Appointment to Old Calabar,
1846—Transference of the Agents of the Scottish Missionary Society to Board of
Missions of United Presbyterian Church, 1847— Call to succeed late Rev. W.
Jameson—Departure from Rose Hill, 1848
In a letter of date 29th January 1846, the Rev.
A. Elliot refers to the new mission to Old Calabar, Western Africa, of which the
Rev. Hope Masterton Waddell, of Mount Zion, Jamaica, was the pioneer:—
The African Mission is taking prodigiously. It
approves itself to every friend of the gospel, and has excited the utmost
enthusiasm. Who is to be sent to join Mr. Waddell? Whoever it is, let us hear by
him of your doings and welfare, and of Mrs. Anderson's.
The next letter from Mr. Anderson, dated 19th
November 1846, informs Mr. Elliot that the former has been appointed to join Mr.
About this time you will probably be hearing that
I have been appointed by the Missionary Board in this island to follow Messrs.
Waddell and Jameson to Africa. I feel as if you had a right to all the
information I can give on this subject; but as I have not time to write to you
at length, I take the liberty of enclosing a letter for Mr. Somerville, which I
beg you to forward immediately, that he may by all means (if requisite) write to
Mr. Blyth or me on the subject by the first Jamaica packet. You will gather from
that letter—which peruse and please seal—all that I can at present say on the
subject. I wish earnestly that all uncertainty were removed from the matter, and
that the Master would say speedily either "Go" or "Stay." But we must let
patience have her perfect work. (The "personal objection" referred to in Mr.
S.'s letter is, what you are aware of, my dental defects.) Mr. Blyth thinks that
all objections will be overruled, and that no obstacle lies in the way of my
going "far hence." He thinks I should leave Dr. Brown and the Scottish
Missionary Society nolens volens. I have written him that I do not at all
like the nolens. You may know, sooner than I perhaps, from Dr. Brown or
Mr. Somerville whether the Directors have consented to my removal or not. If
they have, and if intimation of it be on the way, then you may henceforth look
on me as a Ford missionary to Africa. I am so selfish that I half regret, in the
prospect of leaving Rose Hill, that I did not retain the Communion service,
etc., sent me by Ford and Dalkeith Sabbath scholars, as personal property, that
I might have them to take to Africa; but I feel consoled by the thought that
your young people will surely renew their liberality should I require such
articles in Africa.
We had, with you, I presume, our Communion
Sabbath on Sabbath the 1st inst. I concluded the table services from the
words—"I will not henceforth drink of the fruit of the vine," etc. I felt that
it might be my last Communion Sabbath in this place. When I look forward to the
dark future—to my last Sabbath among my little flock, the farewell sermon, etc.
etc.—I feel oppressed. I doubt not but this note will lead you to sympathy and
prayer with mc in the present crisis.
Mr. Waddell has written for me to join him in
Africa. I may state that Mr. Blyth's letter to ine conveying notice of my
nomination to Africa was a surprise to me. I had no more thought of being sent
to Africa than of being sent to the moon. I never considered myself as the man
for such high and important work. The treasure being in such a weak, frail
earthen vessel as I, O may the excellence of the power be of God, that He may be
glorified by me in life or in death, in America or Africa! ...
We are moving on here the old way. Good school—
church increasing slowly. Now 150 communicants here, and about 70 at Cedar
Valley. I dispense the Communion at Cedar Valley always that day four weeks
after the Communion here.
Mrs. Anderson fights nobly by my side, but is
never very strong. She injured herself by over-exertion before I came here. She
taught Carron Hall school on Sabbath, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday,
and here on Friday and Saturday. This was far too much for any person to do. I
know of no one who does nearly so much in Jamaica. She narrowly escaped
consumption the year before I came here. If we go to Africa, we hope that the
voyage will benefit us both. I felt very poorly a month or two ago, but feel
quite vigorous again.
If you ascertain from Dr. Brown or Mr. Somerville
that we shall not go to Africa, at least for the present, will you be kind
enough to instruct James Tod to forward the articles I sent for some time ago,
as speedily as possible?
I hardly expect that Mrs. Watson (of Lucea) will
be alive when you receive this. How is George Hall getting on? I asked him to
come out to Cedar Valley; I wish you would back me. But we don't like to let
good members leave our congregations here—you, no doubt, feel as we do.
The Board propose to send Mr. Caldwell or Mr.
Gregory here in my place.
Mr. Waddell arrived at Fort Maria in the Warree
on 24th December 1846, after his pioneer expedition to Old Calabar, and was
cordially welcomed by his brother-in-law, the Rev. John Simpson, and the
brethren in the north-eastern part of the island. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson would
probably have accompanied Mr. Waddell on his return to Calabar, but for the
circumstance mentioned in the letter quoted below. The Warree set sail from
Lucea harbour on the 15th of March 1847, taking with her, in addition to Mr.
Waddell, the Rev. Hugh Goldie, who, after six years' labours as a teacher and
catechist at Stirling and Negril, had been ordained for the African Mission by
the Falmouth Presbytery on July 17, 1846, and Mrs. Goldie, Mr. H. B. and Mrs.
Newhall, Mr. Henry Hamilton, a brown man, mission carpenter, and Mary Brown, who
afterwards became his wife—parents of the Rev. H. Hope Hamilton, Jamaica—and
Samuel Duncan and his wife, and Sarah Brown, a black girl, and two assistant
Mr. Anderson writes to Mr. Chisholm, Dalkeith,
under date 4th Oct. 1847:—
I do not know what to say about my going to
Africa. I referred it to the Committees at home to decide on the matter. You are
aware that in the end the Directors of the Scottish Missionary Society agreed to
transfer me to the (Secession) Synod's Board of Missions. Intelligence of this
reached Jamaica only a day or two before the Warree sailed for Africa. I wrote
Mr. Somerville afterwards on the subject, expressing my willingness to go to
Africa or wherever the hand of Providence may lead me. He replied, giving me to
understand that the Synod's Committee look on me as their pledged agent for
Africa,— that they regard favourably my request to be sent to Africa via
Scotland, if at all,—but that they do not judge it advisable to order me home
immediately, till they hear from Africa, and be able to send a reinforcement to
Jamaica. Thus the matter stands. I know not the day or the hour when I may be
called on to leave this sphere and proceed to the distant land.
One thing I may say about the matter. It is this.
My consenting to go to Africa at all has been purely out of deference to the
opinions of others and the will of Providence as indicated by those opinions. I
know that some who have gone to Africa have felt as if their day of usefulness
in this land were over, and that others would carry on their work here better.
Now, my feeling is that I am just in my proper sphere—that 1 cannot be more
useful anywhere than where I am at present. However, I shall consider the will
of the Church as an indication of the will of the Master; and if the Committee
here and the Committee at home persist in saying to me, "Thou art the man for
Africa," I must, of course, submit to their decision. One thing, however, I feel
that I ought not to do—leave this station till a successor be on the spot. Were
I to consult my own wishes and feelings, and, I believe, those of all this
neighbourhood, the conclusion would be—"Here let me live, labour, die, and be
buried." But I trust I have learned to say from the heart, "Not my will, but
Thine be done."
The origin of the movement that led to the
formation of a Synod of the Presbyterian Mission Churches in Jamaica is
described in this letter: [In January 1848 it was agreed to form the Synod of
the Presbyterian Church of Jamaica, and the first meeting was held al Falmoulh
on 9th January 1848.—See M'Kerrow's Foreign Missions, p. 321.] —
At a late meeting of the Eastern District
Committee of Presbytery (consisting of Messrs. Cowan, Simpson, Campbell, and
Anderson), it was agreed to overture the Presbytery at its meeting in January to
form itself into a Synod, and to give the four District Committees Presbyterial
powers—i.e. to constitute them Presbyteries. It is impossible for all the
ministers to attend each meeting of Presbytery at present. Presbytery generally
meets at Montego Pay. I am the farthest from that town, and to go there costs me
about £2 sterling, and to return, as much, besides being completely knocked up
for a week after I get home. In the event of the division of Presbytery, we
propose that Synod shall meet annually at Falmouth or Montego Pay one year, in
Kingston or Spanish Town the next, etc. This would require from none of the
brethren more than one long journey in two years.
We of the Eastern Committee have been very
anxious to commence a station in Kingston. The United Presbyterian Church has no
station in any of the principal seaport towns of Jamaica. These are Kingston,
Montego Bay, and Falmouth. At the latter two places the Free Church has
stations. While we were planning about commencing operations in Kingston, Mr.
Goldie of the Scottish Establishment there died. The session applied to one of
the Presbytery's preachers, Mr. Callender, to supply their church with sermon. A
pro re nata meeting of Presbytery was held at Montego Bay, at which Mr.
Callender was ordained. He immediately proceeded to Kingston, and is now
labouring there with much acceptance. We have thus been enabled to begin work in
that city in a very providential way. Kingston Kirk is, I believe, or was, under
the Established Presbytery of Edinburgh. Should said Presbytery send out another
minister, I believe there will be a split in the congregation.
Ninety-nine-hundredths of the people will follow Mr. Callender. Should no
minister be sent out, the Kingston congregation will quietly put themselves
under our Presbytery. There is abundant room for other three or four ministers
I am one of a Committee to meet with the American
Congregational brethren on this day week to have a conference with a view to
their union with the Presbytery. They are five in number, and are of the
excellent ones of the earth. Their accession would make a strong Eastern
Presbytery. . . . Perhaps you have heard from Mr. Jas. Tod that our beloved
sister, Mrs. Beardslie (of the American Mission), left this world for a better
at the beginning of August. Since that time her husband's health has been rather
delicate. He spent last Friday with us here. He is now superintendent of the
Mico Institution, Kingston. It is a sort of Normal Seminary. . . .
I would not grudge is. 6d. postage for The Lambs
of the Flock, by Mr. Brown. I have been much helped by his Dzvellings of Jacob,
a copy of which Mr. Tod sent to Mrs. A. I see that Mr. Brown is one of the
Mission Board.—With affectionate regards to Mrs. Chisholm and the young folks,
in which Mrs. A. joins, I am, my very dear friend, ever yours, Wm. Anderson.
"After the union took place between the United
Secession and the Relief Churches in May 1847,an arrangement was made," says Dr.
M'Kcrrow, "by means of which the missionaries in Jamaica that were connected
with the Scottish Missionary Society were placed under the superintendence of
the Board of Missions connected with the United Presbyterian Church. This
arrangement was accomplished in a most amicable manner, and gave great
satisfaction to all parties concerned." Intimation of the transference of the
Jamaica Mission of the Scottish Missionary Society, and of the Kaffrarian
Mission of the Glasgow Missionary Society, to the care and the support of the
United Presbyterian Church, was made in the Missionary Record for October 1847.
The missionaries themselves cordially agreed to the transfer of their services
to the Board of Missions of the United Presbyterian Church, and the Report of
the Scottish Missionary Society for 1848 contains excerpts from letters received
by the Secretary, Dr. Win. Brown, from the missionaries. Mr. Anderson wrote as
I regret that matters have come to the present
pass, in regard to the Society. The intelligence is not, however, wholly
unexpected. Before I left home, it was the opinion of several of the Secession
ministers with whom I conversed, that in a short time the agents in Jamaica of
the Scottish Missionary Society would become the Synod's. Looking at the aspect
of affairs in Scotland, contrasting things now with what they must have been
when the Scottish Missionary Society was formed (1796)—considering the numerous
demands made, especially in a year like the present, on the liberality of the
Scottish public, and seeing how strenuously each section of the Church labours
to support and extend its own particular mission or missions—however much we
regret, we can hardly wonder that a catholic Society like the Scottish
Missionary should be overlooked by the mass. I think the arrangement proposed,
namely, that of transferring us and our stations to the Synod's Board of
Missions, is the very best that could be made. In so far as I am concerned, I
cordially concur in it, though I feel deeply grieved that it should be
necessary. Some of my earliest recollections are interestingly associated with
the Society. In the days of my boyhood it was long the only Missionary Society
of which 1 ever heard; its monthly Registers and Quarterly Papers were the only
periodicals that, so far back as I remember, ever entered my father's dwelling.
But perhaps the purposes of God with the Society have been accomplished; it has
finished the work for which He designed it, and He is now calling on it to leave
the field to others. If such be the case, it becomes us humbly to say, "Not our
will, O Father, but Thine be done." Yet, when the announcement goes forth to the
public that the Scottish Missionary Society has given up its Jamaica Missions,
there will be sadness in the souls of those who have been its faithful and
constant supporters; and I should think, too, that there are many, many to whom
the announcement will cause a pang of deep regret, because they have not done
what they could for its support.
In the Missionary Record for August 1848 appeared
the following statement regarding the choice of Mr. Anderson to supply the place
of the late Rev. William Jameson at Old Calabar:—
The Rev. William Anderson, who for eight years
has been labouring very assiduously and successfully at Rose Hill, was chosen by
the brethren in Jamaica as one of the agents that were last year to accompany
Mr. Waddell to Africa; but circumstances occurred which, to his great
disappointment, prevented him from going at that time. The Mission Board,
cordially approving of his appointment, intimated that they would look to him as
the next brother that would be called upon, when a proper opportunity should
present itself, to join the devoted band at Old Calabar. This opportunity was
afforded by the lamented death of the Rev. William Jameson (at Creek Town on
Aug. 5th, 1847). The following extract from a letter of Mr. Anderson, written
when he received tidings of Mr. Jameson's death, shows that he is a person of
kindred spirit, and that he is well fitted to succeed that most excellent and
beloved servant of God:—
"On reaching home, I found a letter lying for me
from Mr. Goldie. After mentioning the sore bereavement, Mr. G. asks me, 'Are you
ready to come out and fill his place? We surely cannot consent to lose the
favourable footing we have gained in this land; and of all the brethren in
Jamaica, I know of none who can so conveniently come as yourself. I know that to
go to Africa, and 'to fill his place', are very different things. But should the
Mission Board wish it, I stand ready to do the one and to attempt the other. I
suppose it is not needful that I say more on the subject than I have said to you
in my former letters. I look on myself as not my own, as the property of God,
and, in some respects, of the Church; and my wish is just to be what and to be
where He wills. I regard the decision of such a body of men as your Mission
Board as a broad intimation of what He would have me to do. To the difficulties
and the dangers connected with the mission to Old Calabar I cannot shut my eyes;
but if the Board wish another agent from Jamaica to proceed thither, 'here am I,
send me.' In view of toil, dangers, difficulties, disease, and early death, I
think I can say, 'None of these things move me, neither count I my life dear
unto myself, that I may finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have
received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God.'"
These are the words of a man who lived, as the
subsequent extract proves, in the affections of his flock, and who occupied a
station, in reference to which he says in the same letter, "for the
encouragement of anyone, either in Scotland or in Jamaica, who may at any time
wish to come to Rose Hill, you can assure him that there is not a prettier nor a
healthier locality in Jamaica than this"; and yet he is prepared to give up all
his comforts, and to expose himself to the perils of Central Africa, in
obedience to the call of duty, and for the sake of the perishing heathen at Old
Calabar. Surely this is the spirit that ought to animate the missionary of the
A letter inviting him home was on its way across
the Atlantic at the very time when Mr. Anderson was penning the words which we
have quoted. He at once complied with the request which it contained; and the
following very interesting communication, dated Montego Bay, 25th May 1848,
describes the intense sorrow which his leaving caused to his attached people:—
"In compliance with the directions of the Mission
Board, transmitted to us through you, we have bidden farewell to our lovely
mountain home, and are thus far on our way to dark Africa. On the morning of the
18th, with heavy hearts, and amidst the tears and lamentations of many, we tore
ourselves away from the scenes of many laborious, many happy, some sad, and
also, we trust, some useful days. The people amongst whom we had laboured, more
or less, for upwards of eight years, showed us all possible kindness. They
plentifully supplied us with ground provisions and fowls for the voyage, and
carried them and our luggage to Fort Maria, a distance of fourteen miles. A
goodly number of both old and young accompanied us during our journey. When we
reached Port Maria, the boat which was to carry us to this place had not
arrived. It did not reach Port Maria till Friday evening the 19th. We embarked
about 9 A.M. of Saturday. Upwards of twenty of those who had come with us on the
Thursday had remained till that time, to guard our provisions, and 'to see the
last of us.' With them we had a sorrowful parting at the wharf. The Lord reward
their kindness to us, His unworthy servants.
"I had a laborious, painful, and exciting season
for a week or two before we left Rose Hill. I may look over my Journal for the
last few weeks:—
"'Sabbath, April 16.—A solemn day. Preached, as I
suppose, my last sermon to the young here (Rose Hill), from Joseph's words to
Benjamin, "God be gracious unto thee, my son."
"'Monday, 17.—At Kingston looking after a ship.
'"Tuesday, 18.—On board several ships. Did not
get a passage. Reached home about midnight.
'"Friday, 21.—Fast Day. Good congregation.
Preached from Isa. lviii. 1.
'"Tuesday, 25.—Attended a juvenile missionary
meeting at Carron Hall A.M. Attended meeting of Presbytery p.m. Demitted charge
of Rose Hill congregation to Presbytery.
"'Monday, May 1.—Visiting families at Facey for
the last time. Oh, how sad were many!
'"Friday, 5.—Fast Day at Carron Hall. Preached
there for the last time to a large congregation.
"'Saturday, 6.—A day of tranquillity. Preparing
'"Sabbath, 7.—A deeply interesting day. My last
Communion at Rose Hill. Much weeping among many. Mr. Cowan came P.M. to deliver
the closing address. A number of Carron Hall people were over. About 200 sat
around the table of the Lord. A day much to be remembered.
'"Monday, 8.—Visiting a number of families for
the last time. Good meeting in the evening.
"'Tuesday, 9.—Visiting more families. Preached
and baptized at Braemar. Went to Carron Hall in the evening.
"'Wednesday, 10.—Addressed and took farewell of
Goshen congregation. They are deeply interested in Old Calabar, where their late
pastor's mortal remains repose, and seem interested in me as his successor.
"'Friday, 12.—Visiting from house to house all
day. Good meeting in the evening. Session meeting till midnight.
"'Saturday, 13.—Worn out. Under medicine—unable
to study. What for the morrow, it being my last Sabbath here?
"What lime my heart is overwhelmed, and in
perplexity, Do Thou me lead unto the Rock that higher is than I."
'"Sabbath, 14.—A trying, solemn, and deeply
interesting day. My last Sabbath where I have spent almost every Sabbath for
eight years and three months! The Lord sent to my aid, somewhat unexpectedly,
Mr. J. Rodgers, teacher. Port Maria. He delivered an excellent discourse in the
forenoon from 1 Pet. i. 13. read in the afternoon, and founded my farewell
discourse (which I regret I have been unable to study) on Paul's farewell
address to the elders of Ephesus. Gave to each one in my Sabbath morning class,
and to each of the Sabbath-school teachers, a copy of Rev. Dr. William Brown's
Selection of Passages of Scripture, and to each one present who could read, one
of Rev. Joseph Brown's Lambs of the Flock.
"'Monday, 15.—Good meeting in the evening.
'"Tuesday, 16.—Putting things in order. An
evening meeting, at which I delivered my last address at Rose Hill, from Heb.
xii. 2: "Looking unto Jesus."
'"Wednesday, 17.—Rev. Messrs. Cowan, Simpson,
Campbell, Day, and Teal met with the congregation and delivered suitable and
excellent addresses. Held our last sessional prayer meeting in the evening. It
was a long, interesting, and refreshing one. I never heard men pour out their
whole souls to God more fervently. We wept and prayed, yet rejoiced and praised
together. The elders prayed in rotation. They made supplication with strong
crying and tears for the bereaved congregation, my partner, and myself.
"'Thursday, 18.—A day never to be forgotten by
us. But to this day I have referred at the beginning of my letter, and the
remembrance of it is so overpowering that I cannot enlarge in regard to it.
"'Friday, 19.—At Port Maria. Took farewell of the
congregation there in the evening. A good number of my own people were present.
The Copses boat came for us in the afternoon.
"'Saturday, 20.—The breeze springing up about 9
A.M., we embarked in the boat. We were out all day, and quite sea-sick. We
reached this place (Montego Bay) in safety, and had just stepped on board the
Copse when the town-clock struck twelve—the midnight hour.
'"Sabbath, 21.—Before I got up, an elder of the
church here was on board to get me to preach—no supply having been provided by
the Presbytery for this day. I was enabled to go through the services of the day
with comfort to myself, and fondly trust that they were not altogether
unprofitable to others.'"
The Cornwall Chronicle stated that Mr. Anderson
preached in Montego Ray also on the last Sabbath of May, and after the evening
service "delivered an interesting account of how he came to be selected as one
of the Society's agents for that Mission. From the sincerity and simplicity of
manner in which Mr. Anderson gave utterance to his thoughts and feelings, the
attentive congregation seemed deeply affected. We commend him and his esteemed
partner to the care of Him who rules the winds and waves, and trust that they
may be made instruments of mercy to many of the benighted inhabitants of
long-degraded, long-neglected Africa."
Mr. and Mrs. Anderson arrived safely at Leith on
the 17th July 1848.
The Rev. John Cowan, in a letter of 5th June,
when adverting to the sorrow which the removal of Mr. Anderson has caused to the
people of Rose Hill congregation, mentions the following beautiful incident:—
I was at Philipsburg last week. There are some
very good people there. We had a good meeting. Early next morning, I heard four
of the families who reside there engaged in singing their morning song of
praise. One of them was so near, that on going to the window during the time of
prayer, I could hear with some distinctness. I heard the husband pray for Mr.
Anderson and the African Mission, which he did with fulness, fervour, and
The Rev. George Blyth, in his Reminiscences of
Missionary Life (1851), writing of Rose Hill, says: "The removal of Mr. Anderson
to Calabar has been very injurious to this congregation. The Rev. James Caldwell
of Mount Horeb, who had been appointed Mr. Anderson's successor, died suddenly
of yellow fever on 27th September 1848, before he had been able to remove to
Rose Hill." The Rev. Archibald Muir, formerly of Largo, who had gone out to
Jamaica for the benefit of his health, took charge of Rose Hill for nine months
during 1849-50, but the progress of his disease compelled him to abandon work in
which he had become deeply interested and which had endeared him to the people,
and return to Scotland, where he died on 9th December 1850. Before leaving
Jamaica, he sent home on behalf of Rose Hill a fervent appeal, which was
published in the Missionary Record for July 1850. In it he said: "I do trust and
pray that this needful, healthful, and extensive field of usefulness shall not
be lost sight of by the Mission Board, and that some true-hearted, healthy,
earnest man will speedily again be set apart to cultivate it." But both church
and school remained vacant for a considerable time. In July 1851 the Rev. John
Campbell of Goshen wrote, that in Mr. Anderson's time the school was a very
flourishing one, but that after he left there was no proper teacher for it, and
there having been no minister at the station since he left, with the exception
of the brief term of Mr. Muir's occupancy, both church and school had fallen far
behind. A teacher trained at the Mico Institution had, however, been located
there for twelve months, and under him, wrote Mr. Campbell, the school had
considerably revived; but he added, "we greatly require a minister for Rose
Hill, and the Mission Board is under peculiar obligations to send one." At
length, in November 1851, the Rev. Wm. S. Heddle, previously of City Road
Church, Brechin, took temporary charge of Rose Hill. In the Record for July 1852
he wrote regarding the injury which a state of vacancy does to a Jamaica
congregation, and in the Record for February 1853 he described the
reorganisation of the church, which was necessary owing to the lapsed condition
into which the congregation had fallen during the prolonged vacancy. But,
unfortunately, Mr. Heddle had to leave Rose Hill in May 1854. The Rev. Alexander
Robb of Goshen wrote that his labours were a priceless blessing to the people.
Mr. Heddle returned to Scotland, and, at the request of Dr. Somerville, the
Foreign Mission Secretary, wrote a plea for a missionary for Rose Hill, which
was published in the Record for November 1855. It was not, however, till 19th
May 1857 that the Rev. Thomas Boyd, who had volunteered for Jamaica, was
inducted to the pastoral charge of Rose Hill congregation. Nine years thus
elapsed from the time Mr. and Mrs. Anderson left Rose Hill before a permanent
pastor was obtained for the infant congregation. Mr. Anderson's worst
forebodings regarding the future of the station, if he had to leave it before
his successor was on the spot, were unfortunately realised, and he was entirely
right in his feeling that he ought not to quit the station until he could leave
it in the hands of another agent. However, his judgment in this matter was
overruled, and, while Duke Town gained by his accession to the staff of the
Calabar Mission, Rose Hill suffered severely by his removal from Jamaica. Much
of the results of his labours at Rose Hill were lost, and many of the converts
and members who had hardly been set free from legal and moral slavery lapsed
into bondage to sin and superstition for want of their faithful, sympathetic
spiritual guides, who had been prematurely taken from them.