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Scottish Regiments at the Battle of Worcester
by Wm Cone


The following List shows the Scots who fought at the Battle of Worcester, UK on September 3, 1651 Under Leslie for Charles I against the forces of Oliver Cromwell. These Regiments came from all parts of Scotland and are identified as having been at Worcester. Referenced by the Edinburgh Castle Museum as historicaly factual. These Regiments represented an army of Scots under David Leslie and Keith. Neile McConne was one who was taken prisoner and in 1652 transported aboard the John and Sarah to the American Colonies.

Neile McConne died in the Isle of Wight Parrish, Virginia around 1679, leaving his Last will and Testament there. The Lineage of this Scot runs into the Southern States of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisanna, and Texas primarily. Now the Genealogist of the Cone Surname can only research such as this list to determine which regiment and area Neile came from. As well was a Daniel McHoe, later to become Daniel Cone of Haddam Conn. Other possibile Cone's were also aboard the John and Sarah.

Regiment: From:

1. Aldie's Horse - raised from Penartshire
2. James Wemyss of Caskiiesberrann ( artillery train) - Caskiiesberrann
3. The Master of Banff's Foot - Banffshire
4. The 2nd. Duke of Hamilton's Horse - Perthshire
5. The Duke of Hamilton's Horse - Clydesdale
6. Hamilton's Foot - Glasgow
7. Hamilton's Horse - Dumbartonshire
8. Master of Caithness Foot - Caithness
9. Lord Cranston's Horse - ?
10. Dalyell's Foot - ?
11. Douglas Foot - Tevoit/ Selkirk/ Eskdale
12. Lord Drummond's Horse - Perthshire
13. Lord Drummond's Foot - Perthshire
14. Earl of Errol's Horse - Kincardine - Aberdeen - Banffshire
15. Lord Eskine's Horse - Dumbarton - Stirling - Clackmarnock
16. Lord Forbe's Horse - Angus
17. Grant's Foot - Inverness
18. Master of Grey's Foot - Angus
19. Earl of Home's Horse - Berwickshire
20 Earl of Home's Foot - Berwickshire
21. Inne's Horse - Nairn - Moray - Inverness - Ross
22, Keith's Foot - Aberdeenshire - Banffshire
23. Earl of Kellie's Foot - Fife
24. Lord Kintail's Foot - ?
25. Tutor of MacLeod's Foot - Harris - Skye
26. Clan McGregor - ?
27. Clan MacKey Foot - Strathnaver
28. Clan MacKinnon - Skye
29. Clan MacNab - Killin - Glen Dochart - Tyndrum
30 Macneil's Foot - Outer Hebrides
31. Clan MacRae - Kintail
32. Earl Marischall's Horse - Aberdeenshire - Banffshire
33. Massey's Horse - Fifeshire
34. Maule's Foot - Fifeshire
35. Maule's Horse - Fifeshire
36. Middleton's Horse - Aberdeen - Banff - Teviot - Selkirk - Peebes - Renfrew - Dumbarton - Bute
37. Viscount Montgomery's Horse - Ayrshire
39. Earl of Rothe's Horse - Fifeshire - Dumfermline
40. Rothiemay's Foot - Aberdeenshire
41. Sinclair's Foot - Angus
42. Sleat's Foot - Skye - Uist
43. Lord Spynie's Foot - Dundee
44. Toquhon's Foot - Stirling area
45. Urry's Horse - Aberdeenshire - Banffshire
46. Van Druschke's Horse - Stirling - Aberdeenshire - Banffshire

Other Facts:

Manor Farm, Malvern Road, Worcester, UK is today the current location of the Battle Site

23rd June 1650 - Prince Charles landed in Scotland from exile in France.
3rd September 1650 - Battle of Dunbar; Scots army defeated by Parliament, Edinburgh held by the English, Charles crowned King Charles II of Scotland at Scone.
1st August 1651 - Charles crossed the English border at the head of a Scottish army.
August 22nd 1651 - Charles and his army arrived in Worcester and began to fortify the city against the expected attack.
August 27th 1651 - Cromwell's army arrived at Evesham to the east of the city.
September 3rd 1651 - Cromwell timed his attack on Worcester to coincide with the first anniversary of his victory at Dunbar.

Charles' plan

To advance on London. He marched the Scots southwards down the western side of the Pennines, skirting the border with Wales from where he hoped to gain more support, it is estimated that, on arrival in Worcester, Charles' army was about 16,000 strong of whom the vast majority were Scots.

Royalist defenses

  • Fort Royal - an earthwork built outside the walls to the east where the main attack was anticipated commanded by Major General Forbes.

  • Forces at Pitchcroft to the north of the city under Leslie

  • Dalziel as backup near St Johns on the west of the River Severn.

  • Piscotty at Temesmouth.

  • The main fighting force was inside the city

Cromwell's plan

Also marched south from Scotland but chose the route on the east side of the Pennines, continually monitoring the Scots' progress, with the intention of blocking any move the Scots might make eastwards towards London. This army is thought to have numbered 30,000 men

Cromwell's battle plan

  • to cut off all possible routes between Worcester and London

  • to attack the city from both sides of the River Severn.

  • to build a bridge of boats for his main force to cross the rivers Severn and Teme

The Battle of Worcester September 3, 1651

The story of the Battle of Worcester in recounted in exhibits at "The Commandery", a complex of timber-framed buildings that were used by Charles as his headquarters for the battle.

The battle of Worcester in 1651 was the attempt by the eldest son of Charles I to reclaim the throne and to re-establish the rule of the Crown in England.

Keith and the Scots, Scottish allies under Sir David Leslie initially held their position at Powick bridge against the Parliamentarian advance into the city from the west. They were eventually overwhelmed by reinforcements sent by Cromwell using the bridges of boats at the confluence of the Teme and the Severn. Fighting hand to hand, as they pushed back into the city ahead of the Parliamentary advance, the Scots sustained heavy casualties.

The action at Powick bridge was only one part of the battle of Worcester. Despite attempts by Charles to counter-attack, the Scots were eventually defeated by the superior generalmanship and greater numbers of Cromwell's army. Estimates suggest that only 700 of Cromwell's men were killed compared with between 2000 and 4000 Royalist deaths.

Charles managed to evade capture and escaped to France. The Duke of Hamilton died of wounds received in the fighting and is buried in Worcester Cathedral. It is thought that as many as 10,000 Scots were taken prisoner many of whom were transported to the English colonies in the New World, Staunton Virginia and Boston Massechusetts. amongst other destinations,

The Battle of Worcester was the final conflict in the interminable English Civil War. The king in exile, Charles II, aided by Scottish allies under Sir David Leslie, attempted to regain the throne lost at his father's death. While Leslie argued that they should make a stand in Scotland, where support for the royalist cause was strongest, Charles insisted on carrying the fight into his homeland. He marched his men south into England, and they came up against Parliamentary forces under Oliver Cromwell at Worcester.

Charles entered the city on August 23, and there he paused to allow his men to rest and gather supplies. Cromwell divided his men into two groups, and it is likely that all told Cromwell's men outnumbered the royalists by two to one. Cromwell began a bombardment of the city and attempted to cross the Severn from the south, but his men were beaten back. Charles sallied out to attack, but he, too, was unsuccessful and returned without taking any of Cromwell's guns.

Cromwell constructed a boat bridge across the river, and led his men across. They pushed back the royal troops, allowing the main Parliamentary army to cross. The Scottish troops broke and fled, turning the royal retreat into a rout.

Charles quickly launched a counterattack, pushing his opponents back in the east. Cromwell was forced to recross the river to support his men, and after 3 hours of hard fighting they pushed the royalists back into Worcester.

The city was surrounded, and troops attempting to flee were quickly captured by Cromwell's men. Charles left his bodyguard to hold off pursuit, and fled the field. In a story that has been told and retold over the years since, he hid from his pursuers in the leafy branches of an oak tree, before eventually making his way to the coast and eventual safety in France.

The Aftermath of Worcester UK

News of the Parliament victory spread rapidly across the country. Only two days after the battle, an Essex parishioner told Ralph Josselin that "the Scots were routed". Later that evening he "confirmed that they [the Royalists] fell out of towne that they were beate in againe, 4,000 slain, 300 prisoners.

A dedication ceremony was held at 11.00am on Sunday 2nd September 2001 at the old Powick Bridge Battle Site at Worcester to remember and honor 800 MacLeods were killed at Worcester supporting the Stuart Cause, and in memory of them and of the rest of the 3000Scots who died.

We also remembered the 2000 Scottish prisoners who were sent as forced labour to North America in 1652. The infusion of Scottish blood into the New England and Virginian population was to provide the United States with a very rich genetic base for their further development. Although the transportation of prisoners was a catastrophe for them at the time, undoubtedly, it has been to the benefit of the USA and to the world

The Aftermath of Dunbar Scottish Prisoners after Battle on September 3, 1650

During the fall and winter of 1650 over 3000 Scottish prisoners of war made a perilous 120 mile march from their defeat at the Dunbar battlefield in Scotland to Durham Cathedral in the north of England. From there most were sent to staff labor starved English colonial ventures in the West Indies, Virginia, Massachusetts, Maine, and Ireland.

Sixty-two were sent aboard the Unity across the wintry seas of the Atlantic. They arrived at Saugus (Lynn) Ironworks 350 years ago, in early April 1651. Today their descendants number in the thousands. According to Colonel Banks' 1927 paper presented to the Massachusetts Historical Society, in the aftermath of the Battle of Dunbar, 900 Scots were to be sent to Virginia. Another 150 prisoners were sent to New England aboard the Unity through Joshua Foote and John Becx, owners of the Saugus (Lynn) and Braintree (Quincy) Iron Works.

There is no known passenger list for the Unity. On April 2, 1651 an account appears in the Iron Works Papers for "a weeckes Dyett to ye 7th of 61 Menn" By June 9, 1651 the Iron Works has 38 Menn remaining on these rolls. The rolls continue to dwindle as these indentured workers are sold to others. The only surviving list of Scots by name is in the 1653 Iron Works inventory. It lists 35 names.

In addition to the the Scots listed, there were many more Scots in New England that arrived on the Unity. Some of them went through the Iron Works and may have even worked with or for Iron Works employees. The names account for less than half of the 150 Scots sent to New England. Perhaps many died on the voyage. One by one, others were imperceptibly assimilated into the labor force of Puritan New England.

To complicate matters further, another 270 Scots were sent to America one year later on the John and Sarah following the Battle of Worcester. That list is fairly complete although some names are not readable. Many times it is difficult to sort out Scots from the John and Sarah from the Unity. Were there other boats? Who were the Scots sent to Virginia? We will never know all of them.

Researched across Internet Accessed Sites and compiled by Wm. Cone 01/23/2003

Aberdeenshire & Kincardineshire - Protocol Book of Sir John Christisone, 1518-1551
Aberdeenshire: Aberdeen - Register of Burials, St. Nicholas Churchyard, 1571-1647
Aberdeenshire: Aberdeen - Register of Burials, St. Nicholas Churchyard, 1647-1670
Lanarkshire, Aberdeenshire, Banff, Ayr, & Stirling: - Commissariat Record of Hamilton and Campsie, Register of Testaments, 1564-1800

How do I find copies of the originals?
These records are a finding aid that help researchers locate an ancestor in a particular time and place in history. With a location and an approximate date, the microfilm number of pertinent corroborating records can often be found on the LDS Church's FamilySearch site (www.familysearch.org) in the Family History Library Catalog. The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has the largest collection.

For unfilmed original parish records go to The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers, under the county of interest. This will then direct you the County Record Office where the registers are housed. You can also contact local genealogy societies or local parishes for information on viewing original records. See Crockford's Clerical Directory, a directory of Church of England clergy, if you wish to write to a parish. It is published annually.

There are other church records, and a search on Familysearch.org on the FHLC can provide you with listings of original parish records by doing a locality search for your county/parish, then look under "Church Record" type.


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