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The Editor in Canada
A series of articles in the Celtic Magazine of Alexander MacKenzie's trip to Canada in 1879/80.


 I.

PROM what I could learn at home of the position of my countrymen who had crossed the Atlantic of their own free will, as well as of those who had been driven away from their native land by the cruelty of a few of the Highland lairds of a past generation, I was led to believe that they occupied a much better position, in the New World, than those who remained at home. I could never, however, believe that the difference was so great as it really is, until I have now been able to judge for myself, from actual contact with them, and personal experience of their comparative comforts and freedom from petty tyranny which they enjoy. I have now passed through the greater part of Nova Scotia, and have met, in the counties of Pictou and Antigonish, in the Island of Cape Breton, and elsewhere, specimens of Highland men and women—many of 'whose ancestors have been evicted and hounded in a semi-naked and starving state from the Highlands of Scotland—who will bear more than a favourable comparison with the very best specimens of the race at home. In physique, taking them all over, they are superior to those of any district that I am acquainted with in what all here still take a pride in calling "The Old Country." In general intelligence they at least equal, while in genuine warm-heartedness, manly sentiment, and open, free, Highland hospitality, they are far in advance of the general run of those of their countrymen who occupy the same position as they themselves did before they left home. True, they are in more favourable circumstances, and therefore in a far better position, and better able to exhibit these characteristics of the fine race from which they sprung. But I cannot for the life of me see why, nor can I conscientiously advocate that my brother Highlanders should continue to remain at home in a servile and, often, in a starving position, on grounds of mere sentiment and love of their native soil, when such a country as this is open to receive them. This part of Canada is not the best part to come to, however, unless people have friends here ready to receive them, though tome it appears a Paradise in many respects in comparison with the wretched patches on which the crofter has to eke out an existence, in most cases, in the Highlands.

It is quite true that most of those who came out here first, before the country was broken up, endured the most severe and cruel hardships, but these have long ago become things of the past. For specimens of these early difficulties I must at present refer the reader to the Aberdeen Daily Free Press, where I am able to give a more complete account of the history of early emmigration and the present position of these provinces than the exigencies of space permits of in the Celtic Magazine. As I work my way to Upper Canada, I shall give an account of the richer districts in that quarter, and I trust to be of some service in directing poor and neglected Highlanders at home to places where they can become proprietors of the soil, and find an ample opportunity for laying a solid foundation for the future prosperity of themselves and their descendants. The reader is already aware that I have taken a view of this question of emigration, and of the Highland crofter's position, at home, which is not shared by a good few who have his real interest at heart quite as -much as I have. These I expect will still continue to hold their own opinions, but, for me, having now seen with my own eyes, ad having had an opportunity of forming, or rather strengthening, my previous opinions by observation on the spot, I have no hesitation in recommending the Highland crofter to keep his eye on this side, failing better treatment at home; and finally to come to this country in spite of such mistaken and erroneous teachers as would advocate semi-starvation in Scotland to comfort and affluence in a country which is, in every respect, except in poverty and wretchedness, as Highland as his native land.

I have taken considerable pains to find out the feeling here, regarding the mother country, among those who came out themselves, as well as among their descendants, and I cannot recall a single instance in which any of those who have settled down here on their own lands, would wish to go back and live in the Highlands. Most, not only of the original emigrants, but of their descendants, to whom I have put the question, expressed a desire to see the country of their ancestors, but the idea of going back to remain in it never crossed their minds. I have met them throughout the Province of Nova Scotia and in the Island of Cape Breton, who, at home, lived as our poorest crofters do, who can now turn out in their carriage and pair. While this is the case with not a few, hardly a single farmer can be met with who does not keep what is here called a "waggon," but what is in reality a nice, light, four-wheeled machine, made to carry two or four persons. The farmers as a class, however, are not wealthy, but they have as much bread, potatoes, meat, butter, cheese, and such substantial fare as any one needs to have, while they not only grow their own wool, but in nearly all cases keep their own looms and weave it in their respective homes into excellent cloth. Add to all these home comforts a beautiful climate, and the independence enjoyed by a fine race of men naturally of a cheerful and hopeful disposition, living unmolested by laird or factor, on their freehold possessions, and what more can be wished for.

At the same time there is great room for improvement. Farming is not carried, on on scientific principles; but the very reverse. Were a system of rotation of crops introduced double the amount of corn and cereals could be produced with half the labour. At present, in some cases the land is left for several years under grass, as long, in not a few instances, as eight or nine years, while, again it is under crop for an equal length of time, thus run to seed and all the sap taken out of it for either purpose. This is to be accounted for mainly from the fact that the class of people who originally emigrated from the old country to these provinces did not belong to the farming class at home—were only the poorest of the crofting population, who had not then the slightest idea of farming their lots on any improved plan. When they arrived here, and obtained their grants of 100 and 200 acres, they set to work in rough and ready fashion, reclaiming enough to grow all their requirements, and soon found themselves in a position of comparative affluence. Their ambition was not high, and finding themselves in easy and comfortable circumstances, and in a much better position than they ever before occupied, they naturally settled down and enjoyed themselves, quite scendants have, to some extent I fear, followed in their wake. The consequence is bad farming generally throughout the most Highland sections of the province. The local Government of Nova Scotia might, by offering prizes throughout the provinces for the best cultivated farms, in a few years bring about a revolution among the farmers. What can be done by such encouragement is illustrated this very week, as I write, by the magnificent Exhibition of the produce of the Province held in the city of Halifax, and of which I shall have something to say on a future occasion.
Meanwhile I shall ask the reader to accompany me in my trip through Nova Scotia to make the acquaintance of a few of our countrymen, whose names deserve mention, not only on account of their warm-hearted, enthusiastic welcome, and friendly feelings to, and in favour of, "a Highlander from home;" but on account of the excellent positions many of them have made for themselves on this continent.

After experiencing a pretty rough passage across the Atlantic in the steamship State of Nevada, a splendid sea-going boat belonging to the State Line Company, navigated by Captain Braes, an experienced, careful, and courteous sailor, I arrived in NEW YORK On the 4th of September, just in time to see the New York Caledonian Games, which were held on that day. Here was an immense assemblage of about ten thousand people thoroughly enjoying themselves, and behaving in a manner highly creditable to the Scottish character. There was a capital sprinkling of the most prominent Scots—fine stalwart fellows—dressed in Highland costume, presided over by their Chief —a handsome Highlander, Nicholson by name. I was soon introduced to several of the leading men, among whom were the Honourable Thomas Waddell, a wealthy coal-owner from Pennslyvania, and the newly-elected President of the United Caledonian Association of America, the highest honour at the disposal of his fellow countrymen on this side of the Atlantic; Mr L Lawrie, Secretary of the same Association, and manager of the Auburn Cloth Manufactory, the largest thing of the kind in the United States; Mr Stewart, editor and proprietor of the Scottish American Journal; Messrs Robertson of the New York Scotsman; Mr D. Macgregor Crerar, Secretary of St Andrew's Society of New York, a highly respected and popular Highlander among the better class of Scots in America; Mr Paterson, an Invernessian, and no mean poet; Mr Gilully, a Merkinch boy; Mr Harcombe, son of the late proprietor of the Waverly Hotel, Inverness; Major Manson, a prominent Caithness man, and one of the most popular and liberal, open-handed men in the American capital. From these and hundreds of others I experienced the utmost kindness and attention. In fact their enthusiastic demonstrations in the shape of liberal supplies of the good things of this life were calculated to place one in a somewhat trying position; and to take care of one's self required no small amount of self-denial and force of charactar. Fortunately, however, I possess no small modicum of these, and I survive the liberal and warm hospitality of my Highland friends.

The games were highly creditable in all respects, but the pipe-music and dancing left room for improvement The favourite piper would have no chance in any of our best competitions in Scotland. There was another, however, who played very correctly and sweetly, and was, out of sight, a better performer than the winner of the first prize. Having spent a few days in New York, I went on to
BosToN, a magnificent city, admitted to be the most cultivated and intellectual town in the United States. I visited Harvard University, Longfellow's residence—which was also Washington's head-quarters at the outbreak of the American War of Independence, also the spot where first blood was drawn, and the place where the historical tea was thrown overboard rather than that the detested and strongly resented duty should have been paid on it These and many other points of interest were exa- mined with mixed feelings; but one place in particular, an old church, had an inscription out upon it at which my blood boiled, and at the same time made me wonder that the inhabitants of the American Athens could be found capable of such a narrow-minded, contemptible thing The inscription read. "Desecrated by British troops," &c.; and that in such a thoroughly British city as that of Boston. I felt relieved on finding that this wretched littleness was perpetrated, not by any official body, but by a contemptible set of three or four Trustees of this church, much to the disgust of, and in opposition to, the inhabitants. My excellent guide, Mr Magee, the agent for the State Line Co., informed me that the general feeling among the greater part of the citizens of Boston found vent in expressions of regret that the church had not been burnt down in the terrible conflagration which, a few years ago, destroyed a great portion of the city, and, having escaped that,a desire prevailed that some such calamity should soon overtake it. In the late Civil War, the Americans "desecrated," in the same way, hundreds of churches in the Southern States, but, of course, these were only "occupied." It is only occupation by British troops that can desecrate, in the estimation of these patriotic Yankee trustees, who, one is glad to find, do not represent the finer feelings of their own countrymen and fellow citizens. Leaving Boston, after a magnificent sail of 340 miles, I arrived in

ST JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, and spent the evening with the Rev. D. Macrae, M.A., at his own house, and afterwards in the house of a hospitable friend of his, Mr Murdoch, a southern Scot, holding a leading position in St John. Here I met several gentlemen distinguished in literature and in the church—fine, affable, open-hearted fellows, with the ecclesiastical starch, if it ever existed, thoroughly rubbed out of them. Mr Macrae is the son of the late Rev. John Macrae, parish minister of Stornoway, and presides here over a large, intelligent, and most influential congregation.

I here found that I could get on to Halifax by either of two routes— the Intercolonial Railway on the one hand, or on the other, steamboat to Digby and Annapolis, thence rail through the Annapolis Valley, the most beautiful and fertile in all Nova Scotia. I made choice of the latter, and certainly had no cause to regret it. All along the railway route, through this magnificent valley, teems with orchards and foliage of the finest description. It was originally reclaimed and long held by the French, until they were driven out of it by the British, who, though the place is a very agricultural paradise, do not seem to have followed up the enterprise of their predecessors, who reclaimed not only from the forest, but from the sea, thousands-of acres known as the Annapolis Marshes, and immortalized by Longfellow in his famous poem "Evangeiine." This was my first trip of any consequence in the famous and luxurious American cars, which for comfort and elegance cannot be named in the same breath with our very best carriages at home, if we exclude the Pullman cars. They are particularly agreeable for a stranger to travel long distances in; for all necessary conveniences are provided in them, as well as an elegantly fur- furnished smoking saloon, to which the passengers can walk along from one end of the long train to the other. Arriving in
HALIFAX late on Friday evening, I remained there until the Monday morning following, and met some fine specimens of the Highlander, all of whom exhibited the best characteristics of the race—characteristics, I regret to say, now only met with in full play from home. Of those gentlemen, of their excellent Society—the North British, and of their doings and position generally, I shall have something to say hereafter. Meanwhile I proceed through a magnificent country by rail, a distance of 106 miles to

PICTOU.

The beauty on all sides on this route is simply indescribable. The pretty, clean-looking, white-painted, wooden houses, surrounded by fine arable land, in its turn enclosed within a thick and beautifully variegated forest, each appearing in miniature like one of our lordly mansions at home. Every man of these are proprietors of the soil, and thoroughly Independent of mortal man, when he has paid a very small tax to the Government He has his children educated free by the State, and altogether his position is much to be envied. In the morning I discovered that the Pictounians were celebrating the anniversary of the arrival of the ship Hector, which, in 1773, landed the first Highland colony in Pictou, and I was naturally anxious to see my Highland countrymen on such an occasion; and there they were, when I arrived, exhibiting the prowess of their ancestors, commemorating the arrival of their fathers and grand- fathers, in good Highland fashion. Though they have no Scottish, Highland, or Caledonian Society, they are full of the proper spirit; and here they were hotly engaged in their annual Highland games, under the superintendence of the officers of the artillery, to whom great credit is due for the manner in which the sports are conducted. Here I found myself right in the centre of a country and people more truly Highland in their ways and in their speech than almost any part of the North of Scotland. Gaelic was more commonly spoken at this gathering of Highlanders than you can find it now in any part of Sutherland or Ross shires; and indeed it is there only that you can now meet with the Sutherland, Ross, and Inverness-shire people in perfection. Frasers, Mackenzies, and Macdonalds meet you in hundreds, and address you in the purest Gaelic. Many of them are almost giants—fine, honest-faced, powerful, healthy- looking fellows, glad to see one from what they still call "home," each vying with the other as to who can give him the most attention and make his visit most agreeable. The first I meet on landing is a Mr. Donald Fraser, whose parents came originally from the Lovat country, near Inverness. He had his carriage to drive me to the games. Before I am barely seated in it, Captain William Crerar and his nephew—the latter a son of a fine Highlander, John Crerar, and a young gentleman whom I have seen in kilts repeatedly during the summer in Inverness—come up with another carriage for the same purpose. We are soon on the field, wIieIe I find myself among hundreds from all parts of the Highlands— any number of Mackenzies from Lochcarron and Gairloch, Frasers from Inverness, Rosses, Macdonalds, and Sutherlands, from other counties— many of them wealthy men, and most of them, in fact, nearly all, in good, comfortable circumstances, possessing their own lands in free heritage, and producing everything necessary for human comfort and happiness. Mr Donald Fraser owns seveial farms, is wealthy, and a director of a thriving local bank. The Crerars, originally from Breadalbane, I found have many friends in Inverness and Badenoch. Their father came out here as an engineer, where he built some of the first roads in the district. He afterwards engineered and built the first railway. His sons became ship- owners and doctors, and are now in easy and affluent circumstances living on their means—and well do they deserve it, amore hospitable, agreeable, noble, spirited family of true Celts it is impossible to meet. There is also a very wealthy family of Mackenzies from Ross, one of whom has designated his farm "Seaforth." Another Highlander—a fine specimen, physically and mentally—John D. Macleod, is mayor of the town of Pictou. D. Macdonald is collector of customs. In short, the place and people are thoroughly Celtic, and such as to make you proud of the race to which you and these fine fellows belong. One genuine enthusiast, Hector Macmillan, I met at the games. His characteristic Highland face, his keen interest in all the proceedings of the day, wrapped in a Macneil tartan plaid, was to me an object of study. He had a hand in everything, and was a judge in almost all the competitions. He was almost too much engrossed to remember his own existence, and all he 'wanted was a full Highland costume to make him in appearance, what I have found him to be in country, soul, and sentiment—a genuine specimen of a Lochaber Highlander. The jumping, tossing the caber, the stone-throwing, and various others of the competitions, would do credit to some of our best competitors at the Northern Meeting, but the pipe music was nowhere. I was sorry to see so few dressed in Highland costume, for there is nothing looks so ridiculous as to see people dancing Gile-Callum and the Highland Fling in Sassenach trousers. Only three good kilt suits were on the field. And one of these, worn by a Mr Yawson, of Orcaclian extraction, deservedly won him the first prize for the best dressed Highlander, a Mr Mackenzie, originally from Brora, Sutherlandshire, but now of Halifax, taking the second prize with a suit made by Messrs Robert Fraser & Sons, Inverness. This gentleman was, also a good dancer, and secured some of the principal prizes.

Piotou Town and County are sufficiently important to demand a whole article devoted to themselves, but it is my intention in these letters to deal more particularly with the people. The native resources, and appearance of the country will be more particularly treated in my letters to the Aberdeen Daily Free Press. I may, however, state that the whole population of the county, in 1817, was only 6,737; in 1871 it was 32,114. In 1870 the county produced 76,426 bushels of wheat, 469,868 of oats, 64,937 of other grain, 415,524 of potatoes, 32,334 tons of hay, and 804,661 lbs. of butter. The farm stock owned was 6,787 horses, 14,958 milch cows, 12,560 other horned cattle, 43,416 sheep, and 4,343 swine. This county manufactures nearly as much leather as all the rest of the Province of Nova Scotia put together, and woollen factories are making rapid progress. The surface of the county is nearly level, and the soil is exceedingly fertile. The harbour of Pictou is one of the best in the world, but it is frozen over all winter. Underlying the surface is Devonian lime stone. The country contains rich mines of coal and iron ore. It has one coal bed 33 feet in thickness, with 24 feet of excellent coal. Besides, there are ten other strata. Next to the County of Halifax, it is the most populous in Nova Scotia. Its area is 720,496 acres, and, as already indicated, it is mainly settled by Scotch Highlanders. The capital of the county is situated on the harbour of the same name, in a fertile and fairly cultivated district. It is well built, has an academy, a library, several banks, telegraph offices, a newspaper, masonic hall, several fine churches, hotels, two steam carding mills, two tobacco manufactories, an iron-foundry, several saw and grist mills, and tanneries. The shipping owned in the port is very extensive, and the imports and exports— especially in coal and timber—are very considerable. The population of the town at last census was 3,200--altogether a prettily situated, prosperous, and growing seaport.

II.

After sending off my last letter, I met several North country gentlemen in Pictou, who hold high positions in the Dominion. One of these is a gentleman from Castle Street, Inverness, now Senator Grant. I enjoyed his hospitality, and obtained from him what I enjoyed even more than his very fine Scotch whisky, viz, two recent numbers of the Inverness Courier, in one of which, I read a well-written and sensible article, showing up the anti-Highland members of the Town Council who oppose the decoration of the New Town Hall Windows with the Arms of the Highland Clans.

Another Highlander I met in Pictou was Colin Mackenzie, a gentleman possessed of considerable property, including the principal Hotel in the town—the St Lawrence,—kept by another Highlander, Malcolm Morrison, originally from the Island of Lewis. Mackenzie's grandfather emigrated soon after the arrival of the ship Hector, in 1773, and came from a place then pretty thickly populated, but now without a house in it, the district of Andrary, in Gairloch. Another Mackenzie, in good circumstances, whom I met here was a Murdo Mackenzie, also from Gairloch, and a first cousin of the late Captain John Mackenzie, Telford Road, Inverness. He is over 80 years of age, and his father only died a few years ago, 99 years of age. Among this coterie, who came a long distance to see me, was a Captain Carmichael Mackay, whose grandfather, Roderick Mackay, a native of Uly, was imprisoned in the old Tolbooth of Inverness many years ago for smuggling.

I received the following account of Roderick, who, with his family, came out in the ship Hector to Pictou, where many of his descendants are now in prosperous circumstances. He was a blacksmith by trade, and some time after he came to Nova Scotia, secured the important position of chief of the blacksmith works in Halifax dockyard. In going to Halifax, he and his wife had to travel on foot, through the forest, the journey being made more difficult of accomplishment owing to the fact that they had to carry two young children with them. Under his direction, while holding this position, was made the great chain, which, during the war, was stretched across the harbour of Halifax to keep hostile ships from entering. Roderick was a thick-set, strongly-built Celt, distinguished for activity, determination, and fertility of invention. An interesting story is related of his quondam sojourn in Inverness prison on the occasion above referred to. The gaugers seized some of Rory's illicit whisky, upon which he "gave a good account of them," and liberated his "barley bree." For this he was captured, and lodged in the old prison of Inverness. His free-born spirit, naturally chafed under such indignities and restraints, especially in such a good cause as the hero considered himself engaged in, protecting his own property, and be soon set about concocting means of exit. He soon ingratiated himself with his gaoler, and one day he managed to send him out for a supply of ale and whisky, such things being freely admitted into such places in the good old days—and the gaoler could take his glass too from all accounts. Returning with the ale in one hand and the whisky in the other, Rory discovered his opportunity, slipped out smartly behind him, closing the door after him, locking it outside, at the same time carrying off the key, which is still preserved by his descendants in Pictou. These feats secured for Rory an honourable place in the hearts of his countrymen here, and made him a perfect. idol amongst them, though probably the Inverness gaoler and his friends looked upon the affair in a very different light Several other feats of great prowess, which he performed in his adopted country, are still told of the famous Rory Mackay; but my space does not at present admit of further record.

Some of these fine old fellows came nine miles to see a Highlander from the old country. The place is full of men whose ancestors left their homes in Kintail, Lochbroom, Gairloch, Poolewe, and Lochcarron, in impoverished circumstances, but who themselves are now in comfort and even affluence, possessing lands and means of their own.

Having parted with these warm-hearted fellows, I was driven out several miles into the country, by Captain David Crerar, to see the largest Tannery in Nova Scotia, owned and carried on by John Logan, a Highlander from Sutherlandshire. His grandfather was a stone mason at Bonar Bridge, and came out here in 1806. His father, when very young, worked at the Cotton Mills, the ruins of which are still to be seen at the roadside as you go from Bonar Bridge to Dornoch. He became a plasterer and small farmer in this country, and had four sons, all of whom are in. good positions. One of these, John, started the Pictou Tannery in 1849, with only two pits. It has since grown to one hundred and twenty, and is a sight well worth going a long way to see. He turns out an average of 3,200 hides of sole leather per annum, representing over £40,000 in value. One pile of bark which I saw, alone cost over £2,600, while an equal quantity lay in smaller piles about the building; and this quantity, value over £5,000, is consumed annually in the works. All the leather manufactured is sold in the Dominion at from 10d to 1s per lb. The engine, 25 horse power, is kept going by the spent bark, which is carried to the furnace from distant parts of the building by a most ingenious, self-acting contrivance. The whole place is a perfect model of convenience and neatness, and the arrangements do great credit to the ingenuity and enterprise of this self-made, well-to-do Celt, whose place of business has become the centre of a great industry. I have seen, during the short time I was there, dozens of farmers coming in from all parts of the country, with cart-loads of bark, for which they get the cash in return from Mr Logan, to take home with them; and, although he has no competition worth mentioning, he pays them a sufficient sum to make it worth their while to work at it, else he would have to go without what is, of course, an absolute necessity for his successful enterprise. A brother, Dougall, keeps a large shop close to the tannery, and is in a good position, worth a considerable sum of money.

Parting with my good friends in Pictou, who, even in the short time I was there, became numerous, I took train to New Glasgow, with one of the leading barristers of that town, a Gaelic-speaking Hghlander, named Duncan C. Fraser, whose ancestors came from the county of Inverness. Having spent a few days with him, he introduced me to several good Celts, and drove me through some fine Highland settlements in the country. My friend had been in Parliament, and was a Member of the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia, and is, altogether, a worthy representative of his clan and country. Here I also met an Invernessian, Daniel M. Fraser, son of Hugh Fraser, farmer, Chines, Stmthdearn, who, I was glad to find, occupied the responsible position of agent in New Glasgow, for the Pictou Bank, a prosperous and thriving institution. Mr Fraser had also charge of the agency at Stellarton, an important branch, among the great coal mines, a few miles away. Indeed, the Frasers are at the same time, numerous and prosperous in New Glasgow, and any Highlander coming among them will meet with a hearty and very warm reception.

But more interesting to me than all my other discoveries as yet on this Continent, was finding a representative of the famous pipers and poets of Gairloch, in the person of John Mackay, who occupies the most honourable and prominent position in this thriving town—that of Stipendiary Magistrate. His great-grandfather was the celebrated blind piper of Gairloch, a sketch of whose life, with specimens of his poetry, is given by the late John Mackenzie in the "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry." About four years ago a paragraph appeared in the Celtic Magazine making enquiries as to whether any members of this distinguished family of pipers were yet alive, but no answer was received. The only thing known about them was that one of them, the grandson of the famous Piobaire Dali, and the last male representative of the race in Gairloch, emigrated to some part of America, in 1805, and carried with him more Ceol mor or Piobaireaehd, than he left behind him among all the pipers of Scotland. At this time, John, who is now in his 86th year, was 12 years of age, and even now he remembers almost every prominent stone and tree in the parish, to say nothing of the lakes,. rivers, mountains, and valleys. His father continued to play the national instrument all his life, and died a very old man. His elder brother, Angus, also played marches, reels, and strathspeys, but piobaireachd not being appreciated in the land of his adoption, he practised that higher class music but little, and was not, therefore, up to the family standard of excellence in that department. He died a few years ago, when nearly one hundred years of age. John himself also learned to play; but at the age of eighteen he finally gave it up, so that now not one of this celebrated family keeps up the name and reputation of the family, though several of the descendants of this fine race still exist—many of them in good circumstances—on this Continent I spent a whole evening with this fine old Highlander, who still speaks the purest Gaelic, while his English strongly smacks of the peat and the heather. His intellect is quite unimpaired, and he is admitted on all hands to be the ablest and most independent judge in the whole Province of Nova Scotia. He was in a perfect ecstasy of joy when talking over his recollections of his native parish and of the people he remembered, but of whom hardly a soul now survives. The whole thing seemed as if a ghost had risen from the grave. He talked of things long ago as if they were but of yesterday; and I parted with him with very mixed emotions.

I must now carry you with me on a visit to a Highlander of a very different but equally genuine stamp, and better known to the reader, the Rev. A. Maclean Sinclair, who lives at Springville, ten miles from New Glasgow. Having heard that I was there, he sent up his machine on Saturday to take me down to his place. I was only too glad to have the opportunity of visiting this excellent Celt and Gaelic scholar, though it happened to be his communion week, which made it more inconvenient for him, and, in all the circumstances, less attractive for me. On my arrival, I found him well housed, in a most beautiful locality, in the centre of a wide district, all settled by Highlanders, most of whom, I found, came from the parish of Urquhart, in the county of Inverness, while a few families of Macleans, Mackinnons, and Macquarries, I found to be descendants of emigrants from the Island of Rum—in all about 200 well- to-do families. I attended divine service on Sabbath, and found at the English service about 700 of a congregation, in a neat, comfortable church listening to a well-reasoned, neatly-delivered sermon. Of these, about 300 were communicants; but, after the sermon was over, I left and went to a contiguous hail, where a neighbouring minister, the Rev. Alex. Maclean, was preaching to a large Gaelic congregation, in the purest and most unctuous vernacular. I felt how great a pity it was that we could not have such a fine preacher, getting a good stipend at home, in place of some of those mongrel, so called Gaelic preachers we have in many places in the Highlands of Scotland. Mr Maclean is really a first-class Gaelic preacher, and uses the language with great fluency and power. He was born where he is now settled, but was for several years in charge of a Highland congregation in Prince Edward Island. His father emigrated from Glen Strathfarrar, in Strathglaas—now as celebrated for its deer as it was of yore for the fine fellows it sent to the Church, and to the defence of king and country. Having seen these meetings of my countrymen, I would not have missed them for a great deal. Imagine nearly 200 carriages, four- wheeled, scattered all about the church. Itwas such a sight as I never saw, and never could have seen in the Highlands; yet here there is hardly a family which does not drive to church, and market, in a nice light "waggon" or carriage; but, in spite of all this, mistaken people at home, will advise the poor crofter not to emigrate to a country where such things are possible to those who came out here a few years ago in a state of penury and want.

The Rev. A. Maclean Sinclair is really most happy and comfortable in his surroundings, and all he seems to want to make him as completely happy as this world can, is to have at the head of his household gods, a better hail', congenial to his cultivated tastes; though at present his mother, a fine old lady, the daughter of the Bard of Coil, and a walking Celtic Encyclopadia, keeps house for him, and presides at his hospitable table. But while I envied him the beautiful situation of his manse, the happy concord of the large Highland congregation over which he presides, and the respect paid to him by every one in the district, I envied him his magnificent and valuable library ten times more. it is almost impossible to conceive that such a rare collection of valuable books could be met with in such an out-of-the-way place. I believe his collection of Celtic works is the best private one on the American Continent, and very few indeed can surpass it even at home. Among the works of the Gaelic Poets on his shelves, I found the first edition of Alexander Macdonald's Poems, which contains several pieces not suited for modern ears, and not included in the later edition; Ronald Macdonald's Collection, published in 1776, the first collection of Gaelic poems ever published; Gillies's Collection,—now very rare—published in 1786; Smith's Sean Dana, 1787; John MacGregor's Poems, 1801; Robert Stewart's, 1802; a rare collection, published at Inveraray, without date, and containing "An Duanag Ullanth"; Stewart's Collection, 1804; the first Inverness Collection, 1806; Donald Macleod's, 1811; Turner's, 1813; P. Macfarlane's, in the same year; Ossian; Leabbar na Feinne; Sè.r Obair nam Bard; aDd all the more modern collections down to the "Oranaiche," as well as the modern bards from Dun. can BIu down to the present day. In the Gaelic prose department, I noticed "An Teachdaire"; an "Cuairtear"; an "Gaidheal"; "Bratach na Firiun"; "Adharnh agus Eubh"; "Bliadhna Thearlaich"; Campbell's Tales of the West Highlands; all the Gaelic Dictionaries; and several Gaelic Grammars; while among English works on Celtic subjects there were Dr John Macpherson's Critical Dissertation, published in 1768, a rare and valuable work; the American Edition of Logan's Scottish Gael, published in Boston in 1833, and with which I was not previously acquainted; General Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders; Pattison's Gaelic Bards; Campbell's Language, Poetry, and Music of the Highlands; Dr Maclauchian's Celtic Gleanings; Laing's Dissertation on Ossian; Robertson's Historical Proofs; Fullarton's Highland Clans and Regiments; Professor Blackie's Language and Literature of the Highlands; and numberless others, down to the "Prophecies of the Brahan Seer"; the "Historical Tales and Legends of the Highlands"; and the Celtic Magazine. Many people, possessing good libraries, know very little of their contents, but Mr Sinclair knows every word, and is a thorough master of every idea in his splendid collection. The only pity is that he does not give the benefit of his vast stores of Celtic learning to his fellow-countrymen.

But I have not, as yet, exhausted the reverend gentleman's treasures, the best of which still fall to be noticed. He showed me a rare collection of Gaelic poems made by a Dr Maclean, in the Island of Mull, as early as the year 1768, eight years before Ronald Macdonald's, the first collection ever published. John Maclean, the Bard of Coil (Mr Sinclair's grandfather), obtained this rare MS. Collection about 1816, from the collector's daughter, Mairi Nighean an Doctair. The majority of the poems in it are nowhere else to be found, and those in it which have appeared in printed collections are, Mr Sinclair informs me, far superior and more correct in the MS. This is natural enough; for the earlier a poem or song is taken down, the more likely it is to be correct, and as the original composer finally left it The MS. contains about forty-eight pieces of considerable length, and several shorter pieces. Many of the songs are by lain Lom, Eachainn Bacach, lain MacAilein, and other well-known Gaelic bards, Another valuable Collection in MS. is one made by the bard, John Maclean, who travelled extensively over the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, between the years 1812 and 1816. During this tour he took down one hundred and ten Gaelic songs, forming the extensive MS. under notice. It contains pieces by lain Lom, Eachainn Bacach, Mairearad nigh'n Lachainn, and some by Mairi nigh'n Alastair Ruaidli, while there are several songs by Alexander Mackinnon, the warrior bard. Only a small portion of the valuable pieces preserved in this MS. have ever been' published. My friend has yet a third MS. of Gaelic poems and songs which he has prepared for the press; and, I rejoice to find, will very soon be sent to the printer. I have heard several of John Maclean's songs sung throughout Nova Scotia, where they are very popular, while I had the pleasure of reading, or hearing read, many others; and I have no hesitation in saying that the "Bard of Coil" deserves, and is sure to occupy, a high place among the Gaelic bards: and Mr Sinclair will be con. ferring a great boon on Celtic students, and on the admirers of Gaelic poetry, by placing his grandfathers Gaelic poems within their reach. Is it not marvellous to meet with such a Celtic Eden in such a place, and all accumulated by Mr Sinclair from pure personal love for the language and literature of his ancestors, of which he is himself such a perfect master! It is a pity that our friend had not a wider field, and a greater opportunity for sharing his knowledge with others; and I am selfish enough to wish that he would get, and accept, a call to a charge at home, where we would have a better opportunity of getting him occasionally to aid us, in rescuing from oblivion the history and traditions of the Celts, and of popularising the language and literature of the Gael. Having said so much about Mr Sinclair and his surroundings, it may interest the reader to learn that his father was a native of the parish of Reay, and a brother of the late Alexander Sinclair of Thurso, so highly spoken of in "The Ministers and Men of the Far North." His mother, presiding so gracefully over his house- hold, is a daughter of the Bard MacGilleain, as already stated. He was born in Glenbard (so called after his grandfather), Nova Scotia in 1840, and was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church, in 1866. The Bard of Coil was born at Caolas, in the Island of Tiree, on the 8th of January 1787. He belonged to the Treisnish branch of the Macleans of Ardgour, and emigrated to Pictou in 1819, where he lived at a place called Barney's River for twelve years. He afterwards removed to the county of Antigonish, where he lived and died, at the place now known after him as Glenbard. Here he breathed his last, on the 25th of January 1848. His wife, Isabell Black, a native of Lismore, died two years ago, aged 91, and both now lie buried on the farm on which they lived. A handsome stone, seen from the train going from New Glasgow to Antigonish, with the following Gaelic inscription, marks their resting place :-

There is still another excellent Gaelic scholar in this district—the Rev. D. B. Blair, born in the county of Argyle, but when he was only twelve years of age his father removed to Badenoch. He came to this country a few years after the Disruption, where he is held in the highest estimation. He has charge of the congregation of Barney's River and Blue Mountain —is a true Highlander and Gaelic scholar, 4 fact well known to the readers of the Gael, to which, during its existence, he contributed several articles. He is the author of several Gaelic poems, and of a new metrical translation of the Psalms of David, both of considerable merit; and is altogether a man and a Highlander, of whom, with many others here, we may well feel proud. I had only a very short stay with my reverend friend, and parted with him with many regrets. I had other engagements, however, which could not be postponed, so I was driven back to New Glasgow, from whence I found my way by rail—an extension of forty miles through a magnificent country, only opened a few days previously—to the town of Antigonish, where I had arranged to deliver a Lecture on "Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles," under the auspices of the "Highland Society of Antigonish?' I had previously lectured in the city of Halifax, under the distinguished patronage of His Excellency General Sir Patrick Macdongall, Commander-in-chief of Her Majesty's Canadian Forces; of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia; and of the North British Society of Halifax, where I had a fine, select audience, including in addition, the Premier and Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, the Archbishop, and most of the leading inhabitants. I had also lectured in Pictou and in New Glasgow, under high patronage, the Mayor of each place presiding; but the Highland Society of Antigonish paid me the compliment of turning out in their tartans and "Bonnets of Blue"; and, at a special meet- ing of the Society, held in the hail immediately after the lecture, I was elected, by acclamation, an Honorary Member of their patriotic Society— the highest compliment they had in their power to confer on a Highlander from home. Among those present, and in their Highland array, were the President, Vice-President, and Secretary of the Society; Angus Macisaac, M.P. for the Dominion of Canada; Angus Macgillivray, M.P. for Nova Scotia; J. J. Mackinnon, ex-M.P.; Dr William A. Macdonald, a cadet of the family of the Isles; Archibald A. Macgillivray, a prominent Highlander; the Rev. Alex. Chisholm, D.D., D.P., Professor in St Francis Xavier's College; Professor Macdonald; the Rev. Father Gillies; and many others not only of the best Gaelic-speaking Highlanders here, but the most piominent officials and the most influential citizens. There was one, however, who deserves more than a more passing notice.

Norman Macdonald, a native of Arisaig, came eight miles to see me. I found that he issued in 1863 an edition of Mackenzie's "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry," which was largely sold throughout Nova Scotia; but I was sorry to learn that, like most other ventures in the Celtic field, it barely paid the patriotic Celt, who ran the risk of placing this classical Celtic work within the reach of his countrymen on this side of the Atlantic. In this edition, Mackenzie's Preface and Logan's learned and able Introduction are left out, as also the Ossiathc Poems at the beginning, Oran na Briogsa, and the whole of the Appendix and Glossary, while a sketch of John Mac- loan, the Bard of Coil, and a few specimens of his poems, as well ass few poems composed by others, are introduced. With the exception of a few typographical errors, inevitable in a work set up by compositors ignorant of the language, the work is very well got up. It was sold at 10s--and you meet with a copy in the houses of most of the beat-to-do Highlanders in Nova Scotia, and especially in Cape Breton.

The people of the County of Antigonish came mostly from the West Coast Highlands—Arisaig, Knoydart, Moidart, Morar, and Strathglass.  The prevailing names are, consequently, Macdonalds, Chisholms, and Macgillivrays. The population of the county in 1871 was about 15,000, of which about 2,000 live in the town of Antigonish, which is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Arichat. It contains a college, cathedral, two telegraph offices, a printing office—issuing a weekly newspaper—a bank, several fine shoes and hotels. Vessels not drawing more than ten feet can come up the bay, which is a fine inlet of the Gulf of St Lawrence, extending up to the town. At least nine-tenths of the whole population of the county, belong to the Roman Catholic Church, but they live on the most friendly terms with their Presbyterian neighbours. The people are very comfortable, possessing fine farms of their own, specially suited for grazing purposes. Over 1,600 head of cattle, in addition to a large num- ber of horses, are annually exported from the country to Newfoundland; also, large quantities of butter and cheese, and other agricultural produce. The County of Antigonish is now the most Highland in Canada, and hundreds of its inhabitants cannot speak any but the Gaelic language. In the town of Antigonish I met a fine Highlander, James Chisholm, from St Andrews, who insisted upon driving me out seven miles to see another fine old Highlander, a native of Glengarry, the Rev. J. V. Macdonell, parish priest of St Andrews, and an old subscriber to the Celtic Magazine. I hesitated at first, but my friend would not be put off, and, as an additional inducement, he offered to drive me in his carriage from St Andrews to Port Muigrave, a distance of forty miles, on my way to Cape Breton. I could not resist his importunity, and 'I at last consented. I was naturally curious to know the antecedents of my benefactor, and he informed me on our way, that his grandfather, Thomas Chisholm, resided at Craobh Leabhauin, in Strathglass, and that his own father, Hugh Chisholm, came out here in 1801. We soon arrived at Father .Macdondell's house, and found this fine old Highlander preparing to retire for the night, but he soon changed his mind on our arrival; gave me a most hearty welcome; after which we talked for hours about matters Highland. The Rev. Father, though past sixty, never preached an English sermon in his life.' I remained two days with him, and there met several truly Celtic fathers, among whom was Father William Chisholm, a genuine Celt, full of Highland history and tradition, and brimful of Gaelic and Irish songs and melodies. My friend, Colin Chisholm, will probably recognise him as lar-Oglia do Dhomhnull Gobha, in Strathglass. Here also I met the Rev. D. J. Mackintosh, P.P., North Sydney, and the Rev. Roderick Grant, P.P., Boisdale, both of Cape Breton; and fine, warm-hearted good. looking Highlanders, all of whom treated me with such extreme kindness that I was melted down, and could almost exclaim with Agrippa of old, slightly varied, that "I was almost persuaded to become a Catholic." On Saturday morning, my original friend, James Chisholm, took me in charge to drive me forty miles on to Port Muigrave, on my way to Cape Breton, and I had to part with my Catholic friends of St Andrews with no small regret. I soon, however, found that I was not yet done with the good fathers. About seven miles farther on, at Heatberton, I was accosted by a tall handsome young man, of six feet four inches and a-half, habilitated like the fathers I had just left behind rue. He, Father John Chisholm, learned that I was coining his way that morning, and he prepared a fest. He even went the length of procuring a bottle of Scotch whisky, though he Was an abstainer himself, and had not such a thing in his house for many years before. I must again leave my mellow Highland and Catholic friend, Colin Chisholm, to take charge of the Genealogical department, and make out the ancestors of my kind entertainer. The late Gilleaspuig MacCaiean was his maternal grandfather; the late Mr Alex. Macdonell, Judique, Cape Breton, was his maternal granduncle, and his paternal grandfather was Ian Dorm MacAlistair Bhric, an Coin nan Cuilean, Strathglass. His father, Jan Mac Ian Duinn, lived during the last six years, before he left his sative Strathglnss, at Knockfln. The old gentleman was then living, in his 82d year, and called at his son's bQUSO w1uI I was there. Before I saw him, I heard a voice in the lobby, procnimlag in good, sonorous Gaelic, the following introduction

Exactly a week after, this fine old Highlander died suddenly, 'without any suffering or pain whatever.

All along this long drive of forty miles, the scenery was very fine, through hills, dales, and mighty forests—the Island of Cape Breton in full view, a few miles on the right, with the Straits of Canso intervening. About half-way on, I called on a Church of England clergyman, the Rev. Angus Macdonald, Bayfield, but did not find him at home. He had written me to Halifax, on seeing my arrival in the papers, to spend a few days with him; but this I found impossible from the limited time at my disposal. I met him, however, accidentally at Antigonish, and found him a very genuine Celt. Late on Saturday night we arrived at the Ferry of Port Mulgrave, and put up with another Highlander, Roderick Macleod who keeps the best hostelry in the place. Hero I met several of my countrymen; and, on Monday, I passed into the Island of Cape Breton, across a ferry abort a mile and a-quarter wide. A description of this glorious region must be left for next issue.

The whole of this article may probably appear tedious and, altogether, partaking too much of a personal character; but I found it quite impossible to show my appreciation of, and illustrate in any other way, the great kindness of my follow-countrymen in this country—kindness and attention not extended to me merely on personal grounds, but as a Highlander from the old country. The same good feeling would be extended to any other good specimen of the race from the other side, by these warm-hearted, hospitable Celts.

III.
CAPE BRETON.

IF I remember correctly I parted company with the reader in my last at Port Mulgrave, on the Straits of Canso, on my way to Cape Breton, where I arrived, after having crossed the Straits by a ferry only a little more than a mile wide, on the 22d of September, thus satisfying a life-long ambition; for ever since I began to think, I looked forward to the day when I should see this island, made interesting to me from childhood days in consequence of several relatives having emigrated there when I was but a child. I felt as if I were a new man in a new world, and a most beautiful and delightful world it was. I crossed pretty early in the day, and a family of Grants from Glenmorriston having discovered that I was there, insisted upon paying me every attention, and upon my delivering a lecture on my return, which, in the end, I agreed to do. After a pleasant day spent in the village of Hawkesbury, I hired a conveyance to carry me over a neck of land 13 miles across from the Strait8 of Canso to West Bay, on the Big Bras D'or Lake, from which I got to my destination on Boulardrie Island, by the steamer Neptune, a handy little boat, commanded by Captain Howard Beatty, a most agreeable fellow, and a genuine Scot. Our countrymen are in this country at the top of everything, and I was not surprised to find that the purser was also a Scot and a Highlander, Archibald Macdonald, a native of Arisaig. The sail on these magnificent lakes was most delightful, the scenery reminding one very much of Loch-Ness and its surroundings, with the difference that the Bras D'or Lake would not miss Loch-Ness out of it, and that the Inverness-shire mountains are on a much grander scale than those of Cape Breton. I never enjoyed anything so much as this sail, though possibly that may be attributed in some degree to the fact that I was just realising, and, as it were, drinking in the ambition and object of forty years. On the right we leave the Little Bras D'or and Christmas Isle, while on the left we call at and pass Baddeck, a pretty village, the capital of Victoria county, which carries on a considerable trade with Newfoundland in cattle and dairy produce. In a few hours I land at Fraser's Wharf, so called after the son of the late Rev. Mr Fraser, a native of Dingwall, for many years minister on the Island of Boulardrie. John A. Fraser, a first cousin of the Rev. Mr Bailhie, minister of Gairloch, was the first man I met on landing, and he at once volunteered to drive me to where my friends lived, about two and a-half miles distant. I was soon among my friends, whom I found in much better circumstances than I anticipated, and as their position is a fair illustration of that of many others in Cape Breton, I may just as well describe it. Their father, Alexander Grant, emigrated from Gairloch In 1841, having only a very few pounds in his possession. He had been in the British navy for five years, in virtue of which he obtained a free grant of 200 acres on his arrival in Cape Breton. He, at the same time, took up another lot of equal extent, both then completely covered with a dense forest. Some of his family were grown up, and he at once set to work to clear a patch to plant a few potatoes in. The first thing he did was to erect a hut in the forest. The snow lay thick on the ground. A sufficient space was cleared to enable the family to sit round a fire placed in the centre of the hut, and sleep around it at night, while the bank of snow was left at one end for the purposes of a pillow, with the bushes of trees as the only covering to screen them from the wintry elements. Never mind, they passed the winter without suffering any injury to their hardy constitutions; next year they built a log-house, and they set to work in right earnest to clear the forest. The old man and the family prospered. His two sons now possess 200 acres each of excellent land, contiguous to one another, with about twenty head of cattle, thirty sheep, and two pair of horses each. They live in good, substantially built houses of nine or ten rooms each, furnished and carpeted equal to any farmer's house in the county of Inverness. I was shown deposit receipts for eon• siderable sums in bank, and notes for various amounts lent out at interest to tradesmen in the district. Here I met several from my native pariah of Gairloch, and other parts of Wester Ross, in easy circumstances, possessing their own farms in free heritage, and as happy as they can wish. Their religious wants are well supplied, since the death of the Rev. Mr Fraser, by a fine Highlander, and a good, solid, common-sense preacher, the Rev. Mr Drummond, a native of Argyleshire. I beard him preach two sermons, one in Gaelic and the other in English. In the former he was really eloquent, and, unlike many of the Gaelic sermons often preached at homey his effort exhibited evidence of having been carefully prepared; while it was fluently, and earnestly delivered. Mr Drummond I found to be a great favourite with his people, and, though a genuine, true-blue Presbyterian, by no means a narrow-minded bigot.

From Boulardrio my relatives were able to drive me to North Sydney, a distance of fourteen miles, in a carriage and pair, while, had they remained at home in Melvaig, they would probably have never got beyond a pair of creels. In North Sydney I delivered my lecture on "Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles." I was well received. Next morning I found myself famous in the local papers, and in the evening I delivered another in South Sydney, the ancient capital of Cape Breton—the Hon. Sheriff Fergusson, a native of Uist, and a perfect Celtic encyclopdia, doing me the honour of presiding, while the Hon. E. F. Moseley, Speaker of the Nova Scotia Hones of Commons, proposed a vote of thanks in a tasteful, appreciative speech, and kindly invited me to spend a few days at his house. My time, however, was limited, and I was obliged, with some regret, to decline his preferred hospitality. Here I also met some warm-hearted and well-to-do Colts. Among. them, James Mackenzie, a native of Lochcarron, owning the finest drapery establishment in Sydney, having larger accommodation than any shop in Inverness. His better- half I found to be a daughter of the better-known James Mackenzie, merchant and banker, Stornoway. Another prominent and prosperous Gael was Duncan Mackenzie, descended on the one side from the Sand (Udrigle) Mackenzies, and on the other from the family of Gruinard; as also Kenneth R Mackenzie, a leading grocer in North Sydney, from Lochcarron, descended from the Mackenzies of Fairburn and Davochmaluag.

Nine-tenths of the population of Cape Breton are Scottish Highlanders, nearly all of whom still speak the Gaelic language. There are only two Presbyterian congregations in the whole Island in which Gaelic is not preached at least once a day. There are a great many Highland Catholics in the Island, who live on the most friendly terms with their Presbyterian neighbours. It is divided into four counties, named respectively, Inverness, Richmond, Victoria, and Cape Breton. Farming is generally backward, except in the county of Inverness, which is farmed equal to any county in Nova Scotia, but in spite of that, Cape Breton took the first prize for the best oats exhibited at the Provincial Exhibition of all the product of Nova Scotia, held during my visit to that place.

The Island is 100 miles long by, in one part, 85 wide, having an area of 3120 square miles. The first settlement was made in 1712 by the French. It had, however, been discovered by the French navigator Cabot as early as 1497, but previous to 1700 it was only visited by fur traders and fishermen. After they lost Nova Scotia proper, or that part of it known as Acadia, the French began to colonise Cape Breton, and to build the great fortifications at Louisurg, which, while in the possession of the French, continued for many years to be the capital of the Island. The fortress was long considered impregnable, but war having been declared between France and Great Britain, Governor Shirley of Massachussetta formed the design of taking the stronghold; and sailing from Boston with a powerful expedition for that purpose, he arrived at the Straits of Canso on the 5th of April 1745. The reinforcements sent by the French were captured by the British admiral, and the great fortress was ultimately forced to capitulate. The Acadians sent to France for aid; an expedition was got up to reconquer Acadia and Cape Breton, but the hostile fleet met with severe and terrible disasters. It was wrecked and dispersed by violent storms, the crews were thinned to an alarming extent by epidemics, the expedition accomplished nothing, and only a small remnant returned to France. By the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, the Island was restored to its original owners, but it was soon after finally and for ever attached to the British crown.

It is very much indented with bays, and every part of its interior is accessible by water. The part to the north of the Big Bras D'or Lake, which divides the Island into two, is high, bold, and steep, while the southern half is low, intersected by numerous inlets, diversified by moderate elevations, and rising gradually from its interior shore on little Bras For Lake until it terminates in abrupt cliffs toward the Atlantic Ocean. The highest elevation in the southern half is only 800 feet above the level of the sea, while towards North Cape, In the northern section, the mountains rise to an altitude of 1800 feet. Big Bras D'or Lake is 50 miles long by 20 wide, and varies in depth from 12 to 60 fathoms. It is one of the safest harbours in the world, and thousands of British ships have, in the past, obtained in it their cargoes of timber. Salt springs are found on the coast The climate varies, but is not so cold as on the adjoining continent of Nova Scotia. Vegetation is rapid. Maize and corn are produced in considerable quantities, but not to a sufficient extent for home consumption. Quarries of marble, granite, limestone, and slates, are plentiful throughout the Island. Gypsum and salt are also to be found, and coal is abundant and of a very superior quality. No less than 120 square miles are occupied with coal of the very best description, while there are rich deposits of superior iron ore and gold. The Island has always been celebrated for its fisheries. In 1871 its products were as follows:—Dried cod, 126,275 cwt.; scale fish, 64,002 do.; pickled mackerel in barrels, 49,226 do.; pickled herrings, 39,266 do.; pickled salmon, 944 do.; other pickled fish, 3363 do.; oil of all kinds in gallons, 74,625, the total estimate at considerable over a quarter of a million sterling, and the Island employing no less than 5780 men in this industry alone. The coal trade has for many years been exceedingly prosperous, but since Confederation with the upper provinces of Canada it has been almost ruined in consequence of a tax of 75 cents per ton placed by the Americans on all Canadian coal, making it impossible for the Nova Scotians to compete in their natural market with the home product in the United States of America. The population of Cape Breton in 1861 was 63,083, in 1871 it was 75,483. It sends eight members to the Provincial Legislature of Nova Scotia, and five to the Dominion House of Commons. It has turned out some very good men, among them the Hon. William Ross, late M.P. in the Dominion Parliament, and Minister of Militia in the late Government. He is now Collector of Customs at the port of Halifax, where I had the pleasure of making his acquaintance. His people emigrated from Sutherlandshire without a penny, and though he only obtained such education as the common schools of Cape Breton could afford him thirty to forty years ago, his natural ability secured for him the honourable position of a Minister of the Dominion of Canada. His brother, John Ross, was also a member of Parliament, but was defeated at the last genera] election. Charles Campbell, Baddeck, was for twenty years M.P. in the local House, afterwards a member of the Legislative Council, and subsequently M.P. in the Dominion Parliament. He possesses extensive coal mines in Cape Breton, and a wharf and buildings at Halifax, for which a few years ago he paid nearly £10,000. He is a native of Skye, and was originally in poor enough circumstances. Another Skyeman, Alexander Campbell, is M.P. for the county of Inverness, and is, commercially, in good circumstances. William Macdonald, M.P. for the county of Cape Breton, is a successful merchant at Glass Bay, whose father emigrated from the Western Isles. H. F. Macdougall, M.P., returned to the local House last year, has a capital business on Christmas Isle. His father came out from Barra quite poor and uneducated, in spite of which he succeeded in business here, educated his family, and his son is now in Parliament. Mr Macinnes, now M.P. for British Columbia, came from Skye to Cape Breton penniless, and made a fortune. And last, but not least—among the members of Parliament, Cape Breton has turned out John Morrison, M.P., who has been returned last year to the local House, and who distinguished himself by delivering the first Gaelic speech ever delivered in the Nova Scotian Legislature. His father, who was closely related to Morrison "Gobha," the Harris bard, emigrated from that place without a cent, and became a prosperous farmer. The son now possesses the farm, along with one of his own, and is a prosperous merchant, at St Anne's, in addition. I had the good fortune to meet him on the steamer on my way back from Cape Breton, and enjoyed his company all the way to Halifax, and for a considerable time there; and a finer Highlander—plain and unpretentious, but most intelligent, it has not been my lot to meet, A Mr Maclean, who came out from the Isle of Skye without a sixpence, is now the wealthiest farmer on the Island. He was quite illiterate, but a good farmer. He made money, which he has advanced at high rates of interest on mortgages and other such safe investments, and is now reputed to be possessed of great wealth.

Having spent five most agreeable days in Cape Breton, I returned, by the Bras D'or route, to Port Hawkesbury, where I delivered my promised lecture, to an appreciative audience, on the night of my arrival, and started immediately after, by boat, to Pictou, through the Straits of Canso and across part of the Gulf of St Lawrence. From there I took train for 106 miles to

THE CITY OF HALIFAX,

to see the annual Provincial Exhibition of the Agricultural, Mechanical, and Manufacturing Products of the whole Province. Here I had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of some very fine Highlanders, among them the Hon. William Holmes, Premier of Nova Scotia, and a Gaelic-speaking Celt. His ancestors came out quite poor. Hisfather became a successful farmer, whose house I visited near the Church of the Rev. A. Maclean Sinclair, at Springville. He afterwards became a Senator of the Dominion, and his son now holds the leading position in Nova Scotian politics. The Hon. James Macdonald, Canadian Minister of Justice, who resides in Halifax, came originally from Redcastle. The Hon. James S. S. Macdonald, a banker and a member of the Legislative Council; his brother, Charles Macdonald, recently represented the county of Halifax in Parliament, but was appointed to the chief Post-Office Inspectorship of Nova Scotia; the Hon. William Ross, Collector of Customs, already mentioned ; Angus Macleod, Collector of Inland Revenue; George Maclean, cashier in the Merchants' Bank; Hugh Murray, of Burns and Murray; William Mackenzie, of Madllreith & Co.; Alexander Stephens, a native of Morayshire, and Robert Stewart, a native of Castle Street, Inverness, a large farmer and successful merchant in Truro; these and many others, I had the pleasure of meeting in the City of Halifax, all well-to-do, and holding positions of influence or trust. And in almost every instance their ancestors, and, in some cases, themselves, came to this country without a farthing. All honour to them, and to the country in which they were able to do for themselves or their descendants what they could never have done in their native land.

But there is yet another good. Highlander in Halifax who has made for himself, by hard work and industry, wealth and position; John Maclachlan, a native of Ardgour, in Lochaber, where he was skipper of a small sloop, and a boat-builder. He emigrated on the 8th of April 1839, settled first in New Brunswick, afterwards went to Prince Edward Island, and subsequently to Pictou, in all of which places he worked at his business of boat or ship-building. This was not considered good enough, however, by the old Lochaber skipper, and (I heard it whispered) poacher in a small way. Indeed it was partly in consequence of his diversions in the latter tempting sport that he determined upon emigration; for it was too attractive a pastime to be let alone, and it might lead to bad and disagreeable consequences. Having made a little money at his trade in Pictou, Maclachlan decided upon visiting Virginia in the United States, to discover the secret of tobacco manufacturing, but the manner in which he managed it, though amusing and interesting, would occupy too much of my apace. He returned, and commenced business in 1860 in a small way as a tobacco manufacturer in the City of Halifax. The business continued to increase until it has become, many years ago, the most extensive in the Lower Provinces. The most approved machinery has been introduced, and before Confederation over a hundred hands were regularly employed, manufacturing as much as 50,000 lbs. of tobacco per month, the net value of which, in bond, without the duty, was tenpence a pound, or a total per month of considerably over £2000. Since Confederation he has not been doing so much in consequence of UpperCanada competition, but he still turns out an average of 36,000 lbs. a month, and is the only manufacturer who has hitherto made cake tobacco in Nova Scotia, though I have met with a Mr Thomas Grant, a native of Strathapey, who was just about starting another factory when I was in Halifax. The capital engaged in Maclachlan's business is about £12,000. The home duty on the manufactured article is ten pence a pound, exactly the same as the net cost of tobacco itself. The firm is known as A. A., and W. Smith & Co., the Smiths attending to the commercial part of the business, while Mr Maclachlan has the sole management of the factory. He has amassed great wealth, and is, among his own countrymen, very liberal with it, though much of his good deeds are done on the principle that his right hand knoweth not what his left hand doeth.

When the 78th Highlanders were in Halifax, several years ago, Mr Maclachian became acquainted with Pipe-Major Ronald Mackenzie, of that distinguished Regiment, and his son, John, exhibiting a taste for music, the old Highlander determined that he should be taught to play the bagpipes; and Pipe-Major Mackenzie was employed to teach him. Having met Ronald at the last Annual Assembly of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, I told him that I was going to Halifax. "Well, if you are," said he, "you must call and see my old pupil, John Maclachlan, son of Maclachlan, the tobacco manufacturer there, one of the best Highlanders I ever met from home. Before I left Halifax the pupil could almost play as well as his master, and if he continued to practice and progress as he did when I was there, I expect he will be quite equal to, if not better, than myself." I called as requested, and had an evening of the pipes, played in perfect style. I never heard a cleaner finger on a chanter, and for time, spirit, and accurate playing, I honestly believe that the teacher's prediction has been verified, and that the pupil is now really as good a player as his master. I strongly recommended him to go to Scotland and compete at the Northern Meeting, where I feel sure he would carry away some of the principal prizes, and possibly the medal. He is, however, only a gentleman amateur, and he is loth to compete in public; but as he has ample means, I trust his old master will ere long have the satisfaction of seeing him in the Highland capital competing for and possibly carrying off the gold medal. He has no competitor within sight on the American continent, and I am satisfied that he has few, if any, superiors at home.

There are a great many Gaelic-speaking Highlanders in the City of Halifax, and it will gratify Professor Blackie, and those who reverence and still stand up for the Gaelic language, to know that public worship has been carried on in that city for the last seven years in the vernacular they love. These meetings were originated by the Rev, George Lawson. Gordon, while yet a student at Dalhousie College, about which time he also published a Gaelic grammar, favourably noticed in these pages. I regret that I missed seeing him, for at the very time when I was in one part of Cape Breton, he was being introduced, in another part, to a Gaelic- speaking congregation, who had just given him a call. The meetings in Halifax are conducted during the winter by the students from the two colleges in turn, and in summer the work is carried on by Alexander Mackenzie, a native of Lochcarron, and a brother of Kenneth R Mackenzie, North Sydney, already mentioned. An excellent colleague is Neil Brodie, a southern Scot, who not only learnt to speak Gaelic fluently, but many other languages; and he is a most enthusiastic supporter of the Celtic cause in Halifax. The Society is called "Comunn Criosdaidh nan Gael." The attendance is generally about 200 Gaelic-speaking people, principally from Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, Pictou, and Antigonish; and those best acquainted with the Celts of the City assert that there is an ample field in Halifax for a Gaelic evangelist who would devote his whole time to the spiritual wants of the Gaelic-speaking population.

The North British Society is one of the oldest and most useful on the American continent, and I trust on some future occasion to find room to write more fully of its history and work than I can possibly find in these papers. I may, however, say that it is conducted on principles which must recommend themselves to all right thinking people. No Soot in distress is permitted to go unaided; but all help is given on the understanding that those receiving it will afterwards repay any money advanced to them or otherwise expended on their behalf if ever they find themselves able to do so; and I am glad to say that, in many cases, this has been done by parties--widows and orphans and others in distress, whose passages had been paid home, or to the homes of relatives in distant parts of Canada. The Society attend also to the wants of poor, respectable Scots, who are in reduced circumstances in the City, in a manner the least calculated to wound the feelings of the recipients of their bounty. Altogether they are doing a patriotic and a noble work, and it is gratifying to find that they possess very considerable funds—sufficient to deal liberally with all the deserving, necessitous cases brought under their notice.

Halifax boasts, with justice, of the prettiest and best public gardens in the Dominion of Canada; and here and at the Provincial Exhibition, I saw, taking them altogether, the best-looking women I ever saw any- where. I have seen a few greater beauties, especially among English ladies, but here one can hardly meet with a common-place face. They have the robust, healthy characteristics of the Scotch, while the mixing of the races, and the fine bracing climate and sea air seem to have softened down the features and painted their lips and cheeks with the most beautiful tints of the lily and the rose. it is, however, possible that my judgment may be at fault as regards real beauty; for I must confess that at the Northern Meeting Games, held at Inverness in 1878, having been told that the famous beauty, Mrs Langtry, was among the crowd of ladies assembled there, I and a few others were trying to discover her, and we failed. We saw her,, but we did not recognise her as at all a beauty. We thought some of our own Highland girls were very pretty; and that one out of a few .whom we saw must have been Mrs Langtry, but when the object of our curiosity was pointed out to us, though at first we could not discover the lady's beauty, we began to look for what must of course be there. Our imaginations aided us, and the lady at once became beautiful in our eyes. At first sight I could pick out those whom I would consider far prettier women in Halifax, but the reader will probably conclude from the above that I am no judge.

Nova Scotia, its climate and people, have made an impression upon me which I shall never forget, and I have good reason to know that the good feeling is not altogether on one side. After spending five weeks— about the happiest in my life—in this fine Province—amongst its magnificent people—I found my way, on the 17th of October, to the City of Quebec, after travelling a distance of about 600 miles on the Intercolonial Railway, through, on the whole, some very fine scenery, going right across the Province of New Brunswick, and alongside the noble St Lawrence. In the next number I shall ask the reader to accompany me to Upper Canada, and visit Montreal, Glengarry, and the Capital of the Dominion.

IV.

HAVING arrived at Point Levi, opposite Quebec, on the 17th of October, I crossed the river St Lawrence next day, and visited the famous fortifications of this ancient and remarkable city. On the night of my arrival at Point Levi one of the Atlantic liners arrived with about 500 passengers, several of whom took up their quarters at my hotel. Among them I recognised an old Invernessian, who was accompanied by four south-country Scots; and we decided upon visiting Quebec together, and upon going the length of the Heights of Abraham, where the immortal Wolfe fell in the moment of victory over the French, who, the same day, surrendered Quebec to the British army. We examined the spot on which the famous commander fell, mortally wounded, and on which a neat, unpretentious monument is erected to commemorate the fact As be there lay his eyes closed, it was thought, in death, some one cried out "They fly." He instantly opened his eyes and asked, "Who are flying?" and on being told that it was the enemy, he said, "Then I die happy," and immediately, expired. In this memorable engagement Fraser's Highlanders took a prominent and distinguished part, losing in killed, Captain Thomas Ross of Cuirossie; Lieutenants Roderick MacNeill of Barra and Alexander Macdonald of Barrisdale; one sergeant, and fourteen rank and file; while among the wounded were Captain John Macdonald of Lochgarry, and Captain Simon Fraser of Inverallochy: Lieutenants Macdonell of Reppoch, Archibald Campbell, Alexander Campbell, John Douglas, Alexander Fraser; Ensigns James Mackenzie, Malcolm Fraser, Alexander Gregorson; 7 sergeants, and 131 rank and file. It is well known that the Highlanders distinguished themselves as usual on this occasion when, according to the "General account," Brigadier Murray briskly advanced with those under his command, among whom were our countrymen, and soon broke the centre of the enemy, "when the Highlanders, taking to their broadswords, fell in among them with irresistible impetuosity, and drove them back with great slaughter." The Highlanders had other opportunities of distinguishing themselves here. In another engagement they lost in killed Captain Donald. Macdonald of Clanranald, Lieutenant Cosrno Gordon, and 55 non-commissioned officers and men, while among the wounded were Colonel Fraser, Captains John Campbell of Dunoon, Alexander Fraser, Alexander Macleod, and Charles Macdondell; Lieutenants Archibald Campbell of Glen Lyon, Charles Stewart, who fought at Culloden under Stewart of Appin; Hector Macdonald, John Macbean, Alexander Fraser, senior, Simon Fraser, senior, Archibald MacAlister, Alexander Fraser, John Chisholm, Simon Fraser, junior, Malcolm Fraser, and Donald Macneil; Ensigns Henry Munro, Robert Menzies, Duncan Cameron of Fassiefern, William Robertson, Alexander Gregorson, and Malcolm Fraser, in addition to 129 non-commissioned officers and men, representing amongst them most of the families of note in the Scottish highlands, as well, as many of those in humbler circumstances who followed the gentlemen of their respective clans, as of yore, to fight the battles of their country. My interest in Quebec and its surroundings was intense; but it centred more in the history of the dead and the associations of the past than in those of the living and the present. The surrounding scenery is magnificent—by far the finest in Canada. Having spent three days about the place, on Monday evening I left by the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada for

MONTREAL,

having crossed over the famous Victoria Bridge which spans the St Lawrence a short distance before you enter the city, 172 miles from Quebec. I have already given a full description of this famous structure in the Aberdeen Daily Free Press, which, as well as many other details given in my series of sixteen long letters to that paper, on "The Highlanders of Canada," I do not intend to reproduce in these pages. Those letters were devoted more to a general description of the country, and its advantages as a field for emigration, while the series in the Celtic Magazine are confined almost entirely to the more Celtic parts of the Dominion, and personal instances of Highland success. This must be held to account for their incomplete and fragmentary nature.

Montreal has a population of between 130,000 and 140,000, about five-eighths of whom are French, and three-fourths Roman Catholics. It contains some very fine churches, and other public buildings, and is, in short, the finest city in the Dominion. The Scotch here are at the head of the commercial and political world, and though the Highlanders are not numerous, there are a few amongst them distinguished for philanthropy, integrity, and wealth, The Mackays of Montreal are known all over the world. The family originally belonged to Kildonan, in the county of Sutherland, which they left in humble circumstances. Joseph, one of the sons, who has since become famous in the commercial world as a millionaire and philanthropist, commenced life quite poor. He worked his way steadily onwards and upwards. In 1837, when the French Canadian rebellion broke out, we find him doing a prosperous retail ready-made clothing and tailoring business. A large quantity of clothing was required that year for the militia, and the Mackays (for Edward had ere this become a partner) were successful in getting a large contract, which turned out well. By this they made enough money to enable them to go into the wholesale trade. The business steadily increased, and in a few years they added the woollen or, as it is called in Canada, the dry goods business. They soon acquired a name for integrity and for the excellent quality of their goods; trade increased day by day in the woollen department of the business, and the firm rose steadily in the estimation of the public. Ultimately the ready-made department was given up, that the firm might be able to devote their undivided attention to the more profitable part of their rapidly increasing business. In a comparatively few years, they amassed a large fortune, and four or five years ago Joseph and Edward retired in favour of three nephews, who, for many years previously, practically managed the business, and who now conduct the largest dry goods, or wholesale woollen business in Canada. Joseph and Edward are both unmarried, and live together in a noble mansion, presided over by an amiable niece from the Scottish Highlands. I had the pleasure of partaking of their hospitality, after which Edward drove me round the suburbs, and to Mount Royal, overlooking the city, from which I obtained a most magnificent view of it and of the country for hundreds of miles in all directions. Edward is one of the directors of the Bank Of Montreal; and he has occupied many other important positions of trust in the city. Joseph built, two years ago, the Mackay Institution for Protestant Deaf Mutes at a cost of over 15,000 dollars, and then precented it absolutely to the Association for teaching the deaf and dumb. The building will accommodate about 100 inmates, and the pupils are taught printing and other useful trades, in addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic. This is only a specimen of his munificence, for he has given largely to other causes, both religious and charitable. Another brother is a partner in an old and most respectable wholesale dry goods firm—Gordon, Mackay, & Co.—in Toronto, who are also cotton manufacturers, possessing extensive mills at Merriton, on the Welland Canal. Mackay Brothers, when they retired, were reputed worth over two million dollars.

The firm of James G. Mackenzie is the oldest dry goods house in the Dominion, having been established more than forty years ago. Mackenzie arrived in Canada with nothing but perseverance and steady habits for his capital. He has long since reached the summit of the commercial ladder. The firm is now reputed to be worth from one and a-half to two million dollars—the wealthiest in Canada since the retirement of Joseph and Edward Mackay. One of his sons represented the Electoral Division of Montreal West in the Dominion House of Commons. Two of them were Captains in the 5th Royal Scots Fusiliers, the crack volunteer corps of Montreal, indeed of Canada, and served with their regiment on active service during the Fenian raids of 1866 and 1870. Another wholesale dry goods man, who retired from business about two years ago with a fortune of about 200,000 dollars, deserves notice. James Roy was a native of Dunfermline, and he landed in Canada with a pack of fine linen on his back. He continued to perambulate in and about Montreal for a few years; afterwards went into the retail dry goods business, and rapidly rose to be one of the leading merchants of the city. Ultimately he went into the wholesale trade, and, although his business never approached the magnitude of the firms already named, it was prosperous and lucrative; and Mr Roy was considered one of the most upright and straightforward business men in the city. Another self-made Scot is Andrew Robertson, of the firm of Robertson, Linton, & Co., who was for several years President of the Dominion Board of Trade, and occupied many other most important and influential positions. James Johnston came to Montreal about forty years ago without a penny. About five years after he founded the firm of James Johnston & Co., now reputed worth over a million. He commenced as a clerk, and, saving a few hundred dollars, began business on his own account in a very small way, but gradually and surely established a reputation for the very best goods, at paying prices—a reputation which he has carried through his whole business career; and to-day the firm of James Johnston & Co. stands unrivalled in the Dominion for high class goods, for choice and varied assortment, and for the systematic conduct of their business. Mr Johnston owns the fine cut stone warehouse in which he conducts his business, as well as his princely residence on Mount Royal, which perhaps equals in magnificence that of the great Joseph Mackay himself.Mr Johnston also became famous in connec- tion with the celebrated Pew Case—Johnston v. Gavin Lang and the Trustees of St Andrew's Church. In the other trades, especially in the grocery busihess, quite as many successful self-made xen can be found. Among other prosperous Highlanders whom I had the pleasure of meeting in this city was John Macdonald, a most enterprising and rising accountant, and a native of Tam, Ross-shire. He belongs to the aristocracy of intellect, and I was proud to hear a native of my own county so highly spoken of among the elite of Montreal. Ewen Maclennan, whose father went out from Kintail, spoke Gaelic purer than some of his West-Coast relations of the present day. He takes a leading part among the patriotic Scots of the city, and has long ago occupied all the posts of honour which the St Andrew's Society could confer upon him—a Society which does more real good than any other on the American continent; but having already described at length its operations and that of the St Andrew's Hothé in the Free Press, I must here pass it over. Among other genuine Highlanders and most useful citizens whom I had the pleasure of meeting were Alexander MacGibbon, a native of Perthshire; Alexander Mackenzie, merchant, a native of Beauly; and Alex. Murray, bookseller, a Perthshire Celt. Last, but not least, I had a most pleasant chat with D. Macmaster, a young but distinguished and rising barrister, and a member of the local Parliament for his native county of Glengarry, who a week afterwards paid rue the compliment of travelling fifty-four miles to Lancaster to hear my lecture on "Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles."

The last night I was in the city I had the great gratification of attending in the drill hall of the 5th Royal Scots Fusiliers, already referred to, where I have seen them put through the usual exercises by Colonel Crawford, their commandant. This crack regiment is composed entirely of Scotsmen and Scottish Canadians, who wear the undress Highland uniform—Campbell tartan trews and plaid, with scarlet scalloped tunic, and Glengarry bonnet. No. 1 company has among its members 40 men who had served with the 78th Highlanders under Sir Henry Havelock at Lucknow and Cawnpore; and whose manly breasts are well decorated with medals and clasps for distinguished service; while No. 6 company is composed entirely of old 42d or "Black Watch" veterans. The others are largely made up of men who fought for their Queen in some part or other of the great and glorious Empire of which the Canadian is so proud to form a part. The pipers wore the kilt, one of them being Duncan Macneil, an old pupil of Pipe-Major Alexander Maclennan, Inverness; the other, whose name I forget, an old veteran of the 78th, and for many years a companion of Pipe-Major Ronald Mackenzie, late of the Buffs, at now of the Highland Rifle Militia. Another 78th man—Sergeant Major Fraser, and who holds the same position, while he is at the same time Sergeant-Instructor, in the Scots Fusiliers—I found to be a native of Castle Street, Inverness. The period of service of these men expired when their respective regiments were last in Montreal, and they settled down in the place, where almost all of them are doing remarkably well This fine regiment recently held a meeting for the purpose of considering the desirability of procuring kilts in time for a proposed visit to Toronto and Niagara in the spring, and from the spirit shown there is little doubt that they will decide upon completing their Highland costume in time to enable them to visit their friends in Ontario, and parade its capital in the "Garb of old Gaul." I could have spent several more days in Montreal with profit and pleasure, but time was on the wing, and I had yet barely entered Canada proper, The celebrated Highland settlement of Glengarry, fifty-four miles further west, on the Grand Trunk Railway, was to be my next place of call. I was informed by Mr Macmaster, M.P., that his colleague Mr Maclennan, M.P. for Glengarry in the Dominion Parliament, was in the city, and would be going on that evening to Glengarry. I was fortunate enough to inset and to secure an introduction to him on the platform before the train started. At first I found him somewhat reserved, but he soon melted down; when I found his father was a native of Kintail; and I afterwards learned that the son was very wealthy and highly respected throughout the county, irrespective of party politics. We had a most agreeable chat during the greater part of the journey, and he gave me the names of several of the most prominent Highlanders in the county, in addition to those whose names I already had. In a few hours I found myself in Lancaster, a thriving village on the eastern border of

THE COUNTY OF GLENGARRY,

and I at once made for the principal hotel, kept, as I was informed in Montreal, by an excellent Gaelic-speaking Highlander, and a Macrae, whose father, in 1806, emigrated from Kintail. I saluted my host in my native Gaelic, to which he responded in pure Kintail vernacular; for one of the peculiarities you meet with throughout the whole Dominion, is to find the children and even the grandchildren of the origini-settlers speaking the dialect of their respective districts in Scotland; so that you meet with half-a-dozen or more different dialects in the same village or township. Any one acquainted with the various districts in the Scottish Highlands can therefore almost at once tell what part of the country the ancestors of the parties he is addressing originally came from I was at once made quite at home, after my host had insisted upon carrying out the good old practice of his Scottish ancestors, by reminding xu "gur luaithe dèoch na sgiala," and at once, suiting the action to the word, offering me a "druthag" out of his private bottle. That evening and next morning I was introduced to scores of fine Highlanders in the village, Macphersons, whose ancestors came from Badenoch, predominating; one of them being no less than a grand-nephew of the famous "Black Officer" of black art and Gaick celebrity. Here I had a visit from a Mr Allan Grant, whose grandfather was Donald Grant of Crasky, Glenmoriston, and one of those heroes of the "Forty-five" who sheltered Prince Charles Edward in the cave of Corombian, when wandering about, life in hand, after the Battle of Culloden, before he succeeded in effecting his escape to the Outer Hebrides, He emigrated to the States, and was one of the patriotic band known as the United Empire Loyalists, who would not remain in the States after they were lost to the British crown, and who went to various parts of Canada where they received grants of land from the British Government. Donald Grant, with several others, went to Glengarry, where 1000 acres were allotted to him, 200 of which fell into the possession of my visitor----his grandson; Allan Grant.

It is commonly reported that Donald could spin a good yarn, one of which, in connection with the pilgrimage of the U.E. Loyalists from the States to Canada, will bear telling. On one occasion the Catholic Bishop was in Donald's neighbourhood, and knowing that he was rather fond of relating the hardships endured by the Loyalists on their way to Glengarry, wider his leadership, the good Bishop called upon him and introduced the subject Donald was proud of his exploits, and the great success which had attended himself and his devoted followers; and he always related the hardships and hairbreadth escapes which they experienced with unfeigned pleasure. As he advanced in years they seemed to have grown upon him, until at last they appeared to others almost bordering on the miraculous. When he had finished the description of the journey through the trackless forest in glowing colours, the Bishop in blank amazement, said -" Why, dear me, Donald, your exploits seem almost to have equalled even those of Moses himself when leading the children of Israel through the Wilderness from Egypt to the Land of Promise." "Moses," exclaimed the Highlander, adding two emphatic short words, to which the ears of his reverence were not much accustomed; "Why," said Grant, with an unmistakeable air of contempt, "Moses took forty years in his vain attempts to lead his men over a much shorter distance, and through a mere trifling wilderness in comparison with mine, and he never did reach his destination. I brought my people here without the loss of a single man." The answer made by the Bishop is not recorded; but he afterwards used to tell the story with evident gusto, and to the great amusement of his hearers.

Having arranged for a lecture here and at Alexandria, I went on to Ottawa, where I spent a few days. On my return, my host kindly offered to drive me himself through the county, and to introduce me to the leading Highlanders. On Wednesday, the 29th of October, we started for Alexandria, 14 miles inland, behind a splendid pair of horses, calling upon some genuine Celts on our way. A few miles out we passed a very fine farm of 400 acres owned, occupied, and capitally farmed by Donald Maclennan, whose father emigrated from Kintail without a cent. Shortly after this we called on Christopher Macrae, Glenroy, who has a fine farm and keeps the district shop or store. We were hospitably entertained by his better-half, and I had a most interesting chat with his father, a fine old gentleman, 93 years of age, who left Glenelchaig in Kintail in 1821. The venerable sire, I had been told, was full of old lore and Highland tradition; but my time was too limited to enable me to get him into the proper groove, which I very much regret Another of his sons, Duncan, owns the fine farm of Glen- Nevis, the whole family being exceedingly comfortable and well-to-do. Another worthy specimen of the good old stock of Kintail Macraes, and with whom I had the pleasure of travelling from Lancaster to Kingston, was D. A. Macrae, a fine young fellow, whose father left Morvich, Kintail, about 50 years ago, and who now owns a fine farm of 400 acres, nearly the whole of which is cultivated. By the time we left Glenroy, it was getting dark, and we drove right on to Alexandria, where we took up our quarters at the St Lawrence Hotel, a comfortable hostelry kept by another Gaelic-speaking Highlander, Angus MacdonelL Having seen several of the leading citizens of Alexandria next morning, I started for a drive some twenty miles into the back settlements of the county, where I had the pleasure of meeting some genuine old Colts. Among them I would notice Norman Macleod, Laggan, a native of Gleneig; and Captain Mackenzie, a fine old veteran 93 years of age. I found Mackenzie to be a native of Contin, Ross-shire; but brought up in Lochbroom. He subsequently became a soldier, and was in the British army when Napoleon I. was a prisonerin Elba, a period of his life of which my venerable namesake was so full that I could hardly induce him to talk about anything else. He was the second who turned a sod in the back part of Glengarry county, to which he found his way by pure accident, having loot his way in the forest for three days and nights trying to find his way to a place more than a hundred miles in the opposite direction. When he left this country he was so poor that he could not pay for his passage across; but the Captain of a sailing ship in Greenock gave him credit until he was afterwards able to pay him. He is now in affluent circumstances, possessing an excellent farm of his own, and has been able to start several sons in farms of their own equally good. After a most pleasant drive to Lochiel and the surrounding country, I returned to Alexandria, where I delivered my lecture to an appreciative audience of as genuine a type of Highlanders as ever drew breath.

In the morning before starting for Lochiel, a deputation waited upon me to know if I had any engagements in the evening, after my lecture; and, answering in the negative, I was told that they would be glad then to spend an hour with me. What was my surprise to find a really good piper, and a Macdonald, at the door of the hail ready to play us to the hotel immediately after my lecture, and there to find supper laid for about forty-five gentlemen who were good enough to entertain me thus as the guest of the Highlanders of Alexandria. The chair was taken by Mr Angus Macdonald, a fine Highlander and a prominent official in the place, supported by John Macdougald, whose grandfather left the Island of Eigg, in 1788, for Sydney, Nova Scotia, and in 1793 went to Glengarry and settled there. His mother I found was one of the United Empire Loyalists already referred to, descended from the Camerons of Fassiefern. Mr Macdougald possesses his grandfather's original property in Glengarry. Donald Macmillan, M.D., who presided at the lecture, was croupier at the supper, and added much to our entertainment by his singing in fine voice and spirit some excellent Gaelic songs. Among the company was also the grandson, A. B. Macdonald, of the first white man born in Glengarry. His great-grandfather emigrated from Morar without means of any kind, but having been in the army he had free land allotted to him and he died worth property valued at £2000. The great-grandson became partner, and is now the successor, in the extensive and lucrative business long carried on by the Hon. Donald Macdonald, the present Lieutenant- Governor of Ontario; and is rapidly amassing a fortune. Among others present were Colin D. Chisholm, clerk to the District Court—a cousin of our own Colin Chisholm, and almost as enthusiastic and as well informed a Colt as the ox-President of the Gaelic Society of London himself; Dr Alexander R. Macdonell, and several other warm-hearted fellows whose names I did not manage to carry along with me. There were, however, two Southern Scots present, who had settled down among the Highlanders of Alexandria, and who appeared to be in spirit as genuine Celts as the rest, viz., Charles H. Connon, M.A., and Edward H, Tiffany, both barristars practising in the county. The oratorical ability displayed was really marvellous in such an out-of-the-way place as Alexandria, containing only about 1000 inhabitants, and such as would put many whowould-be-considered-orators in more pretentious places at home to shame. I gave, expression here for the first time to my views and feelings repecting the manner in which successive governments of Canada discouraged and otherwise treated Highland immigrants, while they had acted in a manner entirely different to the Russian Memnonites and Icelanders; and the enthusiastic sympathy displayed by my fellow countrymen of Alexandria at once convinced me that the Highlander of Canada only wants to have this dereliction on the part of the Government pointed out to him to have the present system of giving his countrymen the cold shoulder condemned and reversed. It was proposed and seconded, there and then, that those present should form themselves into a Society for educating public opinion on the point, and I learned after I left that they met on the following evening and formed themselves into the nucleus of a Caledonian Society. My driver, who knew all present, informed me that the company amongst them represented accumulated property worth about a quarter of a million sterling. I parted with them next morning with very genuine regret, and not without hope of again seeing them in the hospitable capital of Glengarry county.

I, learned that John Murdoch of the Highlander had passed through the village that morning in the mail-gig, while I was away in the district of Lochiel, and that he had gone on. some miles, to visit Mr Cattanach, an old Badenoch Celt, who lived at Laggan, so called by him in commemoration of his native place in the old country. I was naturally anxious to see the Ard-Albannach, and made my driver go several miles out of his way to overtake him at Laggan or meet him on his way beck; and meet him we did, Mr Cattanach driving him back to Alexandria. I requested my driver to go into Cattanach's machine, while Fear-an-fheilidh came in with rue. I then turned round my team in the direction in which the Highlander was going, and thus had about half-an-hour of him. I had about 30 miles to go in another direction, and, as he was going direct to Lancaster, where I was engaged to lecture that evening, we agreed to meet there and compare notes, after such a long absence from home and from each other, and to talk over our new and varied experiences. Alter a long drive through the county to the west, and making several calls on the way, I arrived in the afternoon at Williamston, a village only 4 miles from Lancaster, where we obtained refreshments for man and beast at the hostelry of another good Hie'lanman—John J. Macdonald, Glencoe House, who, like most of my friends, had succeeded in feathering his nest pretty well. Having made a few other calls, Mr Macrae soon rattled into Lancaster. The Ard-Albannach arrived a few minutes after us. In the evening, I delivered my promised lecture, for which I was by no means in good form; but the Highlander and D. Macmaster, M.P. for the County, who came all the way from Montreal to meet me, addressed the audience, and thus enabled me to drop easy. My old travelling companion, Mr Maclennan, M.P. for Glengarry in the Dominion Parliament, came several miles 'to preside at our meeting; and my only regret in connection with my visit to this Highland settlement is my inability to call upon him at his own house, agreeably to his repeated requests that I should do so, The Mine evening and next morning I met a few more fine specimens of the good old stock, among them A. S. Macdonald, from the West Coast of Inverness-shire, proprietor of the Commercial Hotel; Duncan Macarthur, merchant, Alexandria, whom I missed when there; A. B. Maclennan of Glen-Gordon, originally from Kintail; and no end of Macphersons, whose forbears came from Badenoch, all in excellent circumstances.

Glengarry has produced another fine Gaelic-speaking family—the Sansfield Macdonalds—who rose from the ranks to the very highest positions in the Dominion. One of them lived close to Lancaster; but I was unfortunate enough to miss him. Another died Premier a few years ago; while a third is the Hon. Donald Macdonald, the present Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, one of the most popular, genial, and warm-hearted Highlanders in the whole Dominion. Their ancestors came originally from Knoydart, in the county of Inverness; and their father commenced life in very humble circumstances, and became a farmer at Sansfield's Corner, Glengarry, from which place the family took the addition to their original and simple name of Macdonald, to distinguish them from the legion of the same name in Canada—many of whom are in high positions like themselves.

The farms throughout this Highland county is laid out in 150 acre lots, and the people are very comfortable throughout Not only in politics but in most other walks of life it has turned out many who have distinguished themselves in other parts of Canada. A mistaken idea has got abroad, no doubt in consequence of the name, that most of the people came originally from Glengarry in the Old Country; but this is not the case, the great majority of them being from Lochaber, Morar, Moidart, Knoydart, Gleneig, Kintail and Badenoch. I could say a great deal more which would redound to their credit, but I must at present pass on, and introduce you, in my next, to some of the Highlanders of Ottawa, Kingston, and Toronto.

V.

While In the district of Glengarry I paid a visit to Cornwall, fourteen miles distant, a village of between 3000 and 4000 inhabitants, and the Capital of the three counties of Glengarry, Dundas, and Stormont. It is situated at the mouth of the Cornwall Canal—just where it enters the St Lawrence, and contains several large mills and factories, including one of the largest woollen factories in Canada, and extensive cotton mills. There are also two newspapers representing the two political parties; one, the Reporter, on the Conservative side, edited by an exceedingly genial and courteous Highlander named Macfarlane, while the Freeholder, on the Liberal side, is owned and conducted by H. Sansfleld Macdonald, son of the late Premier of Canada, and one of the firm of Macdonald & Maclennan, barristers, the other member being a brother of A. B. Maclennan, Glen-Gordon, Glengarry, originally from KintaiL Macdonald I found at first somewhat distant and reserved, looking at me exactly as if he thought I was going to ask him to lend me a thousand dollars; but having told him that I wanted a little printing done, for which .1 suggested payment in advance, he became quite pleasant, referred me to his foreman in the printing-office, and was condescending enough to inform me that he took very little interest in the paper, and that he only kept it on for his own amusement, as he was perfectly independent of anything it might bring him in the way of income. I naturally envied his position, and congratulated him mentally on his good fortune in having had a father who was able to leave him in such happy affluence. I paid his foreman lOs 6d for a small printing job that I could have got at home, at most, for 4s; but my editorial confrere, originally so unbending, having discovered who I was, became in a very few minutes most agreeably gracious; and in his paper next morning he gave me a most flattering paragraph, so that the printing was cheap after all. Mr Macfarlane, on the other hand, at first refused to take anything for an advertisement which I requested him to insert; but having declined such favours from one whom I never had seen before, he finally accepted a dollar for space which in the regular way would have cost me three times that amount. I was informed that there were some real good Colts in Cornwall, and I had introductions to the Rev. Dr Macnish, and to Sheriff Macintyre, to the former from the Rev. Donald Masson, M.A., M.D., Edinburgh, and to the latter from another mutual friend; but I missed them both. I intended to have gone back, but the place had such a depressing influence upon me that, though I passed it twice a few days after, I could not muster courage enough to pay a second visit to the only part of the whole Dominion where I thought the place and people—so far as I had seen them, except Mr Macfarlane—equally flat. For this I am most likely to blame, unless it be to some extent attributable to the fact that a brutal murderer, who had killed his father and an innocent little sister, was lodged in prison in the town, where he was executed a few days after; and this naturally, perhaps, induced a gloomy mental atmosphere in a town where no execution had taken place for forty years before. I also, as stated in my last, took a run from Glengarry to

OTTAWA,

the Capital of the Dominion, taking the Grand Trunk to Prescott, a distance of 58 miles, and from thence by the St Lawrence and Ottawa Railway, some 54 miles, to the Capital, where I arrived on 25th of October, at 4 P.M., after a run of five hours through a fiat and uninteresting country. This short railway of 54 miles actually cuts all that in habitable of the vast Dominion of Canada, at this point, right across from south to north, the portion beyond being an endless mountainous and unreclaimable region, valuable, however, for its great forests, the proceeds of which find, their way to Ottawa by the river of that name and the Gatineau. The character of the country here impressed me with the idea that Nature never intended North British America to be one vast country under one Government; and that ultimately, as the population increased, all below Ottawa and to the east would become one, if not several powerful nations; while that part of the Dominion to the west and north-west would form several great nations, each province becoming independent, possessing a Government of its own.

On my arrival in the Capital I found a gentleman with whom I had previous correspondence awaiting me at the station. Indeed were it not for him I would not have gone there at all; and I am under a debt of gratitude to him, which I shall never forget, for inducing me to visit a city which, if I could only know what I would have lost, I would not have passed upon any account. All I knew of him was his name, A. M. Burgess, and the position which he held in the Capital of Canada as the Official Secretary of the Ministry of the Interior. I soon discovered that he was a native of Strathspey, who had gone out to seek his fortune, like most of our countrymen, his capital consisting solely of perseverance, steady habits, and average natural ability. He at once insisted upon ray becoming his guest. I soon found myself quite at home, and well entertained by his most intelligent and kindly better-half, whom I discovered to be the daughter of a newspaper proprietor in Portsoy, Banffshire; while his mother, who only some six or seven years ago left Strathspey to end her days with her dutiful son in the Far West, positively delighted me with her Inverness-shire Gaelic. Mr Burgess was originally on the staff of the Globe as its leading Parliamentary reporter in the Capital, after which he started and continued to publish the Canadian Hansard, and subsequently became the proprietor of the Ottawa Free Press. The latter did not prove successful; but being a strenuous supporter of the late Mackenzie Administration, Mr Burgess secured the appointment of Private Secretary to the Minister of the Interior, and was soon after promoted to the more responsible and permanent position of Official Secretary to the Department.

In the evening I met Mr Kinloch, Private Secretary to Sir John A. Macdonald, K.C.B., Premier of Canada, and several other gentlemen connected with the various Government departments, and with the press; as also Mr Rogers, of Rogers & Maclean, Government printers (originally from Dundee), who invited a few friends to meet us at dinner next evening. I afterwards met his partner Maclean, a native of Mull. Their fine printing establishment is quite abreast of the times, all the machinery and plant being of the most modern description, with the latest improvements introduced into all the departments. Among other Highlanders which it was my agreeable lot to meet here was Mr Macleod Stewart, a wealthy barrister, and a warm-hearted Celt, descended from the Stewarts of Appin; and Mr Macdougall, Auditor-General for the Dominion. The Mayor of the city, who is also editor and proprietor of the leading Conservative paper, was a Borlum, or ilolme Mackintosh (I forget which), and a near relative of our own popular MY., Charles Fraser- Mackintosh of Drummond. Another leading Celt, holding a good position in local politics, with whom I had a chat, is Alderman Masson, a native of the Black Isle, Ross-shire, and a cousin of the Rev. Dr Masson, of the Gaelic Church, Edinburgh. But really the Celt meets you everywhere in the Dominion, and the reader who has followed me in these sketches will not be surprised to find him at the very top of the political world of Canada.

The Marquise of Lorne, heir to the Dukedom of Argyll, is Governor- General, while Sir John A. Macdonald, K.C.B., another distinguished Highlander, is Premier of the great Dominion. His Excellency having seen by the morning papers that I was the guest of Mr Burgess of the Interior Department, on Monday morning, sent several messages to the office before we arrived there, intimating his desire to see me at his residence, Rideau Hall (two miles out), and that he would be glad to receive me from twelve o'clock to two P.M. Just as we entered the office his official secretary, Mr Kidd, came in to make further enquiry, and I at once started, arriving there exactly at noon. In a few minutes I was ushered into the presence of vice-Royalty. A genuine hearty shake of the hand and a graceful, easy, unpretentious manner on the part of his Excellency at once placed me at perfect ease. All ceremony was set aside, and the Queen's son-in-law, the Governor-General of this vast territory, acted and spoke as if he were the humblest of her Majesty's subjects. Here was one who traces his descent through forty-eight generations to Constantine (who died early in the fifth century), and in whose veins circulates the blood of William the Conqueror and of the Bruce; whose consort is her Majesty's favourite daughter; and who governs the greatest of our British Colonies; sitting beside you—talking in the simplest manner—in the most gentle tone—without the slightest air of superiority, about his brother Highlanders atliomo—those who settled in the Dominion; but especially those who left his own property in Tir and other parts of Argyleshire, and who emigrated and settled down in Canada, as if he were a mere ordinary subject of the Queen. I was never so much struck with the impassable gulf that exists, and must continue to exist, between the real gentleman, born and bred, and the snob who prides himself on his mere possession of filthy lucre. He talked freely about Canada and its magnificent prospects; the warm reception which the people accorded to himself and to his royal consort on their arrival; and at every place which they had since visited; the advantages of the Dominion as a field for emigration, especially for Highlanders, who, he said, he would be glad to welcome there as Governor- General of Canada, though as a Highlander he would be very sorry to part with them at home. I asked if it was not possible to extend any special encouragement to the Highlanders of Scotland such as the Government had already given to the Mennonites and Icelanders? I received pretty much the answer which I expected: That that was entirely a question of Government policy carried on by responsible Ministers, and in which he, even were he disposed, as the representative of a constitutional Sovereign, could not interfere. He was good enough not only to give me all the in- formation that I asked for, but offered me while in Ottawa the use of valuable papers and memoranda in connection with emigration which were prepared for his own special use, and of which I gladly availed myself. He also offered me letters of introduction to the leading men in Canada on either side of politics whom I might wish to see. I took advantage of this kind offer to some extent; but I felt that it would not suit me to go about with many introductions from his Excellency, or I might be considered a much more important personage than I really was, and my object in securing the class of information which I wanted might be defeated. I afterwards discovered that the honour conferred upon me was a very special one; for hundreds, I was told, attempted to secure an interview with his Lordship without the slightest chance, in most cases, of obtaining their object; while I, no doubt more as an humble representative of the readers of the Celtw Magazine than on any personal grounds, had such a high, unexpected, and unsolicited honour forced upon me. I felt that I was occupying his valuable time too long, but was told repeatedly that he had arranged to place himself at my disposal from twelve to two o'clock, during most of which time our conversation never Bagged, and I left with a very high opinion of our distinguished and exalted countryman. He expressed his great interest in some of his father's tenants who left Tires several years ago, and settled down in the districts of Huron and Bruce, where they are very comfortable, and desired me to pay them a visit if I possibly could. And I regret much that, though I was afterwards very near them, at Kincardine, on Lake Huron, the time at my disposal did not admit of my paying the Tiree Settlement a visit Though myself a Campbell on the mother side, I never was a great admirer of some of the leading members of the clan, but I must honestly admit that my interview with the future MacCailean Mor has very much raised his and my own mother's clan in my estimation. But, as I have already indicated, the Governor- General is not the only Highlander high up the political ladder in Canada. Next to him in position, and possessing infinitely more power and political influence, as in all limited monarchies, comes

Sir John A. MACDONLD, K.G.B., Prime Minister of the whole Dominion, a thorough Highlander, born in the county of Sutherland, on the 11th January 1815, shortly after which his father, Hugh Macdonald, emigrated to Canada and settled in Kingston, Ontario, where the son was educated at the Royal Grammar School He studied for the law, was called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1836, and became a Q.C. in 1846, by which time he had entered on the political career in which he has since so much distinguished himself. Returning from my interview with the Governor-General, I found a note awaiting me from the Private Secretary of the Premier, intimating that Sir John wished to see me at ten o'clock next morning, at his private residence. I called at the appointed time, and was received in the most gracious manner by our distinguished countryman, already busy among his despatches, and giving instructions to a couple of secretaries. We had a most agreeable conversation about Canada, emigration, the Highlanders at home, and his own extraordinary career—the details and principal incidents of which he at ray request agreed to supply me with, so as to enable me to prepare a sketch of him for my forthcoming "History of the Macdonalds." I at once discovered the secret of his marvellous success as a politician—his peculiarly agreeable and affable manner. Sir John is a man made to rule, and he does it, compelling even his most bitter opponents to admit that in twisting them round his fingers, he mystifies them in the most agreeable manner. As a Highlander I felt proud of the position occupied by my brother countryman - a position attained without any aristocratic or influential connections, and entirely due to his own native ability. But Sir John Macdonald is not the only humble Highlander who worked himself up to be Premier of Canada. The Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, a native of Logiemit, Perthshire, and originally a stone mason, only retired from the Premiership less than two years ago; and apparently it matters not what party here is in power, a Highlander must occupy the highest place. The Premier must in either case be a Macdonald or a Mackenzie, representing here on a small scale the strifes and feuds of their respective clans in the past; with this difference, however, that in their ancient contentions the Mackenzies managed to get the better of their opponents by political shrewdness and far-seeing policy, while these qualities, so necessary to the successful politician in Canada as elsewhere, seem to be better understood and practised more in modem Canadian politics by the Macdonalds.

While in the Capital eight of us had a most agreeable drive for ten miles alongside the River Gatineau, until we almost touched the fringe of the endless wilderness which begins here and ends only at the North Pole. I extract the following description of the city and of the Houses of Parliament from one of my own letters to the Aberdeen Free Press, believing it will prove interesting to the reader.-" Ottawa is a small city, with, in 1871, a population of about 30,000, and that number, during the last few years, has been rapidly decreasing—as many, it is said, as 5000 in five years. To this number may be added, however, the population of Hull, a town on the opposite side of the river, connected by a suspension bridge and steam ferry-boat, containing about 10,000, and one or two suburban villages, with about a thousand souls each. The only business of importance carried on in the city and neghbourhood is lumbering, which is a great and important industry. There are several large firms, possessing very extensive saw-mills. It has been computed that for a few years prior to 1871, when the timber trade was in a prosperous state, over 80,000,000 cubic feet of timber have been out down in the forests of Canada; that 16,000 men were employed cutting it in the forests; 10,000 men in the saw and planing mills; and 17,000 sailors employed in 1200 ships, carrying across the Atlantic a portion of this huge quantity to the United Kingdom; the productions of the forest thus affording employment to 50,000 men annually. A very large proportion of this production was in the neighbourhood and in the city of Ottawa; and, even now, when the trade is very depressed, you can see thousands upon thousands of piles in and about the city waiting for a market which it is difficult for the uninitiated to believe can ever be found for such an enormous quantity. There is, too, a pail factory, which turns out over 2000 pails, and 150 washing tubs per day; a match manufactory, the largest in Canada, turning out over 2000 boxes per day, and a few other minor factories.

The surroundings are on the whole, excepting Cape Breton and the Bras D'or Lakes, the finest, and those which remind one of some of the most beautiful scenes in Scotland, which I have seen as yet on this Continent. There are some very respectable hills—here called mountains—an undulating, partly wooded country; and the rivers, though small for Canadian rivers, are in comparison to ours magnificent. The Ottawa is navigable by large steamers for about 150 miles above Montreal (where it joins the St Lawrence) to the city, except for a few miles where they have to pass through a canal to escape the rapids. At Ottawa there is a fine fall and some rapids; but after you pass these for a few miles by rail, the river is again navigable for over 200 miles, right into the centre of the country. The Parliamentary buildings, three large and fine looking blocks some distance apart, occupy a most prominent and commanding position on an elevated plateau overlooking the river on one side and the city on the other. They are seen for many miles before you reach the city, and are built on a scale of magnificence which to the visitor appears most extravagant, except on the assumption that this is, in the future, to be one of the greatest countries in the world. The style is Gothic; but though it looks very fine from without, it has the drawback of making the corridors and offices inside appear dull and badly lighted. Though on a smaller scale the buildings look, in consequence of the locality and surroundings, even more imposing than those at Westminster. I much prefer, however, the arrangements in our own Houses of Parliament—so much more substantial and comfortable, and at the same time more sumptuously and elegantly furnished, especially in our Upper House. The Supreme Court here, however, which is in the building, is a perfect gem of a place, and superior for comfort, elegance, and good taste to anything we can show at home; while the Library in quite unique, unlike anything of the kind in existence. The latter must be seen; no description can do it justice. The main building, in which the Houses of Parliament, the Supreme Court, and the Library are situated, covers an area of 82,666 superficial feet, is 472 feet in length, and 582 feet in depth from the front of the main tower to the rear of the Library. It is 40 feet high, with an imposing tower over the entrance, 180 feet high. The lobby is supported by massive pillars of native marble, beautifully polished, while the corridors around both Houses are ornamented with a complete set of fine paintings of the Speakers of both Houses, from the first Speaker of the Dominion Parliament, down to the present holder of that distinguished office. The buildings form three sides of a square, the one already described forming the centre. The eastern block contains the Governor's offices and those the Privy Council, Interior, Justice, Secretary of State, Finance, and Inland Revenue; while the western building contains the offices of Public Works, Railways and Canals, Post-Office, Customs, Military and Defence, and Agriculture and Emigration, forming a pile of buildings which seems altogether out of proportion to the present requirements of Canada, and erected in an out-of-the-way and inconvenient locality, in a city making no progress in population or in any other respect, and which from its position, depending almost entirely on the timber trade—which must ere long become exhausted—cannot be expected to make any great progress in the future. It seems a pity that such a magnificent pile of buildings was not erected in a central place, where it could be seen and admired by the mass of the Canadian people, whose patriotism would necessarily be strengthened by such noble buildings, and by visitors who could not but admire the enterprise and trust in the future which raised such a splendid edifice." I met with the greatest civility in all the Government departments; but I am especially indebted to Colonel Dennis, Deputy-Minister of the Interior, and to Mr Lowe of the Emigration Department, for placing at my disposal all the information in their possession on the sub- jects in which I was more particularly interested. Having had lunch with his Worship the Mayor, on Tuesday, the 28th of October, I left on my way back to Glengarry, where I met the Highlander, as described in my previous letter. On Saturday following we left together for Kingston, the ancient capital of Upper Canada, 105 miles further west, to pay our respects to a Highlander who has distinguished himself in a very different field—the well-known Gaelic bard,

EVAN MACCOLL. Since I began to read, "Eoghainn MacColla" and his "Clarsach nam Beann" were names as familiar to me as "Uilliain Ros" and "Feasgar Luain," and to see the sweet bard of Lochfyne in the flesh, and in his own house, was the most central object in my Canadian tour. About five o'clock in the afternoon the train pulled up at Kingston station; and there he was waiting for us, a smartly habilitated, lively, nervous-looking Highlander of middle stature, in Glengarry bonnet We could not mistake him, though we had never seen him. We involuntarily stepped forward to meet one another; and what a meeting and warm greeting. Knowing his age, sixty-seven, and his occupation, I expected to have met a portly, stiffish, and formal old man; but there he was, trim and sprightly as a mavis, and looking at least fifteen years younger than he really is. We are soon in his cosy habitation, warmly welcomed by his better-half—a superior woman, whose sole object in life seems to be the happiness and gratification of her husband; and her natural shrewdness has evidently taught her that the surest way of doing so was by giving full scope to her own inclinations in extending a hearty reception and genuine hospitality to his friends. Nothing was too good for us. The whole family had apparently but one object in view—to make us feel at home from home. Here I remained for three days— three of the happiest in my life—in the society of one who possessed the genuine poetic spark, and in a home where childhood's days were vividly brought back to my recollection, seeing the fine old Highland custom of family worship conducted and shared in by certain members of the family in a manner which I had not elsewhere seen and enjoyed since I had left the home of my parents many years ago in my native vale in Wester Ross.

I was grieved to find the bard almost struggling with existence. After a long period of service in the Customs, he was still working hard and constant for the small pittance of £150 a year. The Muse is apparently not appreciated in the Dominion so highly as one could wish, otherwise Evan MacColl would not have been neglected as he has hitherto been by those—his brother Celts—who have occupied place and power in Canada, and who, you would have thought, might be expected to appreciate literary and poetic talent in the person of a bard who, though hitherto neglected, will undoubtedly live in the memory and affection of future generations of his countrymen, when Premiers, and even Governor-generals, shall have been forgotten. The neglect of such a man is a positive disgrace, especially to his own political friends, whom he served to a much greater extent than, in his case, they deserved. A few weeks after I left Kingston I learned that, to make his case even worse than ever, he had been superannuated, and his income very much reduced. I had meanwhile written to Sir John Macdonald, the present Premier, in his behalf; asking him to rise above mere politics and do something for the Celtic bard, who bad been so shamefully neglected by his own political Mends. I was, however, too late. The deed had been already done. MacColl was no longer in the Civil Service. But Sir John kindly offered his aid in getting up a public testimonial "to the Celtic Bard," if started by his Mends. I feel sure the mere suggestion is sufficient. The ex- Premier, I know, will do his share, and so in part at least make up for having overlooked the claims of the bard when he was in a position to make some public acknowledgment of MacColl's claims as a warm, honest, and admiring supporter of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, the representative and able exponent of Canadian Liberalism. And what a gracious and appropriate act it would now be for the Governor-General-himself no mean votary of the Muse—to raise his own countryman, an Argyleshire man, a brother and more distinguished bard than himself, to be Poet Laureate of Canada. This would, I know, be greatly appreciated by MacCoil, and at the same time some little compensation for put neglect of his claims.

I was glad to find that he was preparing a new edition of his poems, which is to include at least eighty pieces hitherto unpublished, and much superior in many respects to anything in his previous well-known and popular."Clarsach." I could devote a whole article to the Bard of Lochfyne, his family, and surroundings, with great pleasure to myself; and, I feel sure, no little gratification to many of my readers; but I hope to re-
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turn to the subject in another form at no very distant day. Meanwhile I would direct attention to the noble and true description given of. him— page 198 of this issue—by his talented daughter, Mary J. MacCoil, in the dedicatory poem to her volume of sweet poemlets recently published, and which do credit even to the daughter of such a father. Since the above was written, a letter from the dear old bard reached me, which begins as follows, and the introduction to which I have no little pleasure to insert here.

"Kingston, 12th January 1880.
"(New Year's Day, O.S.).

The bard continues—" My dear Mackenzie, I took up my pen with a view of inditing you a plain prose letter, when lo! will you—nil you— the muse would insist on my making a commencement in rhyme, hinting that at least the New Year's salutation, with which I intended to begin, ought to take a rhythmical shape," &c., &c.

While under the bard's roof I was honoured by a visit from another distinguished Highlander, Principal Grant, of Queen's College University, Kingston, whose parents emigrated from Balnellan, parish of Invernaven, Strathspey, where many of his relatives still reside. His mother was a Munro from Inverness. They went out to Pictou, in Nova Scotia, where the future Principal was born, on the East River, in 1837. He first attended the Pictou Academy, and afterwards the University of Glasgow, where he graduated in Arts, in 1857, with the highest honours in Logic and Mental Philosophy. Having been ordained by the Presbytery of that city, in 1860, he returned to Nova Scotia, where, after two years of successful missionary work in Prince Edward's Island, he was called to St Matthew's Church, Halifax, the oldest Presbyterian congregation in the city. Here he remained until 1877, when he was unanimously elected Principal of Kingston University and Primarius Professor of Divinity. In 1878 the University of Glasgow conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. He was not long in his new position when he discovered that new buildings and additional endowments were needed for the University, and in the summer of 1878 he appealed to the friends of the institution throughout the country, with the gratifying result that the large sum of £30,000 poured in upon him, more than nine-tenths of which, he informed me, with pardonable pride, was from his own fellow- countrymen and brother Scots. He was unfortunate enough to have lost his right arm, close to the shoulder, in early life; but this serious drawback seems only to have made him the more determined to push on and distinguish himself. He is a graceful writer, and he has written several contributions for Good Words. In 1872 he made a tour from Halifax to Vancouver Island—from the Atlantic to the Pacific—and wrote an account of the Great Canadian North-West, entitled "From Ocean to Ocean," which has gone through several editions.

One of the most distinguished members of the University staff; indeed one of the most distinguished Highlanders in Canada, with whom I spent a most enjoyable hour, was Professor Mackerras, a native of Nairn, where he was born June 15th, 1832, and who, I grieve to say, has since I saw him passed over to the majority. His father became a schoolmaster in Cornwall, Ontario, where the son commenced his education, and the career which has been so brilliant throughout. He has been in failing health for some time back. A few years ago he visited his native land, for which he expressed the warmest affection. His conversation mainly turned upon it; and he talked of his early recollections of Scotland and the vivid impressions made upon his mind during his recent visit to his native land —where he has still many relatives—with genuine pleasure. I was particularly struck with his quiet gentleness, and extremely delicate appearance, so much so the latter that I expressed my fear on parting with him to the bard that he would not live out thie winter, a prediction which, alas! proved only too true. The Press of Canada is loud and unanimous in his praises. The Kingston Whig says that he was "a literary genius. He had a highly cultivated intellect, a polish of manner, and a winning disposition which made him a favourite in his chosen walk of life, He was possessed of tastes of rare refinement, and voice and pen were both advantageously employed by him in labours of a most important character. His mind was always active, and no one was more cheerfully disposed than he to contribute to the entertainment and elevation of his fellow men. He was a speaker whose thoughts were always delightfully ex- pressed, and whose diction was rendered interesting and fascinating by the elocution of which he was such a master."

The Rev. Dr Jenkins, of St Paul's Church, Montreal, preaching the Sunday after his death, paid him the following tribute

"I cannot close these services without a passing reference to the loss which the Presbyterian Church in Canada has lately sustained in the death of the late Rev. John Hugh Mackerras, one of the Clerks of the General Assembly, and Professor of Classics in the University of Queen's College. To some of you he was personally known; to most of you he was known by reputation. A man of rare natural endowments, he was also a man of large culture. Learned was he and eloquent, an accomplished scholar, an able and persuasive preacher; while his legal acumen and attainments in the ecclesiastical sphere has perhaps never been sur- passed. Certainly they have never been equalled. These are endowments that have loomed before the public eye, but they were insignificant compared with his qualities as a man and his excellence as a Christian. Singularly gentle by nature, he became by Divine grace the humble, simple-hearted Christian sitting at the feet of Jesus; and while learning from his words, drinking largely into his spirit. To those who knew him in private life, his grace and gentleness, his transparent honesty and truthfulness, his reverent spirit, his godly walk, were felt to give a charm and a brilliancy to his character which even his more public qualities failed to impart. His was indeed the path of the just. His religious character grew in Christian principle as he passed on in life and deepened within his great nature. On and on he went, walking in the light of Heaven while yet with us on earth. Such men rarely appear in the firmament of the Church. When they pass beyond to another sphere, a blank is left, which it takes generations to fill up. Weshall never again hear his eloquent voice, never again shall we have the privilege of being guided by his wise counsels."

Such are a few specimens of the Celt which one meets in Canada.

The member for the city in the Dominion Parliament I found to be a successful Caithness Highlander, Alexander Gunn, who defeated even the great Sir John A. Macdonald himself, at the last general election, though the latter represented the city uninterruptedly for thirty-five years. Learning that we were in the city, he was good enough to invite MacColl, myself, and the Highlander to meet a few of the leading Celts of the place, around his hospitable table; among whom were a successful Macrae, from Strathpeffer, who served his apprenticeship to the grocery business with John Chisholm, Inverness; a Mr Fraser, from Dingwall, and several others whose names I did not carry away with me. The Highlander was in his kilt; but Mrs Gunn, to my great gratification, placed him completely in the shade, by unexpectedly introducing her two handsome boys, both dressed in superb Highland costumes, with strap- pings, armour, and ornaments complete. I feel more indebted to her for this compliment than for the substantial fare which she was good enough to provide for our entertainment. While in Kingston snow fell to the depth of three or four inches, and I there saw sleighing for the first time in my life. I could say much more about this city and its kind and hospitable people; but this article has already reached such an inordinate length that I must pull up. In the next I shall introduce the reader to the Highlanders of Toronto, Woodville, and Beaverton.

VI

Mr Murdoch having left Kingston early on Tuesday, I had the bard all to myself that day until 4 P.M., when we started together for the station on my way to Toronto. The train being.late, I here got into conversation with the Hon. Sir Richard J. Cartwright, Finance Minister In the late Mackenzie administration. He was also waiting the train, and I was introduced to him by Maccoil. I at once turned the conversation to my grievance about the Canadian treatment of Highland emigrants, so shabby as compared with the facilities and encouragement which have been ex- tended to the Mennonites and Icelanders, and what I considered the suicidal policy of only encouraging men with money to the Dominion. Sir Richard was against me. I stated my opinion firmly and in such a manner as probably justified this able but self-opinionative Canadian knight to part from me with the idea that .1 did not pay that deference to his opinions and policy which they deserved. The train, however, rushed along the platform before I had an opportunity of doing the amiable; and probably both of us went our respective ways fully convinced that the other was more dogmatieal in his assertions and opinions than either our knowledge or experience justified. For that, however, the arrival of the Grand Trunk train in the middle of our interesting discussion must 'be held responsible.

I soon found myself rushing along through a very fine country, with Lake Ontario a considerable distance on the left, until, after passing Bdlleil1e, Cobourg, and Port Hope, we skirt almost along its banks, through some of the best and most productive land in Canada. This district is celebrated as the greatest barley producing country in the Dominion. About 11.30 P.M. we arrived at

TORONTO,

a distance of over 160 miles, and I made for the "Walker House," a capitally conducted hotel, kept by a native of Glasgow, who arrived in the Dominion with only a capital of £3, but who is now proprietor of this fine establishment and other property in Toronto. His house, in which you are only charged 88 a day for everything, is the common rendezvous of Scotsmen, not only in Toronto and neighbourhood, but of those who visit the city from all parts of Canada, the United States and Scotland.

Next morning I had a walk through the principal parts of the city, the streets of which, in consequence of the recent fall of snow, were very slushy. There are some very fine buildings in the commercial part of the town, but I saw the place for the first time under such serious disadvantages that I was not so favourably impressed with it as r would no doubt otherwise have been. Toronto is the' capital of Ontario, the most import- ant province of the Canadian Dominion. It is situated on a beautiful circular bay on the north-west shore of Lake Ontario, 333 miles west from Montreal, having a fine harbour formed by a peninsula called Gibraltar Point which separates it from the Lake, shelters the inner bay, which is six miles long by one and a-half wide, and makes it a very safe harbour for shipping. The city lies low, but rises gently from the water's edge, until, at the Observatory buildings, it reaches a point 108 feet above the level of the sea. It is mainly built of stone and brick, and has a number of very fine streets crossing each other at right angles, and containing several very fine public buildings, warehouses, and private residences. The city is the seat of the Provincial Government of Ontario and of the Law Courts. The Government buildings make a very poor appearance in comparison with others in the city, but they are about to be pulled down, and new buildings, in keeping with the importance and requirements of the Government, are to be erected in their place. Osgoode Hall, where all the Law Courts are held under one roof, is a fine classic structure, and the official residence of the Lieutenant-Governor and the University are noble buildings—the latter considered to be one of the finest on the American continent. The public park is a very fine one, and the wide avenue leading to it, ornamented with stately trees, must be a magnificent sight in summer. The city contains no end of thriving factories and foundries, breweries and distilleries, and the largest cabinet factory in Canada, while between forty and fifty newspapers and periodicals are published in it, including the Globe, admitted on all hands to be the most influential paper in the whole Dominion. Its founder and principal proprietor is

THE HON GEORGE BROWN, Senator of the Dominion, quite a self-made man, and whose mother was a Mackenzie from the Island of Lews. His influence among Liberal politicians, derived no doubt largely from that of the Globe, is unequalled, and indeed more potent than some of the ostensible leaders of the party are willing to admit. No Liberal Government can ignore his opinions, and usually declining to accept office, it is most difficult—indeed, sometimes impossible to keep him under party control In Nova Scotia I was told that "the pople of Ontario believed more in the gospel of George Brown than in that of the New Testament," and in Toronto I found the Globe described among its opponents as the "Scotsman's Bible." While this is no doubt a libel on the orthodoxy of our countrymen, it gives no bad idea of their faith in the leading Canadian journal. The Toronto Mail has been started a few years ago in the interest of the Conservative party. it is capitally written, and conducted with great vigour, and, I was told, no small amount of success. I found the Hon. George a most agreeable and chatty fellow, but his herculean frame and firm, determined-looking visage at once convinced me that, apart altogether from the power of the Globe, it would be the better part of valour to keep on friendly terms with him. I had been told that

THE HON. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, ex-Premier of the Dominion, resided in Toronto, where he held the post of Chairman of the Isolated Risk Insurance Company. I called and sent in my card, whereupon he walked out of his sanctum, invited me in, and introduced me to one of his brothers, who was at the time with him in the office, and, after a most pleasant chat, invited me to dine with him that evening. I did so, and enjoyed a most agreeable evening listening to the pleasant and unpretentious chat of the distinguished statesman, and that of his amiable and much esteemed lady, like himself a native of the county of Perth. As already stated in a previous article, Mr Mackenzie is a native of Logierait, where he was born on the 22d of January 1822, so that he is now in the 58th year of his age. I have not been able to find out what particular family of the clan the ex-Premier is descended from, but his ancestors lived in Strathtummel for several generations. The whole family emigrated to Canada, where the sons, seven in number, were all successful men, and remarkable for their natural ability and great force of character. One of them, the late Hope F. Mackenzie, was successively and for several years M.P. for Lambton and for North Oxford, and was well known as a man of marked ability, of earnestness, and honesty of purpose.

The Hon. Alexander was educated at the public schools of Moulin, Dunkeld, and Perth, and his father having died when the future Premier was very young, he had at the age of fourteen to push his own way in the world. He was apprenticed to a stone mason, and became a thorough master of his trade. He had early evinced a taste for literature, and continued a persevering student through life. He now possesses not only a very extensive acquaintance with general literature, but has few equals in his accurate and wide knowledge of political, constitutional, and social history, as well as the present condition and general history of the leading nations of the earth. He has thus a great advantage over most of the politicians of Canada, his ready command of the facts thus acquired enabling him to illustrate his eloquent public orations with telling effect. In 1842, when only 20 years of age, he emigrated and settled down in Sarnia, then a thriving and rising village, where he commenced business as a contractor. He took & keen interest in all public questions, and became a contributor to the press. He was soon acknowledged as a very useful, and. ultimately as a most prominent member, of the Liberal party. In all the most exciting political events of the period, from 1850 to 1864, he was a most active and earnest participator. His excellent and powerful speeches, as well as his able contributions to the press during that eventful period of Canadian history, strongly aided in bringing about the great results achieved by the party of which he was now fast becoming the natural leader. He continued earnestly to advocate with great power, firmness, and' fearlessness, the introduction of popular reform, Be became the editor of a Liberal newspaper, which, by the force and ability of his contributions, and the sound common sense and patriotism which pervaded its columns, soon became a power in the State, and commanded general attention. He naturally became associated with the leading constitutional and administrative reformers in Parliament. In 1861 he was returned to 'the Legislature for the county of Lambton, in which Sarnia is situated, and of which it is now the capital town, and from that day to this he held one of the most prominent and influential positions, both as a speaker and as a legislator, in the Dominion Parliament. When the Hon. George Brown left the Coalition Cabinet of 1864-5, Mr Mackenzie was offered the Presidency of the Council, but declined it on the ground that the concessions offered to the United States for a renewal of the Reciprocity Treaty were unwise; and that he could not become a member of a Government who would be held responsible for such concessions. In 1871 he was pre-ailed upon to contest West Middlesex for the local Parliament of Ontario. In this he succeeded against a strong opponent.

On the meeting of the Legislature shortly after, he rendered great service in the debate which resulted in what is described as "the memorable and victorious attack" upon the then existing Government. In the new Government he was made Provincial Secretary, and afterwards he accepted the office of Treasurer or Finance Minister, the duties of which his great and intimate knowledge of the resources of the Province enabled him to conduct with vigour and success, his budget speech in 1872 being described as "a masterly exposition of Provincial finance." Hitherto representatives could sit as members of the Dominion and of the local Legislatures at the same time, but in 1872 an act was passed which disqualified members from sitting in both, whereupon Mr Mackenzie resigned his seat and office in the local Legislature, to devote himself exclusively to the more important sphere of Federal politics at Ottawa, in the Dominion Parliament. His great ability and industry soon made themselves felt here. He was soon, by common consent, first, leader of the Ontario section of the Liberals in the House of Commons; then tacitly, and afterwards by formal election, he became the leader of the whole Liberal party of the Dominion. When, in 1873, the downfall of Sir John A. Macdonald and his Government occurred, "there was no one," according to the Globe, "justly to deny Mr Mackenzie's title to the Premiership of British North America, by virtue of the position he already held in the House of Commons, his capacity as a statesman, his ability as a speaker, his wide and accurate knowledge of public affairs, his ardent devotion to the interests of his adopted country, his genial love of the Old Sod and all its belongings, his unspotted personal character, his in- tense love of right and hatred of wrong, and the enviable place he has won for himself in the confidence and respect of his fellow countrymen."
The Mackenzie Administration has left its impress on the political history and the statute book of Canada, and Mr Mackenzie, its chief and most distinguished member may be fairly credited with most of the reforms—administrative and departmental—which his Government were able to carry out. In 1875 he paid a visit to his native country with a view of securing some repose from his arduous duties, and at the same time to see his native land, which be continues to love with genuine affection. The reception accorded to him on that occasion is in the recollection of the reader, and need not here be enlarged upon. He was received by her Majesty at Windsor Castle, Every rank of his countrymen welcomed him with marks of distinction and genuine cordiality. Dundee and Perth conferred upon him the freedom of their respective burghs, while his reception at Dunkeld, Logiorait. Greenock, and, other places throughout the north, were honours of which any statesman, how- ever eminent, might feel proud. All throughout his political career, and during his agreeable tour in his native land, be bore himself with a characteristic modesty and dignity, while all his utterances were universally held to partake of great common sense and refined taste. Those who know him say that he is of the most kindly disposition, without the slightest ostentation or assumption, a thoroughly upright man, a firm friend, a pleasant companion, and full of fun, anecdote, and pleasant banter, when he unbends at his own fireside or at that of a friend. In religion he is a Baptist, and while he holds to his, own religious opinions conscientiously and firmly, he has never shown the slightest tinge of bigotry or uncharitableness towards those who differ from him.

Such is a brief sketch of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, with whom I had the honour of spending a most agreeable evening. At first he does not impress you as being possessed of. any extraordinary gifts, but as the conversation proceeds a countenance, by no means indicative of great power and force of character, gradually brightens up, the purest English, with an umnistakeable Perthshire accent, flows easily and fluently from his tongue. You are impressed with his genuine honesty and want of reserve, and you cannot help thinking that these qualities must be a great obstacle to his success as a Canadian politician, when pitted against such an able tactician and Disraelian imitator as Sir John A. Macdonald. I was, in short, in the company of a man of great nattiral ability and culture, who talked freely and fluently on the various questions introduced by me; and I was particularly pleased to find him admitting that the policy of giving the -cold-shoulder to Highland immigrants was agreat mistake-; and promising that if he ever again got into power, the policy of the present Government on that particular question - would be entirely reversed. In the morning of the same day I called, at Government House, upon

THE HON. DONALD ALEXANDER MACDONALD, Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, with a letter of introduction from his Excellency the Marquis of Lorn. I found him exceedingIy pleasant and affable, and quite able and willing to converse with me in Gaelic as well as in English. He was having a party of the leading politicians of the Province to dine with him the same evening, and kindly invited me to join them. Having, however, already engaged to dine with the ox-Premier, I was most reluctantly obliged to decline his proferred hospitality, but had to promise him that I should accept of it on my return to Toronto from Beaverton about the middle of the following week. The grandfather of the Lieutenant-Governor emigrated from Knoydart, on the west coast of Inverness-shire, in 1786, and settled in Glengarry, Canada. One of the sons, Alexander, succeeded his father in the farm at Sandfield Corner, close to St Raphael's Church, in Glengarry, and had a family of sons brought up there which turned out to be one of. the most influential and distinguished in the great Dominion. One of these, the late John Sandfield Macdonald, was for many years one of the leading politicians of Canada, and ultimately became Premier. Another son, A. F. Macdonald, represented Cornwall for many years in the House of Commons, and this distinguished Highland family represented almost without any interruption the county of Glengarry in Parliament since the Union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, in which year John Sandfield was first elected for the county. The present Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario was born on the farm, at Sandfield, in 1817, so that he is now in his 63d year. He was educated at a neighbouring institution, presided over by the Right Rev. Alexander Macdonnell, P.D., afterwards Bishop of Kingston. He devoted himself to mercantile pursuits, and became a successful contractor, in which capacity he constructed several railways and canal. In course of time he be- came President of the Montreal and Ottawa City Junction Railway, and one of the Directors of the Bank of Ontario. In 1870 he retired from business, and since that time devoted himself almost exclusively to public affairs. He was returned to Parliament in 1857. In 1871 he declined the Treasurership of Ontario. On the defeat of the Government of Sir John A. Macdonald in 1873, he became Postmaster-General in the Mackenzie Administration, and in the space of two years carried out great reforms in his department, among which-were the establishment of direct mail communication between Canada and Europe, the reduction of postal rates across the Atlantic, and the establishment of a system of uniformity, free postal delivery in the principal cities of the Dominion, prepayment of the postage on letters and newspapers, and, a Postal Convention with the United States, which resulted in the reduction of postage each way by about fifty per cent., and the extension of reciprocity to the money order system of the country. His public speeches were always short, but at the same time distinguished by pleasant and graceful thought and utterance. Naturally of a conciliatory disposition, be was able to overcome difficulties that his predecessors in office were unable to surmount. He bad always taken a keen interest in the military affairs of the country, and for many years held the honourable position of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Glengarry Reserve Militia, a body of men possessing the military ardour and heroic spirit which in all ages distinguished their Highland ancestors, and which still animates the inhabitants of Glengarry County. It was only natural that when Mr Mackenzie found himself in a position to fill up the vacancy in the high office of the Lieutenant-Governorship of Ontario, he should have conferred it upon his able Lieutenant, the Postmaster-General; and it was universally admitted by politicians on both sides that no more fitting appointment could be made, and that no member of the Liberal party deserved the honourable distinction more than Mr Macdonald, who had continued throughout all his public career to retain the esteem and respect of friends and foes alike. A general chorus of approval from all parties followed upon the appointment, and it is admitted on all hands that "nothing occurred since his elevation to mar this feeling of satisfaction. Punctual and earnest in the discharge of his public duties, Mr Macdonald, in his no less important social capacity, retains and continues to display the same valuable qualities which have long made him a favourite with all who knew him, dispensing the hospitalities of Government House with as little ostentation as possible, but with as much kindness and liberality as could be desired." He is a tall, good-looking man, with a fine open countenance, most unassuming, and agreeable in manner; a Catholic in faith, but full of charity and good feeling towards those who differ from him in religion. He is highly popular with all the members of the Liberal party, and devotedly fond of his native Glengarry and its people, while he still has a warm corner in his heart for "Tir nam beann, nan gleaun, 'a nan gaisgeach." While in the city I had a most agreeable interview with the Hon. S. C. Wood, Treasurer and Minister of Agriculture for the Province of Ontario, who supplied me with information bearing upon emigration, and expressed his views freely on that and such other questions as I introduced and discussed with him. His deputy, Mr Spence, Secretary of the Emigration Department, I found equally pleasant and obliging, and most anxious to place any information in his possession at my disposal. And now that I am taking leave, for the present at least, of Canadian officials, it is only right to say that whether they agreed or differed with me, I found them, without exception, from the highest to the lowest, perfect gentlemen, most agreeable, civil, and obliging, with no offensive airs of superiority, and most anxious to supply any information in their power, whether it was connected with their own special departments or not.

The reader is no doubt aware that in Toronto resides Patrick Macgregor, M.A., barrister, better known from his connection with Celtic literature, more particularly as the author of "The Genuine Remains of Ossian, literally translated, with a preliminary Dissertation," published by him in 1841, under the patronage of the Highland Society of London. Mr Macgregor was educated in the University of Edinburgh, and has several relations in this country, in Badenoch and Paisley, the well-known P. Comyn Macgregor of the latter place being his cousin-german. In the course of a most interesting chat, I learned with pleasure that Mr Macgregor had a new edition, improved, with extensive notes, of his now rare work, ready for the press. One of the judges is Kenneth Mackenzie, but though I called twice I found him on the bench, and I was unable to procure an interview or find out what branch of the Mackenzies he originally sprang from "But perhaps the best known (to quote from my letters in the Free Pre&) and most genuinely warm-hearted Highlander in Toronto is Hugh Miller, a wholesale chemist, who learned his business in Church Street, Inverness. He came to Toronto in 1842, when it had only a population of between thirteen and fourteen thousand, the inhabitants of the city having thus increased six times in 37 years, during which period Mr Miller has been one of its most prominent and upright citizens. Finding him so popular among his fellow countrymen, I jocularly remarked that it was a pity our friend had so nearly outlived the Clan Miller, or he would no doubt have been appointed Chief by acclamation. 'Ah,' answered one, 'he holds afar more important position here; he is Chief of all the Clans in Toronto." Indeed I found that he was known and spoken of over the whole of Upper Canada as one of the very best in all respects of his race in the wide Dominion. He has long ago occupied all the positions of honour at the disposal of the St Andrew and Caledonian Societies. He is a Justice of the Peace, and a leading reformer, and his eldest son and partner in business holds the honourable position among his countrymen of Secretary to the St Andrew Society. No deserving Scot in distress is turned away from Hugh Miller's; but in spite of all his liberality and kindness, which are proverbial, he possesses, in addition to a lucrative and extensive business, some valuable land and house property in and around the City of Toronto. There were numberless good Highlanders in the city whom I desired to see; but the limited time at my disposal did not admit of my staying long enough in the Place. Among others I met Mr Neil Bain, a very fine fellow, a native of Dingwall, and a partner in a large safe manufacturing concern in the city. James Bain & Son is a most respectable firm of booksellers of long standing, doing a very prosperous business, and also originally from Ding- wail. One of the eons is a partner in the London publishing firm of Nimmo & Bain. The leading publishers in the city are Campbell & Son and Maclear & Co., and genuine Highlanders to boot. I was also pleased to meet with two young Invernessians—one, a son of the late respected Bathe Alexander Macbean, who holds a respectable position in the Goods Department of the Grand Trunk Railway; and Angus Macbean, a son of Lewi8 Macbean, also occupying a respectable position respectable position which I was informed he is steadfastly improving in a manner which his good conduct and steady habits fully deserve. The mercantile houses exhibit Gordons, Mackays, Campbells, Macdonald.s, Mackeuzie8, Mathesons, and other such Highland names without number on their signboards, making you feel quite at home as you pass along the principal streets of the city, While here I took a run out to

BAVERTON AND WOODVILLE

by the Toronto and Nippising narrow gauge railway, the manager of which was good enough to send me a return pass over his line to and from Woodville where I had to change and travel some eight miles on. another line to Beaverton. At the Midland junction, about 100 miles due north from Toronto, I had to wait for more than an hour for the arrival of the train, which was just an hour behind time. The offlcials showed the most delightful unconcern as to its appearance; and, making inquiry, I was told by one of them that the trains were almost invariably equally late and was It once in a fortnight up to time," the delay generally taking place at Lindsay.

My principal object in going to this district was to see the Rev. David Watson, M.A., one of the earliest subscribers to the Celtic Magazine in that quarter—a genuine Highlander, whose father at one time occupied the farm of Knocknageal, near Inverness. He was in the village to meet and drive me to the manse, about a mile further on, where, on arriving, I received a warm Highland greeting from his wile and family. I soon discovered that Beaverton, situated on Lake Simçoe, a magnificent sheet of water, was almost entirely populated by Gaelic-speaking Highlanders, those from Islay and Kintail forming the great majority. I much desired to see them, but my kind host stuck to me so closely and attentively that I could not leave him to go among the people, without a seeming rudeness and ingratitude which I naturally felt most anxious to avoid. However, on Sunday morning, finding that I could not have my desires satisfied as to the living, I went to the churchyard, and wandered an4 mused among the tombs of the dead, until it was time to enter the church to hear my eloquent friend preaching to his devoted Highland flock. Here, among the tombs, I enjoyed a sermon in stones which surpassed in interest to me any that I had ever heard preached from living lips, There I found from the inscriptions and sculpture which abounded that vast numbers of my expatriated countrymen lay under a strange sod thousands of miles away from their native land, waiting for the great day when the earth and sea shall give forth their dead, Hardly a monument or head-stone but proclaimed that he or she over whom it was placed was "a native of Scotland"—Campbells and Mackays "from Islay," Camerons "from Lochaber," Macraes "from Ross-shire" or "from Kintail," Gordons and Murrays "from Sutherlandshire," Maceweans "from Perthshire," and so on from all the Highland counties. The whole surroundings and the thoughts to which they gave rise were touching beyond description, and made an impression upon my mind which I shall never forget. The harsh cruelty or callous indifference on the part of the Highland Chiefs, who must be held principally responsible for the expatriation of their noble countrymen, was recalled and presented in vivid colours before the mind's eye. The ties of affection for fathers, brothers, sisters, and friends, for country  and kin, so remorselessly torn asunder by the natural protectors of their people and dependants were recalled, and the feeling produced was one of subdued sorrow mixed with no small amount of hatred and contempt for the memory of the authors of Highland evictions and other less glaring and offensive, but equally cruel forms of expatriation and transportation of a past generation. One could not help feeling the great value and interest which would have attached to such ,a record, as was here given, of the early migration westward from Europe to the British Isles of the early Celtic races. Though thousands have found a last resting-place in this city of the dead, the first burial took place in it so recently as 1834, a few years after the first tree was out in the then trackless and endless forest. The inscription, which shows a poor acquaintance on the part of the composer with Highland geography—for he places Inverness-shire in the Isle of Skye—is as follows:-" Sacred to the memory of Ann M'Ginnis, wife of Donald Cameron, a native of the Parish of Strath, Inverness-shire, Isle of Skye, Scotland, died May 14th, 1834, aged 48 years. Deceased was the first intered (81c) in this yard." Another inscription, on a very fine monument, is "In memory of Colonel Kenneth Cameron, formerly in Her Majesty's 79th or Cameron Highlanders, who died June 20th 1872, aged 84 years," Colonel Cameron joined the famous 79th, I was told, as ensign about 1802. In the same enclosure is another monument to Robt. Bethune, youngest son of the late Rev. John Bethune, D.D., of the parish of Dornoch, Sutherlandahire, who died in 1864, aged 67 years, and whose widow, a sister of Colonel Cameron, survives him, and is perhaps the most respected lady now living in the Township of Thorah. On a fine marble column we are told that, "Here moulders the ashes of Robert Mactaggart....He was born in Islay, served under Admiral Nelson, fought in the memorable battle of the Nile, departed this life on the 6th of September 1858, at the good old age of 88."

But perhaps the most peculiar, and those which best illustrate the love of home and the pride of ancestry, are the following:-" In memory of Donald Macrae, born 29 June 1786, died 30 Nov. 1870. Emigrated to Canada 1821. Was one of the first pioneers of the Township of Thorah. He was son of Donald Macrae, who was (son) of Christopher Roy, (son) of John Donald, (son) of Alexander, (son) of Christopher. His first wife, Mary Macrae, was daughter of John [Brec], (son) of Donald, (son) of Donald, (son) of Alexander (son) of Christopher." From this it appears that this couple were cousins six times removed from Christopher, their common ancestor. Two of their eons, John and Donald, are in excellent circumstances, worth about £4000 each, and I was determined to see them. I found them such genuine Highlanders as I expected the commemorators of their ancestors in such an inscription would be; and it is quite unneccessary to say that they still take a warm and most lively interest in the Scottish Highlands. John was born in Kintail, but left with his father quite young; but Donald was born in Canada. Their great-grandmother was a daughter of the Macrae of Ardintoul of the day.

Alongside the above unique inscription was one "In memory of Isabella Macrae, relict of Donald Macrae. Born at Kintail, Ross-shire, Scotland, in 1783; died at Thorah, July 17, 1872. Daughter of John and Maigaret Macrae, who were descendants of the Reverends Farquhar Macrae and Donald Macrae, ministers of the Church of Scotland, A. D. 174, in Kintail."

These inscriptions, as I have already indicated, gave rise to feelings and emotions not easily suppressed, and some of which I communicated to my reverend friend before he entered the pulpit; and during the most eloquent and impressive discourse which he afterwards delivered, he made such telling references thereto as visibly affected many of his hearers. Mr Watson is deservedly highly popular with the people, among whom he has laboured for so many years. He is one of the small number of ministers who opposed the Union, recently entered into by all the Presbyterian Churches of Canada, and his congregation to a man adhered to him, though every one of them were quite willing to join if their pastor did so. Some of them, however, asked themselves the question, Whether it was best to go over and part with their minister, or adhere to a pastor whom they almost adored, as a godly, earnest, and hard-working man, to whom they looked up as their naturl father and protector when any troubles or trials overtook them I The question of Union or not was put to them from the pulpit, their minister asking all those who were in favour of Union with the other churches to stand up. Not one responded. He then asked those who desired to continue as they were to show their wishes in the same manner, when every soul in the building sprang to their feet. The church in which they had been hitherto worshipping was antiquated and too small for the growing requirements of an increasing congregation; and to show their confidence in their minister, and to encourage him still further, the time was considered appropriate to set on foot a subscription for the building of a new church. In a very short time a sum of £3500 was subscribed solely among his Highland friends, and all 'within the township. A handsome building, large enough to seat 900 persons, was contracted for, and was ready to receive the congregation the Sunday after my visit, on which day it was to be formally opened. It is a pretty, neat structure, and every farthing of its cost was subscribed before the building contract was entered into, a fact which I am afraid cannot be recorded of many, if any, churches in our Highland districts at home. It will thus be seen that Mr Watson is happy in his people and surroundings, and he is equally so in his own family. His sons and daughters are educated under the domestic roof by their father, who in the most systematic manner devotes so many hours a-day to these paternal duties. The ladies' performances on the piano were really remarkable, when the difficulties of the situation are taken into account; and they sang Scotch and Highland airs with the natural simplicity and sweetness of the mavis, one of them especially possessing a compass and command of voice which, under professional training, would soon enable her to make her mark among the most accomplished vocalists of our time.

Mr Watson is, in many respects, quite a character. He is entirely devoid of any ecclesiastical starch, but wholly devoted to benefiting physically as well as morally and religiously, his fellow creatures; and notwithstanding his genuine respect and love for the Old Church, he is thoroughly catholic in his views, and on the most friendly terms with his neighbours —Catholic as well as Presbyterian. His popularity among his neighbours was strongly evidenced by an intimation in the other Presbyterian churches of the district that there would be no services held in them on the occasion of the opening, on the following Sunday, of Mr Watson's new church, so that all the neighbouring ministers and people might be able to join in the opening celebration services. I was particularly struck with his nervous restlessness, and with the peculiar naturalness and simplicity of his eloquence and action in and out of the pulpit. He possesses a magnificent library, and is a great student and master of botany, ornithology, astronomy, geology, and many of the other sciences—a very prodigy of learning, in an out-of-the-way region, where only his natural love of knowledge could ever have induced him to devote himself so much to study as he does. And he is not a mere bookworm, but makes good use of his researches by occasionally delivering free lectures to the people on the elements of the various sciences. Mr Murdoch, with whom I parted in Kingston a fortnight previously, was to lecture in Woodville on "The Heroes of Ossian," on Monday evening, and I decided upon being present on the occasion. My reverend friend would insist upon driving me in his own machine, though the train was leaving Beaverton at the same time; and I parted with his family, and later on with himself at Woodville, much regretting that I had so little time at my disposal to spend among such a fine, warm-hearted people as the Highlanders of Thorah.

Woodville is a thoroughly Highland settlement of about 600 inhabitants, most of whom are from the Island of Islay, and nearly all Gaelic- speaking people. They turned out well to hear Mr Murdoch's lecture, after which I had the pleasure of addressing them briefly in Gaelic. The Rev. Mr Mactavish, now of Inverness, has been there for several years, and he is still remembered and spoken of with the highest respect by every one with whom I came in contact during my short stay in the place. Among those whom I had the pleasure of meeting there was Dr Mackay, who is married to a daughter of Mr Mactavish; Duncan Campbell, of the Post Office; and the Rev. Mr Ross, the present settled Gaelic minister in the village, and a native of Easter Ross. I intended to have visited the churchyard there as I had done at Beaverton, but next day turning out very wet, I started on my way, and had the pleasure of the Rev. Mr Ross's company all the way back to Toronto. In my next I shall introduce the reader to the Highlanders of Guelph, Lucknow, and Kincardine.

VII.

HAVING on my return from Woodville spent a few days more in Toronto, and having seen old and made new friends there, I started by the Grand Trunk Railway to

GUELPH,

the Capital of the county of Wellington, some 48 miles further west On the way, leaving Lake Ontaiio on the left, I passed through a very fine and most interesting country. In about a couple of hours the train pulled up at Guelph, and I at once made for the Wellington Hotel, a capitally- conducted house, well furnished and very comfortable, the charges being only a dollar and a half (or about 6s 3d) per day for bed, board, and attendance of a very superior kind. Having engaged my room and partaken of food and refreshment, I enquired as to the whereabouts of a gentleman to whom I was fortunate enough, as the sequel proved, to have a letter of introduction—Mr James Innes, proprietor and editor of the Guelph Mercury, a capitally-conducted and influential daily paper, with a weekly edition, published in the City. He lived, I was told, within two hundred yards of the hotel, and having sent him my card, he in a very short time made his appearance. He was on his way to a meeting of the St Andrew Society held that evening for the election of office-bearers, and I must accompany him. Nothing could have pleased me better. There I met a fine coterie of patriotic Scots—Highland and Lowland, all imbued with the genuine patriotic spirit which I had been so pleased to find among all our countrymen on that side, while all were, at the same time, none the less enthusiastic Canadians. Indeed, generally speaking, the two will be found together—a warm feeling for the old country, with a corresponding glow in favour of their adopted Canada. The man who is willing to forget his native country, its history, and the race from which he sprang, will as a rule make a poor citizen of the Dominion. Selfishness will be found to occupy the seat of the nobler sentiment, and this kind of citizen is not the type best calculated to adorn his country—native or adopted—or to benefit materially or mentally his fellow-countrymen. The members of the St Andrew Society of Guelph combine the two elements, and I was particularly pleased to have had an opportunity of spending some little time in their company at, and after their meeting—when we had the opportunity of enjoying some excellently sung Scotch songs, Scotch whisky, and Scotch sentiment.

Among the other gentlemen whom I had the pleasure of meeting here were John Mackenzie, from Lochbroom, Ross-shire, a gentleman who has been very successful in business; J. C, Maclagan; Hugh A. Stewart, a native of Tam, and an old pupil of the Royal Academy, Inverness, who is doing a good business as a lawyer and estate agent. Donald Maclean, born at Fluke Street, Inverness, holds a leading position in the Inland Revenue; while William Stewart, and G. B. Fraser, both of whom served their apprenticeship on the banks of the Ness, are the two leading drapers in the city; and another Invernessian, Evan Macdonald, is a prosperous farmer close to the city. Another enthusiastic Highlander whom I had the pleasure of meeting here was J. P. Macmillan, barrister, a native of Glengarry (Canada). E. F. B. Johnston, chief of the St Andrew Society, a genuine, warm-hearted Scot, with a literary turn and considerable ability, I found to be a general favourite as much among his Highland confreres of Guelph as among his own more particular friends from the south of Scotland.

My friend of the Mercury, whom I found to be a fine specimen of the Aberdonian type of the shrewd and clear-headed Scot, insisted upon my becoming his guest during my stay in the district, and I shall always remember with no small degree of pleasure the few days I spent in his comfortable house—so unpretentiously, but so kindly and hospitably entertained by his better-half, a fine specimen of the Scotch lady, and a native of Huntly. The history of this couple is most interesting, especially the hard struggles and ultimate success of Scotch pluck, perseverance, and natural ability in the person of this shrewd Aberdonian, who, unaided, has made for himself such a good position, and one in which he wields no small amount of influence and power for good. The history of his career and success would very well bear telling, and that very much to his credit. With his struggles against a thousand difficulties I strongly sympathised, and most heartily do I congratulate him upon his well-earned success. He was one of the chosen leet of two for representing his county in Parliament at the last general election for the Province of Ontario, and only missed being chosen as the Liberal candidate by four votes in favour of Mr Laidlaw, M.P., who now holds that honourable position, whom Mr Innes afterwards loyally supported, and with whom I had several agreeable chats at Guelph, and afterwards at Woodstock, -where his son is proprietor and editor of an excellently conducted weekly news-paper.

Guelph is in the centre of a very rich district of country, and is a rapidly progressing city with a population of about 10,000. It is built on several hills with a small river running through it, altogether a very fine and commanding site. It contains several fine shops, mills, and two woollen factories—one of the latter the property of Captain MacCrae, a native of Ayrshire, whose ancestors, he told me, came originally from the ancient habitat of the Macraes, in Kintail, but who, after the battle of Sheriffmuir, in which his ancestors took a distinguished part, settled down in Ayrshire, and adopted the above mode of spelling their name. The goods mainly manufactured by him are ladies' and gentlemen's underclothing of a very superior class. At the time I was in the city 110 hands were employed in the mill, while about a third of that number were employed outside finishing, and in other departments of manufacture. In addition to the Mercury Guelph supports another daily and two weekly papers—a number out of all proportion to the population, if we judge it by the same rule as at home; but the same happy state of things prevails throughout the whole Dominion, where every one, almost from the cradle to the grave, reads his newspaper.

The Ontario School of Agriculture is in the immediate neighbourhooi. of Guelph, but as I have already described it, its management, and great advantages to the Province of Ontario, and even to the agricultural interests of the entire Dominion, in the Free Press, it must now be passed over. The first tree was cut in the forest on the site of the future city so recent as 1827, by Gait, the novelist—a fact almost incredible to any one visiting the city at the present day, with its fine buildings, large stores, innumerable mills and factories, and all the other evidences of advancement and civilization. Here, perhaps as much as anywhere, I felt the depressing effect of parting with a lot of good friends, newly made, to push on alone into fresh fields and pastures new, again to meet strange faces in a strange land; but in my case it seemed always hitherto to be a parting with one set of good, warm-hearted friends, only to meet, if possible, others possessing the same good feeling in a more intense degree, according to me a warmer welcome than ever. Somewhat thus depressed, I left my friends at Guelph to visit a large colony of Highlanders which, I had been informed, settled down in

LUCKNOW,

a small town in the county of Bruce, 93 miles from Guelph, on the the Wellington Gray and Bruce Railway, and 13 miles from Kincardine on Lke Huron, having a population of about 1400.

The county of Bruce is one of the most Celtic, or Highland, counties in the whole Dominion; and before introducing the reader to my enthusiastic friends of Lucknow and Kincardine, it may be well to give a few particulars regarding this rich territory, nearly all of which has been reclaimed by Highlanders from the North of Scotland and the Western Isles. The county is 100 miles long by 34 wide, with an area of considerably over a million acres of the most fertile land in Canada. A white man settled in it for the first time so recent as the year 1847, only 38 years ago. In 1852 the total assessed value of the county was only two thousand dollars. In 1870 it rose to about eight million, while the population was nearly fifty thousand, and in 1879 the assessment amounted to the almost incredible amount of twenty-four and a-half million dollars. It is governed by a Council of thirty-seven members, presided over by a Warden, Robert Baird, Esq., who kindly supplied ma with these figures. The population is almost entirely Scotch, and mainly Highland. In the Township of Huron they are nearly all from the Island of Lewis, where they have named the principal town Dingwall. Most of those in the Township of Kincardine came from Cape Breton, while those occupying a fine settlement near Tiverton came almost entirely from the Island of Tiree, and are doing remarkably well. In fact the county is more distinctly Celtic in everything, except in their great comfort and affluence, than any part of the Highlands of Scotland at the present day. I am informed that the same may almost be said of the neighbouring county of Goderich, a district which I much regret I have been unable to visit, though within a few hours' distance of it.

But to return to Lucknow. While in the County of Glengarry some three weeks earlier, I received a letter, addressed to me at random, from Dr MacCrimmon, Chief of the Caledonian Society of Lucknow, requesting me to visit that place, and to deliver my lecture on "Flora Macdonald," regarding which and myself they had seen some notices in the newspapers. At the time I could make no promise, but on this Saturday I telegraphed from Guelph that I would be there on the following Monday, for about a day, but that a lecture (in consequence of the short time at my disposal) was out of the question. Having passed through a rich country still exhibiting unmistakable signs of having been brought under the plough in recent years, the train pulled up at Lucknow station, where I was accosted by a stalwart, powerful-looking man, in broad Balmoral bonnet with red and white checked border, considerably over six feet high, who at once accosted me and asked if I was "Mr Mackenzie from Inverness." I pleaded guilty, whereupon I received a good shake of his powerful fist, and a most hearty salutation from this Hercules, who was no other than the Chief of the Caledonian Society of Lucknow, admittedly the first society of its kind, in all respects, in the whole Dominion. He had his conveyance waiting for me, and we drove to his own residence, where a few genial spirits met us at tea; after which we had to go to the Caledonian Hall, where the members of the Society were to meet, and, as I was now told, march to the hotel, led by the Society's piper, where it had been arranged, even upon such short notice as they had, to entertain the flying visitor from the Old Country to supper. This was an unexpected but a highly appreciated honour. Having met at the hail, and having been introduced to the members of the Society, we followed the Fiob-mhor to the hotel, where we were soon enjoying ourselves to an excellently provided feast, under the presidency of the stalwart Chief of the Society, supported by the Reeve, or Mayor, and ex-Reeve, as well as by the leading citizens and merchants, most of whom were Highlanders. The local paper—the Lucknow Sentinel—de- voted more than three columns to a report of our happy meeting, and it may just be as well here to give the description of what the editor described as "A Oaledonian Banquet." Here it is:- "A complimentary supper was given in Mr Whitley's Hotel on Monday evening last, by the Lucknow Caledonian Society, to Mr A. Mackenzie, editor of the Celtic .Magazine, Inverness, Scotland, a periodical devoted to preserving the past history and traditions of the Highlanders, and published in Inverness, Scotland. This gentleman is making a tor through this country to enquire into the condition of emigrants who have settled in Canada, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it would be desirable to encourage a certain class of small Highland farmers, called crofters, to emigrate. He has already made an extensive tour through the Lower Provinces and Ontario, arid, as will be seen by his speech given below" (and to a report of which the Sentinel devoted a column), "is highly pleased with the country, and highly satisfied with the condition of his countrymen settled therein. He gives the land policy of the present government a bad character, and not without reason. He is a stout, portly, gentleman, with genial countenance and pleasing manner; and during his stay in the village he was the welcome guest of the Caledonian Society. The Society assembled at their hall, and from thence, headed by Piper Boss in full costume, marched to the hotel, where they found prepared for them a feast which was really magnificent, and well calculated to assure Mr Mackenzie that there was no danger of starvation in this country. A blessing having been asked, the company betook themselves to the diminishing of the rich repast placed before them. Among those present were Dr D. A. MacCrimmon, chief of the Society; George Kerr, Reeve; Malcolm Campbell, ex-Reeve; A. Macintyre, merchant; J. G. Smith, do.; D. Macintyre, do.; L. C. Macintyre, do.; W. Mackintosh, A. Macdonald, A. Macpherson, H. Ross, K. Campbell, J. Findlater, D. Macdonald, R.  Maccarrol, D. Macmillan, Thomas Macdonald, A. Finlayson, James Bryan, of the Sentinel, &c., &c."

After supper some excellent music was provided by the Society's piper, after which the loyal and patriotic toasts were duly honoured in capitally delivered speeches. Mr George Smith, in replying for "The Land we Left," spoke warmly of the old country, and stated that "without meaning any discredit to this, his adopted country, there were many fond memories of his native land still clinging to his heart. He referred to the prowess and achievements of his countrymen, to the historians and poets of Scotland, paying a high tribute to Scott and Burns, and, lastly, he eulogised the ladies of his native land, to whom as yet he had brought no discredit by taking a Canadian lady, and spoke mysteriously about going back to get a companion to share his grief and joys." Mr Malcolm Campbell, replying for "The Land we Live in," said "that when he came to this section twenty years ago, it took him three and a-half days to get over the short distance from here to Goderich," and referring to the rapid progress made in the district, be said that when he settled at Lucknow he had no idea of ever seeing a railway there; "but such was the energy of the Scotch pioneers, and the richness and productiveness of the soil that they now had a good railway, and there was scarcely a hundred acres in the county of Bruce without a tenant." Referring to the origin and success of this now famous Society, Dr MacCrimnion, replying to the toast of "The Caledonian Society of Lucknow," said that only "five years ago he called a meeting of a few villagers of Scotch nationality, and they have organised the Society which had gone on increasing in numericial strength and fame, especially the latter, until now, he believed, if not numerically, it was in enthusiasm and energy the first on the American continent. ....He felt proud of the part the ladies took in the success of their games, referring particularly to the picturesque game of archery, in which the ladies were appropriately arrayed in Highland costume, and which was regarded by many as the great feature of the games."

I took the opportunity presented of referring to my grievance about the want of encouragement extended to poor Highlanders emigrating to the Dominion, and on this point Dr MacCrimmon remarked that, "It was something he could not understand how the poorer classes in the Old Country should continue to submit tamely to their treatment and present position while such a magnificent country as Canada was so ready and willing to receive them and so much needing emigrants. Instead of their government filling up the North-west and giving special encouragement to Mennonites and Icelanders, they should secure and encourage, for emigrants, their own countrymen—Scotch, English, Irish; and especially Highlanders, who were so loyal and brave, and who would always be ready to fight bravely and patriotically for their adopted country. The present system, if allowed to continue, would be ruinous to the country. He strongly denounced the land system now in vogue, and which only encouraged settlers able to bring with them 400 or 500 dollars. Hundreds of settlers came to the country penniless in the past, who were now their most prosperous and influential citizens, and why could not others do the same!" These wise sentiments were enthusiastically received and echoed by all present, and I trust they will yet, and before long, permeate even to, and influence the Emigration Department at Ottawa; and if this they will not permit their countrymen to be neglected in such a fashion without making their influence felt In their behalf at the poll at the first General Election for the Dominion Parliament.

The land in the district was only sold in 1854, and Malcolm Campbell, already mentioned, was the first man who built a house in Lucknow. His father had the farm of Dell, near Kingussie, in the county of Inverness, for three consecutive leases of nineteen years. The son emigrated with very small means. He is now in a large way of business and in excellent circumstances. Ewen Macpherson, from Laggan, in the same district, and David Hutcheson, from Caithness, lay in the bush for a week, on their arrival, before they obtained a covering from the elements, but they now possess farms of 400 acres, worth, with the stock upon them, about thirty thousand dollars. The Macintyres, of whom there are here three brothers, came originally from Knapdale, their father being quite poor. His own farm sold at his death for eight thousand dollars, in addition to which the stock brought a large sum. He was able to leave several sons a farm of a hundred acres each. They are all in good circumstances, three of them being successful merchants in Lucknow. The Macdonalds above-mentioned only left the county of Inverness a few years ago, and I was glad to learn that they also were succeeding admirably. The village banker, D. E. Cameron, I found to be a Lochaber man, and there were Madilardys from Aberdeenshire, Connells, Smiths, and others from the Old Country in a prosperous condition, an acquisition to their adopted country, while they were all still proud of, and an honour to, their native land. After meeting a few friends at Mr Macintyre's hospitable table the following evening, and bidding farewell to Dr MacCrimmon's family, where I had the pleasure of finding his two handsome boys dressed in superb Highland costumes, with complete solid silver and Cairngorm mounted ornaments, and finding that I had nothing to pay at the hotel, where rooms had been placed at my disposal at the request and expense of the Society, I bade farewell to my enthusiastic friends, and at 10 P.M. took the train to

KINCARDINE,

thirteen miles further on, situated on Lake Huron. Here I met several genuine Highlanders whose hearts warmed to the tartan. The population is between four and five thousand, mostly Highlanders. The Mayor is a Macpherson; and among the leading merchants I found Archibald Maclean, who is also a member of the School Board; John Macleod; D. Macinnes, a cousin of Mr Macintyre, Kiel, Argyleshire, and of Mr Cameron, of MacNiven & Cameron, Edinburgh; Donald Mackenzie; and last but not lout, Daniel Cameron, a native of Lawers, Perthshire, which place he left in 1855 to seek his fortune in the Far West. He has been in an extensive way of business, having manufactured a great portion of the brick of which the town is built. He is also a member of the School Board, and one of the three Licensing Commissioners for the South Riding, or southern half of the county of Bruce. He has been able to give an excellent education to the members of his family; his eldest son, having just finished a distinguished course at the end of which he occupied the proud position of gold medalist for Natural Science in the University of Toronto. His specimens of minerals form the best private collection I have seen in all Canada, and I had the pleasure of carrying away a few—the possession of which I esteem very highly. Here I also found another Dr MacCrimmon. Indeed, few but Highland names are to be seen or met with, and the Gaelic language is spoken almost universally, and with great purity.

There had been a few inches of snow, and a somewhat keen frost for several days, but while at Kincardine it came on a perfect storm, the lake close by looking about the ugliest thing I ever saw, even at sea. Nothing could live in it, and several ships, I afterwards found, had, been wrecked during the night and driven ashore. I rather enjoyed the tempest, and to add fury to the flames, or rather flames to the fury, a fire broke out about two o'clock in the morning, immediately opposite the hotel in which I lodged. The noise soon woke me up. I dressed, wrapped myself up in my tartan plaithe, marched out among the crowd, and stood looking on while the wooden structure was being furiously burned to the ground. I had the pleasure of enjoying a real Canadian storm, with special accompaniments, and one, I was informed, which was seldom surpassed even in Canada during the most severe winter.

A somewhat peculiar incident occurred here, which, though of more interest to myself than to any one else, I may be allowed to relate. A few minutes after my arrival I called at a Highlander's place of business, and, going in, I addressed him in Gaelic. He answered in the same language. A man standing outside the counter soon joined in our conversation, which turned on my visit to the Lower Provinces, and he asked me if I had been to Cape Breton. Answering in the affirmative, he became anxious to know who I met, and what parts there I had visited. He seemed to know all the place and people. I told him I had been on the Island of Boularderie, visiting some uncles of mine. Naming them, he at once said that he knew them well, and, to my surprise, continued, "another of them, John, lives here. He has just sold his farm, and is leaving to-morrow for Michigan, in the United States." I had heard of this uncle, but I had no more idea of being within a few miles of him than I then had of jumping into Lake Huron. He was expected at two o'clock to come in from his farm, a few miles out, to settle for the price of it with the Mayor, who was his agent in the matter, and in point of fact, a few minutes later he was pointed out to me coming up the main street with a pair of horses. I walked along to meet him, and said in Gaelic, "Cia mar tha sibh ?" He was surprised at the salutation. I told him I was his nephew. He could not believe it. He did not hear a word of any of his relatives in Scotland for many years. He was of course quite ignorant of my being on the American continent—even of my existence. I afterwards sawhis wife, and some members of his family comfortably married and settled in the place. It is unnecessary to add that we thoroughly enjoyed all the time we had at our disposal, talking about our respective families and experiences. He left Ross-shire for Cape Breton, thousands of miles from where he then was, in 1842, since which date he has never written to his friends in Scotland; and to meet under such conditions, it will be admitted, was not a little remarkable. Having parted with my Kincardine friends I returned to Guelph, where I spent another day, after which I started, by the Great Western Railway of Canada, on my way to Woodstock and London, returning via Hamilton to Niagara, and New York, on my way home. To theseplaces I shall ask the reader to accompany me in the next, by which time he must, I expect, like myself, be getting a little tired of "The Editor in Canada,"

VIII.

LEAVING Guelph I passed through the richest portion of Canada on the way to Woodstock, passing through Gait, Preston, and Paris. As stated in my last, I had already experienced a Canadian winter storm, the glass having been down to zero; but I did not feel any colder than on an ordinary winter day in the Scottish Highlands. I walked about quite comfortably, without an overcoat, while my Canadian friends wrapped them- selves up to the ears in thick winter clothing and furs. I could not understand how they seemed to feel the cold so much more than a strange; and, to quote my own letters in the Daily Free Press, I expressed my surprise that people whom one would expect to have found thoroughly hardened to it, should feel the cold more than I did. I was told, if I remained for a second winter in the country, that I would feel the severity of the winter as much as they did; that the heat of summer made one much less able to stand the winter cold; that the blood became thinner; and that one was much less able to resist the cold the second winter than during the first on Canadian soil. There was some force in the heat argument, but it did not altogether satisfy me. I am, however, perfectly satisfied that I have discovered the cause of the non-resisting powers of the Canadian generally against the winter cold in comparison with a new arrival from this country. The first article that meets you on your entrance into a comfortable Canadian house is a reeking stove in the lobby, immediately inside the front door and opposite the doors of the principal rooms. In most cases a pipe from this stove passes upstairs and through all the bedrooms in the house, while generally the sitting-rooms have independent stoves of their own, in addition, in some cases, to ordinary replaces such as we have at home. You are consequently living in an oven, Shops and offices are heated in the same way, and the railway carriages I found, in many instances, almost unbearable—positively 806- eating. In these otherwise comfortable cars there is a stove in each end, and, often, steam pipes running along at the sides, making each of them a sumptuorsly-seated bake-house in which you are almost stewed. You put oil' your overcoat in spite of you. You perspire, and the pores of your skin are opened wide to receive the cold into then when you get out into the bitter but bracing atmosphere at your journey's end. This is what thins the Canadian blood. This is what takes away the natural cold-resisting power of the new immigrant; and this is the cause of the pretty common prevalence of pulmonary disorders to which so many of the Canadians become the victims."

In Woodstock I remained for only a day, and had little opportunity of seeing the Highlanders in the place, though there were not a few good representatives of the race, Here I again met Mr Laidlaw, M.P., referred to in my last, on a visit to his son, proprietor and editor of the local newspaper. These gentlemen were kind enough to spend most of the day with me, and showed me over the place. I had quite made up my mind to visit a fine settlement of Highlanders, whose parents or themselves were almost to a man evicted from their ancient possessions in the county of Sutherland, and who are here, no thanks to their heartless oppressors of the house of Sutherland, in excellent circumstances, in the Highland village of Embro, in the township of Zorrah, a few miles from Woodstock. A heavy fall of snow came on just as I arrived in the town, and I had most reluctantly to forego my proposed visit to this interesting colony of my expatriated countrymen.' I had an agreeable chat with several members of the congregation so recently ministered to by the Rev. Mr Mactavish, now of the Free East Church, Inverness, and then proceeded westward thirty-eight miles further to

LONDON,

a prosperous and rising city, the capital of the Canadian county of Middlesex, with a population of 35,000 inhabitants, and substantially built on a Thames of its own, in Western Ontario. It was first laid out by the Crown in 1826 with the intention, it is said, of founding a town to be called London. It was not, however, until 1832 that it began to show signs of increase of population, and vitality, there being no means of communication with the outer world, but soon after the latter date it began to exhibit the appearance of a thriving Canadian village. In 1836, having then a population of slightly over a thousand souls, it was allowed to return a member to the local legislature, its assessable value in that year being under £7000. In 1846 it assumed the dignity of a town, and in 1855, having increased in population to 10,000, it became a city, and has been progressing at a remarkably healthy and steady rate ever since. It contains several very fine buildings, the most prominent being the court-house and prison, a stately edifice, which cost over £10,000. There are also several colleges and numerous schools; a great many churches, some of which are very fine buildings, especially St Paul's Cathedral—beautifully surrounded by trees and shrubberies, arranged with excellent taste. Oil-refining is the principal industry in and about the city, and it has proved the means of adding very largely to its growth and prosperity. The manufacture of agricultural implements is also carried on most extensively, the productions of London in this department taking first rank in the Dominion, and exported largely to all parts of Canada, and even to the United States and Europe.

London is the commercial centre of the finest agricultural region of Canada, and several lines of railway converge upon it. Here I found awaiting me a depth of from 15 to 18 inches of snow, accompanied by a pretty keen frost, I had seen sleighing on a limited scale while in Kingston about a month previously; but here the streets were covered with these favourite machines sliding past on the snow with a grace and ease which you cannot but much admire. The occupants are warmly clad, and generally provided with handsome and comfortable-looking rugs of buffalo, bear, and other skins, while the gentle jingle of the bells, which have, by Act of Parliament, to be worn on all sleighs, to warn the foot passengers of their otherwise silent approach, makes a most agreeable music. Among the leading men in connection with the oil-refining industry I found Colonel Walker, a fine Argyleshire man, who has made for himself a considerable fortune. The Highland element, however, is not prominent, in the city, though several well-to-do Highlanders, in excellent circumstances, are to be found engaged in farming operations in the surrounding districts, where, competing with other nationalities, they have proved themselves quite able to rival their neighbours.

I intended to have continued westward to Detroit, and on to Chicago, in the United states, but now the winter was upon me in unmistakeable earnest. I had already travelled over 2500 miles by rail in Nova Scotia and Upper Canada, 1800 of which were almost in a strait line from Pietou, in the Lower Province, to where I now stood. I had gone over another 1000 by boat, stage, and hired conveyance, independently of the 3000 miles across the Atlantic; and I had yet many miles to go before embarking on my way home at New York; so I decided that London should, for the present, be my western terminus, and on Monday morning I took train on the Great Western Railway to the city of

HAMILTON,

a distance of 76 miles in the direction of New York, on my way to the Falls of Niagara. This is a city of about 35,000 inhabitants, and of considerable commercial enterprise. As late as 1831 it had only a population of 653 souls. Here I met several Highlanders, among them Sheriff Mackellar, a very popular Argyleshire Celt; and a gentleman who had for many years taken a leading position in Upper Canadian politics. I had heard him spoken of in all parts of the Dominion, as a thoroughly warmhearted, patriotic, hospitable Celt of the very best type. I naturally expected to meet with a good fellow; and I was not disappointed. I found him comfortably ensconced in his chambers in the very fine new City Court-house, his inner sanctum handsomely covered with a splendid tartan carpet, the only drawback in connection with it being that you felt vexed to trample on such a beautifully patriotic idea. He spoke his native Gaelic with the utmost grace and purity, and hanging on the walls I noticed a lithograph copy, beautifully written and neatly framed, of a Gaelic letter from the Sheriff to the Marquis of Lorne, which, in 1878, he had sent to the Governor-General, with a Christmas present of a brace of native birds, and his Excellency's reply, also in Gaelic. I procured copies, and have much pleasure in placing them on permanent record. They are as follows:-

Among the other decorations of the rooms was a cast of the head and neck of some wretched criminal whom it became the duty of the Sheriff to see executed shortly after his appointment; and he seemed to look upon the ugly image with a peculiar interest, with which, I must confess, I neither sympathised nor in any degree shared. After an interesting conversation he was good enough to offer his services in introducing me to a few of the Highlanders of the city, the first on whom we called being the Rev. D. H. Fletcher, an Islay man, who here presided over a large and thriving congregation, and who, with a few other brother Highlanders. I had the pleasure of meeting again in the evening at Sheriff Mackellar's hospitable table. Among others whom I had the pleasure of meeting was James Adam, an Invernessian, and a famous shot, who on various occasions distinguished himself at Wimbledon as one of the Canadian team, and who, for one year, had the coveted honour of being the champion rifle shot of the whole American continent Thomas H. Mackenzie, who served his apprenticeship with John & Simon Fraser, drapers, Church Street, Inverness, emigrated in 1830 with a capital of only £15, but he carried on business on a large scale for many years in a general way, and afterwards as a wool-dealer, he being the first in Upper Canada who broke through the old system of barter in the wool trade and paid in cash for his purchases. He was also the first who exported combing wools from Canada to the United States. He saw Hamilton growing from a population on his arrival of 653 souls to its present dimensions, and he still continues to carry on a good business in the city. Robert Chisholm, Chief of the Caledonian Society, is a Caithness Gaelic-speaking Highlander; and another leading Celt is Angus Sutherland, from the county of the same name. Last but not least I had a short interview with William Murray, a Breadalbane Highlander, whose name is revered among the admirers of the muse in the New World as a very respectable poet The Celtic spirit does not, however, seem to be very warm, or at least demonstrative, in the City of Hamilton; nor is it really so in any of the principal towns of Upper Canada, if we except, perhaps, Toronto. Indeed, in all the districts bordering on the United States, the influence of the neighbouring Yankee is everywhere seen and felt; some of the younger generation not hesitating even to declare their opinion that in many respects it would be better that Canada should form a Union with the great American Republic. In my exceedingly comfortable quarters, the Grigg House, London, I was recommended to the St Nicholas Hotel in Hamilton, but for various reasons, which it is quite unnecessary to detail, I cannot repeat the recommendation to any of my Mends who may chance to visit the city.

I must now proceed, still travelling by the Great Western Railway of Canada, through a beautiful, rich, and most interesting country, having Lake Ontario in full view on the left, a distance of 43 miles to the far-famed

FALLS OF NIAGARA.

I have already attempted to give my impressions of this magnificent cataract in my special correspondence to the Free Press. I could not even attempt another description, and the reader, who may possibly desire to know what my ideas of the Falls of Niagara were, must be content with an abridged reproduction as follows :—I was told by many people in Upper Canada that I should at first sight be disappointed with the Falls, and that warning saved me from being so. My luggage was checked to the American side, but I left the train at Clifton, on the Canadian side of the railway suspension bridge which here spans the mighty Niagara river. As I left the platform I was nearly eaten up by greedy cabmen, who seemed hungering for whatever little money remained to me. Even the New York cabman is a saint in comparison with his Niagara prototype, who seems to have concentrated in his person all the vices of the Yankee and the Canadian combined. I was informed that if one of them once got possession of me a couple of pounds would not extricate me. That neither suited my inclination nor my purse. This fellow would take me to the Falls, two miles off, "for a quarter." That one would take me anywhere for the same sum—that is, one shilling. It was too good. I resented their apparent solicitude for my comfort. A few steps from the station I met a gentleman of whom I made bold to ask where the post-office was. It was close by. I called for letters which I expected, but the official in charge was sorting a newly arrived mail, and no letters could be had, however long they might have been lying there, until he had sorted the letters just arrived. I could not even get a word of him, for he enclosed himself in a sort of box, which made him proof against any eloquence I could bring to bear upon him; so I went away disgusted with the Clifton postal arrangements, or rather want of arrangements. Disappointed as to my letters I asked my newly-made friend as to the best way of seeing the Falls. He at once volunteered to show me the Whirlpool and the Whirlpool rapids, the former being more than a mile down the river, while the Falls were two miles up from where we stood. My friend was an Englishman, Robert Law, a native of Kent, and one of the leading merchants in the village.

In a few minutes we were at the end of the railway suspension bridge. The first sight of the great river was disappointing. There, and for half a mile further down, it sped, 200 feet below the steep bank on which we stood, careering past, as I afterwards learned, at the incredible rate of twenty-seven miles an hour, filling at its narrowest point a gulley 500 feet wide, it is reckoned—for it is impossible to sound it—a depth of between 250 and 300 feet, and tossing up its waves to a height of over 30 feet above its own natural level it is impossible at first sight to realise the vastness and unfathomable magnitude of the mighty torrent as it tears through the narrow gorge below. It, however, grows upon you. You soon find that it baffles description. It is altogether grand and awe- inspiring. Sir Charles Lyell computed that at least fifteen hundred million cubic feet of water, whatever that may mean, rush through this gorge every minute since the world took its present form, or rather since the Falls of Niagara have worked their way past the spot on which I stood, by wearing away the rock for about two and a-half miles further up the river. By this time you have lost yourself in fruitlessly attempting to measure the mighty forces before you, governed only in their mad career by the solid precipices on either side of the majestic avalanche, where it has worn for itself a channel even through the everlasting rocks. In this mood of mind I am led by my friend a few yards further on along the edge of a precipitous bank to a point where I can see the boiling Whirlpool. It is a seething and convulsive circular pond, bounded all round by a rocky bank about 200 feet high, in which the immense stream seems, to all appearance, to bury itself, and disappear into the centre of the earth; for no outlet is visible, and the rocky, encircling wall appears continuous and complete. It groans, it roars, it heaves. It is terrible, indescribable. We walk down to its banks, and find that after the current has gone round more than three parts of the circle, it rushes through an outlet in the solid rock at right angles on the American side, and getting opposite this channel you see it careering at an enormous speed through its rocky way for several miles. We now retrace our steps to the village, where I parted with my friend, and started alone, taking the Canadian side, for the Falls. A short distance above the bridge the river becomes placid and much wider, and about the same place I obtain the first view cf the Falls. They do not come up to what I expected; but the deafening noise and the everlasting spray give a solemn and gloomy appearance to the place, and make you feel as if you were entering into another world. As you proceed, the majesty of the surroundings gradually grow upon you. The new suspension bridge, 1268 feet long, surrounded by the eternal mist, looks like a more cable suspended between the lofty towers, over 100 feet high, above the bank, on either side of the river; while the bridge itself is about 190 feet above the level of the river. You reach it and find it a handsome structure for carriages and foot passengers, capable of sustaining a load of 3000 tons, while its own weight and appurtenances weigh only 250 tons; and it is computed strong enough to carry 3000 people without, in the slightest degree, affecting its carrying capacity. I, however, felt, as I passed over it, that I would rather not be one of that number.

A few yards further on you stand immediately facing the American Fall, 900 feet wide, tumbling over the side of the great gorge in an irresistible cataract of milky foam over a slightly projecting precipice, 164 feet high, into the boiling abyss below; while, a few yards further on, another fall, 100 feet wide, shoots out clear from the rock, and dashes furiously on to the great masses of rock piled in chaotic disorder at the bottom. But in spite of you, your attention is carried away to gaze in amazement on the Canadian or Horse Shoe Fall, a little up the river to your right, at right angles with the American Fall, and separated from it by a small island, which divides this immense river—the accumulated waters of the Great North American Lakes,—Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Erie— into two, before it plunges over the precipices which form the Falls. The main body of water takes the Canadian side of the island, rushing in terrible force down the upper rapids until it bounds over the Horse Shoe Fall, 160 feet high, in a mighty, irresistible torrent of livid green, 2000 feet wide, and about 25 feet thick as it curves over the edge of the rock into the boiling caldron below. No human being can give, or form, any adequate idea of the mighty and uncontrollable powers here at work. They are simply immeasurable, and if any power on earth can be conceived almighty here it is. The actual height of the Fall is not very much, and, excepting the channel cut by the water in the solid rock, the surrounding country is tame; not for a moment to be compared with the neighbourhood of the Falls of Foyers. The Fall is slowly but surely working its way higher up the stream. Within the last three years, thousands of tons of solid rock have been torn or worn out of the middle of the Horse Shoe Fall by the irresistible volume of water which rushes over it to the tune of one hundred million tons per hour. The gap made by the removal of this vast quantity of rock has very much altered the appearance and marred the gracefulness of the cataract.

It has been computed that the friction of the water wears the solid rock and carries the Fall further back at the rate of a foot per annum, with the result that it has receded from Queenstown, seven miles down the river, to its present position. A simple calculation will show that this would take, about forty thousand years.

Walking up close to the end of the Horse Shoe Fall I was much pressed by interested parties to go down the face of the precipitous rock which formed the river bank, in an elevator, and get under the cataract. I declined; for I felt that I had only one life, and, apart from my own enjoyment of it, I could not forget that others had an interest in it, so I decided to take care of it. Further, I did not like to be sold, and I had my suspicions that it would have been 4s thrown away. I went in to the hotel close by, and a fellow, recognising the peaty flavour of my accent, attacked me in excellent Gaelic, strongly advising me to go. He had, he told me, a great difficulty to get Wilkie Collins to descend, who at last agreed, on condition that my Gaelic friend should accompany him. He did: and "Wilkie Collins exclaimed on getting under the Fall, that it was the grandest thing he ever saw, and that after being there he could never question the existence of a Supreme Being." I informed my Celtic friend that I required no new evidence on that score, and that, if I did, I could not exactly see how it was to be found in the fact of water tumbling down a precipice; if it had been going the other way—up the hill, in defiance of the laws of gravitation, something might be said in favour of the evidence which proved sufficient to satisfy Wilkie Collins. The Highlander considered me a bad subject, and no doubt somewhat heretical, and suggested that I should take the opinion of a gentleman who had just come up from visiting the lower regions. I did so, and he told me, much to the chagrin of my Gaelic countryman, that the whole thing was a sell—not worth a shilling. In fact, that he did not get under the Fall at all, but under a little drizzle that fell over the side of the rock. The Highlander was positively disgusted, after wasting all his Celtic eloquence on such an unimpressionable and unprofitable subject. I walked back and crossed the new suspension bridge, with my new-made friend, to the American side. The charge for crossing was 20 cents, but my companion, who came from the Yankee side earlier in the day, took a return ticket, on the recommendation of the official at the other end of the bridge, for which he paid, as a great favour for the double journey, 50 cents, while it would have only cost him 25 for a single crossing from the American side, and 20 from the Canadian aide; but this is only a specimen of how they oblige you at Niagara. This was "sell" No. 2 for my friend, from both of which I had escaped, and we were both somewhat amused at the smallness of the swindle to which the Americans within the sounds of Niagara can condescend.

Some most interesting reminiscences cling about the place, one or two of which I shall place before the reader. When this vast country was possessed entirely by the Red Indian, and long before the deep solitudes of the West were first disturbed by the white man, it was the custom of the Indian warriors to assemble at the Falls, and to offer a human sacrifice to the Spirit of the Cataract, consisting of a white canoe, full of ripe fruits and blooming flowers, paddled over the terrible fall by one of the handsomest girls of the tribe, who had that year arrived at the age of womanhood. It was always considered a great honour by the tribe on whom it fell to sacrifice one of its fair ones, and it is said that even the doomed maiden herself whose lot it turned out to be thus cruelly sacrificed to a horrid superstition, deemed it an honour and a compliment to be choosen to guide the frail canoe over the terrible cliff. On one occasion the lot fell upon the only daughter of a chief of the Seneca Indians. The Indian warrior was much pained, for even in the stoical heart of the red man there are tender feelings which cannot be subdued, and chords which snap if strained too tightly. He, however, showed no evidence of feeling which could be discovered by his fellows. In the pride of endurance so characteristic of his race, he crushed down the feelings that tore his bosom, and no tear darkened his eye, as the preparations for the sacrifice were going on. His wife had recently been slain by a hostile tribe. He him- self was admitted to be the bravest among the warriors. His stern brow seldom or never relaxed except to his lovely and blooming daughter— now the only joy to which he clung on earth. At length the sacrificial day arrived. The usual savage festivities and rejoicings, which preceded the terrible doom of the fair one, were going on fast and furious. The moon made its appearance, and silvered the everlasting cloud of spray which rises from the turmoil of Niagara. The girl took her seat in the canoe, which glided with its precious human freight from the bank, and swept out into the terrible rapids above the Falls from which escape is hopeless. The maiden calmly steered her tiny bark right out towards the middle of the stream, while frantic shouts and yells arose from the crowd of red warriors on the shore. The affectionate warrior chief had been seen among the rest a few moments before. Suddenly another canoe was seen shooting out from the banks to the middle of the awful current It was occupied by the Seneca chief himself; and flying under his impulse like an arrow to destruction. It overtook the other before it reached the precipice of the Horse Shoe Fall The eyes of the father and the child met in one last gaze of affection, and both canoes plunged together over the thundering cataract into the terrible abyss below, carrying chief and child with one bound into the depths of eternity.

In such a place it was painful to we and experience an amount of

VILLAINY AND SWINDLING

brought to the very acme of perfection which can only be measured by the surrounding sublimity and grandeur; and it is more painful still to find that the Governments on both sides are not only parties to it, but actual participators in the spoil. You pay a toll of 25 cents, or a shilling, for crossing the railway suspension bridge on the carriage-way below. If you take a cab you pay another shilling for the driver and two for the horse and cab. The bridge belongs to the Governments of these great countries, and they actually condescend to the meanness of giving cabby back half the fare, through their officials, on his return journey, for inveigling his passenger across. Could anything be more contemptible? You feel ashamed of all the Canadian Governments that have hitherto permitted this, and feel sure this mean and disgraceful fact only wants to be known to make the American Government ashamed of itself. It is not to be wondered at that the private Company, to whom belongs the now suspension bridge, should follow the example of these great Governments, and act equally mean. You are charged 4s to be taken down, in an oilskin dress, under the Falls on either side of the river. Of this the blackmailing cabman gets one-half. You are charged 2s for going down in an elevator at various points along the banks. Of this the same robber gets a moiety. If he drives you to a merchant's shop he gets twenty-five per cent of the full amount of your purchases, and so on throughout the whole place; and you have of course to pay indirectly for all the extra charges. If all the merchants and others combined to resist the extortion, the cabman would soon find out how powerless he was; but this can hardly be expected so long as two great Governments succumb to him, and continue to act art and part in his system of blackmail, and, shame to say, unblushingly share the profits with him. A tramway along the banks of the river, which could easily be constructed, would soon settle cabby, be a great boon to the public, and a source of certain profit and large dividends to its promoters. Let Canada wipe its hands of this blot—this hotbed of iniquity—whatever others may do; for until she does she cannot claim to have a Government fit to have charge of a decent parish, much less of a great nation, priding itself upon its advancement in the march of modern progress and civilisation. I must yet ask the reader to accompany me from Niagara to New York, Philadelphia, across the Atlantic, and home to Inverness.

IX.

I NOW had to bid farewell to Canada, at least for a time, and I did so with very genuine regret; for it is impossible that any one could have been placed under deeper obligations to its people, from the Governor-General down to the humblest inhabitant, than I have been. This must have been apparent to those who perused my previous articles. I was only a few days in the country when the Government supplied me with a free pass over the Inter-Colonial Railway, which extends from the Lower Provinces to Quebec, a distance of about 700 miles. I was also offered passes from the managers of private railway companies, of which in some cases I found it impossible to avail myself. I was supplied with one over the whole of the Grand Trunk system, extending to considerably over a thousand miles; as also over the Great Western Railway of Canada, the the Toronto and Nippiasing line, and several others; and from one end of the Dominion to the other I was received and treated by all—officials and private gentlemen—in the most hospitable and warm-hearted manner. For this I now beg to tender my genuine and most hearty acknowledgments. And I do so with the greatest cordiality, knowing that I expressed opinions, in these letters and elsewhere regarding certain Government measures, which were not palatable to some of those in high office, but whose personal kindness was not in the slightest degree affected in consequence. In this connection I may be permitted to reproduce some of the introductory remarks from a letter sent in April last to the Free Press by a gentleman holding a high and important permanent office in the Interior Department of the Dominion Government... Referring to my special correspondence in that journal, he says—" Your special commissioner having closed the account of his visit to Canada, and as I am quite sure his letters must have excited-among the people of the Northern Counties of Scotland an interest in this Dominion which they never experienced before, I have thought it probable that the present would be a good time to renew my. somewhat irregular correspondence, and from this period forth to endeavour to follow up the good work so effectively done by Mr Mackenzie.

Will you permit me a few words, by way of introduction, in reference to some points in the admirable correspondence of your commissioner I It is but simple justice to him to say that no man of equal prominence has ever crossed the Atlantic who ever showed a truer appreciation of the merits of this section of Her Majesty's Colonial Empire than Mr Mackenzie. His letters were the honest, fearless expression of opinions arrived 'at after careful personal observation of the people and the country; and, let me add, they were the opinions of a man of sound sense and mature judgment. There was no exaggeration of the advantages we offer to intending emigrants, but a plain, unvarnished statement of how men whose names, places of abode, and family history were given, many of whom came here penniless but a few years ago, had succeeded, and grown rich and comfortable by the simpie exercise of ordinary energy and prudence, Nor, on the other hand was there any hesitation in adversely criticising and condemning what, in the correspondent's opinion, was wrong or faulty. If the truth and nothing but the truth be told about Canada, and by persons whose words carry weight to those to whom they are addressed, the Canadian people are ready to abide by the verdict of their friends at home. Mr Mackenzie told the sober facts, . . . but he must excuse me if I differ from him, as I frankly told him I did, in connection with one or two conclusions at which he has arrived."
These conclusions refer to my criticism on the Government policy in only encouraging people with money to emigrate, and on their having in the past extended greater encouragement to Russian Mennonites and Icelanders than to their own Highland countrymen. it is not my intention at present to discuss these questions further than I have already done, but although this is to be the last of the present series, it is my intention to write occasional articles from time to time on the Dominion, it advantages as a field of emigration, and the various aspects in which the place, its people, and institutions have presented themselves to my mind.

Since my return home I had numerous enquiries, personally and by letter, for information regarding Canada as a field for emigration and its attractions generally; but I invariably declined to give any beyond what I have already given in the Free Press and in the Celtic Magazine. This apparently uncivil resolve it is my purpose to maintain; for I do not intend to incur blame for the non-success of people who will fail to get on in Canada, as they will everywhere else, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, entirely through faults of their own. The Government have their regularly appointed and paid agents, ready to give official information, and to these I must respectfully refer all intending emigrants to the Dominion.

Leaving Niagara in the evening, I passed over to the American side of the river, where I had my luggage examined by the Custom-House officials, a duty which they performed in the most polite manner and with as little inconvenience as possible. This is more than I can say of the Canadian officials of the same class. On my first arrival on Canadian soil, at Saint John, New Brunswick, I found the Custom-House officers a most uncivil, troublesome lot, though I had nothing dutiable in my possession. This was almost a miracle, for nearly everything is taxed in Canada but the fresh air. From Niagara I took the Hudson River route, touchi.ng at Buffalo, on Lake Erie, and at Albany, the Capital of the State of New York, on my way. At both these places we had to change carriages, an inconvenience in the middle of the night such as one seldom meets with on any of the through lines on the American Continent, and one which, I was afterwards told, I might have avoided, had I taken the Erie Railroad. The run along the noble Hudson, after passing Albany next morning, was, however, worth a good deal of inconvenience; surrounded as it is with some of the most magnificent scenery on the American Continent; and having travelled nearly 600 miles we arrived at

NEW YORK CITY

at ten A. M., where, among some very genuine Scots, I remained for six days, specially to get home in the State of Nevada, which I found was to sail on the following Thursday, with Captain Brass and his officers, who had one and all acted so agreeably and attentive to every one of us on our way out. Here I was in my usual good luck. I had the pleasure of again meeting my old friend of the New York Caledonian Games on my way out, the Hon. Thomas Waddell, President of the North American United Caledonian Association, who had just come in on a special visit from Pittston, Pennsylvania. Soon after I was in charge of my old counsellor and guide, Duncan Macgregor Crerar, now known to the reader in another and more interesting capacity, and he informed me that the annual meeting of the St Andrew Society of New York, which was to come off in a few days, would be a splendid affair, and that he had a complimentary ticket awaiting me, sent by the President of the Society, John S. Kennedy, a native of Glasgow, and the head of the banking firm of John S. Kennedy & Co., New York. At this magnificent banquet I met about 200 of the leading Scotsmen of the City and State sitting down to celebrate their 123d anniversary of the patron saint of Scotland in a right worthy manner. The President, in proposing the toast of the evening, made an excellent and neatly delivered speech, in which he advocated liberality among the members, and expressed his thorough conviction, that if the Society's funds ever became exhausted or much reduced from the calls of charity, the well-to-do Scots of New York would always furnish them with the necessary means to relieve every case of real distress occurring among their Scottish countrymen; and he stated, as a matter of absolute certainty, that no deserving Scot, widow or child, without distinction of rank or creed, would ever be allowed to suffer or be dismissed from the care of the managers without the aid and brotherly sympathy for which his countrymen were so famous throughout the world. The Rev, and famous Dr Taylor, of the New York Tabernacle, and a native of Kilmarnock, delivered an eloquent address on "The Land o' Cakes;" indeed, the speech of the evening; while he was almost equalled in matter and surpassed in eloquence by the Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, President of the St Nicholas Society—a genuine wit. I also had the pleasure of hearing the great Dr MacIntosh, who made an interesting speech, but it was clear that the platform was not his best forte. Among those whom I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with here were William A. Paton, publisher of the New York World, a native of Edinburgh, and a thoroughly patriotic Scot; John M. Morrison, a native of Aberdeen, holding the high and responsible position of Manager of the Manhattan Bank, and who had been for many years Treasurer of the St Andrew Society; John H. Strachan, a wealthy barrister, brother of the well-know Advocate of the same name in Edinburgh, and of the better-known London publisher and editor of the Contemporary Review; and several others high up in New York society and an honour to their native land. I repeatedly met my old Inverness friends, mentioned in my first letter—Paterson, and Harcombe, and Mitchell, from near Grantown, Strathspey, all good men and true; and on the evening of my departure who did I come across but another Invernessian, John Forbes, so well and familiarly known on this side as the "Duke of Portland." I never saw him looking better, and he was what I expected to find him, open-hearted and kind as ever, and insisted on driving me to the ship. And last but not least, I met Major Manson, my old Caithness friend, again and again, extending every kindness, civility, and information that one could expect even from a countryman who has secured for himself such an excellent reputation for these qualities among his brother Scots. He was a Captain in the Highland Guards of New York in 1857, and afterwards Captain and Major in the 79th Regiment of the same city, with which he served in the field, and distinguished himself during the great American Rebellion, when he was captured by the Southerners, and confined to a Confederate prison for a year and a-half. No better proof of his affection for his native land and its people can be given than the fact that to him Donald Macleod dedicatel his "Gloomy Memories of the Highlands of Scotland," now before me, "not from any mercenary motives, but as a humble tribute of regard for your well-known sympathies for the wrongs of your oppressed countrymen."

The public buildings, avenues, parks, and means of locomotion in New York, are on a scale of magnificence quite beyond my powers of description, and I shall not attempt the impossible task of giving even a general idea of them.

PHILADELPHIA

is 99 miles from New York, and having had a day to spare I took a run down to see an old subscriber, who had called upon me a few years ago in Inverness, and who strongly pressed me to pay him a visit in his adopted home—a genuine Irish Celt, Dr William Carroll. I fortunately telegraphed to him that morning that I was going, otherwise I would have missed him, as he had an important engagement in New York. I, however, found him at home, and in the few hours at our disposal, for both had to be back in New York the same evening, he showed me as much of the city as it was possible to see in such a short time.

The most interesting sight of all to me was "Independence Hall," where, instead of less than an hour, I could, with profit and pleasure, have spent weeks. Here were represented, in small and common things, the magnificent heroism and noble aspirations which opposed and overcame tyranny of the most absolute kind, and securely laid the foundation of an Empire of Freedom irrisistible in its influence for good, and liberal progress, in the worU. This common-looking chair, the intrinsic value of which is not five shillings, was that in which John Hancock sat as President of the "Independence Congress;" that rickety table is that on which the declaration of American independence received the signatures of the members of that famous assembly; those thirteen old-fashioned, mean- looking chairs, were occupied by an equal number of Congressmen on that eventful day; that dingy chandelier gave forth its light during the evening meetings, .while the great lights of American history were deliberating on the most effective means by which to upset dark tyranny by the light of civil and religious freedom. Here is the original Declaration itself, There a life-size statue of the great Washington. On the wall you see portraits of the President of the Congress; Richard Henry Lee, the mover of the resolutions in favour of Independence; the members of Congress; commanders-in-chief of the army and navy; and those who were the most active educators of public opinion in favour of Separation from Great Britain. There, above the vestibule, is the bell, cast and placed in the State House steeple in 1753, and which first announced to he citizens of Philadelphia, and through them to the civilized world, the Declaration of American Independence. Modern as these relics are, they are the beginning of American history, and they represent principles and aspirations worthy of the great nation whose infancy they commemorate. Imbued with such feelings I looked upon them with a genuine reverence, which I desire to cultivate and strengthen rather than obliterate. Cogitating over what they represent would turn a coward into a hero, and I am heartily pleased that I visited Philadelphia if it were for nothing else than to see Independence Hall.

Dr Carroll also introduced me to a gentleman whose name was not altogether previously unknown to me by repute, and who, apart from his position in the American literary world, I was glad to meet as a connecting link beeween the present and the past, and especially from his connection with Inverness. This was Dr Shelton Mackenzie, well-known in connection with the American press, and as an author of considerable re- putation. He wrote Lives of Dickens and of Scott, which in a very short time went through several editions; he edited the American edition of the "Noctes Ambrosianae," as well as several other works of note. He is a brother of the late J, C. Mackenzie, of Paris, editor of Galignani, who died a few weeks after I had been to Philadelphia, and son of Kenneth Mackenzie, the Inverness bard, of whom the late John Mackenzie gives the following interesting account in his "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry." He says, "Kenneth Mackenzie was born at Caiseal Leauir, near Inverness, in the year 1758. His parents were in comfortable circumstances, and gave him the advantage of a good education. When he was about seventeen years of age he was bound an apprentice as a sailor, a profession be entered with some degree of enthusiasm. Along with his Bible, the gift of an affectionate mother, he stocked his library with two other volumes, namely, the poems of Alexander Macdonald and Duncan Macintyre.. These fascinating productions he studied and conned over on 'the far blue wave,' and they naturally fanned the latent flame of poetry which yet lay dormant in his breast. His memory was thus kept hovering over the scenes and associations of his childhood; and, represented through the magic vista of poetic genius, every object became possessed of new charms, and so entwined his affections around his native country and vernacular tongue, that distance tended only to heighten their worth and beauties.
"He composed the most of his songs at sea. His Fiobairaehd na Luinge .is an imitation of Macintyre's inimitable Beinn-dorain, but it possesses no claims to a comparison with that masterpiece. We are not prepared to say which is the best school for poetic inspiration, or for refining and maturing poetic genius, but we venture to assert that the habits of a seafaring man have a deteriorating influence over the youthful feelings. This has, perhaps, been amply exemplified in the person of Kenneth Mackenzie. He was evidently born with talents and genius; but, not- withstanding the size of his published volume, we find only four or five pieces in it which have stepped beyond the confines of mediocrity; these we give as in duty bound.

"Mackenzie returned from sea in the year 1789, and commenced going about taking in subscriptions, to enable him to publish his poems. With our veneration for the character of a poet, we strongly repudiate that timber brutality which luxuriates in insulting a votary of the muses. Men of genius are always, or almost always, men of sensibility, and nice and accute feelings; and it appears to us inexplicable how one man can take pleasure in showing another indignities and hurting his feelings. The itinerant subscription-hunting bard has always been the object of the little ridicule of little men. At him the men of clay hurl their battering-ram, and our author appears to have experienced his own share of the evil. Having called upon Alexander Mackintosh of (Jantray Down, he not only refused him his subscription, put gruffly ordered him to be gone from his door! Certainly polite refusal would have cost that high souled gentleman as little as his rebuff, and apologies of a tolerably feasable nature can now be found for almost every failing. Our bard thus unworthily insulted, retaliates in a satire of great merit. In this cynic production he pours forth periods of fire; it is an impetuous torrent of bitter irony and withering declamation rich in the essential ingredients of its kind; and Mackintosh, who does not appear to have been impenetrable to the arrows of remorse, died three days after the published satire in his possession (in 1792). Distressed at this mournful occurrence, which he well knew the superstition and gossip of his country would father upon him, Mackenzie went again among his subscribers, recalled the books from such as could be prevailed upon to give them up, and consigned them to the flames; a sufficient indication of his sorrow for his unmerciful, and, as he thought, fatal castigation of Mackintosh. This accounts for the scarcity of his books.

"Shortly after this event, his general good character and talents attracted the attention of Lord Seaforth and the Earl of Buchan, whose combined influence procured him the rank of an officer in the 78th Highlanders. Having left the army, he accepted the situation of postmaster in an Irish provincial town, where he indulged in the genuine hospitality of his heart, always keeping an open door and spread table, and literally carressing such of his countrymen as chance or business led in his way. We have conversed with an old veteran who partook of his liberality so late as the year 1837.

"In personal appearance Kenneth Mackenzie was tail, handsome, and strong-built, fond of a joke, and always the soul of any circle where he sat. If his poems do not exhibit any great protuberance of genius, they are never flat; his torrent may not always rush with impetuosity; but he never stagnates; and such as relish easy sailing and a smooth-flowing current, may gladly accept an invitation to take a voyage with our sailor-poet."

Dr Shelton Mackenzie is in excellent circumstances, holds a good position among the litterateurs of Philadelphia, and is in all respects a worthy son of such a father. He has several near relations in and around Inverness, but he appeared to know little more about them than a kind of hazy idea of their existence. When I mention Captain Jas. Rose, Connage; John Rose, Leanach; Hugh Rose, solicitor, Inverness; and Donald Rose, cotton broker, Liverpool, as cousins, the large number of relations in good circumstances here will be at once apparent to all those knowing anything of the place and people.

Having obtained a general idea of the city from certain points of vantage, I started with Dr Carroll on the return journey to New York, where we arrived in the evening, having made the run of 99 miles, each way, in two hours. Going aboard the State of Nevada, after bidding farewell to my friends, I was glad to find Captain Braes and all his officers in the best of spirits. Next morning, just before we sailed, I was not a little surprised to find several of my New York friends coming on board with Major Manson at their head, and immediately the gallant ship moved from her moorings a ringing cheer was set up; while Mr Rankine, an excellent piper mentioned in a previous article, blew up his Highland bagpipes on the pier-head, playing appropriate times until we could no longer hear the pleasing strains; and finishing up with "Will ye no come back again?" an expression of feeling the realisation of which, I am quite sure, was as heartily desired by my friends on shore as it was reciprocated by me. We were soon past Sandy Hook, and faced the great Atlantic on the morning of the 4th of December last; and, after a splendid run, the noble ship cast anchor at Greenock on the Sunday week following, having taken exactly ten days and five hours from New York to the Clyde. Having spent Monday in Glasgow, I found myself safely at home once more in the Highland Capital, after a trip of four months—a trip which forms one of the greenest spots in my life, and which has satisfied the ambition of my youth and manhood in seeing for myself Her Majesty's magnificent possessions in British North America, where so many of our expatriated brother Highlanders have found for themselves such comfortable homes.

And now I shall take the reader a little into my confidence. I have been strongly urged by several influential persons to publish my special correspondence which appeared in the Aberdeen Daily Free Frees, along with this series, in book form, my good friend, John Mackay of Swansea, offering to take twenty copies. Now, in the first place, I question very much if they are worth publishing in a separate form; and, second, I have my doubts as to whether they would sell sufficiently well to pay. I cannot afford to run any risk in the matter; but if I get sufficient encouragement in the shape of subscribers, I would be disposed to work the Free Frees articles, which deal with a different phase of Canadian life, and these into one consecutive whole, adopting the fullest portion of each, improving, and, in some places, adding to them. I have no doubt an interesting volume might thus be produced at a reasonable price, and if I get sufficient support to place me beyond any risk of loss, I will do my share. I shall therefore be glad to hear from intending subscribers at once—price not to exceed half-a-crown, or 60 cents. A. M.


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