Regiments at the Battle of Worcester
The following List shows the Scots who fought at the
Battle of Worcester, UK on September 3, 1651 Under Leslie for Charles I
against the forces of Oliver Cromwell. These Regiments came from all parts
of Scotland and are identified as having been at Worcester. Referenced by
the Edinburgh Castle Museum as historicaly factual. These Regiments
represented an army of Scots under David Leslie and Keith. Neile McConne
was one who was taken prisoner and in 1652 transported aboard the John and
Sarah to the American Colonies.
Neile McConne died in the Isle of Wight Parrish,
Virginia around 1679, leaving his Last will and Testament there. The
Lineage of this Scot runs into the Southern States of Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,
Arkansas, Louisanna, and Texas primarily. Now the Genealogist of the Cone
Surname can only research such as this list to determine which regiment
and area Neile came from. As well was a Daniel McHoe, later to become
Daniel Cone of Haddam Conn. Other possibile Cone's were also aboard the
John and Sarah.
Manor Farm, Malvern Road, Worcester, UK
is today the current location of the Battle Site
23rd June 1650 -
Prince Charles landed in Scotland from exile in France.
3rd September 1650
- Battle of Dunbar; Scots army defeated by Parliament, Edinburgh held by
the English, Charles crowned King Charles II of Scotland at Scone.
1st August 1651
- Charles crossed the English border at the head of a Scottish army. August 22nd 1651
- Charles and his army arrived in Worcester and began to fortify the city
against the expected attack.
August 27th 1651
- Cromwell's army arrived at Evesham to the east of the city.
September 3rd 1651
- Cromwell timed his attack on Worcester to coincide with the first
anniversary of his victory at Dunbar.
To advance on London. He marched the Scots southwards
down the western side of the Pennines, skirting the border with Wales from
where he hoped to gain more support, it is estimated that, on arrival in
Worcester, Charles' army was about 16,000 strong of whom the vast majority
Fort Royal - an earthwork built outside the walls to
the east where the main attack was anticipated commanded by Major
Forces at Pitchcroft to the north of the city under
Dalziel as backup near St Johns on the west of the
Piscotty at Temesmouth.
The main fighting force was inside the city
Also marched south from Scotland but chose the route on
the east side of the Pennines, continually monitoring the Scots' progress,
with the intention of blocking any move the Scots might make eastwards
towards London. This army is thought to have numbered 30,000 men
Cromwell's battle plan
to cut off all possible routes between Worcester and
to attack the city from both sides of the River
to build a bridge of boats for his main force to
cross the rivers Severn and Teme
The Battle of Worcester September 3, 1651
The story of the Battle of Worcester in recounted in
exhibits at "The Commandery", a complex of timber-framed buildings that
were used by Charles as his headquarters for the battle.
The battle of Worcester in 1651 was the attempt by the
eldest son of Charles I to reclaim the throne and to re-establish the rule
of the Crown in England.
Keith and the Scots, Scottish allies under Sir David
Leslie initially held their position at Powick bridge against the
Parliamentarian advance into the city from the west. They were eventually
overwhelmed by reinforcements sent by Cromwell using the bridges of boats
at the confluence of the Teme and the Severn. Fighting hand to hand, as
they pushed back into the city ahead of the Parliamentary advance, the
Scots sustained heavy casualties.
The action at Powick bridge was only one part of the
battle of Worcester. Despite attempts by Charles to counter-attack, the
Scots were eventually defeated by the superior generalmanship and greater
numbers of Cromwell's army. Estimates suggest that only 700 of Cromwell's
men were killed compared with between 2000 and 4000 Royalist deaths.
Charles managed to evade capture and escaped to France.
The Duke of Hamilton died of wounds received in the fighting and is buried
in Worcester Cathedral. It is thought that as many as 10,000 Scots were
taken prisoner many of whom were transported to the English colonies in
the New World, Staunton Virginia and Boston Massechusetts. amongst other
The Battle of Worcester was the final conflict in the
interminable English Civil War. The king in exile, Charles II, aided by
Scottish allies under Sir David Leslie, attempted to regain the throne
lost at his father's death. While Leslie argued that they should make a
stand in Scotland, where support for the royalist cause was strongest,
Charles insisted on carrying the fight into his homeland. He marched his
men south into England, and they came up against Parliamentary forces
under Oliver Cromwell at Worcester.
Charles entered the city on August 23, and there he
paused to allow his men to rest and gather supplies. Cromwell divided his
men into two groups, and it is likely that all told Cromwell's men
outnumbered the royalists by two to one. Cromwell began a bombardment of
the city and attempted to cross the Severn from the south, but his men
were beaten back. Charles sallied out to attack, but he, too, was
unsuccessful and returned without taking any of Cromwell's guns.
Cromwell constructed a boat bridge across the river,
and led his men across. They pushed back the royal troops, allowing the
main Parliamentary army to cross. The Scottish troops broke and fled,
turning the royal retreat into a rout.
Charles quickly launched a counterattack, pushing his
opponents back in the east. Cromwell was forced to recross the river to
support his men, and after 3 hours of hard fighting they pushed the
royalists back into Worcester.
The city was surrounded, and troops attempting to flee
were quickly captured by Cromwell's men. Charles left his bodyguard to
hold off pursuit, and fled the field. In a story that has been told and
retold over the years since, he hid from his pursuers in the leafy
branches of an oak tree, before eventually making his way to the coast and
eventual safety in France.
The Aftermath of Worcester UK
News of the Parliament victory spread rapidly across
the country. Only two days after the battle, an Essex parishioner told
Ralph Josselin that "the Scots were routed". Later that evening he
"confirmed that they [the Royalists] fell out of towne that they were
beate in againe, 4,000 slain, 300 prisoners.
A dedication ceremony was held at 11.00am on Sunday 2nd
September 2001 at the old Powick Bridge Battle Site at Worcester to
remember and honor 800 MacLeods were killed at Worcester supporting the
Stuart Cause, and in memory of them and of the rest of the 3000Scots who
We also remembered the 2000 Scottish prisoners who were
sent as forced labour to North America in 1652. The infusion of Scottish
blood into the New England and Virginian population was to provide the
United States with a very rich genetic base for their further development.
Although the transportation of prisoners was a catastrophe for them at the
time, undoubtedly, it has been to the benefit of the USA and to the world
The Aftermath of Dunbar Scottish Prisoners after Battle
on September 3, 1650
During the fall and winter of 1650 over 3000 Scottish
prisoners of war made a perilous 120 mile march from their defeat at the
Dunbar battlefield in Scotland to Durham Cathedral in the north of
England. From there most were sent to staff labor starved English colonial
ventures in the West Indies, Virginia, Massachusetts, Maine, and Ireland.
Sixty-two were sent aboard the Unity across the wintry
seas of the Atlantic. They arrived at Saugus (Lynn) Ironworks 350 years
ago, in early April 1651. Today their descendants number in the thousands.
According to Colonel Banks' 1927 paper presented to the Massachusetts
Historical Society, in the aftermath of the Battle of Dunbar, 900 Scots
were to be sent to Virginia. Another 150 prisoners were sent to New
England aboard the Unity through Joshua Foote and John Becx, owners of the
Saugus (Lynn) and Braintree (Quincy) Iron Works.
There is no known passenger list for the Unity. On
April 2, 1651 an account appears in the Iron Works Papers for "a weeckes
Dyett to ye 7th of 61 Menn" By June 9, 1651 the Iron Works has 38 Menn
remaining on these rolls. The rolls continue to dwindle as these
indentured workers are sold to others. The only surviving list of Scots by
name is in the 1653 Iron Works inventory. It lists 35 names.
In addition to the the Scots listed, there were many
more Scots in New England that arrived on the Unity. Some of them went
through the Iron Works and may have even worked with or for Iron Works
employees. The names account for less than half of the 150 Scots sent to
New England. Perhaps many died on the voyage. One by one, others were
imperceptibly assimilated into the labor force of Puritan New England.
To complicate matters further, another 270 Scots were
sent to America one year later on the John and Sarah following the Battle
of Worcester. That list is fairly complete although some names are not
readable. Many times it is difficult to sort out Scots from the John and
Sarah from the Unity. Were there other boats? Who were the Scots sent to
Virginia? We will never know all of them.
Researched across Internet Accessed Sites and compiled
by Wm. Cone 01/23/2003
Kincardineshire - Protocol Book of Sir John Christisone, 1518-1551
Aberdeenshire: Aberdeen - Register of Burials, St. Nicholas Churchyard,
Aberdeenshire: Aberdeen - Register of Burials, St. Nicholas Churchyard,
Lanarkshire, Aberdeenshire, Banff, Ayr, & Stirling: - Commissariat Record
of Hamilton and Campsie, Register of Testaments, 1564-1800
How do I find copies of the
These records are a finding aid that help researchers locate an ancestor
in a particular time and place in history. With a location and an
approximate date, the microfilm number of pertinent corroborating records
can often be found on the LDS Church's FamilySearch site (www.familysearch.org)
in the Family History Library Catalog. The Family History Library in Salt
Lake City has the largest collection.
For unfilmed original
parish records go to The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers,
under the county of interest. This will then direct you the County Record
Office where the registers are housed. You can also contact local
genealogy societies or local parishes for information on viewing original
records. See Crockford's Clerical Directory, a directory of Church
of England clergy, if you wish to write to a parish. It is published
There are other church
records, and a search on Familysearch.org on the FHLC can provide you with
listings of original parish records by doing a locality search for your
county/parish, then look under "Church Record" type.
This comment system requires
you to be logged in through either a Disqus account or an
account you already have with Google, Twitter, Facebook or
Yahoo. In the event you don't have an account with any of these
companies then you can create an account with Disqus. All
comments are moderated so they won't display until the moderator
has approved your comment.