the new home, together with Lucy Anthony, her sister and brother, Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, and other friends.  We had special fishing costumes made, and wore them much of the time.  My nieces wore knickerbockers, and I found vast contentment in short, heavy skirts over bloomers.  We lived out of doors, boating, fishing, and clamming all day long, and, as in my early pioneer days in Michigan, my part of the work was in the open.  I chopped all the wood, kept the fires going, and looked after the grounds.

Rumors of our care-free and unconventional life began to circulate, and presently our Eden was invaded by the only serpent I have ever found in the newspaper world--a girl reporter from Boston.  She telegraphed that she was coming to see us; and though, when she came, we had been warned of her propensities and received her in conventional attire, formally entertaining her with tea on the veranda, she went away and gave free play to a hectic fancy. She wrote a sensational full-page article for a Sunday newspaper, illustrated with pictures showing us all in knickerbockers.  In this striking work of art I carried a fish net and pole and wore a handkerchief tied over my head.  The article, which was headed THE ADAMLESS EDEN, was almost libelous, and I admit that for a long time it dimmed our enjoyment of our beloved retreat.  Then, gradually, my old friends died, Mrs. Dietrick among the first; others moved away; and the character of the entire region changed.  It became fashionable, privacy was no longer to be found there, and we ceased to visit it.  For five years I have not even seen the cottage.

In 1908 I built the house I now occupy (in Moylan, Pennsylvania), which is the realization of a desire I have always had--to build on a tract which had a stream, a grove of trees, great boulders and rocks, and a hill site for the house with a broad outlook, and a railroad station conveniently near.  The friend who finally found the place for me had begun his quest with the pessimistic remark that I would better wait for it until I got to Paradise; but two years later he telegraphed me that he had discovered it on this planet, and he was right.  I have only eight acres of land, but no one could ask a more ideal site for a cottage; and on the place is my beloved forest, including a grove of three hundred firs. From every country I have visited I have brought back a tiny tree for this little forest, and now it is as full of memories as of beauty. To the surprise of my neighbors, I built my house with its back toward the public road, facing the valley and the stream.  "But you will never see anybody go by,'' they protested.  I answered that the one person in the house who was necessarily interested in passers-by was my maid, and she could see them perfectly from the kitchen, which faced the road.  I enjoy my views from the broad veranda that overlooks the valley, the stream, and the country for miles around.

Every suffragist I have ever met has been a lover of home; and only the conviction that she is fighting for her home, her children, for other women, or for all of these, has sustained her in her public work.  Looking back on many campaign experiences, I am forced to admit that it is not always the privations we endure which make us think most tenderly of home.  Often we are more overcome by the attentions of well-meaning friends.  As an example of this I recall an incident of one Oregon campaign.  I was to speak in a small city in the southern part of the state, and on reaching the station, hot, tired, and covered with the grime of a midsummer journey, I found awaiting me a delegation of citizens, a brass-band, and a white carriage drawn by a pair of beautiful white horses. In this carriage, and devotedly escorted by the citizens and the band, the latter playing its hardest, I was driven to the City Hall and there met by the mayor, who delivered an address, after which I was crowned with a laurel wreath.  Subsequently, with this wreath still resting upon my perspiring brow, I was again driven through the streets of the city; and if ever a woman felt that her place was in the home and longed to be in her place, I felt it that day.

An almost equally trying occasion had San Francisco for its setting.  The city had arranged a Fourth of July celebration, at which Miss Anthony and I were to speak.  Here we rode in a carriage decorated with flowers--yellow roses--while just in front of us was the mayor in a carriage gorgeously festooned with purple blossoms.  Behind us, for more than a mile, stretched a procession of uniformed policemen, soldiers, and citizens, while the sidewalks were lined with men and women whose enthusiastic greetings came to Miss Anthony from every side. She was enchanted over the whole experience, for to her it meant, as always, not a personal tribute, but a triumph of the Cause.  But I sat by her side acutely miserable; for across my shoulders and breast had been draped a huge sash with the word "Orator'' emblazoned on it, and this was further embellished by a striking rosette with streamers which hung nearly to the bottom of my gown.  It is almost unnecessary to add that this remarkable decoration was furnished by a committee of men, and was also worn by all the men speakers of the day. Possibly I was overheated by the sash, or by the emotions the sash aroused in me, for I was stricken with pneumonia the following day and experienced my first serious illness, from which, however, I soon recovered.

On our way to California in 1895 Miss Anthony and I spent a day at Cheyenne, Wyoming, as the guests of Senator and Mrs. Carey, who gave a dinner for us.  At the table I asked Senator Carey what he considered the best result of the enfranchisement of

Wyoming women, and even after the lapse of twenty years I am able to give his reply almost word for word, for it impressed me deeply at the time and I have since quoted it again and again.

"There have been many good results,'' he said, "but the one I consider above all the others is the great change for the better in the character of our candidates for office.  Consider this for a moment: Since our women have voted there has never been an embezzlement of public funds, or a scandalous misuse of public funds, or a disgraceful condition of graft.  I attribute the better character of our public officials almost entirely to the votes of the women.''

"Those are inspiring facts,'' I conceded, "but let us be just.  There are three men in Wyoming to every woman, and no candidate for office could be elected unless the men voted for him, too.  Why, then, don't they deserve as much credit for his election as the women?''

"Because,'' explained Senator Carey, promptly, "women are politically an uncertain factor.  We can go among men and learn beforehand how they are going to vote, but we can't do that with women; they keep us guessing.  In the old days, when we went into the caucus we knew what resolutions put into our platforms would win the votes of the ranchmen, what would win the miners, what would win the men of different nationalities; but we did not know how to win the votes of the women until we began to nominate our candidates.  Then we immediately discovered that if the Democrats nominated a man of immoral character for office, the women voted for his Republican opponent, and we learned our first big lesson--that whatever a candidate's other qualifications for office may be, he must first of all have a clean record.  In the old days, when we nominated a candidate we asked, `Can he hold the saloon vote?'  Now we ask, `Can he hold the women's vote?'  Instead of bidding down to the saloon, we bid up to the home.''

Following the dinner there was a large public meeting, at which Miss Anthony and I were to speak. Mrs. Jenkins, who was president of the Suffrage Association of the state, presided and introduced us to the assemblage.  Then she added:  "I have introduced you ladies to your audience.  Now I would like to introduce your audience to you.''  She began with the two Senators and the member of Congress, then introduced the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor, the state Superintendent of Education, and numerous city and state officials.  As she went on Miss Anthony grew more and more excited, and when the introductions were over, she said:  "This is the first time I have ever seen an audience assembled for woman suffrage made up of the public officials of a state.  No one can ever persuade me now that men respect women without political power as much as they respect women who have it; for certainly in no other state in the Union would it be possible to gather so many public officials under one roof to listen to the addresses of women.''

The following spring we again went West, with Mrs. Catt, Lucy Anthony, Miss Hay and Miss Sweet, her secretary, to carry on the Pacific coast campaign of '96, arranged by Mrs. Cooper and her daughter Harriet, of Oakland--both women of remarkable executive ability.  Headquarters were secured in San Francisco, and Miss Hay was put in charge, associated with a large group of California women.  It was the second time in the history of campaigns--the first being in New York--that all the money to carry on the work was raised by the people of the state.

The last days of the campaign were extremely interesting, and one of their important events was that the Hon. Thomas Reed, then Speaker of the House of Representatives, for the first time came out publicly for suffrage.  Mr. Reed had often expressed himself privately as in favor of the Cause--but he had never made a public statement for us.

At Oakland, one day, the indefatigable and irresistible "Aunt Susan'' caught him off his guard by persuading his daughter, Kitty Reed, who was his idol, to ask him to say just one word in favor of our amendment.  When he arose we did not know whether he had promised what she asked, and as his speech progressed our hearts sank lower and lower, for all he said was remote from our Cause. But he ended with these words: "There is an amendment of the constitution pending, granting suffrage to women.  The women of California ought to have suffrage.  The men of California ought to give it to them--and the next speaker, Dr. Shaw, will tell you why.'' The word was spoken.  And though it was not a very strong word, it came from a strong man, and therefore helped us.

Election day, as usual, brought its surprises and revelations.  Mrs. Cooper asked her Chinese cook how the Chinese were voting--i. e., the native-born Chinamen who were entitled to vote--and he replied, blithely, "All Chinamen vote for Billy McKee and `NO' to women!''  It is an interesting fact that every Chinese vote was cast against us. All day we went from one to another of the polling-places, and I shall always remember the picture of Miss Anthony and the wife of Senator Sargent wandering around the polls arm in arm at eleven o'clock at night, their tired faces taking on lines of deeper depression with every minute; for the count was against us.  However, we made a fairly good showing.  When the final counts came in we found that we had won the state from the north down to Oakland, and from the south up to San Francisco; but there was not a sufficient majority to overcome the adverse votes of San Francisco and Oakland.  With more than 230,000 votes cast, we were defeated by only 10,000 majority.  In San Francisco the saloon element and the most aristocratic section of the city made an equal showing against us, while the section occupied by the middle working-class was largely in favor of our amendment.  I dwell especially on this campaign, partly because such splendid work was done by the women of California, and also because, during the same election, Utah and Idaho granted full suffrage to women.  This gave us four suffrage states--Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho--and we prepared for future struggles with very hopeful hearts.

It was during this California campaign, by the way, that I unwittingly caused much embarrassment to a worthy young man.  At a mass-meeting held in San Francisco, Rabbi Vorsanger, who was not in favor of suffrage for women, advanced the heartening theory that in a thousand years more they might possibly be ready for it.  After a thousand years of education for women, of physically developed women, of uncorseted women, he said, we might have the ideal woman, and could then begin to talk about freedom for her.

When the rabbi sat down there was a shout from the audience for me to answer him, but all I said was that the ideal woman would be rather lonely, as it would certainly take another thousand years to develop an ideal man capable of being a mate for her.  On the following night Prof. Howard Griggs, of Stanford University, made a speech on the modern woman--a speech so admirably thought out and delivered that we were all delighted with it.  When he had finished the audience again called on me, and I rose and proceeded to make what my friends frankly called "the worst break'' of my experience.

Rabbi Vorsanger's ideal woman was still in my mind, and I had been rather hard on the men in my reply to the rabbi the night before; so now I hastened to give this clever young man his full due. I said that though the rabbi thought it would take a thousand years to make an ideal woman, I believed that, after all, it might not take as long to make the ideal man.  We had something very near it in a speaker who could reveal such ability, such chivalry, and such breadth of view as Professor Griggs had just shown that he possessed.

That night I slept the sleep of the just and the well-meaning, and it was fortunate I did, for the morning newspapers had a surprise for me that called for steady nerves and a sense of humor.  Across the front page of every one of them ran startling head-lines to this effect:

DR. SHAW HAS FOUND HER IDEAL MAN The Prospects Are That She Will Remain in California Professor Griggs was young enough to be my son, and he was already married and the father of two beautiful children; but these facts were not permitted to interfere with the free play of fancy in journalistic minds.  For a week the newspapers were filled with all sorts of articles, caricatures, and editorials on my ideal man, which caused me much annoyance and some amusement, while they plunged Professor Griggs into an abysmal gloom.  In the end, however, the experience proved an excellent one for him, for the publicity attending his speech made him decide to take up lecturing as a profession, which he eventually did with great success.  But neither of us has yet heard the last of the Ideal Man episode.  Only a few years ago, on his return to California after a long absence, one of the leading Sunday newspapers of the state heralded Professor Griggs's arrival by publishing a full-page article bearing his photograph and mine and this flamboyant heading: SHE MADE HIM And Dr. Shaw's Ideal Man Became the Idol of American Women and Earns $30,000 a Year.

We had other unusual experiences in California, and the display of affluence on every side was not the least impressive of them.  In one town, after a heavy rain, I remember seeing a number of little boys scraping the dirt from the gutters, washing it, and finding tiny nuggets of gold.  We learned that these boys sometimes made two or three dollars a day in this way, and that the streets of the town-- I think it was Marysville--contained so much gold that a syndicate offered to level the whole town and repave the streets in return for the right to wash out the gold.  This sounds like the kind of thing Americans tell to trustful visitors from foreign lands, but it is quite true.

Nuggets, indeed, were so numerous that at one of our meetings, when we were taking up a collection, I cheerfully suggested that our audience drop a few into the box, as we had not had a nugget since we reached the state.  There were no nuggets in the subsequent collection, but there was a note which read:  "If Dr. Shaw will accept a gold nugget, I will see that she does not leave town without one.''  I read this aloud, and added, "I have never refused a gold nugget in my life.''

The following day brought me a pin made of a very beautiful gold nugget, and a few days later another Californian produced a cluster of smaller nuggets which he had washed out of a panful of earth and insisted on my accepting half of them.  I was not accustomed to this sort of generosity, but it was characteristic of the spirit of the state.  No-where else, during our campaign experiences, were we so royally treated in every way.  As a single example among many, I may mention that Mrs. Leland Stanford once happened to be on a train with us and to meet Miss Anthony.  As a result of this chance encounter she gave our whole party passes on all the lines of the Southern Pacific Railroad, for use during the entire campaign.  Similar generosity was shown us on every side, and the question of finance did not burden us from the beginning to the end of the California work.

In our Utah and Idaho campaigns we had also our full share of new experiences, and of these perhaps the most memorable to me was the sermon I preached in the Mormon Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. Before I left New York the Mormon women had sent me the invitation to preach this sermon, and when I reached Salt Lake City and the so-called "Gentile'' women heard of the plan, they at once invited me to preach to the "Gentiles'' on the evening of the same Sunday, in the Salt Lake City Opera House. On the morning of the sermon I approached the Mormon Tabernacle with much more trepidation than I usually experienced before entering a pulpit. I was not sure what particular kind of trouble I would get into, but I had an abysmal suspicion that trouble of some sort lay in wait for me, and I shivered in the anticipation of it.  Fortunately, my anxiety was not long drawn out.  I arrived only a few moments before the hour fixed for the sermon, and found the congregation already assembled and the Tabernacle filled with the beautiful music of the great organ.  On the platform, to which I was escorted by several leading dignitaries of the church, was the characteristic Mormon arrangement of seats.  The first row was occupied by the deacons, and in the center of these was the pulpit from which the deacons preach.  Above these seats was a second row, occupied by ordained elders, and there they too had their own pulpit.  The third row was occupied by, the bishops and the highest dignitaries of the church, with the pulpit from which the bishops preach; and behind them all, an effective human frieze, was the really wonderful Mormon choir.

As I am an ordained elder in my church, I occupied the pulpit in the middle row of seats, with the deacons below me and the bishops just behind. Scattered among the congregation were hundreds of "Gentiles'' ready to leap mentally upon any concession I might make to the Mormon faith; while the Mormons were equally on the alert for any implied criticism of them and their church.  The problem of preaching a sermon which should offer some appeal to both classes, without offending either, was a perplexing one, and I solved it to the best of my ability by delivering a sermon I had once given in my own church to my own people.  When I had finished I was wholly uncertain of its effect, but at the end of the services one of the bishops leaned toward me from his place in the rear, and, to my mingled horror and amusement, offered me this tribute, "That is one of the best Mormon sermons ever preached in this Tabernacle.''

I thanked him, but inwardly I was aghast.  What had I said to give him such an impression?  I racked my brain, but could recall nothing that justified it. I passed the day in a state of nervous apprehension, fully expecting some frank criticism from the "Gentiles'' on the score of having delivered a Mormon sermon to ingratiate myself into the favor of the Mormons and secure their votes for the constitutional amendment.  But nothing of the kind was said.  That evening, after the sermon to the "Gentiles,'' a reception was given to our party, and I drew my first deep breath when the wife of a well-known clergyman came to me and introduced herself in these words: "My husband could not come here to-night, but he heard your sermon this morning.  He asked me to tell you how glad he was that under such unusual conditions you held so firmly to the teachings of Christ.''

The next day I was still more reassured.  A reception was given us at the home of one of Brigham Young's daughters, and the receiving-line was graced by the presiding elder of the Methodist Episcopal Church.  He was a bluff and jovial gentleman, and when he took my hand he said, warmly, "Well, Sister Shaw, you certainly gave our Mormon friends the biggest dose of Methodism yesterday that they ever got in their lives.''

After this experience I reminded myself again that what Frances Willard so frequently said is true; All truth is our truth when it has reached our hearts; we merely rechristen it according to our individual creeds.

During the visit I had an interesting conversation with a number of the younger Mormon women.  I was to leave the city on a midnight train, and about twenty of them, including four daughters of Brigham Young, came to my hotel to remain with me until it was time  to go to the station.  They filled the room, sitting around in school-girl fashion on the floor and even on the bed.  It was an unusual opportunity to learn some things I wished to know, and I could not resist it.

"There are some questions I would like to ask you,'' I began, "and one or two of them may seem impertinent.  But they won't be asked in that spirit--and please don't answer any that embarrass you.''

They exchanged glances, and then told me to ask as many questions as I wished.

"First of all,'' I said, "I would like to know the real attitude toward polygamy of the present generation of Mormon women.  Do you all believe in it?''

They assured me that they did.

"How many of you,'' I then asked, "are polygamous wives?''

There was not one in the group.

"But,'' I insisted, "if you really believe in polygamy, why is it that some of your husbands have not taken more than one wife?''

There was a moment of silence, while each woman looked around as if waiting for another to answer. At last one of them said, slowly: "In my case, I alone was to blame.  For years I could not force myself to consent to my husband's taking another wife, though I tried hard.  By the time I had overcome my objection the law was passed prohibiting polygamy.''

A second member of the group hastened to tell her story.  She had had a similar spiritual struggle, and just as she reached the point where she was willing to have her husband take another wife, he died.  And now the room was filled with eager voices.  Four or five women were telling at once that they, too, had been reluctant in the beginning, and that when they had reached the point of consent this, that, or another cause had kept the husbands from marrying again.  They were all so passion- ately in earnest that they stared at me in puzzled wonder when I broke into the sudden laughter I could not restrain.

"What fortunate women you all were!'' I exclaimed, teasingly.  "Not one of you arrived at the point of consenting to the presence of a second wife in your home until it was impossible for your husband to take her.''

They flushed a little at that, and then laughed with me; but they did not defend themselves against the tacit charge, and I turned the conversation into less personal channels.  I learned that many of the Mormon young men were marrying girls outside of the Church, and that two sons of a leading Mormon elder had married and were living very happily with Catholic girls.

At this time the Mormon candidate for Congress (a man named Roberts) was a bitter opponent of woman suffrage.  The Mormon women begged me to challenge him to a debate on the subject, which I did, but Mr. Roberts declined the challenge.  The ground of his refusal, which he made public through the newspapers, was chastening to my spirit.  He explained that he would not debate with me because he was not willing to lower himself to the intellectual plane of a woman.


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