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The Scot in America
Merchants and Municipal Benefactors


It may safely be laid down as a self-evident truth that every Scotsman in America who has gained position or eminence or wealth, or all three, has worked hard. Among the Scotch community, even in the fourth or fifth generation removed from the "Land o' Cakes," there are no idlers, no "gilded youth," no merely empty loungers on the face of the earth. We find Scotsmen and their famihes moving in the very highest social circles in each community—among the "Four Hundred," to use a ridiculous expression that has come into use in recent years—but they all seem to engage in business of some sort. They do not figure much, if at all, in what loves to be distinguished as the "smart set," the butterfhes whose only object in the world seems to be to derive pleasure from it, pleasure sometimes innocent, sometimes brutal, sometimes silly, always extravagant, and a standing menace to the peace of the community. The main purpose in life, if there be any purpose, after all, of such creatures is to draw themselves into a class apart from the common herd, to ape the manners of the aristocracy of the Old World, and this latter purpose they accomplish in such a way as to win the disgust of every honest citizen and the contempt of every honest aristocrat.

If we designed to devote a chapter to titled personages in this book, it might easily be done. The adventures of the members of the British peerage alone in America would fill many pages and would include soldiers, statesmen, sightseers, hunters and adventurers—for even the latter class are found legitimately occupying a line, at least, in the standard peerages. Such a chapter would, however, include names like that of Lady Macdonald, who enjoys a Peerage through the services which her late husband, Sir John A. Macdonald, rendered to the Empire; and of Lord Mount Stephen, who won his peerage by his own successful and eminently useful life, as well as those of many baronets and knights. It would also refer to an old title, that of Baron de Longueuil, a French title of nobility originally granted by Louis XIV., but recognized by Great Britain. The dignity was first conferred on a French subject, Charles Le Moyne, but as might, somehow, be expected, the present holder of the title, Charles Colman Grant, is more entitled to be regarded as of Scotch descent than the representative of a French family. The chapter would also chronicle the story of an olcl Scotch title which has been so long held by residents of this country that they pride themselves as much from their descent from Colonial ancestors as from their Saxon forbears—Saxons who were prominent in England before the advent of the Romans. The title, Baron Cameron of Fairfax, in the peerage of Scotland, was bestowed by Charles I. in 1627 upon Sir Thomas Fairfax of Denton, an Englishman. The family never had an connection with Scotland, however, beyond the title, but the name yet stands on the roll of the Scottish peers and is still called at each assemblage of these peers in Holyrood to elect their representatives in the British House of Lords. The representative of the family, the holder of this ancient title, still resides in Virginia, but so far as we can trace he and his immediate progenitors, as soldiers, preachers, or physicians, have done something to justify their existence, have pursued some recognized profession.

But all this reference to nobility is merely a digression by way of variety in the opening matter of a new department of our story. Here we have to deal with what may be called the nobility of business. To acquire eminence in trade, finance, or commerce, especially in view of the ever-watchful and sometimes unscrupulous competition which prevails in all large business centres, a man needs rare qualities, and a successful merchant is generally an individual possessing not only a clear head, but a large heart. If we could enumerate the practical charitable institutions of the world, group together the art galleries, museums, and halls of learning, we would find that successful business men, when not their founders, were their most liberal benefactors. We will get abundant evidence of this as the present chapter proceeds, and will find also that these same business, moneymaking, men were sterling and self-sacrificing patriots whenever occasion arose for the display of that quality. Such men are entitled to be called nature's noblemen—men who hold their patents of nobility from Almighty God.

We could place the life, for instance, of Alexander Milne, an Edinburgh man who was long a merchant in New Orleans, as a pattern—one which could be surpassed by the product of no other class. After a noteworthy and commercially irreproachable career, he became distinguished for his philanthropy, although the world never knew its extent or imagined the amount of thought and care he exercised in trying to do as much good as possible to his fellow-men. Even the good he did lived—and lives—after he had passed away, for when he died, in 1838, at the age of ninety-four years, it was found that he left most of his fortune to endow the Milne Hospital for the orphan boys of New Orleans.

In treating of the classes embraced in the title to this chapter we are more than ever overwhelmed by the difficulty of selection. There is hardly a city or township in which Scotsmen have not more or less prominently figured in its business interests. In financial circles everywhere, whether in Montreal or New York, they have held a front rank, and that might be said also of every branch of business. We can only array a few examples, selected almost at random, and endeavor to be as representative in each selection as possible.

The founder of the famous town of Yorktown, Va., was Thomas Nelson, who was born in 16i7 in Cumberland, not far from the Scottish border. His parents had moved there from Wigtonshire shortly after their marriage, and the district was more Scotch in its speech, manners, and customs than English, so that, although actually born on what Scotsmen playfully call the wrong side of the Tweed," Nelson was in reality a Scot. Indeed, after his arrival in America, about 1700, he was generally known as "Scotch Tom," and appears to have been quite proud of the appellation. He started in business, began at once to make money, and in 1705 founded the town of York—one of the few really historic towns in America—which witnessed the surrender of Cornwallis in 1781 and was the scene of a stirring conflict between the forces of McClellan and Magruder in 1862, during the civil war. Nelson died full of years and honors, in 1745, in the town he had founded and which he had been spared to see grow slowly and surely. If he did not hold high office, he founded a family which has made its mark in the history of his adopted State. One of his sons, Thomas, was a candidate for Governor of Virginia, but was defeated by the celebrated Patrick Henry, (also of Scotch descent,) and afterward for thirty years, was Secretary of the Privy Council. Another son, William, was President of the Council for a long time, and on the death of Lord Botetourt became Governor of Virginia and administered its affairs for about a year, until the arrival of the Earl of Dunmore in 1771. He died a year later, leaving three sons, who all became famous. One of these sons, Thomas, who was born in Virginia in 1738, was educated partly in America and Partly at Trinity College, Cambridge. As might be expected, he ranged himself on the side of the patriots, and as a member of the House of Burgesses was outspoken in his condemnation of whatever tended to abridge the freedom of the Colonies. "He was a member," says Miss M. V. Smith, in her able volume on "The Governors of Virginia," "of the Revolutionary Conventions of 1774 and 1775, and was appointed by the convention in July, 1775, Colonel of the Second Virginia Regiment, which post he resigned on being elected to the Continental Congress in the same year. H was again called to administer home affairs, and was a prominent member of the Virginia Convention of 1776, which met in May to frame a Constitution for her Government. Here he offered a resolution instructing the Virginia delegates in Congress to propose a Declaration of Independence. Having been elected one of these delegates, he had the satisfaction of seeing the hopes and wishes of his people embodied in a crystallized form, and, with unfaltering faith in its declarations, set his seal to the historic instrument July 4, 1776." In 1777 he became Commander in Chief of the forces in the State, and devoted not only his time but his means to the war. In 1781 he was chosen Governor of Virginia, but his health was then broken. He soon resigned the office, and, retiring to Hanover County, resided there in seclusion till his death, In 1789. He lost his fortune in the war, sacrificed everything he had to the State, and the State was too poor to recoup him, so his latter years were passed amidst poverty. But he never complained on that score, and awaited the last roll-call conscious that he had done everything a patriot could do to advance and establish his native land. Two of Gov. Thomas Nelson's brothers, William and Robert, were in the Revolutionary Army, and both were captured by Col. Tarleton's forces. When the struggle was over, William engaged in the practice of law until 1803, when he became Professor of Law at William and Mary College. On his death, in 1813, he was succeeded in that office, by Robert, who held it for five years, or until he died, in 1818. The public services of the family were continued, as far as our records go, to the fourth generation after "Scotch Tom," for Gov. Thomas Nelson's son, Hugh, was a member of Congress for Virginia during several terms, and in 1823 was appointed by President Monroe United States Minister to Spain.

The family of Thomas Campbell, author of `'The Pleasures of Hope" and of "Gertrude of Wyoming," had rather an intimate connection with America. His father, Alexander Campbell, the son of a landed proprietor, was born at Kirnan, in the parish of Glassary, Argyllshire, in 1710. He was trained to the mercantile profession in Glasgow, and in early life crossed the Atlantic and settled at F'almouth, Va., where he engaged in business for several years and acquired considerable means. There, too, he made the acquaintance of a countryman named Daniel Campbell, afterward his brother-in-law. Returning to Scotland, the two Campbells founded the firm of Alexander & Daniel Campbell and engaged in the Virginia trade. In this they amassed considerable wealth and became recognized as among the leading merchants in a trade whose very name was then regarded as synonymous with opulence. In 1756 Alexander Campbell married a sister of his partner, and had a family of eight sons and four daughters. One of these sons, it may be said, afterward emigrated to America and married a daughter of Patrick Henry, the great Governor of \'irgi in a. Thomas, the poet, the youngest of the family, was born at Glasgow in 1777, but two years before that the outbreak of the Revolutionary War had knocked away the props of the Campbells' business and the poet's father and uncle were practically ruined, the former having lost some £20,000, the savings of a life devoted to business. We have no interest here with the personal career of the poet, except we choose to speculate how far the stories his father may have told of America influenced him to look for a thence for his muse in the traditions of the beautiful Wyoming `'alley. An uncle of the poet—Archibald Campbell, an Episcopalian minister--was located for some time in Jamaica, but settled in America about the same time as his brother Alexander. He remained in Virginia after his brother left to begin a business career in Glasgow, and in time threw in his lot with the Colonists when the struggle came which welded the Colonies into a nation. He was a much-esteemed minister, and had among his parishioners such men as Washington and Lee—the famous "Light-Horse Harry" of the Revolution.

Sir William Dunbar, who appears to have belonged to the old Banffshire house of Dunbar of Durn, now represented by a family in Australia, was a noted personage in American business and political circles for many years. He was born in 1740, and appears to have landed at Philadelphia about 1771, just when matters were approaching an interesting crisis with the Home Government. In company with John Ross, a once well known and prosperous merchant in the Quaker City, and who in 1774 was honored by being chosen as Vice President of the local St. Andrew's Society, Dunbar formed in 1773 a partnership for opening a plantation in West Florida. The affair did not seem to be a success, and Dunbar moved to Baton Rouge, near ''New Orleans, and finally to Natchez, Miss., where he managed to get possession of a plantation, and where he (hed in i8io. He led the career of an adventurer and suffered the usual ups and downs of fortune incidental to such a career, but his latter years seem to have been pleasant and prosperous. he had assumed allegiance to the Federal Government, from motives of policy rather than from any deep-seated principle, and under it held several important offices. He was an intimate friend of Thomas Jefferson, and corresponded with him at frequent intervals, and to the "Transactions" of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelpha, of which he was a member, he contributed a number of papers on various subjects, all of which were considered valuable in their day.

Among the early merchants of Virginia no name stands higher or is surrounded with more honorable associations than that of Thomas Rutherford of Richmond. He was born at Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, in 1766, but was educated in Glasgow, where his family removed while he was an infant. in that city, too, he received his mercantile training, and when he reached early manhood he secured a position in the house of Hawkesley & Rutherfoord of Dublin, the junior partner in which was his elder brother. In 1784 he was sent by the firm to Virginia in charge of cargoes in two vessels, the value of the goods being placed at $50,000. He was well recommended to the local business men of Virginia, and among others he carried a letter of introduction to George Washington, which had been given him by Sir Edward Neversham, then member of Parliament for Dublin. Rutherfoord took up his quarters in Richmond, where he opened a branch establishment to the Dublin house and quickly put it on a substantial footing. After some four years spent in Richmond he returned to Ireland and was admitted as a partner in the firm to which he had proved so faithful and profitable a servant. His stay in Ireland lasted only about a year, and in 1789 he was once more in Richmond, which was henceforth to he his home. His business career was a continued round of prosperity, and he gradually became regarded as one of the wealthiest and most upright merchants of the city. His life was a pleasant one, although as general merchant, miller, importer, and exporter the daily routine of his affairs was for many years of the most engrossing description, he invested his means largely in Richmond real estate, until he was the most extensive owner of that class of property in the city, and even this reputation added to his wealth, for others, seeing the sagacious Scot sinking his money in land, followed his example, and so raised values all around. But Mr. Rutherfoord's days were not wholly devoted to business; he found time for all the interest in the affairs of the city, that any true citizen should take, and his public spirit and liberality were as conspicuous as his wealth. He was bitterly opposed to tariffs or to anything that looked like an abridgement of individual, state, or national freedom, and the papers he published on such questions and on commercial matters attracted wide attention. In 1841 he was selected to draft a petition to President Tyler protesting against the imposition of tariff duties, and the Chief Executive of the Nation found in Rutherfoord a man whose sterling, honesty, (le-voted earnestness, singleness of purpose, and native intelligence Avon his entire respect. Years afterward President Tyler, when lecturing at Richmond, referred to his acquaintance with Rutherfoord in words that evinced his high appreciation of the Scottish-American merchant, whose earthly career closed at Richmond in 1852.

John Rutherfoord married an American girl and left thirteen children, whose descendants are found all over the Union, although principally in Virginia. Of his children the eldest son, John, who was born in Richmond in 1792, graduated from Princeton College in 1810 with the degree of M. A. and then apphed himself to the study of the law. In 1826 he was elected to the House of Delegates from the City of Richmond, and in 1830 was one of the Councillors of State. As senior Councilor, he became in 1841 Acting Governor of Virginia and served in that capacity- for a year with marked acceptance. Gov. Rutherfoord died in 1866, "leaving," says one of his biographers, "the memory of a man of strong intellect and vigorous character combined with those enduring charms which ever attach to a modest, virtuous, and unassuming gentleman."

In the records of the Albany (New York) St. Andrew's Society there is a notice of the far iily of ,John Stevenson, the first President of the organization, which had been prepared by one of his descendants and read at the annual meeting on St. Andrew's Day, 1878. As it is interesting on account of its tracing a family's history from its foundation and also on account of showing how the sturdy Scots made themselves at home in America, and became regarded as part and parcel of its people, the sketch is here reproduced, with only slight curtailment:

John Stevenson was born in Albany March 13, 1735. His father, James Stevenson, a Scottish gentleman, came to America after the 'rising' in 1715. He was a freeholder in the city in 1720 and a friend of Robert Livingston, the possessor of large tracts of wild land on the Hudson, which by the favor of the ruling powers had been erected into a manor. Stevenson was something of a military man, and held several responsible local trusts, among which was that of receiver of taxes. James Stevenson and his son John seem to have had a taste for classical and polite literature, if the books they possessed be taken as an indication.

James Stevenson died Feb. 2, 1769, and was buried in the church which then stood on the hill in State Street. His name appears on the still sonorous old bell, cast in 1751, which hangs in the tower of St. Peter's. Among; his Scottish friends in Albany may be named James Lyndsay, Esq., and Capt. Dick of the army. His son, John Stevenson, and Philip Livingston, one of the Signers of the Declaration, were tenants in common of an estate of more than 8,000 acres on the Mohawk, called Lilac's Bush.

"John Stevenson also owned other large tracts of land, he married Magdalen, sister of John de Peyster Douw, the Chairman of the Committee of Safety in this State during the Revolutionary War. He was fitted by position, education, and natural abilities for public service, but he preferred a private station. Mr. Stevenson was an early stockholder in the Bank of North America at Philadelphia, the oldest bank in this country, and also in the Bank of New York and the Bank of Albany, now defunct, and was a contributor to the foundation of Union College.

"John Stevenson died April 24, 1810, aged seventy-five years. His only son, James, lived and died in Albany. He was a patron of the Albany Academy and active in securing a supply of good water to the city. A daughter of John Stevenson married Dudley Walsh, an eminent merchant (luring the latter part of the last century. During the early settlement of Western Yew York, then called the Genesee country, he advanced to the land agent (Williamson) of Sir William Pulteney more than £25,000, and, it may also be added, had considerable difficulty in getting his money back from that eccentric, land-loving, and land-possessing baronet. Another daughter of John Stevenson married Gen. Pierre Van Cortlandt, a patriot of the American Revolution and one of nature's noblemen."

In the earl)' commercial history of the City of New York, Scotsmen, as might be expected, were loth numerous and influential. We have already in the course of these pages mentioned several, and the Livingston family, the Colden family, the Barclays, the Irvings, were all names that once were synonymous with the commercial story of the city. President William :Maxwell of the Bank of New York, and one of the founders of the Chamber of Commerce, was a native of Scotland, as were several other of the founders of the latter institution. From a list drawn tip by the writer sonic years ago of the leading Scotsmen in New York in 1789 the following is extracted:

Hugh Wallace of the Scotch firm of H. & A. Wallace was one of the charter members of the Chamber of Commerce and its Vice President, and another of the charter members was Thomas Buchanan, a native of Stirling, who used jocosely to claim that he was descended from the immortal scholar, teacher, poet, historian, and philosopher, George Buchanan. James Barclay was an importer at 14 Hanover Square, and-Robert Affleck carried on business at 6o William Street. Robert Hodge, an Edinburgh man, who carried on business as a bookseller and printer at 37 King [Pine] Street, was very popular in business circles and commanded a large trade. In February, 1879, he published "The Power of Sympathy," the earhest American novel. Thomas Allen, whose place of business was at z6 Queen Street, was the representative of a number of British publishers and the first agent in America for the Encyclopedia Britannica. Samuel Campbell, whose place of business was at 44 Hanover Square, was a native of Kilbride. He reprinted Falconer's "Shipwreck" and many other standard Scotch and English works. Another Scotch bookseller was Samuel Loudon of 5 Water Street, and the first New York edition of Burns's poems was published in 1788 by J. McLean. The Scots in the early hart of the century claimed Cadwallader D. Colden--Mayor in 1820—as one of themselves, although he was born in America, but his Scotch descent through his grandfather, Gov. Colden, made his heart warm to the tartan. Mayor Colden was as patriotic an American as his grandfather was loyal as a Briton, and during the three years he sat in the Mayor's chair made a grand record for honesty, usefulness, diligence, and administrative ability. He greatly aided De Witt Clinton in advocating the construction of, and in the work of building, the internal waterways of the State of New York, and was an ardent supporter of that statesman's entire policy.

An interesting sketch might he written of the career of the firm of Boorman, Johnston & Co., which for a long time ranked as one of the wealthiest and most enterprising houses in the city. Both partners landed here from Scotland about the year i800--possibly some years earher—without a penny in their pockets, but with plenty of Scotch sagacity and Scotch grit and perseverance. After a year or two they got on so well that they started business in South Street. The exact date of the commencement of their operations is not known, but the War of 1812 found them carrying on business, and apparently- caused them no loss. They mainly imported and sold goods from Scotland, their principal article being bagging from Dundee. After some time they built up a great Southern trade, and most of the tobacco that came to this city from Richmond, Va., was consigned to them. Next they added the iron business, and had many vessels bringing them from Sweden and England. Their premises in South Street became too small, and they removed to Greenwich Street, where they had what was then considered a mammoth establishment.

In 1827 Mr. Adam Norrie came out from Scotland and was admitted a partner in the firm. (inc of his first acts on arriving was to become a member of the St. Andrew's Society, his proposer being Mr. John Johnston, the junior member of the original firm, and who had been a member since 1811. Mr. Norrie's connection with the society was a long, honorable, and useful one, as he served as a manager in 1838 and 1839, as a Vice President from 1843 to 1850. and as President from 1851 to 1861. Mr. Norrie quickly made his mark in the community. One who knew him well wrote: " New York has never seen a more energetic and intelligent merchant. Scotch to the backbone—that is, filled with ideas of stern honesty, sagacity, prudence, and determination, Mr. Norrie has never been beat. He probably was remarked for those great mercantile qualities before he left Scotland, for with them he also brought to the firm he joined a splendid connection and correspondence in the Old Country, and greatly added to the business of "Boorman, Johnston & Co." Under Mr. Norrie's direction the firm gained immensely in strength, and many of its clerks branched out into business for themselves; and it was a noticeable feature that to several of these offshoots the parent firm gave up some department of their business. Thus Wood, Johnson & Burritt got their dry-goods trade, Wilson & Brown their wine importing agencies, and so on. These young firms were nearly all cornposed of Scotsmen. They all enjoyed the confidence and good will of their old employers, and most of them did well in after years.

Another famous old house was and is that now known as Maitland, Phelps & Co., but which in its early years was known simply as Maitland & Co. The business was commenced before the Revolution by two supercargoes in Scottish trading ships. The Maitlands were from the south of Scotland. The father of the house, as it exists to-day, was David Maitland, and the firm name when he was at its head was Maitland, Kennedy & Maitland. The office was in Front Street, and Mr. Maitland, being a bachelor, lived in rooms which he had fitted up with his own notions of comfort in the same building. He was a good type of the old Scotch merchant, enterprising yet cautious, full of dogged perseverance and indomitable courage, a man of few words, set in his ways, brusque in his manner, yet with a kindly heart and a desire to see every one get along in the world. When the opportunity came he gave up active business and retired to some property he had in Scotland, where he lived very happily. The business in New York was left to his nephew, Stewart Maitland, and he formed a partnership with Mr. Royal Phelps, a gentleman who had amassed a fortune in South America, and the firm became Maitland, Phelps & Co. On Stewart Maitland retiring his place was taken by James William Maitland, who at his death bequeathed handsome legacies to the poor in the parishes in Scotland with which the family had been connected. The history of this firm, if fully told, would fill an ample volume, and would he interesting reading, so wide were its ramifications and so clearly were its successes the result of sagacity and hard work. The business still ranks among the most respected in New York, although none of the Maitland family is connected with it.

Another old firm which is still represented in the business houses of the city, although the name is changed, is Barclay & Livingstone. The original firm was Henry & George Barclay, and the partners were the sons of Thomas Barclay, who was the first British Consul in this city. Another son, Anthony, who went in early life to Georgia to seek his fortune, succeeded so well in the South—after becoming a Colonel and marrying the wealthy widow of a Scotsman named Glen—that when he returned to New York he was made a partner. He lived in a fine house on Dey Street, near Greenwich Street, was the aristocrat of the family, and became British Consul, like his father. The Barclays of the firm all prided themselves on being British subjects. They were all born here, but their father being Consul, they claimed that his house was British territory.

Few are now living who remember the importing firm of Gillespie & McLeod, which flourished between 1825 and 1835. Both partners were Scotch, but William McLeod was particularly enthusiastic about his native land. His early life was full of promise. He was descended from an old Highland family, and inherited considerable wealth through his father, an officer in the British Army, who was killed at Waterloo. McLeod once held a commission in the army himself, but for some reason he sold out when his regiment was in Canada, and settled in New York to enter on a commercial career. For some years the firm did a large business, for Gillespie, the senior partner, was a hard-working and thorough business man, which McLeod certainly was not. He was a generous, warm-hearted fellow, proud of his birth and his Highland ancestry, careless of money, and utterly improvident. He aimed at being a fashionable leader rather than a merchant, and in this aim he certainly succeeded. For years he was one of the most popular society men about town, and had as large and varied a circle of friends as any one in it, while everybody knew him by sight. He was an arbitrator in society quarrels, and was equally ready to act as a peacemaker as to be a second in a duel. He made one great mistake in his life, and that was when he quitted the army for commerce. For the latter he was in no way suited, and, though he appeared to flourish for a time, his brother merchants shook their heads when asked about the prospects of the firm, and were very cautious in their dealings with it. Gradually the business grew smaller and smaller, until one or two wild plunges, made in the hope of improving matters, ended in bankruptcy and ruin. Mr. McLeod took his misfortune with remarkable composure. Although he lost his position in fashionable society, and found in his later days that his real friends were few, he never murmured. He continued to live in New York, and died at a good old age in the old City Hotel, which had for years been one of his favorite haunts.

The most noted, however, of the early mercantile famihes of the City of New York was that founded by Robert Lenox, a native of Kirkcudbright, and belonging to a family which had long been famous in the ancient Stewartry. One Robert Lenox was shot in 1685 by the notorious Grierson of Lagg, the infamous persecutor of the Covenanters, of whom no man has ever yet spoken a favorable word, although Claverhouse and others have had their defenders. Robert Lenox was a Covenanter, and "suffered" like so many hundred others for his adherence to that noble cause. Whether Robert Lenox, who crossed the Atlantic about 1778, was a descendant from the same family as this martyr or not we cannot say, but he and his on certainly showed a devotion to the cause of religion that almost tempts one to conclude that the same blood flowed through their views. Robert Lenox seems to have settled first in Philadelphia, but after a year or two removed to New York. He started in business as a general shipping merchant at 235 Queen Street, and rapidly, for those days, rose to a foremost position among New York's merchants. He married a daughter of Nicholas Carmer, a representative of an old Knickerbocker family, and so got a recognized place among the local aristocracy, while his own countrymen admired his executive ability and mercantile standing so highly that in 1792 they elected him a Vice President of the St. Andrew's Society, and its President from 1798 till 1813. Of the Chamber of Commerce he was also President for many years.

While Robert Lenox's entire career as a merchant is interesting, its most noteworthy incident was his purchase of the five-milestone farm of about thirty acres from the Corporation of New York City. The purchase money paid was, comparatively, a trifle, and as the farm lay between what is now Fourth and Fifth Avenues and Sixty-eighth and Seventy-fourth Streets, every New Yorker knows that this land is now among the most valuable in the city. Mr. Lenox was firmly convinced that this land would "improve" in value, and steadily added to its extent as opportunity offered, and in drawing up his will he bequeathed it in such a way that its sale for many years was effectually prevented. When he died, in 1840, Mr. Lenox was reputed to be among the five wealthiest citizens of New York. His only son, James, who was born at 59 Broadway, New York, in 1800, succeeded to his entire estate. James Lenox was educated at Princeton, where he was graduated in 1821. He studied law, but practiced little, if any, and went to Europe soon after his admission to the bar. While there he developed his bibliographical and artistic tastes and laid the foundation for his future benefaction to his native city of a public library. On his return he carefully attended to his property, which year by year increased in value, but at the same time he was actively engaged in thinking out those schemes of public benefit with which his name is now associated. He was a man of retiring disposition, very sensitive as to public notice, and, while he was constantly engaged in doing good, it was in such an unostentatious manner that often the recipients of the bounty were unaware of its source. His first great benefaction was the site and $250,000 toward the construction and equipment of the Presbyterian Hospital, which was opened Oct. 10, 1872. Then he gave the ground on Seventy-third Street, valued at that time at $64,000, for the Presbyterian Home for Aged Women, and in 1874 the site for a Presbyterian church on Seventy-thing Street.

The other gifts Mr. Lenox gave to these institutions will probably never be fully known, but during; his lifetime none of them suffered for lack of funds. In 1870 he conveyed ten lots on the crest of a hill overlooking Central Park for the erection of the Lenox Library, and built the structure which adorns that site and to which he gave his family name. To it, when completed, he presented his magnificent collection of books and pictures, and augmented since, as it has been, by the funds bequeathed by him and by other donations, notably that from the Stuart estate, it is become one of the choicest of the public libraries in America, although its individuality has been in a measure lost since becoming a part of the "New York Public Library—Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations." It does not aim at comprehensiveness, but whatever branch of literature it takes up it tries to illustrate completely. Thus, of Bibles it has the finest collection in the country, from the rare "Mazarin" of Gutenberg and Faust, about 1450, to the Oxford Bibles of the present age. There is a set of Shakespeare folios and quartos, seven Caxtons, and nearly every known edition of Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress," Walton's "Angler," and Milton's works. The Americana is particularly large and valuable, and the collection of manuscripts is especially noticeable. The art collection is small, but includes a number of Washington portraits, and examples of Reynolds, Turner, Gainsborough, Wilkie, Stuart, Leshe, Delaroche, and other modern artists. The most conspicuous picture in the collection is Munkacsy's "Blind Milton Dictating" "Paradise Lost to His Daughters," the gift of Robert Lenox Kennedy, who succeeded Mr. Lenox as President of the library, and who, like the present President, John S. Kennedy, was ever on the outlook to advance the importance of the institution by gift or executive ability. Mr. Lenox died in t880. Of his seven sisters, only two survived him, and the bulk of his property was distributed so as to reach these, and ultimately his numerous benefactions. Of one thing he was very imperative in the terms of his will, and that was that no details of his life should be given for publication in any form. It is impossible to estimate what Yew York—the poor of Yew York—owe to the deeds of this family, but when we remember that thousands each year pass through the Presbyterian Hospital either as indoor or dispensary patients, we can understand slightly the good work that is being carried on by one agency established through the foresight of the father and the benevolence of the son. In this instance, too, the educated are equally benefited by the family benefactions, for the scholar and man of letters has in the Lenox Library access to literary treasures so rare and so valuable as to be nowadays beyond the reach of purchase. Surely among the things which make up the great metropolitan city of America these institutions will ever deserve a prominent place and the name of Lenox be reverently cherished, not only as that of a family of representative Scots, but of men who strove to do the utmost good to the city which had become their home.

Equal prominence as public benefactors is due to the Stuart family, which may be said to have been founded in America in 1805, when Kinloch Stuart settled in New York from Edinburgh and started in business as a candymaker. He attended closely to his establishment, and when he died, in 1826, had not only acquired considerable means, but was regarded as a substantial merchant, two reputations which do not always go together. His sons, Robert L. and Alexander Stuart, both of whom were born in Yew York, succeeded him and carried on the business until 1856, during which time the confections of R. L. & A. Stuart became famous all over the country. In that year they gave up candymaking and devoted themselves to refining, sugar—they were the first, by the way, to use steam in the process in America —and finally retired from business life in 1872 with large fortunes. The rest of their lives were truly spent in doing good, although the performance of charity was no new hobby with them, for from 1852 they had each laid aside yearly a stated amount of their income for works of benevolence or religion. Alexander died in 1879 and Robert L. in 1882, and it has been estimated that jointly they gave away during their lives over $2,000,000. Princeton College and Theological Seminary were liberal partakers of this bounty, and the New York Presbyterian Hospital and the San Francisco Theological Seminary were enriched by munificent gifts. R. L. Stuart was long President of the American Museum of Natural History, and the early growth of that institution was greatly facilitated by his generosity, and as President for a time of the Presbyterian Hospital he (lid good service —service only second to that of the founder himself—to the poor of New York. No one, however, knew exactly Boxy far the charitable hands of these brothers were extended or how many churches, missions, and agencies of good, not only in America, but throughout the world, were helped by them.

After R. L. Stuart's death the philanthropic work of his life was nobly carried on by his widow, who henceforth lived to be virtually the almoner of her own and her husband's wealth. This estimable lady was the daughter of Robert McCrea, a wealthy Scotch merchant of New York, who died in 1830. The Presbyterian Church in its various schemes was the recipient of large contributions annually, and special occasions were always certain of her assistance. To Princeton College she was a princely benefactor, founding in it, at Dr.McCosh's special request, a School of Philosophy with a gift of $150,000, and that was only one of many contributions to the institution. To the Historical Society she gave $100,000, to the Half Orphan Asylum $100,000, and so on—always generous in her contributions. She was invariably giving—and giving in secret, for she shunned notoriety or Publicity, and hardly a day passed that she was not assisting in some good work. When she died, at the close of 1891, most of her means went to Princeton, to the various Presbyterian Church schemes, and to a host of charities, for she had no near relatives. Her books and collection of paintings went to the Lenox Library, and those who perused her will saw that in the final distribution of her wealth she aimed to be as comprehensive in its disposition as possible, to aid established and tried agencies, and to spread the light of the Gospel as well as the blessings of education and charity. She used common sense throughout her life in her giving, and this good Scotch quality was never more apparent than in the instrument which contained her instructions for the disposal of her guids and gear."

In the "Statistical Account of Scotland," Vol. 1., Page 495, is the following brief notice of a Scot whose name was once well known all over the Eastern States and is still prominently remembered in horticultural circles: "Mr. Grant Thorhurn, seedsman, New York, the original Lawrie Todd, though a native of Newbattle Parish, where he was born on the 18th of February, 1773, lived in Dalkeith from his childhood till he sailed for New York on the 13th April, 1794. He is a man of great piety and worth, though of a remarkably lively and eccentric character. He visited Dalkeith in 1834, when he published his 'Autobiography,' which he dedicates with characteristic singularity and elegance to Her Grace the Duchess of Buccleuch."

It did not suit the purpose for Mr. Peter Steele, the gifted schoolmaster who in 1844 wrote these words, to give any indication of Thorburn's career in Scotland. Political feeling then ran very high and political resentment was very bitter, and the teacher could not, had he so inclined, say a word commendatory of Thorburn's early life without bringing upon his own head the ill will of the Buccleuch family and its adherents. So, like a canny Scot, he acted the part of the Aberdeen plan's parrot, which "thocht a quid deal but said naething ava." Thorburn learned from his fattier the trade of a nail-maker and became quite an expert at it long before his apprenticeship was past. Like most of the Scottish workmen of the time—a time when the old order of things was fast changing and the governing powers tried to quell the popular advance and the political aspirations with trials for treason, sedition, and the like—Thorburn became deeply interested in politics, and in Dalkeith was prominent among those who advocated Parliamentary reform and a generous accession to the rights of the people to a voice in the conduct of affairs. The result was that when opportunity offered he was arrested for treason, and, after a short time in prison, was released on, bail. This arrest made him a marked man and blocked any prospect of his making his way in the world, so, beheving that the star of freedom blinked bonnily across the sea in the new Republic which had thrown off the yoke of the same Parliament he had protested against, Thorburn left Scotland and, settling in New York, tried to earn his living at his trade of nailmaking. It, however, did not promise much for the future, and in i8oi he started in business as a grocer at 20 Nassau. Street. "He was there," writes Walter Barrett, "some ten or twelve years and then he moved to No. 22, and about the time of his removal, in i8io, he changed his business and kept garden seeds and was a florist. He established a seed-raising garden at Newark, but it proved unsuccessful, and thereafter he confined his attention to his business in New York and acquired considerable means."

From the beginning of his American career almost, Thorburn became known for his kindly heart, and he did mutch practical good in a quiet way, not only among his countrymen, but among all deserving people whose needs touched his sympathy or aroused his compassion. For many years his store in Liberty Street was not only a lounging place for the merchants who bought flowers, but for the practical gardeners who grew them. His place became a sort of clearing house for the horticulturists in the city, and every Scotch gardener who arrived in New York from the Old Country made Thorburn's place his headquarters until he found employment, and hundreds used to say that the advice and information they received from him at that critical stage in their careers were of the most incalculable value to them through life. In 1854 Mr. Thorburn in a sense retired from business and settled in Astoria. From there he moved to Winsted, Conn., and finally to New Haven, Conn., where he died in 1861.

Mr. Thorburn possessed considerable literary tastes, and, under the twin de plume of "Lawrie Todd," wrote in his later years at frequent intervals for the "Knickerbocker Magazine" and other periodicals. he gave to John Galt much of the information which that genius incorporated in his story of " Lawrie Todd; or, Settlers in the New World," and his published volumes of reminiscences, notably his "Forty Years' Residence in America" and "Fifty Years' Reminiscences of New York," still form interesting reading. So, too, does a now scarce volume published in 1848 under the title of "Lawrie Todd's Notes on Virginia, with a Chapter on Puritans, Witches, and Friends." This book is one of those contributions to American social history which will become of more value as time speeds on, although its importance may be more appreciated by the student than by the general reader.

In Walter Barrett's interesting volumes on "The Old Merchants of New York" we find the following notices of an old family of merchants, the founders of which settled in America from Inverary. Says Mr. Barrett: "Robert Bruce came out to Norfolk as a protege of the Earl of Dunmore, who was then Governor of Virginia. The Governor was about to visit the Province of New York in an English man-of-war. 'Robert, I want you to accompany me to New York; Norfolk is too small a sphere for your mercantile operations. New York will be the great commercial city. You must anchor there,' were the kind words of Lord Dunmore to Robert Bruce. * * * Accordingly, the young Scotch merchant accompanied Gov. Dunmore to New York. Here he introduced him to Gov. Colden, who became his friend and patron ever after.

"When Robert had been in the city a few months he determined to make it his permanent home, and sent for his brother, Peter, to come over from Scotland. At that time Broadway did not extend up to where Chambers Street now is, though Peter Bruce bought a spot of ground on the southeast corner of Broadway and Duane Street. The brothers were in this city prior to the Revolution, probably about 1768. Robert was a Tory and Peter a Whig in the war times. It is a wonder to me how a merchant of that day could be anything else than a Tory—particularly in the case of Robert Bruce, who had been the protege and had received the warm personal friendship of two royal Governors. Probably it was a little bit of policy that made Peter a Whig. After the war was over they kept their store, in 1784, at 3 Front Street, and as late as 1795, when they removed to 120 Front Street. There was a William Bruce who was in the grocery business at 129 Front Street. He was from Aberdeen. He died in 1798 of yellow fever.

"Both Robert and Peter died in 1796 within a short time of each other. In 1789 the firm of Robert & Peter Bruce owned a little vessel called The Friends' Adventure. She was commanded by Peter Parker, and traded to Shelburne. At the time John Jacob Astor arrived in New York from Germany he found Robert Bruce the richest man in the city, as Mr. Astor frequently stated." From these brothers descended a family whose representatives are now to be found in the highest circles of the representative houses, not only of New York, but in Virginia and other States.

Another family of Bruces crossed the Atlantic about the time these Inverary merchants were passing off the stage. The first of this family to settle in America was David Bruce, a native of Edinburgh, who landed in New York about 1793. His brother, George, followed him in 1795. After being employed in several establishments, the two brothers, in 1806, opened a book store and printing office on Pearl Street. They soon had a fair business, but their success really dated from the day they published an edition of Lavoisier's "Chemistry," all the work in connection with the printing of which they did themselves. In 1812 David revisited Scotland in search of matters that might extend their business, and when in Edinburgh mastered the art of stereotyping—an Edinburgh invention—and on his return proceeded to turn his knowledge to practical account. This led to the making of improvements in typesetting, and finally to the establishment of a type foundry, which at the present day ranks as one of the foremost in the United States. Their first stereotyped work—the first in America—was an edition of the New Testament in bourgeois type, and this was followed by an edition of the entire Bible in nonpareil. After a most successful career, David Bruce died in Brooklyn in 1857, and George survived till 1866, having done more to make American type famous for beauty of outline and strength of material throughout the world than any of their contemporaries.

Philadelphia furnishes us with the names of several even earher Scotch printers, and it is worthy of mention here that the first American edition of Burns's poems was published in the Quaker City in 1788—a year after the first Edinburgh edition and a few months before the first New York edition—by Stewart & Hyde. One of the most noted of the Scotch printers and publishers in Philadelphia was Robert Aitken, a native of Perthshire. He was born in 1724, and, although nothing can he learned of his early life, he appears to have been a man of considerable education and mental capacity, and thoroughly imbued with republican principles. We first find him in Philadelphia in 1769 engaged as a printer and active in the then undefined movement which within a few years was to burst aside the bonds which united the Colonies to the old land. In 1775 he published the "Pennsylvania Magazine; or, American Monthly," but the times were not propitious for the success of magazine literature, and after issuing it for eighteen months, during which it contained many attractive and timely articles—some from the pen of Dr. Witherspoon of Princeton—he reluctantly abandoned it. A year later his enthusiasm for the cause of the young republic landed him in prison. In 1782—a most ill-advised time for such a project—he printed the first American edition of the English Bible, and lost money by the speculation. Its title page bears the imprint, "Philadelphia, Printed and Sold by R. Aitkin, at Pope's Head, "Three doors above the Coffee House, in Market Street, MDCCLXXXII.," and it has become a very scarce book. It is doubted if there are fifty copies in existence, and the value of a perfect one is very great. Aitkin was the author, or the reputed author, of a work on a commercial system for the United States, which was published in 1787, and of a number of pamphlets. He died in 1802, in the city which had so long been his home.

Another noted Philadelphia printer was David Hall, whose firm—Hall & Seller—printed the paper money issued by authority of Congress during the Revolution. Hall was born at Edinburgh in 1714, and thoroughly mastered what is called "the printer's art" in his native city and in London, to which place he removed shortly after his apprenticeship was over. He settled in Philadelphia in 1747, and after working at his trade for several years started in business. For a time he had the famous Benjamin Franklin as a partner, but that great patriot had then fully entered upon that public career which was to redound so nobly to his own fame and to the welfare and stability of the Nation he did so much to found, and so his partnership was of little practical use in the business, and the relations between Hall and Franklin were soon dissolved. In 1766 he formed the co-partnership of Hall & Seller, a firm that continued in existence long after he had passed away, his own interest being taken up by his sons. The firm printed the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and the editorial work was done by Hall. It was a model of its kind, and typographically and editorially, the publication was ahead of any of its contemporaries. Hall also conducted on his individual account quite an extensive book and stationery store, so that he must have been a pattern of industry—just the sort of man whose life ought to have been written by Dr. Smiles or included in that author's "Self help." His death took place at Philadelphia, in 1772, just as the struggle was fairly opening that was to culminate in the political independence of the land he had made his own, and whose cause had no warmer supporter.

Possibly the pioneer Scotch printer in America was John Campbell of Boston, who published on April 17, 1704, the Boston "News-Letter," the first regular newspaper issued in the country. It was a small production looked at alongside of the mammoth "blanket" newspapers of the present day, but, small as it was, its publication involved an amount of thought and care and enterprise which stamps John Campbell as having been no ordinary man. Campbell was born at Islay in 1653, crossed the Atlantic in 1686, and became a bookseller in Boston. For many years he was Postmaster of that city, and seems to have been held in general esteem. He died in 1728.

Another enterprising newspaper was published before the outbreak of the Revolutionary troubles by Robert Wells, an Edinburgh man who, in 1754, when in the twenty-sixth year of his age, settled down in Charleston to make a fortune. One of his first acts was to get enrolled as a member of the St. Andrew's Society of Charleston, so that his own land and its associations were not to be forgotten, although he had "crossed the sea." Wells commenced business as a bookseller, stationer, and printer, and for many years his establishment was the leading literary emporium in the Carolinas. His paper, "The South Carolina and American General Gazette," enjoyed a large circulation—as circulations went in those days. When the Revolutionary movement approached a crisis he declined to throw off his allegiance to the Crown, and, resigning his business to his son, John, who had no such scruples. Wells returned to Britain and died at London, in 1794. While in Charleston he wrote for his amusement a "Travestie of Virgil," and he seems to have been a person of considerable attainments, a self-educated and self-made man.

We have lingered so long among printers and booksellers, we may be pardoned for continuing here to write of them down to a period beyond that intended to be covered at this stage of this chapter. Having dwelt on the beginning of the business of typography, we may as well go on to see its highest development. This was brought about, it may he said, through the life-long labors and learned as well as artistic zeal of John Wilson, the founder of the still-fanged Wilson Press of Cambridge. John Wilson was born at Glasgow in 1802. His parents were of humble position, his early education scant, and early in life necessity compelled hint to adopt a trade, and by accident or from inclination he became a printer. Nothing shows the character of the lad better than the fact that despite his "short schooling" and the long hours which his occupation demanded, he developed into a man of very considerable learning and an adept in Greek, Latin, French, and other languages. Leaving Scotland about 1824, he went to Belfast, and there showed that he thought of more than the mere mechanism of his business by publishing in 1826 a small "Treatise on Grammatical Punctuation," a work which was afterward (in 1850) rewritten and republished in Boston, and which has since been accepted as the standard work on the subject, so much so that over twenty editions have been published since the author's death.

In 1846, after many other migrations, Wilson settled in Boston and began business for himself at his trade. Moving from the city subsequently to its suburb of Cambridge, he founded the firm of John W Wilson & Son and did a large business—a business of that high class that brought into constant practical service his lingual achievements. A great deal of his business lay with Harvard University and with the writings of its professors and instructors, and this connection gained for him, in 1866, the well-merited official acknowledgment of the degree of Master of Arts. In his religious behef Mr. Wilson was a stanch Unitarian, and wrote several volumes and pamphlets in defense of the principles of that body—of the school, rather, of which the gifted Clanning was the leader.

Mr. Wilson was constantly engaged in perfecting the details of his business in all departments, and for many years no establishment could turn out more perfect work. His proofreading was a model of accuracy, and in the printing of wood cuts he was especially successful. For a long time his office was the only one in America that could print a book in Greek with any degree of accuracy, and in the classics he attempted to rival the beauty and correctness of the Foulis Press, which made his native city so famous in the annals of typography. To the end of his career Mr. Wilson was a devoted Scot, growing prouder, it almost seemed, of his native land as the years sped on and it became to him simply a reminiscence. From the moment he could read, almost, he became a student of the poems of Robert Burns; and as early as 1837, while still in Belfast, he contributed a well-written and appreciative essay on the life and character of the poet to an edition of Burns's writings printed in that city that year. He also delivered a noteworthy address on the bard in Boston in connection with the centenary celebration of 1859. M]r. Wilson closed his useful and honorable life—Honorable equally to Scotland and America—in 1868, at Cambridge.

Our next illustration had to deal with books, not as a writer or manufacturer, but simply, for the most part, as a dealer, although he knew the contents of the books he sold more intimately than many who professed superior learning, and though his name appeared as publisher on the title pages of several volumes. This was William Gowans, long the most famous of New York booksellers, whose stock for variety and value was only equalled by those of some of the old-established emporiums in London or on the Continent. Gowans was born at Lesmahagow in 1803, died in Yew York on Nov. 27, 1870, and was buried a few days afterward in Woodlawn Cemetery, where a plain stone marks his resting place. At the funeral services the Rev. Dr. John Thomson, long pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian Church in New York and afterward a minister at Grantown, Scotland, delivered an appropriate address, in which he said:

"William Gowan;  well known—few men better known—among the men of literature, not only in New York—a city of no mean literary excellence—but also over all the land, has stood amongst us, facile princeps, as a peculiar man. A native of Scotland, having been born in the parish of Lesmahagow, in the county of Lanark, in the year 1803, he immigrated with the family to Philadelphia in the year 1821. In various situations he spent the succeeding years until 1830, when he began his career as bibliopole in Chatham Street, in this city. Between the little store and little stock in Chatham Street and the thronged passage-ways of 115 Nassau Street, tapestried—I had almost said padded and paved —with books—one will say what a change! Yes, but how many changes are embraced between two such extremes? Another generation has risen and has buried that that first patronized the bibliopole. Authors have been born and have written their names on the grand historic tablets and have since died. Authors long dead and buried out of sight have been disinterred and, silent for centuries, have spoken again, and modern life hears their speech and lives their laborious days over again, all since that young Scotsman fathered the store in Chatham Street. Since then bookselling has become a marvellous and mightily honorable trade, and one only yet in its infancy, for it has not a State or a few States, but a continent, to compass and an appetite insatiable to provide for. William Gowns was a dealer in books. Aye, so will some most pitiful dealers in money represent him and all such as he. But he was more. He was not so much a dealer in books as a dealer with books. To know them, their authors, age, spirits, range, and bearing was not his labor or life task; it was his delight and high enjoyment. Among books, old and rare, and the rarer and older the more agreeable the work for him, William Gowans was the antitype of Old mortality among the tombstones. It was his high calling to bring out into the light of modern life what time and ignorance were fast in conspiracy to waste away."

Two more illustrations, each still nearer to our day, and we will leave the makers of books. One of these we select is Henry Ivison, whose firm was for years foremost in New York in the publication and dissemination of school-book literature. Mr. lvison was born at Glasgow in 1808, and settled in America, with his parents, when twelve years of age. He acquired a knowledge of the book trade as apprentice to William Williams, bookseller in Utica, and in 1830 started business on his own account in Auburn. He remained there for sixteen years, and not only was in comfortable circumstances, but accumulated a little money. Then, in 1846, he accepted the offer of a partnership with Mark H. Newman of New York, and removed to that city.

The co-partnership was a pleasant and profitable one from the start, and of one series of books—Sanders's Readers, the first consecutive series of school readers published in America—the sales were enormous. Of the "Primer," the first of the five in the series, never less than 100,000 copies were ordered printed at one time for quite a number of years. In 1852 the partnership was renewed, and the firm became known as Newman & Ivison, but within a year, through the death of the senior partner, the entire management passed into Mr. Ivison's hand. The firm afterward was reorganized several times, and bore the names of the partners who subsequently became associated with him—one of these partners being H. F. Phinney, a son-in-law of J. Fenimore Cooper—and it did business under the firm name of Ivison, Plakeman, Taylor & Co. in 1881, when Mr. Ivison retired, leaving his interest to his son. After retiring from business, Mr. Ivison led a quiet and happy life between his city home in New York and his country residence at Stockbridge, Mass. But his career of usefulness still continued. As a Trustee of the Union Theological Seminary, an Elder in the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, and in many other directions he had plenty of scope for his energies and for the exercise of that business threwdness which was his distinguishing characteristic throughout his career. He died after a brief illness, in New York, in 1884.

Our last "examplar" in this section, Robert Carter, was for years the leading publisher of religious—thoroughly orthodox—literature in New York, and in his earher years he showed a degree of enterprise and of reliance on his own judgment which few religious-book publishers have shown in the history of the trade. Mr. Carter became a bookseller and publisher by force of circumstances rather than anything else, for he was co-signed by his parents, and the design was seconded by his own inclinations, to be a teacher. He was born at Earlston, not many miles from Abbotsford, in 1807. His own education was, it might be said, not much more than begun when in 1822 he opened a night school in one of the rooms of his father's cottage for the young, lads of the neighborhood, and at the same time was applying himself diligently to a study of Latin and Greek, assisted by a cousin some years older, who had been at college. In 1827 he entered upon the battle of life by securing a position as teacher in a grammar school at Peebles. From the money earned during the two years spent in that work he saved enough money to spend a session at the University of Edinburgh. Mr. Carter landed in New York in 1831, and for over three years was engaged in teaching, latterly in a school of his own, but in 1834 he commenced his real career by leasing a store at the corner of Canal and Laurens Streets and entering into business as a seller of books. It was a fairly successful venture, but too slow for the young merchant, and he resolved to try his hand at publishing. His first experiment was a book which it is safe to say no other Publisher in America would have risked a cent of money or a moment's consideration on--"The Atonement and Intercession of Jesus Christ." by Dr. William Symington. The venture hung fire at first, but one gentleman bought 100 copies for distribution, another wrote a warm eulogy of the book for a religious paper, and gradually the entire edition disappeared.

This book brought Mr. Carter into notice in religious circles, and his business steadily increased. In 1841 he revisited Scotland in search of business connections and books to sell, and while there bought a copy of the earher volumes of D'Aubigne's "History of the Reformation," which he republished immediately on his return, and which reached a sale of over 50,000 copies. In 1848 Mr. Carter assumed as partners his brothers, Peter and Walter, and under the style of Robert Carter & Brothers the firm moved to 258 Broadway, and in 1856 to the building at the corner of Spring Street and Broadway, which continued to be its place of business until it went out of business, after the death of its founder.

Early in his business career Mr. Carter made two resolutions to which he adhered steadfastly—to make all purchases for cash and to give no notes. Therefore, he always knew `'where he stood," whatever the conditions of trade or general business. Then no book was ever published whose religious teaching was not unimpeachable. The mere fact of there being "money" in a publication was in itself no consideration, and, unless Robert Carter and his brothers were perfectly certain that a book was strictly orthodox, that its teachings were helpful, that some benefit was to be gained by its perusal, no thoughts of sale would tempt the firm's imprint to appear on the title page. Some even good men averred that in all this the Carters were too particular, and a story used to he told that Robert Carter once took home a manuscript to read, and was delighted with it, talked about its early chapters to his friends with enthusiasm, and had made arrangements to print it, but when he came to the last pages he saw some stains that led him to beheve the writer had been smoking when he penned them, and as part of the story had shown the evils of tobacco he returned the manuscript at once, because he thought the writer was not an honest man.

A Presbyterian of the strictest school, accepting humbly all the canons of that denomination, even those which are most sneered and laughed at, Mr. Carter was a bitter foe of hypocrisy and cant, and was intolerant of dishonesty in any form. For, although it is the common practice to charge such men as he with narrow-mindedness and intolerance, a more unfounded error never acquired popular behef. The most intolerant, bigoted, self-conceited prig to be found in any community is the professed infidel, who always avers that he sees no good in any marl's opinion which differs from his own, and is either sneering or gibing or denouncing any views field by his fellow-men which do not square with those sentiments which, generally for a fee or an advertisement, he is always proclaiming in season and out of season. The truly religious man honors all sorts of sincere behef, and this was the case with Robert Carter. He cared nothing for controversial literature—it never figured in his list of publications, but that list was wide enough to include literary examples from every evangelical denomination.

We have many examples in the trade history of New York of glen achieving distinction in the common callings of life—the callings which could not be dignified with the title of professions—and it is the same in all centres of population. For many years the official timekeeper of New York, as he might be called, was a Scotsman, and in the old houses of the city no furniture is more prized than that made by Duncan Phyfe, a native of Glasgow, who was for many years at the head of the furniture-making trade in America. Even to-day his handiwork stands out as solid, as clear cut, and as beautiful as when it first left his workshop, although, for very evident reasons, undoubted examples of his skill are yearly becoming more scarce. We can easily beheve, however, that he made a special study of every article he manufactured, that the workmanship, even where concealed, was honest, and everything was made to last, rather than merely to sell—as is the fashion nowadays. Duncan Phyfe was born in 1770, and, with his parents, emigrated to America in 1783, just after he had got through schooling. Where he learned the trade of a cabinetmaker is not known. It is possible he had even started to understand its mysteries before he left Scotland, but about 1796 he commenced business for himself, and continued steadfastly at work, at the bench and the designing board, until 1850, about which year he died. "In that time," says one record, "he made a vast deal of excellent and beautiful mahogany furniture, including pieces of all sorts and sizes. Chairs were his specialty. A dozen well-authenticated Duncan Phyfe chairs sold not long ago at $22.50 each. He also made card tables with richly carved tripods provided with an internal mechanism that caused the legs to spread or collapse, as desired. The simplest carving on his small chairs was wrought with the utmost care and precision, while the more elaborate carvings on the larger pieces were marvels of the art. The renovation of Duncan Phyfe's work is expensive, because of the care and time required. Phyfe was fond of introducing the figure of the lyre into his furniture. It appears in chairs, in swinging mirrors, and in various pieces, large and small. He seldom chose to mark his work, and only experts are able now to recognize it.

"As Phyfe used to employ fully one hundred of the most skilful journeyman cabinetmakers in New York, and as his furniture was of the most durable sort, there is still a great deal of his work in existence. It is seldom for sale, and when any of it is sent to the auction room it is usually disposed of at private sale. A maiden lady who died a few years ago at the age of ninety-four left behind her a full set of Duncan Phyfe furniture, the gift of her father when she was a girl of eighteen. The set was reproduced in mahogany by a German cabinetmaker, and imitations of it are to be found in some of the more fashionable stores."

Among the hundreds of Scots who have been prominent in St. Louis, probably no name stands out in bolder rehef or is held in more pleasant remembrance by the older residents than that of John Shaw, who died at his residence near that city, in 1878, at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. It is worth while dwelling on Mt. Shaw's career and idiosyncrasies, because the details show how many transformations may happen in a man's life between the cradle and the grave, and because in all he said and did he was most characteristically Scotch. John Shaw was born in Edinburgh Castle, where his father, a soldier, resided with his wife in the barracks. His parents removed to Grantown, in the north, and his early years were spent there. While yet a boy he entered the army, and was engaged in the Spanish campaign which resulted in the retreat upon Corunna and the death of Sir John Moore. He obtained his discharge shortly before the battle of Waterloo, and, returning to Grantown, began an apprenticeship as a stonemason, in which business nearly all his after life was spent. When his apprenticeship expired he wandered all over Scotland and the North of Ireland to acquire experience and skill in his trade. After leading a life of this kind for some time he married and returned to Grantown, where some of his children were born.

Turning his steps westward, Shaw landed in America, and settled in St. Louis about 1842. His life there was that of an active and energetic master builder. All for whom he worked had the greatest confidence in his ability, and he soon became the head of his branch of business. Many of the best buildings in St. Louis are the result of his skill. Among others were the foundation of the old Post Office, the Mercantile Library Hall, the Old Lindell, and numberless stores and residences of all sizes. In 1862, finding himself possessed of a competency, he retired from business, and, purchasing a large tract of land in Franklin County, Mo., settled there and engaged in the quiet life of a farmer.

"Mr. Shaw," wrote one who knew him well, shortly after his death, "was a man of marked force of character, decided in his opinions, and often severe in his judgements. To a stranger he may have appeared bluff and brusque in manner, but it was merely on the surface, for any of those who enjoyed his acquaintance knew that he possessed many kindly qualities and a warm, generous heart. In enthusiasm for his native land (which he twice revisited after making his home in St. Louis) he was really 'second to none.' He was a diligent and careful reader, and, while well informed upon all subjects, he took a special interest in the history of the Highland clans, and could tell many thrilling stories of their fights and feuds. Of what he called his own clan he felt particularly proud, and jocularly claimed that he was its real chief. As became a thorough Highlander, he had a good deal of the Jacobite in his nature, and felt a genuine contempt for the memory of 'the wee, wee German lairdie.' To sum up, he was as thorough a Scotsman as if he had never left the soil. All his standards of comparison were there, and his great delight ever was to recall the scenes and memories, the history and traditions, the wit and wisdom of 'Auld Scotland.'

Turning to Chicago, we are confronted with an array of names prominent in every walk to which a volume would hardly do justice. As a fairly representative career we select that of George Smith, who, in 1839, established the first bank in the city. Mr. Smith was born at Old Deer, Aberdeenshire, in 1808, and was intended for the medical profession. After studying two years in Aberdeen University his health failed, and, beheving that an active outdoor life was necessary for his constitution, he turned his attention for a time to farming, with the most beneficial results. But he had no desire to resume his professional studies, and, crossing the Atlantic, in 1833, "went west," before that phrase became current, and entered upon a business career. Chicago was then not only decidedly far West, but it was little more than a village, yet Mr. Smith beheved that its geographical position insured it a grand future. In 1834 he commenced dealing in real estate, and bought up as many lots as he could within the then limits of the city. Beheving that the then newly conceived City of Milwaukee might be a close rival to Chicago, or, at all events, an equally prosperous city, he invested largely in its lots and sold out his Chicago holdings in 1836 at a considerable profit, one-quarter of the price being in cash and the rest in notes. A tide of commercial depression, however, swept over the place the following year, and, as his notes were unpaid, Mr. Smith had to resume possession of his Chicago lots. He ultimately lost nothing by the transaction, however. In 1839 he helped to obtain a charter for the Wisconsin Fire and Marine Insurance Company, which was then established with himself as President, and the late Alexander Mitchell as Secretary. The latter really was the practical head of the corporation front the beginning, for Mr. Smith soon started the Chicago banking establishment of George Smith & Co., the pioneer of the great financial institutions which now adorn that city. His Chicago and Milwaukee interests proved veritable gold mines, and in 1852 Mr. Smith began to think seriously of retiring from business cares and enjoying the fruits of his business career free from all commercial worriments and entanglements. The first step was the disposal of his interest in the Milwaukee bank to Mr. Mitchell, whose business sagacity had raised the institution to a high eminence among the financial concerns of the :Northwest, and bit by bit he steadily closed up all his other active business interests. These, however, were so many and so intricate that the task of unloading judiciously was by no means an easy one, and it was not until 1861 that Mr. Smith found himself free from all entanglements and ready to enter upon his plan of rest. He then retired to Great Britain, where he still enjoys the fruits of his years of business activity.

We may take a more recent illustration from the town of South Chicago, now a part of the big city, although it seems to preserve its individuality. John Oliver; who died there in August, 1894, was a notable figure in many ways. Born at Riccarton, Ayrshire, in 1835, he was educated in the Kilmarnock Academy, and settled in America when fifteen years of age, with no capital except his brains. He began his business career as a bookkeeper with a Chicago lumber firm, and remained with the concern for several years. Then he entered into business for himself and pegged away until he was rated among the millionaires of Chicago. After he retired from the lumber business he confined his attention to his real estate interests, and spent the evening of life in a quiet and pleasant manner, enjoying the good wishes of his friends and business acquaintances, among whom were many of the pioneers of Chicago.

We have already spoken of Alexander Mitchell of Milwaukee in connection with his one-time partner, George Smith, and it is fitting now to enter more at length into the wonderful career of that truly typical Scotsman. Mr. Mitchell was born at Ellon, Aberdeenshire, in 1817. He had two years of experience in financiering in a banking house in Peterhead, experience which was of the utmost service to him in after life. In 1839 he left Scotland, and, settling in the then "paper" city of Milwaukee, grew up with it. Not only that, for, as the manager of the Marine and Fire Insurance Company, he had a good deal to do with making the city grow. The bank early acquired a reputation for honesty, liberality, and thoughtfulness in its dealings. It entered into no wild-cat schemes, fostered every legitimate industry, pinned its faith to Milwaukee as a centre of commerce, and won. All over the Northwest the banking institution was famous, and "as sound as Mitchell's Bank" passed into a common saying. But Mr. Mitchell did not rest content with being simply a banker. He saw that the resources of the Northwest had to be developed, and this led him into railway schemes, until the magnitude of these operations eclipsed his banking interests, while at the same time they fed them. Bit by bit he became the builder, promoter, or financier of a series of railroads which was aimed to reach through the Northwest and to open new avenues of commerce, until under the general name of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, these systems are now regarded as among the most important in America.

Mr. Mitchell served in the United States House of Representatives from 1871 to 1875, and thus acquired a national reputation, and on his retirement from political life went on calmly with what was the real business of his career—the development of Milwaukee. He died at New York City, while on a visit, in 1887.

Mr. Mitchell was one of those far-seeing men who can forecast the future successfully, who can weigh a thousand contingencies, and, having figured out their value or possibilities, hold on to that figuring with all the energy and determination which are necessary to win success even under the most brilliant circumstances. He saw that the possibilities in the way of the development of the Northwest were practically unlimited and that means of transportation were the first as well as the all-important requisites to bring about that development. and to furnishing transportation he devoted himself. Many laughed at the energy with which he threw a bit of railroad line into a practically unoccupied territory, but the business soon followed the railroad wherever it was, and justified the wisdom of its builder. In financial matters his foundation was honesty. He knew that there was no royal road to wealth, that all schemes for getting rich quickly were wrong in theory, and would, sooner or later, end in smoke. He had no patience with wild-cat banking, with financial gambling under any name, and his conservatism in this respect, sometimes galling to the "go-ahead" ideas of many of the business men of the west, leavened the whole trade of Milwaukee and made its progress more substantial than that of most Western towns. Busy as his life was, and thoroughly American as were its varied interests, Mr. Mitchell never forgot the land of his birth. To everything Scotch in his adopted city he was a liberal giver, and at the annual gatherings of his countrymen—on St. Andrew's Day or in the outdoor reunion of each Summer—he was always one of the most enthusiastic participants, and took almost a boyish delight in meeting and greeting his "ain folk," whatever their station in life might be.

In the affairs of the bank, Mr. Mitchell was assisted by Mr. David Ferguson and many others from "the Land o' Cakes," but in his latter years his mainstay was his nephew, Mr. John Johnston, a native of Aberdeen and a graduate of its university. Mr. Johnston, soon after his arrival in Milwaukee, began to take an active interest in municipal as well as financial affairs, and once, indeed, refused a nomination as Mayor of the city when the nomination was equivalent to election. Mr. Johnston proved himself to be a scholar as well as a banker, and was recognized as one of the literary lights of the city. This led to his appointment as one of the Regents of the Wisconsin State University, as President of the Wisconsin Historical Society, and to many other honors of a like nature. In the. Scotch community he soon became a leader, and in such games as curling, quoits, and others that smacked of the old land he was an adept. Besides serving as President of the Grand National Curling Club of America, he was one of the founders of the Northwestern Curling Association and its chief executive officer. At his death, in 1887, Mr. Mitchell left one-third of the stock of the bank to Mr. Johnston. The business continued to increase to such an extent that Mr. Johnson felt there should be an augmentation of the beard of directors. Some of his colleagues held different views, and, as a result of the variety of opinions, Mr. Johnston retired, in 1892, in the prime of life, intending to spend his time at his books or his outdoor amusements. But the financial crisis of 1893, Which involved Mitchell's Bank, as so many others, called him back to his desk, and he once more cheerfully went into harness, with the most beneficial results to all concerned, and to the general satisfaction of all business circles in Milwaukee.

We may here turn, for the sake of variety, to find an illustration of the Scot in agriculture. One case in particular is peculiar, inasmuch as the individual was possessed of a competency before settling in America. George Grant, a native of Speyside, made a large fortune in London as a silk merchant. Then he desired to do something practical to benefit other men, and hit upon the device of organizing a British colony in Kansas. His first purchase was a tract of land containing 69,120 acres, to which he gave the name of Victoria. To this tract he afterward added a large number of acres. The first setters arrived in May, 1873, and so rapid was the growth of the settlement that there was not, at the time of his death, in 1887, an acre of land for sale within ten miles of Victoria on the south. None of the settlers were allowed to purchase less than 640 acres. Mr. Grant began with a flock of 3,555 breeding, ewes and 60 long-wooled English rams of the highest pedigree, and in 1874 his wool alone brought $11,700, in Boston, at 33 cents per pound. In the management of his vast concerns Mr. Grant displayed great activity, and a remarkable business aptitude. His efforts were successful in a very eminent degree, and he enjoyed largely the confidence and esteem of those who had business or private associations with him. The Scotch farmer in America is generally successful, and instances of this success might be drawn from the local histories of every county on the continent.

Monument builders are not very numerous in any country, except we include such people as build monuments to themselves, and therefore it would seem that those who erect memorials to others, mainly on patriotic grounds, are deserving of the highest meed of praise. The Scots in America have done their share in this regard if we estimate what they have accomplished compared with that of other nationalities whose numbers greatly exceed theirs. One of the most striking statues in the '`Monumental City" of Baltimore, on a commanding position in Druid Park, is the huge figure of Sir William Wallace, Scotland's popular hero, which is referred to in an earher chapter. The donor of the statue to Baltimore, Mr. William Wallace Spence, was born at Edinburgh in 1815, left his native land in 1834, and went to Norfolk, Va., where he obtained a situation with the old Scotch firm of Robert Souttar & Sons, who were then largely engaged in the West India trade. One of the local papers at Baltimore, in reviewing Mr. Spence's career at the time the statue of Wallace was presented to the city, in 1893, gave the following particulars as to his career: "While in the employ of Messrs. Souttar, Mr. Spence became well acquainted with their trade, spending several months in the West India Islands to gain additional knowledge of it. For two years he was in business for himself in Norfolk, and then, in 1841, came to Baltimore, commencing business with his brother, John F. Spence, under the firm name of W. W. Spence & Co. In 1849 Mr. John F. Spence went to San Francisco to open a house there, and in the same year Mr. Andrew Reid came to Baltimore from Norfolk and became associated in business with Mr. Spence under the firm name of Spence & Reid. The firm remained in business for twenty-five years, when both its members retired. For the past twenty years Mr. Spence has been largely interested in purely financial affairs. He was for many years President of the St. Andrew's Society, is President of the Presbyterian Eye, Ear and Throat Charity Hospital, and of the Egenton Orphan Asylum. Mr. Spence is an active member of the First Presbyterian Church, and for nearly forty years has been a ruling Elder."

But Mr. Spence is not the only Scot whose Patriotism has raised a monument in America to one of his countrymen. That labor of love had a precedent in 1888, in Albany, when the Burns Monument there was unveiled through the exertions of Mr. Peter Kinnear. Mr. Kinnear, who is a native of Brechin, and was born there in 1826, came to this country in 1847, and for many years carried on business in Albany as a brassfounder, acquiring a handsome competence as a result of his labor, and then taking a warm interest in various business matters in his adopted city, as well as developing activity in municipal affairs. For many years he was active as an official in all the Scotch organizations in Albany—St. Andrew's Society, Burns Club, and Caledonian Society—in everything Scotch except curling; he drew the line at that. The St. Andrew's Society was his favorite organization, and he served it for many years as Secretary, and for several terms was its President and chief spirit. His connection with that venerable society brought him into close relations with all his country People in Albany of whatever degree, and that, coupled with his enthusiastic admiration for his country's bard; led to the erection of what had long been one of his dreams—the statue of Burns which now graces the beautiful Washington Park of Albany. The money with which the monument of the poet was set up was not the gift of M. Kinnear. In its erection he was simply acting as executor in carrying out the wishes of an old Scotswoman who was long regarded in Albany as a miser, but the terms of the bequest were such that Mr. Kinnear could, had he so desired, placed a marble or other tablet in the park and retained the balance of the money. But he was too honest a man to take advantage of any quibble that might be raised for any personal gain to himself, and he rejoiced that Mary McPherson's eccentricities and close-fistedness had been the means of putting it into his power to realize his desire of seeing a monument to Scotia's darling poet in the city of his adoption. So, soon after -Mary McPherson died, on Feb. 6, 1886, the legal machinery in the case was fully put in operation, and in a short time Sr. Charles Calverley, sculptor, of New York, formerly of Albany, was at work on the clay model of the figure of the poet. Mr. Kinnear never for a moment concealed or thought to conceal Mary McPherson's share in the monument, but it should not be forgotten that but for him and for her reliance on his honesty and common sense she would never have made a will at all.

The statue was completed and unveiled on Sept. 30, 1888, and the day of the unveiling was a memorable one in the history of the Scotch population of Albany. The figure itself, as a work of art, full deserved the high praise which was lavished upon it when first seen and so frequently since. Unlike most sculptors who have essayed a figure of Burns, Mr. Calverley had no previously conceived ideals or theories to work out. He simply started on his task with the view of reproducing a lifelike portrait of the man, tempered in details so as to fashion a work that would be accepted as correct in its portraiture, while satisfying the highest artistic requirements. The bases for his work were the only "originals" in existence, the Nasmyth portrait and a cast of the skull, and these were used to the utmost, with hints taken from Skirving and later engravers and artists. The result is a figure of Burns that is more satisfying—as some one put it—than any other, and which in most respects ranks superior to any of the other statues of the poet which his admirers have raised to his memory.

Among the men who have been most active in the building up of the far Western cities, Scotsmen will most assuredly and invariably be found in the very front rank. An instance of this comes before us from Portland, Oregon, where William Reid, a native of Glasgow, is regarded as prominent among those who have helped to make that city what it is to-day, one of the most prosperous trade centres west of the Mississippi. Mr. Reid was born in 1842, and after receiving his early education in his native city, crossed the Atlantic. His career in America has been eminently useful and successful, and he has combined the qualities of a literary man and financier so as to give magnificent results to Portland, the city in which he has his home. Mr. Reid organized in 1874 the Portland Board of Trade, and is credited with having been the means of investing, or causing to be invested, over ten millions of foreign capital in the industries and agriculture and development of Oregon. A pamphlet entitled "Oregon and Washington as Fields for Labor and Capital," published in 1813, was widely distributed in Britain, and was the prime factor in the establishment of the Washington and Oregon 'crust and Investment Company, with a capital of $1,000,000; and in the railway, financial, and industrial interests of Oregon and Washington he has been recognized as a powerful factor.

We have already mentioned several names associated with Boston, and, did the limits of this work permit it, an interesting chapter or two, might be written headed "Scots in Boston." Such firms as Hogg, Brown & Taylor, the Gilchrists, and Shepherd, Norwell & Co., have not only led the dry goods trade in that city for many years, but from them a host of Scotch dry goods establishments has spread all through the country, even New York, itself a centre of the trade, having numbered the graduates from these establishments among its great merchants. But the Scot in Boston has flourished in all the walks of business life. For many years a notable figure in its commercial circles was James M. Smith. who was at the head of a large brewery, and had an interest in a dozen other concerns. Born at Arbuthnott, Kincardineshire, in 1832, and educated at the Montrose Academy, he commenced his business life as an apprentice in the once famous Edinburgh establishment of Duncan, Flockhart & Co., druggists. When his apprenticeship was over he event to Canada, and finally settled in Boston, where he drifted into a groove that made him a successful business man, "a man of means and substance," as the old saying buts it. No Scot in Boston was more full of patriotism than he, and his patriotism he was always ready to back up in the most practical way—by his bawhees. He was a ruling spirit in the Presbyterian Church and liberal to all its schemes. For many years he was President of the Scots' Charitable Society, and his business administration of its affairs, and wise liberality made that venerable organization take on a new lease of popularity. He revived, too, the almost defunct British Charitable Society and placed it on a substantial and useful footing, and in a hundred other ways was constantly manifesting his interest in the old land and his countrymen. Mr. Smith died in 1894, and his departure left a blank in the Scottish ranks in the "Hub" which will, we fear, long remain unfilled. The same year the grave closed over another leal-hearted Boston Scot—Robert Ferguson of the firm of Shepherd, Norwell & Co. He was on a visit to Paris at the time, traveling in search of health, and was about to leave the Continent and return for a spell to his native place, Kirkmnahoe, Dumfriesshire—where he was born sixty-five years before, when the end came. Mr. Ferguson settled in America in 1855, and was employed in several dry goods houses in New York, notably that of A. T. Stewart & Co., with whom he remained fifteen years, and was regarded as one of the best buyers, always cautious, but ever ready to notice the selling value of everything brought before him. In 1870 he went to Boston to assume a partnership with the firm already mentioned, a partnership that continued until his death. In the Scots' Charitable Society he was an active and generous member, and was known for his artistic and literary tastes. He won hosts of friends in Boston, and was regarded not only as an upright and able merchant, but as an exemplary and patriotic citizen.

We have just spoken of the ramifications of the Scotch dry goods houses in America which radiated from Boston as a centre. But one might think that Scotsmen exerted a prime influence in the trade all over the country. One remarkable evidence of this is the rapid success of the Syndicate Trading Company of New York, which is a sort of dry goods exchange for its constituting members. Regarding the inception and composition of this organization, a correspondent, Mr. Donald Mackay of Worcester, sent the following intelligent account to the New York "Scottish-American" in October, 1895:

"A. Swan Brown, when a young clerk in a dry goods house in Worcester, having an instinct for enterprise and speculation, foresaw a great opportunity in amalgamating the Scottish dry goods establishments into one great syndicate. His reasoning was that, bound by national ties (and many of them on terms of personal intimacy) they would work together without friction to the advantage of the various firms involved in the enterprise. The chief aim, however, of the syndicate would be to establish an office in New York City, in touch with the markets of the world, and purchase in unprecedentedly large quantities and at cheaper prices than would be offered to satisfy those who cannot afford to buy except on a basis to satisfy a limited demand in a single establishment.

"To A. Swan Brown belongs the credit of organizing one of the greatest dry goods institutions in this or any other country—the Syndicate Trading Company, of which he is the President. It comprises the Callender, McAuslan & Troup Company, Providence, R. I.; Adam, Meldrum & Anderson Company, Buffalo, N. Y.; Sibley, Lindsay & Curr, Rochester, N. Y.; Brown, Thomson & Co., Hartford, Conn.; Forbes & Wallace, Springfield, Mass.; Denholm & McKay Company, Worcester, Mass.; Dives, Pomeroy & Stewart, Reading, Penn.; Almy, Bigelow & Washburn, Salem, Mass.; Minneapolis Dry Goods Company, Minneapolis, Minn.; Doggett Dry Goods Company. Kansas City, Mo., and Pettis Dry Goods Company, Indianapolis, Ind. Mr. Brown approached these various firms, scattered throughout the country, and the syndicate now formed is the result of his efforts. These eleven firms are among the largest dry goods houses in this country, and have experienced buyers in all the leading markets of the world. Each firm of the combine is established and managed by Scotsmen, and the employees are largely Scottish, or of Scottish descent.

"Mr. Brown has purchased a controlling interest in the Boston Store of Worcester, of which he is now President, and has removed his family from New York to a unique residence which he recently had erected in one of the suburbs of that place. He has lately exhibited an interest in the municipal affairs of this city, and it is suggested that at some not distant day he may be Mayor Brown of Worcester, Mass."

A sad break was made in one of the firms constituting this syndicate early in January, 1896, .when, within a few days of each other, John McAuslan and John E. Troup of the firm of Callender, McAuslan & Troup, Providence, passed away. Both men were notable examples of Scottish-American merchants. Mr. McAuslan was born at Kilivadan, Argyllshire, in 1835. He learned the drapery business in Greenock, and in 1858 secured an appointment in the store of Hogg, Brown & Taylor, Boston. Mr. Troup was born at Old Meldrum, Aberdeenshire, in 1829, and until he sailed for the United States, in 1855, was employed as a clerk in Aberdeen. At Boston he entered the firm of George Turnbull & Co., and remained in that establishment until, in 1866, along with Walter Callender and John McAuslan, he went to Providence and opened the establishment, which, from the time it started until the present, has been the leading dry goods emporium of Rhode Island.

Recent and typical examples, and examples, too, which combine New York and Boston dry goods training, based on a thorough Scotch foundation, may be found in the careers of two brothers, Thomas and James Simpson, who, until their lives were cut short when they should have been in their prime, ranked among the leading retail merchants in their line of business in New York. They were born at Markinch, Fifeshire, and served apprenticeships to the drapery business there, and afterward gained wider experience in Glasgow. Settling in America, they secured positions in the house of Hogg, Brown & Taylor, and then, when they reached the top rung in the ladder of promotion, they, in accordance with the custom of the leading employees of that house, and with its blessing, started out for themselves. Thomas cast in his lot with Lawrence, Mass., while James went to Norwich, Conn. After a while, although both were successful, they longed for a wider sphere of business, and, an old New York house being in the market owing to the desire of the senior partner to retire, they secured the interest thus offered, sold off their respective establishments, and, removing to New York, organized the old firm into that of Simpson, Crawford & Simpson, Mr. Crawford who connected the Simpsons being the holding over partner in the old firm, and, like his new associates, a native of Scotland. The new firm was a success from the start, and its business was steadily increased until the establishment occupied many stores and gave employment to some 1,800 hands, mostly Scotch. It used to be said that it was as good as a trip across the ocean to go into this mammoth concern, a concern that was, and is, conducted with Yankee shrewdness, tempered by Scotch honesty, an invaluable combination, and hear the Doric spoken by the clerks and salesmen as fresh and pithy as though they had just come from the heather. Thomas died in 1885 and James in 1895, and both were sadly mourned.

The leading dry goods man in St. Louis is a native of Rothesay, Mr. D. Crawford. A recent article in The Mirror of that city, says that he settled there in 1860 or thereabout. "Mr. Crawford's prosperity," says that paper, "has grown with the city, but he attributes his great success to Scotch tenacity of purpose, cash Payments, and printers' ink, He looks back with pride on the days of his small beginnings, and cherishes more than all the friends of these earher days, when his great 'Broadway Bazaar' was much smaller than it now is, and when its business represented thousands where now it runs into millions of dollars. He has never forgotten his mother country, and no deserving indigent Scot ever apphes to him in vain. For the last twelve successive years he has been the highly-appreciated President of the St. Louis Caledonian Society."

Mining in all its branches is an industry in which the Scots in America have taken a very prominent part, but curiously enough, miners, while hard-working men, are very modest and seldom obtrude themselves in print. They make their "pile" when they can, but do not care to "blow" about it, and are content to have the "gear" and leave the glory to others. As a result, they are difficult to get information about, although there is hardly a mineral field on the continent on which they have not been at work, and if a Scotch tourist gets among the placer mines of the Pacific slope he will not need to wander very far before shaking hands with a countryman.

One of the most intelligent and successful miners Scotland has sent to this country, Andrew Roy, a native of Lanarkshire, was the first State Inspector of Mines in Ohio, and the first in the United States outside of the anthracite district of Pennsylvania. He has been identified with mining in the State of Ohio for thirty years, and has had practical experience in other harts of the country. He is a scientific miner, a thoroughly practical geologist, and it was through his exertions that the Mining School was established in connection with the Ohio State University. Mr. Roy may, therefore, be fairly regarded as a representative type of the educated miner, and one who loves his business for its own sake rather than for the mere consideration of the money that may be in it, and that, after all, is the highest sort of representative any trade or profession can have. The man who merely bends his energy to getting rich may thrive with shoddy, wooden nutmegs or bogus clocks, just as the grocer may thrive who carefully sands his sugar, or the milkman who mathematically dilutes the fluid he sells, or the speculator who waters the stock in which he is interested. But these things have no real influence upon the world. The man who does his work—whatever that work may be—honestly and thoroughly, does something that justifies his existence, that adds to the wealth of the world, and reflects honor on his name after he has passed away. Nay, honest work is very often the most enduring monument a man can have. Old Phyfe, the cabinetmaker, is still remembered for the excellence of his workmanship, although his hand has long been at rest, while hundreds of richer makers of shoddy furniture—furniture made to sell, and that only—have been forgotten, even although during their lives they loomed up much more prominently in the public eye. But their lives were based on shoddy principles.

In the course of an interesting letter to the writer of this book in response to a request for some information concerning the Scotch miners in the Buckeye State, as Ohio is fondly called, Mr. Roy said: "Curiously enough, the native Scotch have not had a great deal to do with the early development of the mining industries of this State. They were the pioneer miners of Maryland and of Illinois and other Western States, but not of Ohio. The men who might be called the fathers of the mining industries here had in many instances Scotch blood coursing through their veins, but they themselves were born in America. Such was the late Gov. David Tod, the father of the coal and iron industry of Ohio, whose grandfather, as he told me himself, came from Edinburgh. The late Mr. Chisholm of Cleveland was, however, a native Scot, and his was the greatest success possible, though his field was in manufacturing rather than in mining. In Southern Ohio, John Campbell, the late iron king, was of Scotch blood and descent, though a native of Virginia. He was one of the pioneer miners of the Hanging Rock region.

"The Hon. Thomas Ewin a United States Senator and a Cabinet officer, was another coal and iron miner in another part of Southern Ohio. He, too, was of Virginia birth, but a full-blooded Scot. Gen. George W. McCook, of the family of the 'fighting McCooks,' was one of the pioneer miners of Ohio. I think he was born in the State, but he was a Scot to the backbone. We have a number of native Scots in the coal and iron business of the State at present, such as Alexander McDonald, the millionaire of Cincinnati. He is of Highland birth. The Hamiltons of Columbus, John and John C. and Gen. W. P., can hardly be classed as pioneers, but rather as successful Scotch business men."

If we were to look for a Scotch colony near New York we would assuredly go to the Wyoming Valley, where we would find groups of famihes as Scotch as though they had newly left Scotland, speaking their native doric in all its purity, preserving Scotch customs, even to "first fittin'," and rejoicing in all things Scotch, in the kirk, the slippery rink, and the pleasant foregathering in Summer and Winter after the day's "darg" is done. Sometimes we could find so many of one name that the different wearers of the cognomen are distinguished by nicknames—titles given without any attempt at disparaging an individual, but bestowed and used for convenience sake, and we would find these Scots in all sorts of positions, in the mines as well as in the ranks of the local tradesmen. One of the most noted of the miners of the Wyoming Valley, Thomas Waddell of Pittston, was a fair type of the rest, although he was more successful from a financial standpoint than most of his fellow-miners. But the mere possession of money made no difference to "Tam," as he was generally called, and he was hail fellow alike with sleek Senators and nabobs, mine workers, and the boys of the Thistle Band, a company of musicians that used to wake the beautiful Wyoming Valley with their beautiful rendering of Scotch music.

Mr. Waddell was born near Edinburgh in 1827. In 1850 he left Scotland to make a home for himself in this country, he first tried his fortune in Wilkes-Barre. Beginning his American career as a working miner, he worked in the coal shafts for a year or two and then went to California to try his fortune in digging for gold. He secured enough to give him a working capital, and, returning East, he bought a coal mine and continued in that business till his death, at Pittston, in 1894. It may be worthy of mention that Mr. Waddell's home town of Pittston was the last place in America where, so far as the writer's knowledge goes, Allan Ramsays "Gentle Shepherd" was publicly performed in an American theatre. That was in 1880. The piece was well put upon the stage and capably acted, and delighted a large and representative Scotch audience which assembled to witness it, and with its aid to renew many pleasant memories of auld land syne.

Weaving, like mining, owes much of its prominence and perfection among American industries to the Scotch operatives who carried their skill across the Atlantic and exercised it all over New England, in Pennsylvania, and the State of New York. A fair example of how a Scotch weaver can make his mark in America is found in the career of Samuel Laurie of Auburn, who died in 1895, while on a visit, in the hope of recovering his health, at Hot Springs, Ark. He was born at Glasgow in 1834, and learned his trade of a weaver there—the best place in the world at that time to learn weaving except, perhaps, Paisley. He left Scotland for America in 1856, and, after working in mills in many places, principally in New England, went to Auburn in 1866 to take a minor position in the woollen mills there. In a short time he was superintendent, and finally became President of the company. Mr. Laurie was a thorough master of his business, an enthusiast at it, even, and was always striving how to effect improvements in the designs of the goods, the fastness or purity of the colors, or the fineness or evenness of the textures. He invented several arrangements which helped considerably to bring about these improvements and to lower the cost of production. He had one great ambition—to place on the American market tweeds equal to those produced at Bannockburn or Galashiels, and, toward the end of his business career, it was generally acknowledged that he had succeeded.

Business men, most of them, whose lives are not based upon shoddy foundations are full of charity. We have had several instances of this in the course of this chapter, but the theme is so inexhaustible, so full of scope for patriotic pride, and, withal, so pleasant and instructive, that we cannot resist the temptation of citing a few more illustrations before closing this chapter. The philanthropic love-labors of that kindly son of auld Dunfermline, Andrew Carnegie, in founding libraries, musical conservatories, and aiding all sorts of helpful objects of a general nature that are upward in their tendency, are too well known to need recital here. But Scottish philanthropists have been in America from an early age, and have invariably shown judgment in their gifts. Take the case of James Lee, who was born at St. Andrews in 1795, and for forty years prior to his death, in 1874, was a merchant in New York City. He was long noted for the warm interest he took in the New York Society Library, an institution he assisted with his money, as well as with his advice and business experience and influence. But he left a memorial of his disinterested patriotism in the Washington Monument that adorns Union Square. Few of the thousands who pass that grand memorial of the first President of the United States know that its erection was brought about mainly through the exertions of a Scottish citizen, but such was the case. James Lee worked hard to gather together the needed funds to purchase the work, and as the result of innumerable calls, bushels of letters, and pleadings of all sorts, he eventually succeeded. He used to say that he had less trouble in getting subscriptions from citizens of America by adoption than from those who were citizens by right of birth. One of these, in declining Mr. Lee's request for a subscription, said grandiloquently: "Washington, Sir, needs no monument, Sir; he is enshrined in the hearts of his countrymen." "Nell," retorted Lee, "if he is in your heart he is in a pretty tight place." Active as an American citizen as he was, however, Mr. Lee was noted for his enthusiasm for his native land, and he affiliated with the St. Andrew's Society in 1822, shortly after settling in New York, and retained his membership till the end.

For true philanthropy, the name of no Scot in America stands higher than that of Archibald Russell. His father was at one time President of the Royal Society at Edinburgh, and Archibald was born in that city in 1811, graduating in time from its university. In 1836 he settled in New York, and almost immediately after entered upon that career of kindly usefulness which has enshrined his memory in the charitable annals of America's commercial metropolis. He founded the Five Points Mission, one of the most needed, most beneficent, and most practical charities in New York, and aided in founding the Half Orphan Asylum and a dozen other institutions. During the civil war he was a member of the Christian Commission, whose noble work needs no retelling here, and even when resting at his Summer home in Ulster County, Mr. Russell was always thinking upon some scheme of kindly work, or putting such schemes into execution. Mr. Russell died in New York in 1871.

A kindly man, although of a peculiar temperament, but whose daily business life was seldm unproductive of some good deed quietly done, vas Robert L. Maitland, whose death at Port Washington, N. J., in 1876, was a surprise to his hosts of friends in New York, although it was known to himself long before the summons came that his life hung by a more than usually slender thread. Mr. Maitland was born in New York, but he always claimed to be of the Scottish race, and was proud of it. His father was a native of Kirkcudbrightshire, in Scotland, and belonged to an ancient family, for which a remote kinship was claimed with the noble house of Lauderdale. His uncle established the firm of Maitland, Phelps & Co., already referred to. His mother was a daughter of Mr. Robert Lenox. His associations, therefore, social as well as business, were of a character to give him a splendid start in life, and no one could have used them to better advantage. If we were called upon to name a dozen firms in this city distinguished above all others for long standing, great energy, and enterprise, honorable principles, and a credit that never was doubted in the most troublous times, Messrs. R. L. Maitland & Co. would be one of them.

Mr. Maitland was frequently impetuous and sometimes imperious, but a good deal of this might justly be attributed to the irritableness produced by a painful disease from which he was long a sufferer. Iii private life few men were more considerate, gentle, and lovable. He was certainly strong in his likes and dislikes, but, his confidence once secured, he was the most faithful and devoted of friends. Like all of his race and name, he loved to play the part of a country gentleman, and he played it with genuine courteous hospitality and dignity. His establishments in town and country were filled with old and faithful servants—no slight proof of his kindness and consideration as a master. His contributions to every meritorious scheme of benevolence and religion were all on a scale commensurate with his great wealth, but were always bestowed in the most unostentatious manner. Like his kinsman, Mr. James Lenox, he loved to do good by stealth.

Business and philanthropy were also combined in a laudable degree in the career of another Scotsman's son, who, from the beginning to the end of his career, invariably reflected upon and spoke of his Scotch origin and blood with unbounded enthusiasm. This was John Taylor Johnston, who was born in New York in 1820, and died in that city in 1893. He was a son of John Johnston, a native of Edinburgh, who was partner in the once-famous importing house of Boorman, Johnston & Co., on Greenwich Street, New York, mentioned on a previous page in this chapter. While on a visit to Edinburgh with his parents in 1832, John Taylor Johnston was sent to the High School, where he remained a year and a half. He then returned to New York, and was educated for the law. He did not take kindly to legal work, however, and when twenty-eight years of age he branched off into railroad management. He began by taking the Presidency of the Elizabethtown and Sourerville Railroad, then only a few miles long and struggling for existence, and he steadily developed it until, under its new name of the New Jersey Central, it covered the greater part of the State. The chief business feature of the enterprise was the cultivation of the anthracite coal trade, and part of Mr. Johnston's scheme was the construction of a vast system of wharves, basins, and docks, involving the reclamation of the greater part of the Jersey flats. In 1877, however, before that undertaking could be carried out, the New Jersey Central, in common with other railroads engaged in the same line of business, was overtaken by disaster, and had to go into the hands of a receiver. Mr. Johnston lost a large portion of his private fortune in trying to maintain its credit, but ultimately resigned the Presidency, which he had held for twenty-seven nears. Mr, Johnston took the leading part, in 1870, in founding the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and was its President when he died. He contributed $15,000 to the starting of the institution, and collected personally in Europe a large number of the works of art which were first shown in it. He was for many years an active office bearer of the St. Andrew's Society, and was for one year its President. He was also a Trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital, besides being otherwise an extremely useful citizen.

Another Scotsman's son who has come to the front in financial circles, especially from the manner in which he twice cane to the rescue of the financial end of the Cleveland Administration by organizing syndicates to take up its early issues of bonds, is John A. Stewart, President of the United States Trust Company. It is well known, too, that Mr. Stewart has been liberal of his means in a quiet, unobtrusive way in promoting good works. In speaking of his work in the bond syndicate in November, 1894, "The New York Herald" remarked: "It is not everybody who can go around among his friends and by a little persuasive argument induce them to form a svndicate which will pay out $50,000,000 in gold at the beck of his finger." This was exactly what John Aikman Stewart did, and the fact speaks volumes for the trust reposed in his honesty and shrewdness as a financier.

"The Herald," in further commenting on this great bond transaction, gave the following particulars of Mr. Stewart's parentage and early career: "Mr. Stewart first saw the light of day on Aug. 26, 1822.

"From the land of Robert Burns came his ancestors. His father was born on the Island of Lewis, one of the Hebrides group, on the northwest coast of Scotland. Coming to this country when quite young, he was a ship carpenter in this city for many years, then embarked in business, was for a long while an Assessor for what were then the Twelfth and the Sixteenth Wards, and was also Receiver of Taxes. Mr. Stewart's mother was born in this city, her father being a Scotchman."

Perhaps the most conspicuous example of the influence which Scotsmen have exerted and are exerting upon American progress is found in the career of John S. Kennedy, of New York, who was born at Blantyre, Lanarkshire, (the birthplace of David Livingstone,) in 1830, and settled in New York in 1856.

During his American business career Mr. Kennedy has been associated in many of the most important business interests of his time, and railroads, banks, and syndicates of all sorts have felt the influence of his guidance and judgment. He undertook the receivership of the Central Railroad of New Jersey when that road was practically bankrupt, and when he retired he handed it over to its present owners as a paying concern. His connection with the Canadian Pacific Railroad is well known, but few can appreciate the amount of work he did as Vice President and Director of the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Railroad Company, or as Vice President of the Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Lafayette Railroad Company, or as President of the International and Great Northern Railroad Company of Texas. Even now that he is supposed to be retired from business, and enjoying his otium cum dignitate, he is trustee under the mortgages of various railroads to an amount approaching $100,000,000, besides being trustee or executor on many private estates involving many millions more, a Director of the National Bank of Commerce, the Manhattan Company's Bank, the Central Trust Company, the United States Trust Company, the The Guarantee and Trust Company, the New York, Chicago and St. Louis, and several other railroad companies, and many lesser concerns.

In the affairs of the Presbyterian Hospital and of the Lenox Library, of both of which he is President, Mr. Kennedy takes more than ordinary interest. No one knows the extent of his gifts to the hospital, and to the library he is constantly giving. He is also an ex-President of the St. Andrew's Society, a Vice President of the New York Historical Society, a Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and of many other of the public institutions of which New York is proud. In the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church (Dr. John Hall's) Mr. Kennedy has long, been a Trustee, and in several of the boards of the Presbyterian Church he is an active office holder.

Two of his offices, and of both of which he is peculiarly proud, are those of President of the Board of Trustees of the American Bible House and of Robert College, both at Constantinople—institutions which he visited when returning from a tour through Egypt and the Holy Land, a few years ago, and again in 1894. Mr. Kennedy's latest gift to New York is the Public Charities Building, at the corner of Fourth Avenue and Twenty-second Street, which cost about three-quarters of a million of dollars, and brings the various public charities of the city under one roof.

In this chapter we have said nothing of the Scot in Canada, for the reasons elsewhere stated, and because to cross the St. Lawrence in search of illustrations would simply mean to confront the entire business interests of the Dominion. We have, however, selected a few names, but merely at random, and as much for the sake of substantiating this remark as for any other purpose.

A prominent type of a Scottish merchant in Canada was the Hon. John Macdonald, who died at Toronto early in 1890. He was born in Perthshire in 1824. His father, who was a native of Knockoilum, in Stratherrick, Inverness-shire, was a Sergeant in the Ninety-third Highlanders. He accompanied his regiment to Canada in 1837 and took his son along with him, the lad's mother having died the day before the vessel sailed. John received his education at Dalhousie College, Halifax, and then went to Toronto. His first connection in business was as a clerk in a store at Gananoque, and in 1849 he started in for himself and founded the firm which afterward became noted throughout Canada as that of John Macdonald & Co., wholesale dry goods dealers and importers. Its credit was unlimited, its warerooms were magnificent, and the Toronto Scots pointed to the imposing pile as evidence of what Scotch grit can accomplish in Canada. But Mr. Macdonald was more than a mere merchant. He was a philanthropist, a patriot, and a public-spirited citizen. He was a member of the Canadian House of Commons and afterward one of the Senators of the Dominion. In church and temperance work he was most assiduous, and in the Toronto School Board, in the university, and other educational institutions he was prominently identified for years. To the young men in his establishment he was more than an employer, and his will showed that they were in his thoughts when they little imagined it. The life of such a man is blessed not only to himself, but to the community in which he dwells, and to every one who is directly or indirectly brought under its influence, and it may well be imagined what regret was felt in Toronto when it was known that this career of usefulness and beneficence was closed.

The annals of the Scot in Montreal would probably keep us, were they studied, almost always closer to the top of the tree in all departments of commerce, industry and finance than those of our countrymen in any other city on the American Continent. Take as a solitary case the career of Sir Donald A. Smith, whose gifts to the Victoria Hospital in Montreal alone have amounted to a quarter of a million sterling. He is a native of Morayshire, and went out to Canada while a youth and entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. Rapidly rising to the head of that corporation, he was the last resident Governor of that body as a governing corporation. During Riel's rebellion he was Special Commissioner in the Red River Settlements, and was thanked by the Governor General of Canada for his many services. Sir Donald has taken a foremost part in such large commercial undertakings as the Canadian Pacific Railway and the bank of Montreal, of which he is President. It was he who drove in the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, nearly twelve years ago, at Craigellachie, in the Eagle Pass. In Canada his name is a household word, while in Scotland, as the proprietor of the historic estate of Glencoe, he occupies a prominent place among the county, magnates of Argyllshire.

One more illustration, and then we leave this long and honorable record. It is that of William Walker, who, after a stirring and honorable career as a merchant and statesman, died at Quebec, in 1863. He left Scotland in 1815, when twenty-two years old, and went at once to Montreal, where he became a partner in the firm of Forsyth, Richardson & Co. of Montreal, and Forsyth, Walker & Co. of Quebec. He was part owner of the steamer Royal William, the first steam vessel that crossed the Atlantic from British North America. He was first President of the Quebec and Riviere du Loup Railroad Company, President of the Quebec Board of Trade, and a Director in nearly all the financial institutions of that ancient city. He was a bit of a soldier, too, and raised and commanded the Quebec Volunteer Rifle Corps. But, with all these occupations, he attended closely to his main business, and in 1848 was enabled to retire with a handsome fortune. In 1839 he was appointed a life member of the Legislative Council by royal mandate, and in that capacity did much good work for the Dominion, as well as for his own province of Quebec. His later interest, however, centred in the University of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, of which he was the first Chancellor, and his benefactions to it, as well as his influential labors, were such as to stamp him as one of the most thoughtful workers on behalf of higher education in Canada.

We would fain dwell yet a while across the St. Lawrence, but the work has been done already by loving hands, and we have now lingered too long with this branch of our theme—not too long to exhaust it, but longer than was necessary to demonstrate how much America owes to the Scottish merchants who threw in their lot with the New World.

In Glasgow they generally estimate the good qualities of a man by figuring up how much he is worth. That basis of merit we have generally avoided in the preceding pages. But it may not be out of place to say that the fortune of Mr. George Smith, the pioneer Chicago banker already mentioned, is now beheved to amount to about $50,000,000. With it he is doing much practical good, for, besides founding several bursaries in the schools of Old Deer, he gave $5,000 last year to Aberdeen University towards its new buildings.

When Alexander Stuart of New York died he bequeathed his entire estate, valued at $2,000,000, to his brother, Robert L. Stuart, his sole legatee. When, later, Robert L. died, he left his fortune, estimated at over $5,000,000, to his wife. In spite of her many benefactions, Mrs. P. L. Stuart left $5,000,000 when she died, nine years after her husband. After making liberal provisions for distant relatives and a few personal friends, she bequeathed nearly $4,500,000 to religious, benevolent, and educational institutions.


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