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The Border or Riding Clans
The Border Clans


By the word "clans" is generally if not almost universally understood those of the Scottish Highlands, few being aware how important a part our clans played during the Middle Ages, and I trust, therefore, this little treatise concerning the Border, Riding or Foraying clans, Dalesmen, Marchmen or Borderers, as they were variously styled, may not prove uninteresting, as they have too long been viewed through nineteenth century spectacles, and have, moreover, been generally confounded with the Batablers or Baitablers, as the English called them, or freebooters of the Debateable Lands, [In a document of A. D. 1588, these are styled "sumtyme callit Debettable."] whose hands were against every man and every man's hands were against them. These frontier rievers, who in Scottish legal documents were generally called bordour men or broken men, acquired also about the time of James the First (1406-1437) the name of Mosstroopers, from their living in the mosses of the country.

Previous to the union of the crowns in 1603, the borders and the highlands were in a state totally different from the rest of Scotland and were subjected to laws different from the remainder of the kingdom. The feudal system, which formed the principal groundwork of ancient law, both civil and criminal, had in those districts a comparatively imperfect influence. The inhabitants were divided into surnames or clans, who acknowledged no supremacy saving that of their chief, chieftain or head of their name, who might often be a person entirely different from their feudal superior or over-lord as he was called in Scottish law.

The border clans have usually been considered as little better than common thieves, none apparently reflecting that the actual state of both England and Scotland was with brief exemptions one of chronic petty warfare, nor upon the general state of society in those days when the Bible and other books were almost unknown, for the first printing press in London was only set up in 1476, and printing was not introduced into Scotland until 1501.

Copies of the English Bible found their way into Scotland, however, and were of great service in promoting and establishing the reformed doctrines, and in 1543, four years before Cranmer's Reformation was completed in England, Lord Robert Maxwell submitted to parliament a bill making it lawful for all "our Soverane Ladyis lieges to possess and read copies of the Bible in Scotch or English." It was of course opposed by he bishops, but was nevertheless sanctioned by parliament, and some years after a license to print "ye Inglis Bybill " was granted in 1568, but the translation was not issued until 1579, when it was enacted by parliament that each householder worth three hundred marks of yearly rent and all substanteous yeomen and burgesses esteemed as worth five hundred pounds in land and goods should have a Bible and psalm-book in the vulgar tongue under the penalty of ten pounds.

Manuscript newsletters were ushered in in London in the fifteenth century, followed in the next century by the printed news book. These, however, were but little known beyond the large cities, and the first newspaper did not appear in England until after the union and in Scotland until the Caledonian Mercury was issued in 1660.

William Barlow, Bishop of St. Asaph's, English Ambassador in Scotland, complained to Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal, of the state of the English borders, and gave a very similar apology for his own countrymen. The abstract of his letter in Thorpe's State Papers is as follows:

"Berwick, Feb. 10, 1535." "A long letter, on the miserable misorder, ruinous decay and intolerable calamity of His Grace's [The King, Henry VIII, was then styled "His Grace."] subjects on the borders; there is no knowledge of Christ's gospel, although there are plenty of priests, multitudes of monks and flocking companies of friars." [This letter was written one year after the English Parliament established the King as Supreme Head of the Church, thus sweeping away the papal headship.]

Ignorance was so profound in the Dark Ages that even among the priests and monks, who were supposed to be educated, nearly all of them said by rote the services they had learned by heart, and it has been computed that there were not more than one or two at the outside, in every thousand, who were capable both of reading and writing. Of course there were exceptional cases of students fond of learning, but they were of comparatively rare occurrence. It is true there were burgh schools at Perth, Stirling and Roxburgh at a very early period, and a convent school at the latter place in the time of Malcolm IV (1153-1165) and there was a village school at Norham-onTweed in the twelfth century, but probably they were frequented principally by the children of the trades people, who had to keep some accounts, and but by few of them. As there were then no printed books, the education given must have been very limited.

In 1494, parliament ordained through all the realm that all barons and substantial freeholders, [Probably signifying freeholders in towns, not barons.] put their eldest sons and heirs to the schools at the age of six, or at the utmost nine years; who are to remain at the grammar schools till they have a competent foundation and skill in Latin. After which they are to study three years in the schools of arts and laws ; so that they may have knowledge in the laws, and by this means justice be distributed throughout all the realm; those who become sheriffs or judges ordinary, having proper understanding, and the poor being under no necessity of recourse to high courts for every small injury.

This statute seems not to have extended to the lords and earls whose profession was arms and hunting alone!

In England, as Speed informs us, there were 30,000 studying in the university of Oxford alone, but Hume says "What was the occupation of these young men? To learn bad Latin and still worse logic," and that Hume was not speaking without reason is shown by Platina, librarian of the Vatican (which then contained 2,00 volumes), who died in 1481, who says of the notaries or the prothonotary of the city of Rome itself, whose office it was to commit to writing all memorable occurrences belonging to the church, " But in our age most of them (not to say all) are so ignorant that they are scarcely able to write their own names in Latin, much less to transmit the actions of others."

Even as late as the Reformation such was the want of knowledge in England that Bishop Hooper, in 1550, found one hundred and sixty-eight, or more than half of his clergy in the diocese of Gloucester, who could not repeat the ten commandments; forty who could not tell when the Lord's prayer was written and thirty-one of them ignorant who was its author!

These were priests who had just come out of the church of Rome, and the case was no better in Scotland, for only a few years previously (in 538) the Bishop of Dunkeld having cited Dean Forrest, Vicar of Dolour, to appear before him for the heinous crime of "preaching every Sunday to his parishoners upon the epistles and gospels of the day," he desired him to forbear "seeing his diligence that way brought him in suspicion of heresie." If he could find a good gospel or a good e istle, that made for the liberty of the holy church, the bishop willed him to preach that to his people and let the rest be. The dean replying "That he had read both the new testament and the old and that he had never found an ill epistle or an ill gospel in any of them ;" the bishop said "I thank God I have lived well these many years and never knew either the old or the new. I content me with my Portuise and my Pontifical, and if you Dean Thomas leave not these fantasies you will repent when you cannot mend it."

Here we have a Roman Catholic bishop declaring in open court that he had never read the Bible and desired nothing but his breviary and book of rites and ceremonies. It is hardly necessary to add that the dean suffered martyrdom, having been burned to death.

With such a lack of education it is not surprising, therefor, to see bonds to the king given by heads of clans, promising to keep good rule or to furnish armed men or the like, often signed "with our hands at the pen led by John Andro," or "John Andro for those who cannot write."

Walter Scott of Satchells, when he dictated his history, called himself "Captain Walter Scott, an old souldier and no scholler,

And one that can write nane,
But just the letters of his name."

One of the last contracts or pledges to the crown, being a general band or bond against thieves, murderers and oppressors, was made as late at 1602, and among the lairds who subscribed thereto is "Johnne Inglis of Manerheid (with my hand at the pen led by James Primrois, Clerk of the Counsale, at my command because I cannot write)," and Maxwells, Turn-bulls, Kers, Scotts and others make the same confession — but nevertheless they could handle the sword and spear, and were

"Steady of heart and stout of hand
As ever drove prey from Cumberland."

These were Kers, [This name was usually written Ker on the Scottish side and Carr on the English side.] Scotts (the two great rival families), Homes, Elliots, Johnstones, Grahams, Armstrongs, Irvings, Cranstouns, Cockburns, Maxwells, Gladstones, Dicksons and others who were always ready for the fray and only counted a predatory excursion one of the ordinary diversions of everyday life —replaced in a measure in the present day by shooting tame partridges or pheasants in preserves or following the hounds. The man who plundered another's cattle would perhaps meet him soon after at a border meeting and joke and gamble and drink with him, although quite ready to fight, if necessary, rather than give up his spoils — except for a consideration.

For notwithstanding their mutual hostilities and reciprocal depredations a natural intercourse took place between the English and Scottish marchers at these meetings and during the short intervals of peace. They met frequently also at parties of the chace or foot-ball; and it required many and strict regulations to prevent them from forming intermarriages and from cultivating too close an intimacy. This humanity and moderation was, however, in the case of deadly feud entirely laid aside. Their vengeance then not only vented itself upon the homicide and his friends but upon all his kindred and tribe.

Yet still the report of Sir Robert Bowes when he invaded Scotland in 1545, speaks volumes. The English borderers would not burn down the standing corn and he had to draft Irishmen for the purpose.

The friendly meetings took place on "days of trew (truce)" or "March days," [Not the month but the frontier.] principally to settle scores for depredations and injuries on either side, of which there was a rough tariff, generally acknowledged as border law, and this law made it death for an Englishman or Scotchman to draw weapon upon his greatest foe from the time of holding the court till next morning at sunrise, it being judged that in this interval all might return home.

One of these was held at Reidswire in the Cheviots in 1575, which ended in one of the last of the border fights. The clans of the Middle Marches with Sir John Carmichael, deputy keeper of Liddesdale, at their head, there met the English Borderers of Tyne-dale and Redesdale under Sir John Forster, the English warden of the Middle Marches. The meeting began as usual in mirth and good fellowship. Booths were erected, drink was sold and an impromptu fair sprung up. * But while all went on merrily the two leaders quarrelled. The English took umbrage at the pretensions of the Scot, and rising in his stirrups gave a signal to his men of Tynedale who forthwith discharged a flight of arrows. Then both sides set to work with sword and spear and bended bow, and a fight ensued which was decided at last in favor of the Scots, although the English had the advantage in point of numbers.

The Scotts of Buccleugh were there with "The Laird's Wat," as Scott of Goldiland was called, at their head.

"The Armestranges that aye hae been
a hardie house but not a hail,
The Elliots honours to maintaine brought
down the lave o' Liddesdale,
The Sheriffe brought the Douglas down
Wi' Cranstane, Gladstain good at need,
Beanjeddart bauldy made him boun
Wi' a' the Trumbills stronge and stout,
The Rutherfoords with gret renown.
Of other clans I cannot tell,
Because our warning was not wide"—

On the English side were:-

"Five hundred Fenwicks in a flock
Wi' Sir John Foster for their guyde
Full fifteen hundred men and mae."

Sir John Heron one of the English leaders was slain and the warden and several others taken prisoners. The queen, as might have been expected of the daughter of bluff Harry was furious when she heard how her men had been chased across the border, and the Regent Morton, to appease her, sent the Scottish leader a prisoner to England, but good Queen Bess was too magnanimous to take vengeance on a helpless foeman. The English court moreover being convinced that their own warden was in the wrong, not only discharged Carmichael with honor, but even gave him a present.

Our forefathers called this fight an unhappy accident only. In a proclamation of the regent warning the people not to take advantage of it, and to keep the peace, it is styled the " unhappy accident at the lait meeting on the Reid Swyre."

It must be remembered that although when the English invaded us reprisals followed as a matter of course, still it was not in private forays only that our Marchmen were engaged. They acted as a sort of border militia to protect their country not only from the English but also from the baitablers, and frequently bound themselves to the king to that effect. In a tax levied in 1586, for a force of waged men on the border, the border shires are expressly exempted from taxation on the ground of personal service.

In 1522, the Earl of Shrewsbury invaded the kingdom, burnt part of the town of Kelso and, according to some writers, burnt eighty villages also and razed eighteen towers of stone, but he was met by the Borderers of the Merse and Teviotdale and forced to retreat with considerable loss.

In 1523, the Earl of Surrey crossed the borders with ten thousand mercenaries besides other forces, but was so annoyed by the Scotch skirmishers that he wrote to his king "I assure your grace I found the Scottes at this tyme the boldest men and the hottest that ever I sawe any nation. And all the jorney upon all parts of the armye kept us with so contynuall skyrmyshe that I never sawe the like. If they might assemble Xlt` Mt as good men as I now sawe XV° or ij Mt; it wold bee a herd encountre to mete theym."

Surrey's praise is valuable, being that of a good soldier who had often been employed on foreign service.

In 1532, the Earl of Northumberland detached fifteen hundred men who ravaged and plundered the lands of Sir Walter Scott of Buccleugh and burned Branksome, but failed in their principal object which was to kill or make him prisoner. In resentment for this Sir Walter and other border chiefs assembled three thousand men whom with consummate skill and valor they conducted into England, laid waste a large part of Northumberland, baffled and defeated the English and returned home laden with booty.

In August, 1542, Sir Robert Bowes with three thousand horse attempted to enter Scotland, but was defeated at Haddon-Rigg, and himself and six hundred men made prisoners, and in October of the same year the Duke of Norfolk with twenty or thirty thousand men burnt Roxburgh and Kelso and several villages, but was then compelled to retire.

It would be almost impossible now to recount the frequent greater inroads, to say nothing of the lesser or what may be called the private ones, but the Official Reports of two inroads in the years 1544 and 1545, which have been preserved, deserve some notice. No less than eleven Dickson fortalices were demolished at this time.

The first report is that of Lord Eure, Sir Brian Laiton, Sir Robert Bowes and others, entitled " Exployts don upon the Scotts from the beginning of July Anno 36 R. R. Henrice' 8th" and the king is informed that up to the 17th Nov. 1544, they had destroyed 192 towns, towers, stedes, barnekyns, parish churches, and bastell-houses, slew 403 Scotts and took 8i6 prisoners, 10,383 nolt (black cattle); 12,492 shepe, 1,296 naggs and geldings, 200 gayt, 850 bolls of corn, and " Insight Geare."

This last item of household goods is not carried out but in one place it says "a great quantity."

Unfortunately there had been at this time an Anglo-Scottish party, which had supported the interests of the English Monarch, but all parties finally united in support of the independence of the realm. The day of vengeance came, and the following spring the Scots, although far less in number, utterly defeated the English at Ancrum, slew eight hundred men, including their leaders Eure and Laiton, who for the preceding nine months had signalized themselves by their unexampled and cruel ravages, and took one thousand prisoners.

The Earl of Hertford made an invasion with an army of 14,000 men. His report is headed "The Names of the Fortresses, Abbeys, Market Towns, Villages, Towns and Places, burnt, raced and cast down by the commandment of Therll of Hertforde * * between the 8th and 231'd September 1545." "Sum Total 287."

In this sum total are included seven monasteries and frear-houses and three hospitals, among which were the abbeys of Kelso, Melrose, Dryburgh, Roxburgh and Coldingham, and yet it is generally said that these were destroyed by the Scottish Reformers!

The Earl's list also contains Kenetsyde, Hassyngtonmaynes, Mersington, Stanefawde, Headrigge, Newtoun, Letam, Ormeston, Newbigging, Belclester and Boughtrige, all of which were then, or at one time at least, Dickson baronies, and must have been places of more or less importance or they would not have been mentioned in the Earl's report.

His roll is a sad one, e. g., "In Lasseden burnt 16 strong bastell Houses and sundry that held the sane slain" * * won divers strong Castell Houses and slew all the Scottish men in the same * * * slew 80 men, the most part being Gentlemen and of hed surnames."

In one of the Earl's letters dated Sep. 13, 1545, he says "not so much harm done these hundred years," and speaking of burning the standing corn he adds they had employed Irishmen for the Borderers would not burn their neighbour's property. The orders of King Henry VIII, were in case of resistance to slay man, woman and child, and to destroy every thing. Sir Robert Bowes almost repeats the Earl's words, for desirous to do his duty in what he considered a perfect manner he drafted a hundred Irishmen into the expedition "because the Borderers will not willingly burn their neighbours "—a very significant remark —the English Borderers were not sufficiently relentless to be relied on for wanton mischief and cruelty, even although it was to serve the king.

Our clans it will be seen had sufficient provocation and should not be censured too harshly, for they were not a bloodthirsty race like some of, the ruffians in the Far West in this century of education, as the contemporary evidence of a Scotch bishop (not a Borderer), a Frenchman and an Englishman shows that they were an honorable and kind-hearted people, loth to shed blood—in fact, a jolly, thoughtless set of marauders.

Bishop Leslie tells us what were their ideas of meum el tuurn, and if we have socialists in these enlightened days, it is not surprising that communistic opinions flourished when there was almost no enlightenment at all. They considered it perfectly legitimate, aye even gallant and honorable to plunder their English neighbours south of the border, but always, if possible, without the effusion of blood. Their chief property was in cattle, and as they were nightly exposed to the attacks of the English March-men

"Northurnbrian prickers [The ancient spurs had a single spike only, and were called pryck spurs. ], rude and wild."

As rapacious and active as themselves, their incursions assumed the appearance of fair reprisals. A predatory expedition was the general declaration of enmity; and the command given by the chief to clear the pastures of the enemy constituted the usual letters of marque, and the cattle taken were considered fair spoils of war.

When Wat of Harden in 1576, married Mary Scott of Dryhope, her father agreed to find him in victuals for man and horse at Dryhope Tower, a twelvemonth and a day, in return for the profits of the first Michaelmas moon, meaning the plunder of a raid into England — and this contract was drawn up by a notary public before witnesses! But in fact disorder of all kinds prevailed in every kingdom of Europe to a degree almost incredible. How frequently we read in old Froissart or Monstrelet of noble knights going forth in search of adventures, which in our present language would signify to lay their hands on whatever they came across.

The robber knights of Germany were notorious. Rauber or robber (Freiherr .Dauber von Plankensaein) is a noble German name, and de Roovere (the Robber [The prefix "de" in Dutch means the, as de Witt, the White.]) a noble Dutch one, the first of whom on record was Edmond de Rovere, Lord of Rode in I I 79. Ladron (Robber) de Guevara is a noble Spanish name, and in France a Captain Taillebot was ennobled in 1562, his name being probably the Romance "talebot," a. e., pillager, thief. The first on record (in Domesday Book) of the English Talbots was a Talebot.

One must suppose that the founders of these families were leaders especially famous, like to our Johnny Armstrong, Rob Roy MacGregor or that chief of Clan Grant called James of the Forays.

A Cameron of Lochiel bore a similar sobriquet, Ailean nan Creach, Allan of the Forays. In his old age however in expiation of seven great forays, he built as many churches, and is therefore sometimes spoken of in tradition as Ailean nan Eaglais, Allan of the Churches.

They were not very sensitive regarding nomenclature, and some of their appellations were not dissimilar to those of the North American Indians. A Sitting Bull is living still, but how many are aware that Rollo, Duke of Normandy, was really a Walking Wolf?—Jarl Heirulff or Gangerolf, for the Earl Lord Wolf was obliged on account of his great size to gang on foot as no horse could carry him. One of the Conqueror's companions was Lord with the Teeth (Dan as Benz---what tusks he must have had), another William with the Whiskers (als gernons, and Algernon is still almost a hereditary baptismal name in the Percy family), a Duke of Guienne, Towhead, another noble Ass's head. A son of the Duke of Gascony, Arnoud the Unborn! One of the late Prince Albert's ancestors was Frederick with the Bitten Cheek, but a very nasty name was that of a Welsh noble, Howel the Scabby! And they were not ashamed of it for even his grandson subscribed his name as Llewellyn ab Gwilym ab Hywel y grach.

But I am digressing and will only add a few Scotch sobriquets derived from deformities. A Marquess of Athol was known as John with the Large Mouth (Ian a Bheal mor); a Duke of the same house who was blind of an eye, Ian Cam; the second Earl of Breadalbane was John the Lame (Ian Bachach); a Macleod of Macleod Alexander the Humpback (Alasdair Crotach), and Lachlan Maclean, laird of Dowart was styled the Big-bellied (Bronach). Hugh Fraser, Lord Lovat (b. 1666) who had a large black spot on his upper lip, was called Black Spotted Simon's son (Mac Shimi Baldu).

But why should I go on when we find at the present day such names as Parnell, Trollope, Trull, Fitz Parnell, Cumbechance, and the like?

In 1377, the King of Cyprus, who paid a visit to England, was robbed and stripped there on the highway with all his retinue, and even in the very heart of good old England there was one county so noted for its robbers, who harboured in its woods until they were cut down by Leofstane, Abbott of St. Albans, that the proverb ran

"Buckinghamshire bread and beef,
If you beat a bush you'll start a thief."

With these it was all on one side, but with the Marchmen of both countries there was a quid j5yo quo. They were usually called thieves, an expression I have not used as the word has now a different signification. A thief may be defined as one who will take whatever he can pick up and has himself nothing to lose, while their forays were commonly only a retaliation for recent injuries, or in revenge of former wrongs, and when they carried off cattle or other spoils it was with the consciousness that their own herds were exposed to the risk of being appropriated by others.

When King James charged Johnnie Armstrong with treason and robbery the border chief replied:

Ye lied, ye lied, now King, f'ie says,
Although a King and prince ye be!
For I've loved naething in my life,
I weel dare say but honesty.
Save a fat horse and a fair woman,
Twa bonnie dogs to kill a deir;
But England sould have found me meal and mault,
Gif I had lived this hundred yeir."

As old Satchells says (drawing a very nice distinction), they were not thieves, but freebooters.

I have never met with an account of a private Border foray, but one of a Highland raid has been preserved, which will give some idea of the lordly scale in which they were sometimes conducted, as well as the proportion of the different kinds of stock. then kept.

A Decree of Council of James V (1488-1513) is as follows:

"That Huchone Ross of Kilrawok and his son shall restore, consent and pay to Mr. Alexander Urquhart, sheriff of Cromarty, the following items, carried off by them and their accomplices:

Six hundred cows, 100 horses, 1,000 sheep, 400 goats, etc., was the work not of thieves, but of foragers on a grand scale — i. e., judging them always by the standard of the times they lived in, when religion consisted in saying a few paters and ayes, every thing else being left to the priest, and Usher's eleven commandments were practically unknown. [The Archbishop had often heard of the saintly Rutherford, and when traveling in Scotland contrived to arrive at the manse at nightfall, and as was formerly customary when there were few travelers, asked for accommodation. At family prayers Rutherford catechized them, and his question to the stranger was "How many commandments are there?" "Eleven" was the reply. Gravely expressing his surprise, the minister finally said, "What then is the eleventh commandment?" "A new commandment give I unto you, that ye love one another," was the answer. Rutherford soon found out who his guest was, and the following day being Sunday, requested him to take his place in the kirk, which the prelate did, using the Presbyterian form only.]

"Reparavit cornua Phoebe" (We'll have moonlight: again) was the motto of the Scotts of Harden, and "Best riding by moonlight" that of the Buccleughs. "Ye shall want ere I want" that of the Cranstouns, and "Forward" that of the Douglasses. One of the Dickson mottoes was " Fortes fortuna juvat" (Fortune favors the bold) and another "Cubo sed curo" (I sleep but watch). The Haliburton motto was " `WTatch well."

War-cries called Slughorns, Slogans or Ensenzies, were confined generally to chiefs of clans and military leaders. Most of them are lost, but the "earliest on record, save perhaps that of Gaul Mac Morn "First to come and last to go" is that of the Celtic portion of the Scotch army at the battle of the Standard in Yorkshire, A. D. 1138, who cried "Albanich, Albanich! "a` St. Andrew was the shout of the kings of Scotland; that of the old Earls of Douglas "A Douglas! A Douglas!" and of the Homes "A Home! A Home!" The Scotts cried "Bellendaine" from Bellendean in Roxburghshire or according to Logan "Ale Muir." The Cranstouns "Henwoodie" from their place of rendezvous on Oxnam water, and the Maxwells "Wardlaw! Wardlaw! I bid you bide Wardlaw!" from a hill near their castle of Caerlave. rock. The Setons (not a Border family, however), cried "A Seton! A Seton! Set on! Set on!"

There are two little burns called the Tarset and the Tarret and the slogan of the people of that district was "Tarsetburn and Tarretburn ! Yet! Yet! Yet!"

A most singular cry of some of our Marchmen was "A holy day! A holy day!" every day in their estimation being holy that was spent in ravaging England. This is said to have been the origin of the name of the Hallidays of Allandale.

Many of the border families, English as well as Scotch, bore mullets in their arms. These in heraldry are said to be spur-rowels, and it has therefore been considered that they were emblematical, but the heralds appear to have been at fault in styling them rowels, for the Douglasses and Dicksons probably bore mullets, which are only five-pointed stars, before rowels were invented, which was only in the beginning of the fourteenth century. A mullet is represented on the seal of Adam Home, A. D. 1165. The earliest known seal of the Douglasses is of the year 1296, and bears three mullets, and these may have been assumed, for arms were seldom granted in those days, about the middle of the thirteenth century by Dick de Keth or Keith, whose mother appears to have been a Douglas, and who was father of Thomas Dicson, born in 1247.

"Spare nought" was the motto of the Hays, ancestors of the Marquesses of Tweeddale, and if it was adopted in 1522, when the English burned Kelso and eighty villages besides, or in 1545, when Lord Eure burned the tower of Broomhouse, with its lady, a noble and aged woman, her children and whole family,— it must be allowed the Hays had some excuse. At the battle of Ancrum Moor the cry of our Borderers was "Revenge for Broomhouse."

The ladies of the day were notable housewives. When the Harden larder was empty a dish was placed by her ladyship's orders before the baron of Harden himself, which being uncovered disclosed a pair of spurs—and the equivalent to the modern order "Boot and saddle" was soon given.

This custom was peculiar to the Scotts of Harden, but is constantly brought up against all our forebears, yet no one ever adds that it was the custom in Cumberland to lay a sword on the table when the provisions were finished!

After 1542, the laird of Harden of that period might have said that in that year King Henry, before any declaration of war, seized twenty-eight Scotch ships laden with costly merchandize, and if an English king could do that in time of peace might not a Scotch baron pick up a few cattle?

Every evening the sheep were generally taken from the hills and the cattle from the pastures to be secured in the lower floors or barnekyns of the strong houses, so that the disappointed rovers often found every thing secure.

Even "the sturdy Armstrongs who were forever riding" were sometimes thus disgusted. The old lines say:-

"Then Johnie Armstrong to Willie 'gan say
Billie, a riding then will we:
England and us have been long at feud
Aiblins we'll light upon some bootie.
Then they're come unto Hutton Ha',
They rade that proper place about,
But the Laird he was the wiser man,
He had left na geir without
Except sax sheep upon a lea;
Quo' Johnie—I'd rather in England dee
Ere this sax sheep gae to Liddesdale wi' me."

Poor Johnie was only carrying on a private war of his own. Six sheep only, however, were beneath his notice. Those were the days when to return a Roland for an Oliver was the rule, and he said truly that with England we have been long at feud. Johnie Armstrong, Laird of Gilnockie, was famous as the most popular and potent forager of his time, who laid the whole English border under contribution, levying saufey money or blackmail as far as Newcastle, but who never injured any of his own countrymen. It was said that no one, of whatever estate, between the border and Newcastle but paid him blackmail.

He was always attended by twenty-four gentlemen well mounted. When James V made a Royal Progress in 1528, Gilnockie appeared with thirty-six persons in his train, all richly apparelled and unarmed ; but the king, finding him in his power, and being then at peace with England, ordered him to be executed, notwithstanding all his offers. Finding his entreaties were of no avail, he boldly said that had he expected such a reception he would have defied the king and all his troops, but that it was folly to ask grace of a graceless face.

"To seek hot water beneath cold ice,
Surelie it is a great folie:
I haif asked grace of a graceless face,
But there is nane for my men and me."

He was betrayed and put to death without trial, a proceeding which, even in that age, was considered unjustifiable; but the king was then only twenty-one years old, and was probably a tool in the hands of Armstrong's enemies.

Lindesay of Pittscottie, speaking of the execution, says: "Quhilk monie Scottis mene heavily lamented, for he was ane doubtit (redoubled) man, and als good ane chieftain as ever was vpoun the Borderis aither of Scotland or of England."

There is no trace whatever of his stronghold, the last relics of the tower of Gilnockie having been re moved to make a bridge over the Esk. The tower of Hollows, a square peel seventy feet high, is said to have been his; but Hollas Tower was held by Lord Maxwell, and there is no proof that he ever granted it to Gilnockie.

I repeat, then, should our clans be so loaded with reproaches? They were, at least, no worse than their neighbors on the south side of the Border.

Modern writers generally forget that the doctrine of those days was

"The good old law —the simple plan —
That they should take who have the power,
And they should keep who can "—

and the Pope himself tried to play that game, for in 1300 Boniface VIII claimed to be liege lord of Scotland, but without avail. Some years later (1317) he issued a bull excommunicating the Bruce and all his adherents in the most solemn manner, but the king would not receive it neither would the Scotch bishops promulgate it and the fulminations of the Vatican were totally disregarded. The following year the Pope again ordered his legates to publish the sentence of excommunication, which was accordingly done in England, Wales and Ireland and also in France and Flanders, but again the Scotch bishops took no notice of the threats of their brother bishop of Rome. The interdict was not obeyed and although the bell was ordered no longer to be rung, the book no longer to be opened nor„the candles to be burnt, nevertheless the churches were not closed, the regular services continued to be performed, and every thing went on as usual.

And we succeeded as well also in our struggles with Albion. At one time when there were internal dissensions and the country was split into two parties by the rival claimants Bruce and Baliol, England "had the power" and took possession, but the tide turned and we were again united.

To state the case as briefly as possible.

After the death of King Alexander III, in 1285, without male issue there were two claimants, Baliol being favored by King Edward I, of England, who sent an army to Scotland, took Berwick, Dunbar, Edinburgh, Stirling and other places, appointed Warenne, Earl of Surrey, governor of Scotland, and after leaving garrisons behind him in the captured places returned home, when the Scots raised a strong force under the Earl of Buchan, the English dispersed in the different fortresses not daring to move; ravaged Northumberland and Cumberland and laid siege to Carlisle, which, however, he was unable to reduce. Then came the war of independence under Wallace the saviour of his country, who after numerous exploits was joined in 1297, by Sir William Douglas and soon after by Robert Bruce. Edward ordered Warenne to chastise and suppress them, but he was met by Wallace at Cambuskenneth and defeated with great loss. Wallace then returned to the besieging of castles and in a short time so changed the fortune of war that there remained no English in Scotland except as prisoners. He then entered England on the first of November, remained there three months, living upon the enemy, and returned home on the first of the following February with much spoil.

The English parliament ordered a general muster at Newcastle which took place in January, 1298, the number that appeared being 2,000 excellent armed horse, more than 1,200 light horse, and about ioo,000 foot, who were, however, dismissed, but reassembled again in June and advanced into Scotland and in a battle at Falkirk entirely defeated the Scots with great slaughter.

Soon after, as we all know, Wallace resigned his charge as guardian of Scotland, but continued in arms asserting his freedom, until he was taken prisoner and unmercifully condemned and executed as a traitor in London in 1305.

Edward, after his victory, wasted all the country beyond the Forth as far as Perth and withdrew his army and returned to London at the end of the year. After his departure the Scots again arose and expelled all Edward's governors from the different cities and castles. Two years later (1302) Edward sent a fresh body of forces, thirty thousand in number under John Lord Segrave, who plundered the country as far as Roslin, when he unwisely divided his forces into three divisions who were attacked successively by the Scots, eight thousand in number under John Cumin and Simon Fraser, and defeated with great loss. Edward immediately raised a larger army, attacked the country by sea and land and again reduced it, appointed governors and magistrates and went back to England.

Then Bruce commenced to take a prominent part, and, after many struggles, finally seized nearly all the castles throughout the south of Scotland. Edward I died and was succeeded by his son, Edward II, who in 1309 invaded Scotland, but accomplished nothing worthy of notice.

The next year, however, Bruce twice invaded England in retaliation, and returned with immense booty, and in the two following years recovered all the fortified places which remained in the possession of the English.

Then came the coup de grace, when the English army of upward of twenty thousand •infantry, together with ninety-three barons with horse and arms to the amount of forty thousand cavalry, including three thousand having their horses covered with plates of mail, and the Irish Prince O'Connor with twenty-six Irish Chieftains and their followers, a body of Welsh warriors under their own chief, the Earl of Hainault, at the head of the chivalry of France and Germany, and fifty-two thousand archers, in all considerably over one hundred thousand men, besides the camp followers, the largest army that had ever left England, met the Scotch army of less than forty thousand fighting men, with over fifteen thousand unarmed camp followers, at Bannockburn in 1314, and were totally defeated, with the loss of up. wards of thirty thousand men. The spoils were so enormous that an English historian (the Monk of Malmesbury) says that the chariots, wagons and wheeled carriages which were loaded with baggage and military stores would, if drawn up in a single line, have extended sixty leagues. He adds, "0 day of vengeance and misfortune! day of disgrace and perdition! unworthy to be included in the circle of the year, which tarnished the fame of England and enriched the Scots with the plunder of the precious stuff of our nation to the extent of two hundred thousand pounds."

Two hundred thousand pounds of money in those days amounts to about six hundred thousand pounds weight of silver, or about three millions of pounds of our present money. Almost a bagatelle now, when referring to an army; but then a cow could be bought for five shillings, and an ox for six shillings and eight pence.

Then came our turn "to keep who can," and with the sole exception of the town of Berwick, which was ceded to England by treaty in 1482, we never gave up a foot of ground; but when the Royal Families were united by marriage, then in our kindness we gave old England a King.

Not that peace followed after Bannockburn, or that was our last victory; for in 1315 Bruce made an inroad, penetrating as far as Richmond, thence to the west of Yorkshire, wasting the country for about sixty miles, and carrying home much booty. In 1318, Sir Robert Keith, Randolph and Douglas reduced Berwick, became masters of all Northumberland except Newcastle, and returned to Scotland laden with spoils. In 1319, however, the Earl of Murray and Lord Douglas made an invasion, committing terrible ravages, but were finally defeated with a loss of three thousand men.

Early in 1322, the English Parliament granted the king for serving in the Scottish war a foot soldier out of every village and hamlet, and a greater number out of the larger towns, but before this was effected, the Scots made an inroad in June and again in July, marching as far as Preston, eighty miles within England and returned home safely. Soon after the English invaded Scotland as far as Edinburgh, but from storms at sea preventing their ships arriving and provisions failing, for the country was deserted and desolate, they returned to England after only fifteen days. The Scots then made a new irruption, and met Edward II at Byland Abbey, Yorkshire, where he had collected his army together and added fresh levies, but he was again routed by the Bruce, and made a precipitate flight, abandoning camp equipage, baggage and treasure. The Scots plundered the country as far as Beverley and returned home laden with booty, driving large herds of cattle before them and rich in multitudes of captives. Sully, Grand Butler of France and many French knights were among the prisoners, but Bruce dismissed them not only free from ransom but enriched with presents.

In 1327, Randolph and. Douglas invaded England as far as Durham with twenty-four thousand horse, and although pursued by Edward III, with an army of about sixty thousand, of whom eight thousand were horse and twenty-four thousand archers, they succeeded in returning home safe with the plunder of a three weeks' raid. At one time Edward thought he had them in his power, for behind the Scots army was stretched out a large morass which .was deemed impassable for cavalry, but the Scots prepared a number of hurdles made of wands or boughs tightly wattled together, and packed up in the smallest compass their most valuable booty, and at night, leaving their camp fires burning to deceive the enemy, they threw down the hurdles upon the softer places of the bog and thus passed over the water-runs in safety, taking care to remove the hurdles so as to prevent pursuit.

In March, 1333, Lord Archibald Douglas with over three thousand men ravaged the estates of Lord Dacre in Cumberland to the extent of thirty miles, and returned without an encounter. In retaliation, Sir Anthony Lucy entered Scotland, met Sir William Douglas, and after a fierce conflict gained the victory.

In July, 1333, the English and Scottish armies met at Halidon Hill, and the latter suffered a terrible defeat, caused chiefly by the showers of arrows poured into their close battalions by the English archers. The Scots had about sixty thousand men, and the two armies were about equal in number. The Scottish loss was about ten thousand, or according to Boece, fourteen thousand, while a comparatively small number of the English suffered. The English writers represent their army as being far inferior in numbers to the Scots, and that there fell on their side only one knight, one esquire and twelve or thirteen footmen! King Edward, however, in his orders to the prelates for a public thanksgiving, though he speaks of the Scottish army as being very considerable, does not mention any inferiority of numbers on his own side, and says that the battle was gained without much loss. Had the English loss been only fifteen against nearly as many thousands, would he not have used stronger language?

In 1335, Edward and Baliol again invaded Scotland into the far North, and after making a truce with King David, and appointing a Guardian of Scotland) left the country in November. The next year the Scots arose again, Edward returned, laid Aberdeen in ashes, fortified several places and left Scotland again in September. In 1337, the Earl of March defeated a great body of English at Panmure.

After continual struggles, tiresome to relate, the English in 1342, had been driven out of every part of Scotland except Berwick, and King David Bruce entered England by the eastern marches, wasted and spoiled the counties of Northumberland and Durham and returned home, but was pursued by Edward who met him at Jedburgh, but after some days spent in skirmishing, a truce was agreed to for two years.

In 1345, the Scots invaded Westmoreland and burnt. Penrith, Carlisle and other towns, but a detached party being routed, they retired. The following year, David with a large army marched through Cumberland and Northumberland as far as Durham, where they were met by the English army and routed at the battle of Neville's Cross, with a loss of fifteen thousand men, King David himself being made prisoner. Scotland was again invaded as far as Perth, when a truce was made, but as the English refused to surrender their prisoner, the Scots continually laid waste the English borders until 1356, when Edward again advanced into Scotland, and Baliol made a formal surrender into his hands of his whole right to the kingdom of Scotland. The King went as far as Haddington, but being continually harrassed by small parties of Scots and provisions failing, after burning Edinburgh and Haddington he returned home. David remained a prisoner for eleven years until 1357, when Edward finding Scotland could not be captured, released him for a heavy ransom.

In 1370, the English entered Scotland burning the lands of Sir John Gordon, who in return invaded England and seized a number of cattle. When returning to Scotland he was met by Sir John Lilborne, but after a severe combat the English were defeated and Lilborne taken prisoner. In revenge Henry, Earl of Northumberland, invaded the country with seven thousand horse and encamped at Duns, but the herdsmen and people of the country made use of a sort of machine which they usually employed to frighten away the wild cattle and deer from their corn. These were a kind of rattle made of bags of dried skins filled with pebbles at the end of poles which being shaken made a hideous noise. With these they ran round the camp causing a stampede, the English horses breaking their halters and bridles, so that the enemy, not being able to recover them and finding themselves on foot, quietly returned home.

Mutual inroads of no particular note continually occurred. In 1380, William, Earl Douglas, with twenty thousand men invaded England while a large fair was being held at Penrith and returned home with great booty, in revenge of which a part of fifteen thousand English under Lord Talbot soon after entered Scotland, near the Solway, but were met in a narrow defile and defeated, great numbers being slain or drowned in the Esk. In 1383 the Scots took the castle of Wark, and the year after the Duke of Lancaster invaded Scotland, going as far as Edinburgh, but was obliged by hard weather and want of provisions to return.

In 1385, Richard II, with an army of sixty thousand, entered the country by the east coast, burnt Edinburgh, Perth, Dundee and some other places and returned home, while at the same time thirty thousand Scots entered England by the western border, plundered and laid waste the country as far as Newcastle and carried home their booty in safety.

In 1386 there was a truce, but the next year the Scots made a successful inroad on the western border. In 1388 took place the famous battle of Otter-burn elsewhere referred to.

In 1398 a treaty was made between the two countries for redressing all grievances and appointment of commissioners, but there were inroads again and in 140o Henry IV entered Scotland with a numerous army but failed in his attempt against the castle of Edinburgh and returned to Newcastle in about a month. In 1402 the Earl of Douglas invaded England with ten or twelve thousand men, but they were met and routed at Homildon by the Earl of Northumberland. Many Scottish nobles and seven hun dred common men fell in this fatal engagement. No person of note fell on the English side the victory being won entirely by the archers.

In 1417, the Scots entered England, but learning that the Dukes of Bedford and Exeter were marching toward them with an army of one hundred thousand men, they returned home, and the English leaders judged it better not to follow them. About this time Sir Robert Umfraville made great devastations in Scotland for two years, burning Hawick, Selkirk, Jedburgh, Dunbar and the forests in Berwick and Teviotdale.

In 1424, a treaty was made, and King James married Lady Jane Somerset, cousin to the king of England.

A few years later, as the counties of Northumberland and Cumberland had suffered so much from the incursions of the Scots, the king of England, at the request of Parliament, remitted to them all taxes and •debts due to the crown.

In 1436, the Earl of Northumberland, with four thousand men, advanced toward the Scottish marches, but was met in his own territories by Douglas, Earl of Angus, at the head of about the same number of men, and defeated, the Scots losing about two hundred, while of the English fifteen hundred fell, of whom forty were knights and four hundred were made prisoners. Again a truce was made. In 1448, the Earls of Northumberland and Salisbury destroyed the towns of Dunbar and Dumfries, and Douglas, Lord of Balveny, in revenge, burned Alnwick and spoiled and laid waste the county of Cumberland. In retaliation, the Earl of Northumberland led a considerable army over the western march, who were met near the river Sark by the Scots, when a bloody battle ensued wherein the Scots were again victorious. Three thousand English are said to have been slain or drowned in their flight in the. Frith of Solway. The loss on the side of the Scots was six hundred men.

In 1459, James II raised an army to recover Roxburgh and some other places that had been long held by the English, but was killed by the bursting of a cannon. The queen continued the siege until the garrison surrendered, and then laid waste the English marches to a considerable extent. In 1464, the Earl of Warwick burned Jedburgh, Lochmaben and many other places. In 1482, the Duke of Gloucester, the Duke of Albany and the Earl of Northumberland, with twenty two thousand five hundred men, advanced as• far as Edinburgh, where the nobility had risen against the king. A treaty was carried on by the latter and a truce concluded, in which the town of Berwick was given up to England.

In 1497 Henry VII, raised a considerable force for a war with Scotland, but. was detained by an insurrection in Cornwall, when the king of Scotland seized the opportunity of entering England and ravaged the country as far as Norham, when hearing of the approach of the English army he led back his own and was followed by Surrey, who took the small castle of Ayton, but a negotiation for peace put a stop to further progress.

In 1513 a party of English made an inroad and carried off considerable booty, and soon after Lord Hume, Warden of all the marches, invaded England at the head of about three thousand horsemen, but on his return was met in an ambush by Sir William Bulmer and defeated. The Scotch king eager to avenge the defeat of his warden invaded England, took Norham and other castles and collected much booty, but King James wasted his time at Ford with the beautiful Lady Heron, so that the provisions began to fail and the army was exposed to continual rains. For this reason and to carry back their spoils great numbers of the common men deserted and the army gradually melted away until there remained not over thirty thousand when the English army of about the same number appeared. King James IV who was a brave man but not a general, against the advice of his friends, charged on foot in the thickest of the battle, and when he perceived that the day was lost, seeing his standard bearer, Sir Adam Forman, fall he pressed into the middle of his enemies by whom he was slain. The loss of the Scotch at this battle of Flodden was ten thousand according to an original gazette preserved in the Herald's College, London, and Polydore Virgil says the English lost five thousand.

About two months after, in November, 1513, Lords Dacre and D'Arcy invaded the country at the head of three thousand horse and three hundred infantry, burned Rowcastle [This castle belonged at one time to the Dicksons.] and Langton on the Teviot, and collected considerable booty, but on the appearance of Lord Hume with about two thousand followers the English retired.

Short truces, sometimes of two or three years were constantly made and almost as frequently broken.

I have previously mentioned the principal inroads made by the English in this century and will only add that in November, i 542, a Scottish army entered England, but they had hardly crossed the border at Solway Moss when an order was read from the king appointing his favorite, Oliver Sinclair, generalissimo. This was received with the most extreme disapprobation, many of the nobles declaring that they would immediately return home, and the whole army, agitated with the discussion became a disorderly mob. At this crisis two English leaders appeared and, becoming sensible of the situation, attacked the Scottish camp. There was not the semblance of an engagement, for to fight might have been to secure a victory for the king's detested favorite. Upwards of a thousand yielded without striking a blow, and the rest, throwing away the weapons which they would not use, fled in disorder. The loss of killed, wounded and prisoners was over three thousand men, besides which many were swallowed up in the morass.

The last battle of any importance was that of Pinkie, near Edinburgh, in 1547, where the English had the advantage of the ground and the assistance of their fleet, and as they made good use of the cannon, both of the field and of the fleet, the Scots were seized with a sudden panic, and fled in disorder, losing some two thousand taken prisoners and over ten thousand slain.

In 1587, the Borderers again broke out into open hostility. Six successive forays swept with relentless havoc through the middle marches, and Sir Cuthbert Collingwood, the English warden, found himself too weak to restrain the incursions of Cessford, Fernihurst, Bothwell and Angus. In a piteous let, ter to the Secretary, Walsingham, he described the country as having been reduced to a desert, wasted with fire and sword and filled with lamentation and dismay; but so inadequate was the assistance he received that Buccleugh, Cessford and Johnstone, with a force of two thousand men, attacked him in his castle of Eslington, slew seventeen of the garrison, took one of his sons prisoner, and but for the fleetness of his horse would have taken the warden himself.

In 1596, the English warden arrested Kinmont Willie, a chief of the Armstrongs, on the evening of a day of truce, an act both illegal and dishonorable, and Scot of Buccleugh demanded that he should be surrendered. The request being refused, Buccleugh, with a chosen band of mounted followers, stormed Carlisle Castle and took the prisoner back to Scotland. As he returned home, carrying the prisoner weighed down by his chains, which they had not had time to remove, and with all Carlisle at his heels, he came to the swollen river.

"Buccleugh has turn'd to Eden water,
Even where it flowed frae bank to brim,
And he has plunged in wi' a' his band
And safely swam them through the stream.
He turn'd him on the other side
And at Lord Scroope his glove flung he —
If ye like na my visit in merry England,
In fair Scotland come visit me.'
All sore astonished stood Lord Scroope,
He stood as still as rock of stane;
He scarcely dared to trew his eyes,
When thro' the water they had gane.
He is either himsell a devil frae hell,
Or else his mother a witch maun he;
I wadna have ridden that wan water
For a' the gowd in Christentie."'

Queen Elizabeth demanded his surrender, and the king was finally induced to give him up.

When he appeared before the Queen, who loved bold actions, even in her enemies, she demanded of him fiercely how he had dared to storm her castle, to which the border baron, nothing daunted, replied—"What, Madam, is there that a brave man may not dare?" Turning to her courtiers, the Queen, pleased with his reply, exclaimed: "With ten thousand such men our brother of Scotland might shake the firmest throne in Europe."

The Elliot ballad, sometimes called their Gathering, referring to Queen Mary of Scotland, must not be forgotten —

"I have vanquished the Queen's lieutenant,
And made his fierce troopers to flee -
My name is little Jock Ellot
An' wha daur meddle wi' me?

I ride on my fleetfooted grey,
My sword hanging down by my knee —
I ne'er was afraid of a foe,
Then wha daur meddle wi' me?"

Only one other verse has been preserved

"In raids I rode always the foremost,
My straik is the first in malee -
My name is little Jock Ellot
Then wha daur meddle wi' me?"

The brave old baron, John Elliot of Park, who had wounded the Earl of Bothwell, Queen Mary's lieu= tenant, evidently did not believe in the Divine Right of kings — to govern wrongly.

Leslie, bishop of Ross, before the Reformation, and whose history was published in Rome in 1578, says of our marchmen:-

"They think the art of plundering so very lawful that they never say over their prayers more fervently, or have more frequent recurrence to the beads of their rosaries than when they are setting out upon an expedition, as they frequently do, of fifty or sixty miles, expecting a good booty as the recompense of their devotions."

Sometimes even the clergy joined with their flocks in their plundering raids, which is not surprising when we remember that our clergy were always a very militant one. In 1306, the chaplain of King Robert Bruce, who was taken fighting at the battle of Methven was hanged, and the bishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow were sent prisoners to England in the coats of armor which they wore when taken, and at the battle of Flodden the archbishop of St. Andrews (a natural son of the king), the bishop of the Isles, the abbots of Kilwinning and Inchaffrey and others were among the slain. The statutes of James IV and V, concerning wapenschawings (weapon showings or reviews) show that the tenants of church land had no exemption, and as late as the time of Mary it was ordained that when a clergyman was slain in battle or died in the camp, his nearest relation should have the benefice.

It has been computed that before the Reformation about one-half of the wealth of Scotland was in the hands of the clergy. The following is said to have been a prayer of the English Borderers:-

"He that ordain'd us to be born Send us more meat for the morn Part of 't right and part of 't wrang, God never let us fast ov'r Lang, God be thanked and our Lady, All is done that we had ready."

Froissart's description of the Borderers is as follows:

"Englishmen on the one party and Scotchmen on the other party, are good men of war; for when they meet there is a hard fight without sparring; there is no boo (cessation for parley) between them as long as spears, swords, axes or daggers will endure; but they lay on each upon other, and when they be well beaten, and that the one party hath obtained the victory, then they glorify so in their deeds of arms, and are so joyful, that such as be taken they shall be ransomed ere they go out of the field; so that at their departing courteously they will say `God thank you.' But in fighting one with another, there is no play nor sparring."

Another old writer, quoted by Sir Walter Scott, says of the Scots, and it applied as well to the English, "that they would not betray any man that trusts in them for all the gold in England or France," and Robert Constable, an English spy, says in 1569 of his Scotch companions: "They are my guides, and outlaws who might gain their pardon by surrendering me, yet I am secure of their fidelity and have often proved it;" and Scott, in his Border Antiquities, says the marchmen were "of all others the most true of faith to whatever they had pledged their individual word. When a Borderer made a prisoner he esteemed it wholly unnecessary to lead him into actual confinement. He simply accepted his word to be a true prisoner, and named a time and place where he expected him to come and treat for his ransom.

If any one broke his word so plighted, the individual to whom faith had not been observed used to bring to the next border meeting a glove hung on the point of a spear, and proclaim to Scotch and to English the name of the offender. This was considered so great a disgrace to all connected with him that his own clan sometimes slew him.

At the bloody battle of Otterburn in 1388, the Scotch leader, the Earl of Douglas, was slain, but the English were totally defeated, and their commander, Hotspur, son of the Earl of Northumberland, and about one thousand others were taken prisoners.

Froissart says "when the Scots saw the English were discomfited and surrendering on all sides, they behaved courteously toward them, saying 'sit down and disarm yourselves for I am your master,' but never insulted them more than if they had been brothers;" and Hume of Godscroft adds: "Froysard (a stranger and favouring more the English) concluded, touching this battle, that in all history there is none so notable by the virtue of the captains and the valor of the soldiers * * * for in the heat of the conflict no men ever fought more fiercely, in the victory obtained none ever behaved themselves more mercifully ; taking prisoners, and, having taken them, using them as their dearest friends, in all humanity, courtesy, gentleness, tenderness, curing their wounds, sending them home, some free without ransom, some on small ransom, almost all on their single word and promise to return at certain times appointed, or when they should be called upon".

The border penalties were short and sharp. Those accused of march treason were tried by jury, and, if found guilty, were decapitated; but with the marauders of either country the wardens used much less ceremony, for they were frequently hanged in great numbers, without any process of law whatever. There was an old proverb in Scotland of Jedburgh justice, where men were said to be hanged first and tried afterward. In England this was called Lydford law:-

"I oft' have heard of Lydford law —
How in the morn they hang and draw,
And sit in judgment after"

but, turning again to Leslie, speaking of the Scots, "although some things are to be noted to their dispraise, yet there are others to be greatly admired; for most of them, when determined upon seeking their supplies from the plunder of the neighboring districts, use the greatest precautions not to shed the blood of those who oppose them, for they have a persuasion that all property is common by the law of nature, and, therefore, liable to be appropriated by them in their necessity, but that murder and other injuries are prohibited by the Divine law, and if taken prisoners their eloquence is so powerful, and the sweetness of their language so winning, that they even can move both judges and accusers, however severe before, if not to mercy, at least to admiration and compassion."

Besides our ordinary jails there seem to have been a sort of honorable ones, in some places at least, for in 1597 James VI made a vigorous attempt against certain broken clans, Armstrongs, Johnstones, Bells, Batisons, Carlisles and Irvings. He came to Dumfries, and in the course of four weeks hanged fourteen or fifteen men, and took one or two of the principal men of each branch of those clans as "pledges" that all plunder committed by their particular branches should be redressed. For the reception of such persons in general there was a "pledge chalmer (hostage chamber)." On this occasion, however, the pledges, thirty-six in number, were distributed over His Majesty's houses, where it was ordained they should each pay 13S. 4d. weekly for their maintenance.

If the leading men generally managed to escape, although:-

"Five times outlawed by
England's King and Scotland's Queen,"

the retainers, as already shown, were not always so fortunate, and usually, taking it almost as a matter of course and better than dying in their beds, when led out to execution listened calmly to the priest as he recited the so-called Neck-verse, or Fifty-first Psalm in an unknown tongue (Latin), vainly believing that his prayers could save them.

How different would it have been could they have heard in their own dear Scotch those beautiful words which years ago I read by the request and at the bedside of a very dear friend who soon after passed away so happily, trusting not in the cross but in HIM who died upon it, and confessing to HIM alone needed no other intercessor with a God of Love.

"Have mercy upon me, O Lord, according to thy loving kindness; according to the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out all my transgressions.

Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity and cleanse me from my sin.

For I acknowledge my transgressions and my sin is ever before me."

Although the Borderers occasionally acted as infantry they were so much accustomed to act on horseback that they considered it even mean to appear otherwise. They generally acted as light cavalry riding small sure-footed horses who could move through the swamps and morasses like water-fowl, and clamber like goats across a mountain pass, or up the bed of a torrent in the darkest night and through the wildest storm. With wonderful ingenuity they had trained their horses to go upon morasses by throwing themselves on their bellies and their and thus gaining an artificial breadth of support, to cross by short floundering leaps, ground in which ordinary horses were instantly bogged.

If the blaze of their beacon fires gave notice of the approach of an English army thousands would assemble in a single day. The knights and esquires being mounted on able steeds, the rest on their hardy nags. Each man carried a little bag of oatmeal trussed behind him and a griddle for baking his crakenel attacked to the crupper of his saddle, and they frequently rode in a single night or day for twenty-four miles together without bread or wine. The rivers served for drink and the cattle taken afforded meat, and instead of burdening themselves with pots they seethed their meats in the raw skins of the animals, pouring water into the bags so formed and suspending them upon stakes over the fire or roasted their beaf on spit racks before the fire.

The remark "without wine" may appear singular, but it would seem that its use was common, for Barbour, writing in 1375, that Edward the Third's army when they invaded Scotland in 1356, fell short of provisions, says "and in particular for fifteen days his army had no other drink but water," and Hall speaking of the battle of Flodden, in 1513, says of the English that they had no victuals, "and for two days before they had only drank water."

In 1490, when the Scottish admiral, Wood, attacked the English admiral, Bull, his orders were "Charge gunners; let the cross-bows be ready; lime-pots and fire-balls to the tops; two-handed swords to the fore•rooms. * * * Wine was then dealt round."

Although this was not a border fight, still it should not be forgotten. Five English ships had entered the Forth and despoiled some Scottish merchantmen. Sir Andrew Wood of Largo, with his two ships, the Flower and the Yellow Carvel, attacked and took the whole five vessels. All were provided with artillery. Henry VII offered a large reward to any one who would capture Wood, and Stephen Bull with his three ships agreed to do so, and met the Scot off the coast of Fife in August. The combat continued undecided from morning until night and was renewed the following day, when at length the valor and seamanship of Wood prevailed. The three English ships were captured and taken into Dundee, where the wounded were properly attended to, and King James, besides bestowing gifts upon the English admiral and his men, sent them home with their ships as a present to King Henry!

On the approach of the enemy, the Scots were commanded by act of Parliament to "birne baillies," a term equivalent to the English bale-fires, or fires to Baal, but which were afterward applied to signal or alarm fires, as " Beil fyris."

And here it may not be out of place to give some notice of the religion of our ancestors, even the prehistoric, for a history of the borders would he almost incomplete without it.

The great Pagan divinity, the sun, was worshipped all the world over with candles and torches in the temples and houses, and with fire in the open air, and was probably almost as universally known as Baal or Bel, Lord.

Tammuz, the sun-god, for whom the women wept (Ezekiel viii: 14) was the same as the Latin Bacchus, the Lamented, from the Phoenician bakkah, to weep. The Romans had their Baal Jupiter (Jupiter Belenus) and their Baal Apollo (Apollo Belus). The Phoenicians worshipped him as Baal Samen, Lord of Heaven, and in Ireland he was worshipped as Beuill Samhan. The night of Halloween is called in Erse, Oidche Samhna, and in Gaelic, Samhuinn. Jerome, who lived in Palestine when the rites of Tammuz were still observed, in his Commentary on Ezekiel, expressly identifies him with Adonis (Adon, Lord), who was the same as the Northern Odin and the Mexican Wodan, where he was also known as Baal, or Bel.

His wife Astarte, the Ashtoreth of the Bible, and Ishtar of Nineveh, worshipped by the Saxons as Oster, by the Anglo Saxons as Eoster, and called by English churchmen Easter, was also worshipped as Beltis, the Lady (Madonna!), and from her the Easter fires made in Scotland, even until the present century, were called Beltane, Beltis's fire, and May day is still called Beltane.

The early Christians soon commenced to amalgamate the Pagan festivals with their own, and as early as A. D. 58, Paul upbraided the Galatians for observing days and months and times and years, for they were already replacing the feasts of the demigods and heroes, by Saints and Martyrs. Less than two centuries after. Tertullian asked why Easter was celebrated, and Socrates, the Church Historian (fifth century), said that neither the Saviour nor His Apostles had enjoined us to keep it, but that it seemed to him to have crept in from some old usage - and what was that old usage except the Feast of Astarte?

The question of the time of keeping Easter long agitated the Christian Community, and it was only settled in England by a Council in 664, according to the Roman method, because as Bishop Short says "both parties agreed that St. Pete- kept the keys of heaven, and that he had used the Roman method of computing." (The Italics are mine.) Half a century later the Picts were also induced to adopt the Roman method.

The Pagans made their fires to Beltis on the first of May, which is probably the true date of the feast of "Our Lady" Astarte, the Syrian Venus, the Egyptian Isis. As Aphrodite her solemnities were celebrated in April. No bloody sacrifices were allowed to be offered, but only pure fire, flowers and incense! The festival of Flora, the goddess of flowers, was also solemnized in the same manner, from the 28th of April to the 2nd of May, and does not the Roman Church, and alas, part of the English still continue to offer these candles, flowers and incense to the Madonna — Our LADY? Why do they not also retain the true date instead of depending upon that mysterious "Full moon which happens upon or next after the 21st day of March," which may fix Easter as early as the 22nd of that month, or as late as the 25th of April?

The British Christians continued to extinguish their fires and light them again afresh with so-called "sacred" fire, obtained from the priests, long after the Pagan and Roman festivals were amalgamated. [It must be explained here, that before the days of friction matches in the first half of the present century, so difficult was it to kindle a fire with flint and steel, that fires were never extinguished at night, but the wood embers were covered with ashes, so that the live coals could be raked out in the morning.]

At the Reformation our established church of Scotland abolished the observance of Easter day, but the church of England (who are dissenters in Scotland) not only retained it, but even made all the other feasts of their calendar depend upon it; in relation to which it may be added that there is no authority whatever for feasts or fasts in the New Testament.

No one can tell even the season of the year, much less the day, in which our most blessed Lord was born, but it was not in the winter for shepherds do not remain in the fields at night then, but about the year 380, the Roman church amalgamated the nativity of our Lord with the Saturnalia or pagan festival of Saturn, the Etruscan name of the sun-god. For this the authority is undoubted. Chrysostom, in a homily delivered about the year 386, says "It is not yet ten years since the day was made known to us," and in homily No. 31, he says it was done "in order that while the pagans were occupied with their profane ceremonies, the christians might perform their holy rites undisturbed!"

Our church also abolished the observance of this festival, but the church of England still observe the day which the Romans consecrated as the birth-day of the unconquered sun —Natalis invictis solis!

During the carousals at the winter solstice the old Romans made one of the slaves Lord of the Household and in Scotland we had an Abbot of Unreason until the Reformation. In England, however, they did not give up their Lord of Misrule until Christmas was abolished by act of parliament in 1644.

As regards Lent it had originally nothing to do with our Lord's forty days in the desert, but was established by a pope about A. D. 130, as a fast of thirty-six days, or a tithe of the year, and was only settled at forty days by Pope Felix III, A. D. 487, but the four additional days were not generally accepted, and it was not until as late as the eleventh century that a Lent of forty days was recognized in Scotland, and a few centuries after we got rid of it altogether.

It cannot be denied that the Reformation was more perfect in Scotland than in England, for while the English church, as well as the Lutheran, retained the celebration of Christmas, and other festivals, our church rejected them absolutely, denouncing the observance of all such days except the Lord's day as superstitious and unscriptural.

Scotland has reason to be thankful to her reformers. They probably believed that our Saviour's fast of forty days was part of his temptations and therefore no rule for us, for it was only when He was weak with hunger that the evil one made proposals to Him, and they must also have perceived that although our Saviour spoke to the Jews about their fast He never told His disciples to fast, neither did He recommend fasting. Mark does not even mention our Lord's forty days.

The compilers of the English Prayer Book could not find a single epistle for their great day, which they still called by its Romish name, Ash Wednesday, and had to fall back upon one of the lesser prophets of the Old Testament, without reminding the people that Joel foresaw an impending great drought and plague of locusts, and for that reason exhorted the Jews to fast, and this exhortation for this particular fast only, is still given as an authority for a stated fast of forty days in every year, even should Lent occur at a most prosperous season, and at a time, therefore, especially adapted not for mourning but on the contrary for thanksgiving!

The redeeming point of the Prayer Book is its thirty-nine articles and the prayers and collects, but unfortunately while in our kirk the New Testament is the guide, in the English kirk it is the calendar, in which Pagan feasts and fasts, under Christian names, abound, and the dates, with perhaps a very few exceptions, are all fictitious ; as, for instance, St. James' day is celebrated in the Greek church on the 3oth April, and by the Armenian on the 28th December, but in the thirteenth century it pleased a pope to declare that it should be on the 25th July, and accordingly the church of England still celebrate it on that day. The Greek church observe St. Mark's day on the 11th January, and the Coptic on the 23rd September, and as St. Mark is said to have been martyred in Alexandria, it would seem if either is the true date that the Coptic is the real one. However, a pope decreed that it should be April 25, and so it remains in the English calendar, where, too, they boldly acknowledge the Roman Madonna and Queen of Heaven as their LADY also! In the Lessons Proper for Holy Days we read "Annunciation of our LADY!"

In Pagan Rome the 25th of March was the day observed in honor of Cybele, the Great Mother of the Gods, and in the seventh century its name was changed to the Annunciation, and that day is still observed by the English church, although no one knows when the Angel Gabriel made the announcement.

The ancient Romans held a feast on the ist or 2nd of February to Juno Februata, which was celebrated with candles and torches, and Moresin says that in Scotland the people used to run about the mountains with lighted torches like the Sicilian women in search of Proserpine. In 526 (some say 540) the pope ordained that they should close the festival by going to the churches and offering up their candles to the Virgin. It was, therefore, called Candle-Mass, and Juno's day is still celebrated by English churchmen as the Day of the Purification! These are but specimens.

When the Prayer Book was revised in Ireland a few years ago they swept away nearly all the feasts and fasts, but Cybele's Day (Our Lady of the Annunciation) and Juno's (Our Lady of the Purification) are Red Letter Days, or First-Class Festivals (! !) of the Protestant church of England, with special collects, epistles and prayers, and it was for that reason only they were retained by the sister church.

It is true we have our so-called patron saint, and his memory is respected as that of one of our Lord's apostles, but not revered; neither is his day religiously observed.

It is a curious fact that the so-styled St. Andrew's cross is a fable of the middle ages, for he is said to have been crucified in Greece, and in the Greek Menologies and in one or two Western Martyrologies he is depicted as executed on a cross of the ordinary form.

Rivers and fountains were dedicated to the sun-god Tammuz, which accounts for the many so-called holy wells still in existence, and the Thames, Tamar, Tame and Teme probably derived their names from him. The cross (T) was his initial and emblem, and the Druids made enormous crosses of oak trees, seeking one sufficiently adapted and cutting off all but the two principal branches, or otherwise they fastened a cross beam to the tree. They also built cruciform temples and cairns, and there is still standing at Callernish in the Lewis a Druidical temple three hundred and eighty feet long in the shape of what later became known as the Iona cross, but which is in reality the cross of Tammuz surrounded by his circle of the sun. The celebrated cairn at New Grange, Ireland, is also cruciform.

Although a Christian church was established in Rome before the arrival of Paul, the Pagan temples were not entirely abolished until about A. D. 500, prior to which, but long after the time of the apostles, the Pagan cross was adopted by the Roman church and called the cross of Christ to draw the heathen into the church by making them believe there was little difference between the two religions, but St. Paul many years after our Lord's death called it the emblem of the curse, and the second commandment forbids all emblems for the use of religion.

In Britanny a Roman Catholic Priest is still called by the old Pagan title, Belek, servant of Baal. Many local names in the British Isles commence with the name. There was probably a Druidical temple at Baltimore in Ireland, for the name is evidently Baalti-mor, the great house of Baal. He was also known as Gran or Grian, the Shiner or Sun. The Cam was anciently called Grant and Cambridge Grantabryg. The Irish Druids called the Zodiac Beach Grian, the Revolution of Grian and the Solstices Grian stad or Grian's stopping places. The Grampians, anciently Granze benc, are Grian's hills, and if further proof is necessary history tells us the Romans adopted the God's of other nations, although it seems more probable that they acknowledged them as their own under other names, and a Roman altar was discovered at Musselburgh in the Lowlands in 1565, dedicated to Apollo Granno, and Apollo was another form of the Sun God.

But the Pagans knew not who they worshipped. Bacchus had so many appellations that according to Sophocles he was called the many named, and Isis was called Myrionyma, the goddess with ten thousand names. Their wise men believed that all the gods were originally the same. It is expressly so declared it the Orphic Hymns. In them they sang to the Universal Zeus. "Zeus is the male, Zeus is the immortal female," and Arnobius tells us they sometimes prayed "Oh Baal, whether thou be a god or goddess hear us."

They desired to find the only God, but their religion had become so fearfully corrupted that they knew not where to seek Him, and as we all know the learned Athenians, and probably other nations also, built an altar

To the Unknown God!

The place from which the Highland Clan Grant derive their name is called Griantach, or Sliabh Grianus, the heath of Grian. His day was SUN-day, and even within the memory of man libations of milk were placed on Sundays in hollow stones called granni stones, of which there was one in every village. The reason of course forgotten, but the ceremony maintained even as too many still honor the Syrian Venus, who it was believed was hatched out of an egg. She was worshipped at Cyprus under the form of a large oval stone. Pliny describes what were considered the virtues of Astarte's egg, and says the Druids wore them made of chrystal and set in gold around their necks as badges of their office. He says they were made by snakes, and called snake or serpent stones (ovum anguinum). They are still sometimes found in Wales, made generally of some glass or vitreous paste, and are also called there to this day snake stones (Gleini n adroedd). Two of rock chrystal are still in existence in Scotland, one being in the royal scepter and the other is in the possession of a Perthshire family. Hindus, Chinese and Japanese have their mystic eggs, and who that has visited the Levant has not noticed the ostrich eggs suspended in the mosques ? What then is the Easter egg but a memento of that impure goddess Venus, who was the same as the great Diana of the Ephesians.

Crosses made of rowan, or mountain ash, are still sometimes placed upon cow-byres in the Highlands, being now considered a protection against witches. The rowan was, however, a sacred tree of the Druids, and is the same as the Scandinavian yggdrasil, the great ash or mundane tree, the chief and holiest seat of the gods, where they assembled every day in council. It is the same as the irminsul, the sacred tree of the Germans, from which Pagan origin is derived their Christbaum and the English Maypole.

Fires were carried round the fields in the High. lands to ensure good crops, and Tein egin, or Need Fires, were made when the cattle were diseased. These need fires were made in a peculiar manner, differing, however, slightly in some districts.

Without doubt all these practices formerly existed in the Lowlands, but they lingered longer in the remote Highlands.

There are prehistoric relics in Scotland which have not been preserved elsewhere, and which I ventured to point out as pre-christian some years ago, although such origin was not then, I think, ever hinted at by others.

I refer to the standing crosses at Meigle, Glammis and elsewhere, bearing sculptured figures of serpents (and Tammuz, or Grian was the serpent sun-god, a corrupted tradition of the serpent of Paradise), a boar (sacred to the sun-god, whose day was the winter solstice, and although the animal is no longer sacrificed, boars' heads are still served up at Windsor and Oxford on Christmas); a sow (sacred to Frigga in Scandinavia and to Ceres in Rome) ; a long-legged hound (and Ceridwin, the great goddess of South Britain, was fabled to have transformed herself into a greyhound) ; a centaur with a battle axe in each hand instead of a bow; Venus' looking glass or mirror with lily handle (the lily of Isis and Juno, and now the Roman Catholic emblem of the Virgin), and also with a cross handle like the sign of the planet, elephants, fishes, etc.

Bacchus was sometimes called the Fish (Bacchus Ichihins) and Jerome calls him the Lamented Fish (Piscem Mceroris). The Philistines worshipped him as the Fish On (Dag On). Joseph's father-in-law was Priest of On (the Sun), whose city is to this day called, by the Greek translation of its Egyptian name Heliopolis, the City of the Sun.

One Scottish stone bears a man and a woman with a tree between them which might be taken for Adam and Eve, but there is a similar design at Phila, and these two probably represent the Celtic and the Egyptian versions of the Latin Hercules in the garden of the Hesperides.

Compare also the man tearing open the jaws of the lion in Wilson's Prehistoric Scotland with the Assyrian Hercules wrestling with a lion in Layard's Nineveh.

Where did our prehistoric fellow-countryman obtain his models? There were no lions in the Land o'Cakes when that stone was carved. His forefathers brought their traditions from Babylon "which hath made all the earth drunken," and they must have brought their drawings too! But how, was it on their bodies only? We know that the Caledonians had their bodies covered with the figures of animals colored blue with wood, so that the Romans called them picti or painted men, and have we not relics of that custom also. The Picts painted their whole bodies with representations of different animals, a custom that must have originated in a warmer clime than Caledonia. Our sailors now however only tattoo their arms and sometimes their breasts.

Besides the stationary beacon fires the Borderers also formerly sent around a signal called the Fyrecross, somewhat similar to and undoubtedly a corrupted form of the Highland fiery-cross. This fyrecross was a wisp of straw or tow, or a turf, burning or burnt, mounted on the top of a spear and carried through the country with the utmost celerity, and all men between eighteen and fifty-six, or according to some writers between sixteen and sixty, were obliged to hasten to the place of danger.

In the Highlands it was called crois-tara, croistarich or cran-tara, and has been supposed to signify the cross of shame (tara), in allusion to those who should neglect to join the banner of their chief. Jameson however, who defines it as a "stake of wood one end dipped in blood and the other burnt, as an emblem of fire and sword," says the final word is perhaps Zara, a multitude. It was however originally a cross formed of two pieces of wood tied to, gether, the extremities of which were seared in fire and exling-uislied in the blood of a goal which was killed by the chief himself with his own sword.

Sometimes one of the ends of the horizontal piece only was burnt and a piece of linen or white cloth stained with blood was suspended from the other; and some years ago I expressed the opinion that the original signification had been long forgotten and that the crois-tara was the cross of Taran or Thoran, the God of Thunder, who was identical with the Scandinavia Thor who was considered the helper of both gods and men, and whose weapon was a fylfot cross. Moreover the goat was sacred both to Bacchus and to Mars, the God of War, and undoubtedly likewise to Thor, the God of War as well as of Thunder, as his car was drawn by two goats, and therefore in Scotland to Taran, and the case then is perfectly clear. No Highland Chieftain would turn his Andrea Ferrara into a butcher's knife, but in this event it became a sacrificial knife and he a successor of the Pagan priest offering up a sacrifice to Taran. This accounts for the blood, and the rest is equally clear for the cross of Thor was a fiery cross which he himself could only hold with a steel glove. Taran's cross must have been the same.

In the Orkneys the fiery cross was called the Cors or Corse, i. e., Cross, and in later times it was sometimes used for calling the people to church or for other lawful purposes.

The ancient Goths, the Swedes and probably other nations had a similar custom and from the imperfect accounts that have been handed down they appear to have used rods burnt at one end, with a rope or piece of white cloth stained with blood at the other. As the cross was delivered from hand to hand, and each bearer ran at full speed, proclaiming aloud the place of meeting, a clan was assembled with great celerity. The last time it was used in Scotland was during the Rising of 174, when it was carried about in the Highlands, and it went round Loch Tay, a distance of thirty-two miles, in three hours.

I must again confess that there was a class infesting the borders who must not be confounded with some of the Border Clans, and in favor of many of whom little can I fear be adduced.

The land lying along the Borders was called the Debateable land or Threepland, from "threep," to contend or quarrel. As early as 1222 a commission was appointed to mark out the line of frontier, and in 1450, it was agreed to render part of it a common pasture where each nation might have liberty to graze cattle, and was occupied from sun rising to sun setting, on the understanding that any thing left there over night should be fair booty to the finder. It extended the whole length of the borders, and in proportion as the land was waste or barren its breadth was the wider, but in 1552, it was decided to divide the Terra contentiosa by a boundary line; the ground on one side to belong to England and that on the other to Scotland.

Not only hordes of broken clans and broken men, but also murderers and the like resided there, many of whom harrassed both countries.

"And stole the beeves that made their broth
From England and from Scotland both."

Such was their dexterity that they could twist a cow's horn or mark a horse so that its owner could not know either again, and one of their pretty games was with the consent of a neighbor to carry off and sell his horse at a good distance, and after pocketing the money to steal back the horse and return him to his owner.

The Tarras Moss was one of their places of refuge. In 1598 Sir Robert Carey, the English Warden built a fort on Careby Hill to watch some of the Baitablers who had fled there, but while he was lying in wait they sent a party into England and harried his lands, and on their return sent him one of his own cows, telling him that fearing he was short of provisions they had sent him some English beef.

They were often proclaimed. A decree of the year 1567 reads as follows:

"Forasmikill as it is understand to my Lord Regent and Lordis of Secrete Counsall how the thevis and brokin men inhabitantis of the contreis of Liddisdaill, Ewisdaill, Eskdaill and utheris boundis on the Marches of this realme foranent Ingland, hes nocht onelic committit divers thiftis, reiffis, heirschippisl and slauchteris upoun the peciabill and gude subjectis of the Incuntre bot als hes takin sindry of thame and denenit thame as lauchfull presonaris or ransont or latten them to souertie agane * * * And * * quhen ony cumpanyis of thevis or brokin men cummis over the swyrisf within the Incuntre, that all our Soverane Lordis liegis dwelland in the boundis quhairthrow thai resort incontinent cry on hie, raise the fray and follow thame alsweill in their inpassing as outpassing on fute and horsis and follow thame and the gudis reft and stollen be thame for the recovering and redding thairof * * "

Bloodhounds were generally used in the pursuit of these marauders. When the injured parties raised the hue and cry and followed with horse and hound, it was called the hot trod or tred, and in chasing the thieves they were allowed to cross the frontiers of both countries.

Upon a sudden attack from any small party these bastilles afforded good means of defense, but when, as often happened, the English entered the frontier with a regular army supplied with artillery, the lairds usually took to the woods or mountains, with their most active and mounted followers, and left their habitations to the fate of war, which could seldom do any permanent damage to buildings of such rude and massive construction as could neither be effectually ruined by fire or thrown down by force, until at least when gunpowder began to be used for the purpose.

Few of these fortresses now remain. They were inconvenient for modern residences, and have been mostly cleared away. The largest peel on the Border still in existence is that of Borthwick, built in 1430, the tower of which is one hundred and ten feet high and the walls twelve to fourteen feet thick. It had six stories.

Rude as they appear to have been, a list of the furniture of one of them in the sixteenth century shows a certain degree of refinement. It consists of the "spuilzie" (spoils) of the house of Robert Ker of Ancrum, County Roxburgh, ancestor of the Marquess of Lothain, in 1573, with the valuation of each separate article, he having appealed to the king and council against certain parties for damages.

Among other articles enumerated are four silver tassis (cups), each weighing twelve ounces, one silver macer [Macers were generally made of maple wood, one serving the entire company, as the Loving cup is still passed round in England.] double over gilt, weighing eighteen ounces, two dozen silver spoons weighing one and a half ounces each, two silver salt vats, one partially gilt with cover, weighing twelve ounces, the other weighing seven ounces. A silver foot to a cup weighing five ounces. Three dozen Flanders pulder plaittis [Tin or pewter plates took the place of wooden ones in the reign of James the First (1424-1437), about which time a noted tavern in Paris bore the sign of the Tin plate.] (pewter plates), five dozen Flanders poyder truncheons (trenchers), besides basins, washbasins, tin flagons of Flanders work, three stands napery [James I in his Poem "Peblis to the Play," mentions a tavern in Peebles with fair table linen and a regular score on the wall. The reckoning two pence halfpenny apiece.] (table linen) of fine dernick (Doornick or Tournay) work, three stands of small linen cloth,," XL furneist fedder beddis with scheittis, coveringis, coddis (pillows), bousteris, blankattis," three gentlewomen's gowns, to•wit, one of black champlot silk, another of French black and the third of Scotch russet, all trimmed with velvet, three gentlewomen's hats, one of black velvet, another of black armosy taffatie and the third of black felt, three men's doublets, one of black satin, another of violet armosie taffatie and the third black bombassy, etc., etc., together with one tun of wine, to-wit, three puncheons of claret, and one puncheon of white wine, "price of the tun lxvi li xiii s. iiii d," [£66 13s. 4d. These were Scotch pounds then less in value than English.] and also salt neat, cheese, butter, meal, barley, oats, etc.

Such is the claim, but it can hardly escape notice that while there were forty beds completely furnished and equal to about sixteen hundred bottles of wine, there were parts only of three men's and three women's dresses, so that it would seem as if some articles had either been taken away by the owners or had not been discovered by the raiders.

This was the house of a baron only, but the inventory a century earlier of the royal plate and jewels of King James the Third, who died in 1488, impresses one with no contemptible idea of the riches and splendor of the court. Together with a large sum in gold angels, ryders (of the Low Countries), rials (of France), unicorns and rose nobles occur "a book of gold like a table and on the clasp of it four pearls and a fair ruby; the great diamond with the diamonds set about it; several great and small gold chains; a collar of chalcedon, collars and beads of gold, strings of pearls, a purse made of pearls, crosses set with precious stones, numerous rings in rolls — e. g., "Item a roll with seven small ringis diamantis rubeis and perle." "Item ane uther roll with ringis in it of thame (among them) thre gret emmorantis a ruby a diamant, and other rolls of rings set with saffer, ammorant, topas, turcas and berial, together with plates, dishes and basins silver over gilt," etc., etc., and in the inventory of James V, who died in 1542, occurs inter alia a basin of gold weighing ten pounds.

An inventory of such things as were left in the Castle of Caerlaverock, Co. Dumfries, in 1640, affords a good idea of the wealth and luxury that characterized some of the noble mansions of Scotland at that period.

Four barrels of "seake " (Falstaff's favorite wine) and three hogsheads of French wine only remained in the wine cellar, but among numerous other articles were five suits of hangings, each estimate at three score pounds sterling. Five beds, two of silk and three of cloth, every bed consisting of five coverings * * with silk fringes, broad silk lace, chairs and stools answerable laid with lace and fringe, with feather bed and bolster, blankets and rugs, pillows and bedstead of timber answerable; every bed estimate to be worth one hundred and ten pounds sterling.

Ten lesser beds, four with cloth curtains and six with stuff or serge, every bed furnished with bottoms, valence and testers, feather bed, bolster, rug, blankets and pillows and bedstead of timber; every bed estimate to fifteen pounds sterling.

Seventy other beds for servants, consisting of feather bed, bolster, rug, blankets, and estimate to seven pounds sterling apiece.

Forty carpets, estimate "overheid " to forty shillings sterling apiece.

Furniture of a drawing-room of cloth of silver, consisting of an entire bed * * * wardrobe and six stools, all with silk and silver fringe, estimate to one hundred pounds sterling.

Two dozen chairs and stools covered with red velvet, with fringes of crimson silk and gilt nails, estimate to three score pounds sterling.

Five dozen Turkey work chairs and stools, every chair estimate to fifteen shillings sterling, and every stool to nine shillings sterling.

A library of books "calk stood my lord to two hundred pounds sterling" (Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale, was a literary man and commonly called The Philosopher, which accounts for the large stock of books for that period).

Two trunks full of Holland shirts, etc., etc., damask table cloths, forty pair of sheets, seventy stands of napery, etc. Two trunks of coarse sheets and napery.

A trunk with eight suits of apparel, some of velvet, some of satin, some of cloth, etc. There was also one iron window and six cases of windows. Glass was then still so expensive that the windows were removed from unoccupied rooms.

My lord and my lady's pictures.

The bed in my lord's chamber is described as furnished of damask and laid out with gold lace. My lady's chamber is mentioned, but the furniture is not given.

Of arms there were left 22 pikes, 13 lances, 28 muskets, 28 bandoleers, 2 two-handed swords and 9 collars for daggers.

The ledger of Andrew Halyburton, a Scotch merchant residing in the Low Countries between the years 1492 and 1503, has fortunately been preserved.

Among other articles shipped by him to Scotland were "2 poncionis (puncheons) off claret wyn, 2 puns (puncheons) Orleans wine, a stek (piece or cask) of Ryns wyne, 3 puns wine, a pipe of claret, a town (tun) of Gaschon claret, 2 bottis (bulls) Malwissy (Malmsey)," etc., together with such luxuries as "25 cassis sucur weand 28 li (pounds), 12 li pepar, 2 li gyingar, a li of kaneyll (cinnamon), i li clois (cloves), 2 li notmogis, 2 li massis (mace), 12 li scrozattis (confections), 2 barellis of applis, xii li of deytis," etc., and also the Trois Afendianls, viz., "fegis, raisinis and almondis."

A century later, in the Highlands, Simon Fraser, eighth Lord Lovat, imported wines, sugar and spices from France in return for the salmon produced in his rivers. He was celebrated for a liberal hospitality. The weekly expenditure of provisions in his house included seven bolls of malt, seven bolls of meal and one of flour. Each year seventy beeves were consumed, besides venison, fish, poultry, kid, lamb, veal and all sorts of feathered game in proportion. When he died in 1631, five thousand armed followers and friends attended his funeral, for all of whom there was entertainment provided.

Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurchy, ancestor of the Marquess of Breadalbane, who died the same year, supported a similar menage. His wine, brought from Dundee, was claret and white wine, old and new, and he had three kinds of ale—ostler ale, household ale and best ale.

Fynes Morysin who visited Scotland in 1598, says, "They drink pure wines, not with sugar as the English; yet at feasts they put comfits in the wine after the French manner; but they had not our vintner's fraud to mix the wines.

Another English traveler, in "A Short Account of Scotland, London, 1702," says " their drink is beer, sometimes so new that it is scarce cold when brought to the table. But their gentry are better provided, and give it age, yet think not so well of it as to let it go alone, and therefore add brandy, cherry brandy, or brandy and sugar, and this is the nectar of their country, at their feasts and entertainments, and carries with it a mark of great esteem and affec. tion. Sometimes they have wine, a thin-bodied claret, at ten pence the mutchkin which answers to our quart." It is not clear what kind of "gentry" this writer refers to for as I have shown the lords and barons drank not only claret, but also rhenish, malmsey and sherry wines, and bought them by the cask, pipe or butt and hogshead or puncheon, and not by the quart.

It is strange these authors do not mention whisky which was known in Ireland when Henry the Second invaded that country in 1172, when the inhabitants were in the habit of making an alcoholic liquor called uisge-beallaa, synonymous with the Latin aqua vitce, water of life or usquebaugh, i. e., whisky, and Hector Boece (A. D., 1527) says of his ancestors that when they "determined of a set purpose to be merie, they used a kind of aquavite, void of all spice, and onelie consisting of such herbs and roots as grew in their own gardens, otherwise their common drink was ale: but in time of warre when they were in-forced to lie in campe, they contented themselves with water as rediest for their turnes."

Simon Fraser, twelfth Lord Lovat, decapitated in 1747, was one of the last who kept up the old feudal state. Numbers of the vassals were about the house and entertained at the chief's expense. The principal guests sat toward the head of the table and had French cookery and drank claret; next to these were the duine-uasals [Gentlemen, generally tacksmen or tenants (goodmen), acknowledged relations of their lord.] who drank whisky punch ; the tenants who were beneath these were supplied with ale, and at the bottom and even outside a multitude of the clan regaled themselves with bread or an onion, or perhaps a little cheese and table beer. All clansmen are cousins and Lovat addressing one would say "Cousin, I told the servants to hand you wine, but they tell me ye like punch best," and to others "Gentlemen, there is what you please at your service, but I send you ale as you prefer it."

One of Lord Lovat's neighbors, Forbes of Culloden, kept a hogshead of wine constantly on tap near the hall door for the use of all comers.

The Peerage of Scotland is perhaps the most aristocratic body in the world; all creations ceased at the period of the Legislative Union in 1707, and only two or three of the families of whom it is corn posed arc not of old Baronial descent, and as the title of Laird frequently occurs herein I may explain that the lesser Barons or Lairds were hardly to be distinguished from the nobility, who, until about the middle of the seventeenth century consisted of Earls and Lords only, the Ducal denomination having been mostly confined to' the Royal Family.

In the Parliament of 1488, there were four Bishops, six Abbots, four Priors, eight Earls, fourteen Lords, thirty-four Barons or Lairds, and eleven Commissaries of Burghs.

The Lairds were not only denominated from their estates, but up to a late period they used a titular signature as well as the Peers, or rather greater Barons, as the former word hardly applies to Scotland where the "Peers" never had a separate house, nor had they any privileges over the lesser Barons. All were Pares or Peers in Courts of Justice. While there was no House of Commons there was no House of Peers. Every tenant in capite or landed gentle. men holding of the crown might sit and vote.

The lairds corresponded in a measure with the English lords of manors, but with greater powers; for in Scotland, as a rule, they were lords of regality, and possessed the power of pit and gallows, or jurisdiction over those of their vassals or tenants who resided on their estates. Drowning was an old mode of punishment, and the right of fosse' et furc consisted in inflicting death either by drowning of women or hanging of men. Treason, it is said, did not fall under their cognizance; but it would seem that the king himself could not arrest traitors within their territories, for as late as 1571, and again in 1574, several heads of clans, amongst whom are those of Clan Dickson, pledged themselves to keep good rule, and to apprehend not only thieves but also any traitors found within their borders.

Lord and laird are both rendered "dominus" in Latin. A tract of land with the owner's bastille, peel or mansion upon it was styled a lairdship, and the owner was not called by his name as Scot, but by his lands, as "Buccleugh."

In 1429, persons possessed of a yearly rent of twenty pounds, or of moveable goods to the value of one hundred pounds, were ordered to be well horsed and armed " from head to heel," as became their rank as gentlemen ; whilst others of inferior wealth, extending to ten pounds only in rent, or fifty pounds in goods, were bound to provide themselves with (a headpiece?), gorget, rere and vane braces, breastplate, greaves and leg splints and gloves of plate or iron gauntlets. Every yeoman whose property amounted to twenty pounds in goods was commanded to arm himself with a good doublet of fence or a habergeon, an iron hat or knapscull, a bow and sheaf of arrows, a sword, buckler and dagger. The second rank of yeomen, who possessed only ten pounds in property, were to provide themselves with a bow and sheaf of arrows, a sword, buckler and dagger, whilst the lowest rank of all, who had no skill in archery, were to have a good "suir" hat, a doublet of fence, with sword and buckler, an axe also, or at least a staff pointed with iron.

This shows the relative value of coin when a man's wealth, as in the days of Abraham, consisted chiefly in his extensive lands and flocks. Out of an income of twenty pounds a gentleman had to be armed cap-a-pie and to own a good horse besides.

In 1540, James V ordered that every nobleman, such as earls, lords, knights, barons and persons exceeding one hundred pounds in yearly rent, should use white or plate armor, light or heavy as they chose, and weapons becoming their rank; that those of a smaller income in the Lowlands have a jack of plate, halbrik or brigantine, gorbet or pisan with splents, knee-pans of mail and gauntlets of plate or mail; that unlanded gentlemen and yeoman have jacks of plate, halbriks, splents, sallat or steel bonnet with pisan or borget, and all to wear swords. No weapons are to be admitted to wapenschawings (weapon showings or reviews) except spears, pikes of six ells in length, leith axes, halbards, hand-bows and arrows, cross-bows, culverins and two-handed swords. Burgesses are to arm in the same proportions of their income. Those worth one hundred pounds in goods in white armor; those under, but who may yearly spend ten pounds, like the yeomanry.

Of firearms, culverins alone are mentioned. In 1541, however, a statute was passed ordering all persons of property, not even excluding the clergy, to have hagbuts, culverins, powder, lead, etc., according to their income.

In 1590, it was decreed that no baron, in repairing to the king's presence or to justice's courts and conventions at Edinburgh, should be accompanied by more than five persons, unarmed, while lords were not allowed more than eight and earls not above twelve. The following year, however, they were permitted to have "every erll xxiiii personis or within, every lord xvi personis or within and every barroun x personis or within,—all in peceable and quiet manner, without armour and chieflie without daggis, pistolettis and utheris ingynis of fyre werk except it be shown to his Majesty that it be necessary and his Hienis special license had for their cuming when they shall be allowed to wear sword and quhinzeair (whinger or hanger)."

Vassals were only second to barons and free holders of the crown. They generally held their lands free of all service and paid only a nominal quit rent. These tenants, although holding their lands from overlords, were themselves often chiefs of clans or branches of clans, and independent of their landlords as regarded feudal superiority, and their followers acknowledged no superior save their chief. They and their ancestors had occupied their farms for generations, and the birth of the better class was as good, and their genealogy as old, as those of the chief himself, to whom they were mostly blood relations, and to whom they were attached with the most unshaken loyalty. Some of them were naturally poor, however, and they are so styled in a letter from the English privy council to their ambassador in France in 1547. "The Scots having of late made many and cruel incursions, the Lord Warton, lord warden of the West Marches, had been compelled to make reprisals, and has taken in an ambush the Laird Johnson, a notable Borderer of the Scottish side, with seven or eight mean gentlemen and 120 or 140 common soldiers of his party."

Lord Wharton was not so fortunate the following year, when he and his army of three thousand men were defeated and the remainder retreated to Carlisle.

These poor gentry were sometimes styled bonnet-lairds or cock-lairds. They were followed by the husbandman (husbandi), who were not serfs nor bondsmen; neither were they free tenants, but actual cultivators of the land — sub-tenants.

The carls bonds, serfs or villeins were anciently in a state of perfect servitude and were at the absolute disposal of their landlords. They were transferred with the lands and might be caught and be brought back if they attempted to escape like a stray ox or sheep. In 1170, Earl Waldev of Dunbar in a deed of four lines made over a whole family "I give and bequeath to the Abbot and monks of Kelso, Hadden and his brother William and all their children and all their descendants."

Villeynage was discontinued before the beginning of the sixteenth century and before it was given up in England. This class then became cottars or subtenants without any tenure except that which arose out of the necessity of having men who could render services both military and agricultural.

The heritable or hereditable jurisdictions were not however abolished until 1748, and this broke the chain of feudalism which until then had curbed the progress of the people. Many claims were made for the loss of these rights or regalities, the largest being that of the Duke of Hamilton, who claimed £38,000, while the Duke of Roxburgh only demanded £4,000. The Marquess of Lothian, the Countess of Eglinton, Maclean of Cadboll, Dickson [Dickson of Buhtrig was then extinct, and as Dickson of Belchester was out in the Fifteen his family were probably too well known as Jacobites for them to expect any claim of theirs, if made, would be listened to.] of Kilbucho and others asked for £1,000 each; Sir John Anstruther, Carmichael of Tilleboddy, Sir Robert Dickson of Sornbeg and others wanted /5oo each, Sir James Sharp and a few more ,ioo each, and one only claimed less than that sum.

A few lists of Borderers and Border Clans, more or less complete have been preserved, the earliest being a record of the Barons and Clans of the West Border who submitted to the English in the dismal year 1347, and were for some time in subjection to the English Government.

Of this I have seen three copies slightly differing from each other. It is especially interesting as it gives the numbers of the different clans, at least of those who took the oath of fealty, which could not always have been the entire clan as the Eliots only number seventy-four.

ANNERDALE.

(Rutherford), Makerstone (MacDougal ), Warmesay ( ), Syntoun (Lynton 2 Ker 2), Egerston ( ), Merton ( ), Mowe (of that Ilk), Rydell (of that Ilk), Beamerside (Haig), and the following gentlemen, viz.: George Tromboul, Jhon Haliburton, Robert Car, Robert Car of Greyden, Adam Kirton, Andrew Mether, Saunders Purvose of Erleston, Mark Car of Littledean, George Car of Faldenside, Alexander Mackdowal, Charles Rutherford, Thomas Car of the Yere, Jhon Car of Meynthorn (Nenthorn), Walter Holiburton, Richard Hangansyde, Andrew Car, James Douglas of Cavers, James Car of Mersington, George Hoppringle, William Ormeston of Emerden, John Grymslowe.

A West Border list of the contingents at the battle of Dryfe Sands in 1593 (considered, however, a doubtful one), mentions Crichton, Drumlanrig (Douglas) and Dalziel, five score each; Dalswinton (Stewart) and Cowhill (Maxwell), eighty-nine each; Kirkpatrick, Carnsalloch (Maxwell) and Breckenside (Maxwell), full four score each; Charteris, sixty; Lag (Grierson), fifty-four; Lord Maxwell, eight hundred, and Kirkconnel (Maxwell), one hundred.

There is a partial roll of the year 1587, from a MS. of that period preserved in the records of the privy council, of which I transcribe that part relating to the Borders. It contains the titles only, but I have added the surnames in parenthesis. It it entitled:

The Rolls of the Names of the Landislordis and Baillies duellanci in the Borders and in the I Iielandis quhair broken Men hes dwelt and presently dwellis.

BORDERS, MIDDLE MARCH.

Earle Bothuile (Botlzwell ), Laird of Phairny-hurst (Ker),* Earl of Angus (Douglas), Laird of Bukcleuch (Scott), Sherif of Teviotdale (Douglas of Cavers), Laird of Bedroule (Turnbull), Laird of Mynto (Turnbull), Laird of Wauchop (Turnbull), Lord Heries (Harries, afterward Earl of Nitlzsdale), Laird of Howpaislott (Scott), George Turneble of Halroule, Laird of Littledene (Ker), Laird of Drumlanrig (Douglas), Laird of Chisholme (Chislzolsne), Laird of J ohnnstoun (Johnstone), Laird of Apilgirth (Jardine), Laird of Holmendis (Carruthers), Laird of Graitnay (Johnstone), Lord Heries (sic-bis), Laird of Dynwyddie (of that Ilk, or Maxwell), Laird of Lochinvar (Gordon).

* The Kers were aye the deadliest foes
That e'er to Englishmen were known,
For they were all bred left-handed men,
And fence against them there was none."

The Raid of the Kers. By the Ettrick Shepherd.

There is another list of the same period in the privy council records of only eighteen names, all of which are recorded in these lists except only "Moffettis " and "Latimers."

The following is that part relating to the Borders, of the commencement and all but completion of an intended roll of the names of the landed proprietors over the whole of Scotland in 1590, from the records of the privy council. I have again added the surnames to the best of my ability in parenthesis. It is entitled:

The Roll of the Clannis that lies Capitanis, Cheiffis, [In the Highlands the three pinion feathers of the eagle was the distinguishing badge of a chief, two of a chieftain and one of a gentleman. This mark of nobility was as old as the time of Ossian.] Chiftenis, quhomeon they depend, oftymis aganis the willis of thair Landislordis, alsweill on the Bordouris as Hielandis, and of sum special personis of branches of the saidis Clannis.

Landit Men.

BERUIK. Lord Hume (or Home), Woddirburne (Home), Coldounknowis (Home), Aytoun (Home), Polwart (Home), Manderstoun (Home), Hutounhall (Home), Blacater (Hone), David Hume of the Law, Nyne~vellis (Home), Hume of Eist Restoun, Billie (Renton), Blanerne (Lumsden), Cumlitche ,Affleck), Slychthoussis (Slcich), Hoprig (Lyle), Rentoun (Home), Craw in Gunnisgrene, Swyntoun (of that III,,, Lanfurmacus (Sinclair), Cockburn (of that Ilk), Langtoun (Cockburn), Butterden (El/em or El/am), Grenelaw (Home), Reidpeth (Redj5ath), Eist Nysbet (Chirnside), West Nisbet (Ker), Restalrig (Xer), Eddrem ( ), Wyliecleuch (Ramsay), Spottiswood (of Mal Ilk), Woddirlie (Edgar), Thornydikes (Brown), Corsbye (Crossby of dial Ilk, or Home), Goodman of Moreistoun (Ker), Greinlawdene (Bromfield ), Pittilisheuch (Bromfield*), Hardaikers (Bromfield), Eistfield (Bromfield), Todrig (Bromfield), Mellertoun ( ), Lambden (Haitlie), Buchtrig (Dickson), Belchester `Dickson), Lithame (Dickson), Peill (Dickson), Heirdrig (Dickson), Edingtoun (Ramsay), Mersin ;town (Ker, Previously Dickson), W. Hume of Bassinden, Guidman of Growadykis (Duns?), Guidman of Chowislie (Cockburn), Burnehoussie (Pringle), Lard Purves in Ersiltoun, St. Johnischapell (Baillie), Lauder (of that Ilk), Bowmaker, Prentonen ( Troller).

ANNANDERDAILL. Johnnstoun (of that Ilk), Apilgirth (Jardine), Holmendis (('arruthers), Corheid (Johnston,-), Frenscheland (French), Bodisbeik (Hew-iii?), Wamphray (Johnstone), Dynwoddie (of that Ilk, or Jardine or Maxwell 2), Elscheschelis (Jo/ins/one), Halathis ( ), Cokpule (Murray), NTubye (Johnstone), Wormombye (Irving), Corrie (Johnstone), Castelmylk (Stewart or Maxwell), Boneschaw (Irving), Brydekirk-Carlile (Carlyle of Bridekirk), Locarby (Johnstone), Purdoun (Pardon of Glendenning?, Glencors (of that Ilk), Reidkirk (Graham), Blawatwod (Graham), Gillisbye (Graham), Wauchop-Lindsay.
KOXBURGIH AND SELKIRK. Cesfurd (Ker), Greneheid (Ker), Littleden (Ker), Sir John Ker of Hirsell, Fawdounsyde (Ker), Gaitschaw (Ker), Corbett (Ker), Garden (Gradon-Ker?), Schaw of Dalcoif, Quhitmore (Whitmore), Quhitmurehall (Ker), Sunderlandhall (Ker), Lyntoun (Ker), Yair (Ker), Phairnyhurst (Ker), Ancrum (Ker), Robene Ker of Newtoun, Andro Ker of Newhall, Thomas Ker of Caveris, Wat Ker of Lochtour, Andro Ker of Hietoun, James Ker of Lyntellie, Mackerstoun (Macdougal), Steidrig (McDowell of Stodrig), Mow (of that Ilk), Riddell (of that Ilk), Edmestoun (Edmondstone), Mungo Bennet of Chesteris, William Kirktoun of Stewartfield, William Anislie of Fawlay, Overtoun (Fraser), William Mader of Langtoun, Hundeley (Rutherford), Hunt-hill (Rutherford), Edzarstoun (Rutherford), George Rutherfud of Fairnyngtoun, David Rutherfurd of the Grange, Johne Rutherfurde in the Toftis, Johnne Rutherfurd of the Knowe in Nysbit, William Rutherfurd in Littleheuch, Walter Turneble in Bedroule, John Turneble of Mynto, Hector Turnble of Wauchop, Turnble of Halroule, George Turnble of the Toftis, Hector Turnble of Bernehillis, Walter Turnble of Bewlye, Turnble of Belses, James Turneble of the Tour, Turnble of Bullenvall, Edward Lorane of Harwood, James Douglas of Caveris, sheriff, William Douglas of Bonejedburgh, Tympenden (Douglas), Johnne Douglas of Quhitrig, Gavin Ellot of Stobbis, Well Ellot of Harthscarth, tutour of Reidheuch, Will Ellot of Fallinesche, Robin Ellot of Braidley, Mangertoun (Armstrong), Quhittauch (Armstrong), Bukcleuch (Scot), Wat Scot of Goldelandis, Robert Scott of Allanhauch, Howpaislott (Scot), Glak (El5hinslone), Eidschaw (Scot), Syntoun (Scot), Lard of Hassinden ( ), Walt Scott of Chalmerlane, Newtoun (Scot ?), Guidman of Burnefute (Scot?), Wat Scott of Stirkschawis, Robert Scott of Thirlstane, James Scott of Robertoun, `Vat Scott of Harden, Mr. Arthur Scott of Wynterburgh, Michael Scott of Aikwood, Will Scott of Hartwodmyris, Robert Scott of Hanyng, Adam Scott of Bonyngtoun, Wat Scot of Tuschelaw, Will Scott of Montbergner, Philip Scott of Dryhoip, Will Scott of Huntlie, Gledstanis (Glad stone), Langlandis (of that Ilk), Chesholm (of that Ilk), Ailmure (Armstrong), Walter Vaitche of Northsyntoun, Patrick Murray of Fawlayhill, Thom Dalgleische of Deuchar, Gallowscheilis [Galashiels. Not derived from a gallows-tree, but from the Celtic gea Zia, i. e., sorcery stone, a name sometimes given to Druidical remains. ] (Pringle), Quhitebank (Pring-le), Bukholme (Pringle), Torwodley (Pring-le), Blindley (Pringle), Trinlingknowis (Prin<;le), Newhall (Pringle), Torsons (Pringle), Murehous Pryingle).

PEBLIS. Traquair (Stewart), Blakbarony (Murray), Drummelyair (Tweedie), Scraling (('ockburn), Pyrne (Cransloun), Smythfield (Haye, anciently Dickson), Maner (Lowis), Manerheid (Inglis), Posso (Nasinylh), Dawick (Veitch), Dreva ( ), Charles Geddes of Rachane, Polmude (Hay), Halkschaw (Douglas 2), Furd (Froude), Erlhauch ( ), Barnis (Burnet 2), Caverhill ( ), Fowletche (Stewart), Myl comstoun-Pringle, William Tuedy of the Wra, Robert Creichtoun of the Quarter, Romannois (Penicuak), Quothquot ( ), Stanypeth-Douglas, James Lausoun of Carnemiur, Sandelandis of Boyle, Purveshill (Laverokstane), Hartrie (Brown), Mitchell-hill ( ), Langlandhill (Inglis), Glen (Bar), Erlisochert (Lindsay), Cowrehoip ( ).

DUMFRIES. Drumlanrig (Douglas), Macmath (of that Ilk), Achingassil (Mali/and), Achinsell (Menzies), Closburn (Kirkkatrick), Kirkmichael ( ), Amysfield (('harteris), Tynewall (Maxwell), Lag (Grierson), Schawis (Ker2), Craigdarroch (Ferguson), Bardannoch (Pringle), Cloglyne ( ), Glenislein (Kirks), Sundeywall ( ), FreirKers (Kerse of Frier), Conhaith (Maxwell), Kirkconnel (Maxwell. There were also 10th Gordons and IrvZngs of Kirkconnel ), Carnesalloch (Maxwell), Spottis (Hume), Tarrachtie ( ), Eglisfechan (Carruthers), Partoun (Glendenning), Almygill (MacBrair), Robgill (Irving), Hoilhouse (Armstrong), Linclouden ( ), Coschogill (Douglas), Dalvene (Douglas), Castelhill (Menzies), Erll Mortoun, Lord Sanquhar, Lord Maxwell, Lord Hereis.

Although official this roll is not perfect. Dickson of Ormeston, Co. Peebles is omitted, but the family were seated there as early at least as 1390-1406, and twelve years later than the date of this list Dickson of Ormeston signed a Band to the King.

A Band or Bond, dated August 6, 1591, preserved in Rymer's Foedera, contains the names of several Barons and Gentlemen of the Eastern Marches who pledged themselves faithfully to serve the King against Earl Bothwell. It was signed by " Cesford (Kerr`), Minto (Turnbull), Hundley (Earl of) Wat of Badroul (Walter Turnbull of Bedrule), Jedburgh (Provost of), Harlwood (Inglis 2) Wedderburne (Home), Huttonhall (Home), Alexander Hume of Northberick, Maynes Ayton younger (Hume, Jr. of Aylon), James Bronfield for the surname of the Bronfields, John Readpith, Patrick Dixson, Blacader younger (Home Jr. of Blackadde), East (Home), Nisbet (of that Ilk), Innerwick (of that Ilk), Swinton (of that Ilk), Baylie (of St. John's Chapel), Renton (of Billie 2), Pranderguest (Horne), Andro Car (Ker) of Fawside, Saltcoats (Livingstone), Hermiston ( ), and as Rymer adds, "With sundry others."

Another Band to be found in the Records of the Privy Council was signed at Edinburgh the same day, and to the same effect, as follows :-

"The subscribers faithfully promise to serve and obey the King, his lieutenants and wardens in all things tending to the advancement and forthsetting of his majesty's authority, and in particular in the pursuit of Francis, sometime Earl Bothwill, Alexander, Lord Hume and other declared traitors, their assistors, resetters and intercommuners. Should any of the said rebels come within the bounds or lands of the said subscribers they will apprehend them if they can 'or utherwayis sail schowte and rais the fray' with their whole forces and join with others against them * * '` under the penalty of 10,000 merks each."
Subscribed at Edinburgh this 6th August, 1591, by "Cessfurde (Ker), Bukcleugh (Scot), Johnne Edmonstoun, G. Houm of Broxmouth, G. Lauder of Bas, Andro Ker of Lyntoun, James Douglas of Cavers, David Rentowne of Billie, Alexander Diksoun, George Trottar of Keirtoun, J. Reidpeth, William Reidpeth, Johnne Graden, William Furd, Johnne Rutherfurd, * * '` of West Neisbit, Watt Turnbull of Bedroule, Johnne Turnbull of Mynto, Hector Turnbull of Wauchope, Robert Diksoun of Buchtrig, Andro Diksoun of Belchester, George Haitlie in Hordlaw and John Graden of Ernislaw."

Ridpath in his Border History says of the first of these two Bonds that it was signed by "Most of the considerable barons and gentlemen."

Five signed both bonds but with the customary carelessness spelt their names differently in the two documents.

Of the forty-one signers whose names have been preserved four were Dicksons.

In concluding this brief sketch I now copy Monipenny's List of the Border Clans in 1597, from the edition of 1603, reprinted by Baron Somers (London, 1809), as the list which is especially interesting to Genealogists is omitted in the later editions of that scarce little tract, which is of trifling value otherwise, the remainder being merely an abbreviation of Hector Boece, the most untrustworthy of Scottish Historians.

The Names of the principall Clannes and Surnames of the Borders, not landed, and Chiefe Men of Name amongst them at this present. A. D. 1597.

[This heading is evidently incorrect, as in the preceding Government Roll of i 590 many of the following names occur under "Landed Men." The title should be "landed, and not landed," for those styled "of" were landowners, and those called "in" were tenants, but still chief men of name. As, for instance, William Trotter of Foulschawe was a landlord, while Cuthbert Trotter in Fogo, although a leading man, was not.

While the eldest son was styled " younger of," the term in seems sometimes to have been given to the younger members of the family. John Dickson de Belchester is mentioned in 1539, but in 1603 we meet with a John Dickson in Belchester.]

EAST MARCH.

Brumfields.

John Brumfield, tutor of Greynelawdene, Adam Brumfield of Hardaikers, Brumfield of Pittilisheuch, Alexander Brumfield of Eastfield, Alexander Brumfield of Hasilton Maynes, James Brumfield of Whyte-house, the Laird of Todderike, Alexander Brumfield of Gordon Maines.

Trotter.

The Laird of Pentennen, William Trotter of Foulschawe, Cuthbert Trotter in Fogo, Tome Trotter of the Hill.

Diksons.

The goodman of Buchtrig, [This is an error, as both Buhtrig and Belchester were tenants in capite, or crown vassals holding charters from the king. The distinction formerly recognized was that the laird was a crown vassal or baron; the gudeman, one who held his lands from a baron, and when, in place of military service, a return was made in grain or in money, he was sometimes called a feuar.] The goodman of Bolchester, Dikson of Hassington, Dikson in Newbigging.

Ridpaths.

Thomas Ridpath of Crumrig, Alexander Ridpath of Angelraw.

Haitlies.

The goodman of Lambden, John Haitlie of Bruinehill, George Haitlie in Hardlaw, Lawrence Haitlie in Haliburton.

Gradenis.

Jasper Graden in Ernislaw.

Young.

James Young of the Criffe, Will Young of Otterburne, David Young of Oxemsyde, William Scott of Feltershawes.

Davisons.

Roben Davison of Syineston, Jok Davison of Ouhitton, James Davison of Byrnirig, George Davison of Throgdan.

Pringils.

James Hoppringill of Towner, Walt Hoppringill of Clifton, John Hoppringill of the Bents, David Hoppringill of Morbottle.

Tates.

Will Tate in Stankfurde, David Tate in Cheritries, David Tate in Bair-ers, Will Tate in Zettane.

Middelmaists.

Robin Middilemaist in Milrig.

Burnes.

David Burne of Ellisheuch, Ralph Burne of the Colt.

Daglesches.

Jok Dagleisch of Bank, Robert Dagleisch in Wide-open.

Gilchristis.

Hugh Gilchrists called of Cowbene, Will Gilchrist in Cavertoun.

Hall.

John Hall of Newbigging, George Hall called Pats Geordie there, Andrew Hall of the Sykes, Thom Hall in Fowlscheils.

Pyle.

George Pyle in Milkheuch, John Pyle in Swynsyde.

Robeson.

Ralph Robeson in Prenderlech, Rinzean Robeson in Howston.

Anislie.

William Anislie of Fawlaw, Lancie Anislie in Oxnem.

Oliver.

David Oliver in Hynhanchheid, Will Oliver in Lustruther, George Oliver in Clarely.

Laidlow.

Ryne Laidlow in the Bank, John Laidlow in Sonnysyde.

LIDDESDAIL.

The Laird of Mangerton (Armstrong [Mangerton was the chief of the Armstrongs. The famous Gilnochie was a son of this house. The Laird's Jok signifies The Laird's son Jok.]), The Lairds Jok (Armstrong), Chrystie of the Syde (Armstrong).

Quhithauch

The Laird of Quhithauch (Armstrong), Johnie of Quhithauch (Armstrong), Sym of the Maynes (Armstrong).

Merletown Quarter.

Archie of Westburnflat (Armstrong), Wanton Sym in Ouhitley Syde (Armstrong), Will of Powderlanpat (Armstrong).

Ellots.

Redheuch, [The Laird of Larriston was the chief rider of the Eliots, who were often called Elwoods and Elwands.] Robert Ellot and Martyne Ellot.

Thoirlishop.

Rob of Thoirlishop, Arthur fyre the Brays (Eliot).

Gorumberie.

Archie Keene, Wil of Morspatrikshors (Eliot).

Parke.

Johnne of the Park, Gray Wil.

Burnheid.

Gawins Jok, Ade Cowdais.

Welschaw.

Wil Colichis Hob, Hob of Bowholmes.

Niksons.

John Nikson of Laiest burne, Georbies Harie Nikson, Cleme Nikson, called the Crune.

Crosers.

Hob Croser called Hob of Ricarton, Martin Croser, Cokkis John Croser, Noble Clemeis Croser.

Hendersons.

Rinzian Henderson in Armiltonburne, Jenkyne Henderson in Kartley.

DEBAITABLE LAND.

Sandeis Barnes Armestrangs.

Will of Kinmouth, Krystie Armestrang, John Skynbanke.

Lardis Rinzians Gang.

Lairdis Rinziane, [Rinzian is the common pronunciation of Ninian. ] Lairdis Robbie, Rinzian of Wauchod.

Grahams.

Priors, John and his Bairnes, Hector of the liar-law, The griefs and cuts of Harlaw.

Ewisdaill.

Armestrangs of the Gyngils.

Ekke of the Gyngils, Andrew of the Gyngils, Thorne of Glendoning.

Scotts.

Thorne of the Flower, Anfe of the Busse.

Ellots.

John the Portars sonne, Will of Devisleyes, Wil the lord.

Eskdaill.

Ballisons of Cowghorlae.

David Batie, Hugh Batie, Mungoes Arthurie, Adame of the Burne.

Batisons of the Scheill.

Nichol of the Scheill, Androw of Zetbyre, John the Braid, Wat of the Corse.

Johnes.

John Armstrang of Hoilhous, John Armstrang of Thornequhat, Wil Armstrang of Ternsnihil.

Littles.

John Littill of Casshoke, Thorne Littill of Finglen, Ingrahames Archie Littill.

ANANDAILL.

Irwingis.

Edward of Bonschaw, Lang Richics Edward, John the young Duke, Chrystie Cothquhat, Willie of Graitnayhill.

Bellis.

Will Bell of Ally, John Bell of the Tourne, Mathie Bell called the King, Andro Bell called Lokkis Andro, Will Bell Reidcloke.

Carlilles.

Adam Carlile of Bridekerk, Alexander Carlile of Egleforhame.

Grahams.

George Grahame of Reupatrik, Arthour Grahame of Blawoldwood, Richie Grahame called the Plump.

Thompsons.

Young Archie Thomson, Sym Thomson in Polloden.

Romes.

Roger Rome in Tordoweth, Mekle Sandie Rome there.

Gasses.

David Gasse in Barch, John Gasse Michael's sonne in Rig.

Monipenny says the last twenty-one, viz.: the Irvings, Bells, Carlisles, Grahams, Thomsons, Romes and Gasses, were "Chief men of name not being lairds."

The list is imperfect, and perhaps it was for that reason it was omitted in the later editions. The author has not even mentioned the Homes, Kers, Johnstones, Turnbulls and others, and has hardly named the Scotts. Under Liddesdale the surnames of the first-named families are not given, but the Eliots and Grahams appear twice, the Armstrongs oftener, and in one place they are classed under the Johnes, and the Beatties are called both Baties and Battisons.

They were fond of to-names, which were in fact necessary for distinction when there were so few baptismal names scattered through a clan, and some of the sobriquets are peculiar. An Eliot of Thorleshope is styled Arthur Fire-the-braes. Braes generally signify hills or the upper part of the country, as the Braes of Angus. Did he fire the braes as the North American Indians fire the prairies ? Another Eliot is called the porter's son. One Bell is called the King and another Redcloak; but what does the name of a Graham signify, "The griefs and cuts of Harlaw?"

In the records of the privy council I find a Gib Ellot called Sweet Milk, another Elliot called the Cleg (gadfly), and a third Cauldfutc (cold foot) ; an Armstrong is styled Bonybutis (pretty boots). Hob Johnstone is called Goode at Evin (Good in the evening) ; \Vil Scot, Stand in the rain; Jok Scot, As-it-Luikis (As it looks) ; John Innes Garmouth callit the Sweet Man, and John Adam callit Meat and Rest!
Monipenny gives another list, of which I only copy that part referring to the Borders. It is as follows:-

The Names of the Barons, Lairds and chiefe Gentlemen in every Sherifdome. As they were Anno domini, 1597.

Perwike and Lawderdaill.

L. of Wedderburne, Home. L. of Blacatour, Home. L. of Aytoun, Home. L. of Coldenknowes, Home. L. of Polwart, Home. Ilume of Manderstolln, Home. L. of Hutonhall, IIome. L. of Langton [Cockburn]. [The names in brackets were added by Baron Somers, those in parenthesis by myself; but sometimes lairdships changed lands, and again it occasionally happened that there were more places than one of the same name. There was more than one Newbigging (New house), and probably more than one Nubie or Newby (New dwelling), and at least three Ormistons. In such cases it is not always certain which is the one referred to. ] L. of Billie [Renton]. L. of Blanerne [Lumsden]. L. of Cumletche, Aflek (Affleck). L. of Edingtoun [Ramsay]. Slychthous (Sleicli). Butterdayne (El/em or Ellame 2). Hoprig (Lyle). East Nisbet (Ciirnside). West Nisbet [Ker]. Wedderlie [Edgar]. Thorniedykes [Browne]. L. of Spottiswood [of that Ilk]. Cranstoun of Thirlstane-maines. Cors. bie (Crossby of that III, or Home ?). Bemersyde [Haig=]. Mertoun [Haliburion]. L. Swyntoun [SwinEon]. L. Redpeth [Ridj5atla]. Greenlaw [Home]. Lochurmachus [Sinclair]. L. Glamrnilscheilis, Home. Wylielewcht (Ramsay).

Roxburgh.

L. of Cesfurde, Ker. L. of Litleclane, Ker. L. of Greynhede, Ker. L. of Corbet, Ker. Gradon, Ker. Ker of Gaitschaw. Mow [flow or Molle] (of Mat Ilk). Haddon [Murray]. Sheriff of Teviotdaill, Dowglasse. Tymperden, Douglas. Hundeley [Rutherford]. Hunthill [Rutherford]. Edzarstoun [Rutherford]. Bedreull, Turnebull. Mynto [Stewart]. [In 1329 the lands of Mynto belonged to Walter Turnbull, but in the time of Robert III (1390-i4o6) they were divided between the Turnbulls and the Stewarts, who both possessed them until about 1622, when they again changed hands.] Wawchop [Turnbull]. William Turnebull of Barn-hills. George Turnebull of Halreull. Hector Lorane of Harwood. Grinyslaw of little Norton. Mader of Langton. Mungo Bennet of Chestis. Overtoun, Frasier. Riddale of that Ilk. L. Makkayrstoun (Makdowgal ). Andrew Ker of Fadounsyde. L. of Bakeleuch, Scot. Raph Haliburton of Mourhouslaw. "Thomas Ker of Cavcrs. H owpasloth, Scott. Baron Gledstanes [Gladstone]. Langlands [Lang-lands]. William Eliot of Torslyhill. Scott of Sintoun. Scott of Eydschaw. Walter Vaitch of Northsintoun. Scott of Gloeke. L. of Chesholme of that Ilk. L. of Cranstoun (Cranstown). Kirktoun of Stewartfield. L. of Linton, Ker. Ker of Ancrum. Carncors of Colmislie.

Dumfries with the Stewartries of Kirkcudbright and Anandail.

L. of Lochin-war, Gordon. L. of Troquhayre, Gordon. L. of Barskeoche, Gordon. L. of Airdis, Gordon. Sheirmzes, Gordon. Gordon of the Cule. L. of Broughton, Murray. L. of Dalbatie (Reddik, Rodyk or Rerik). L. of Portoun, Glcndoning. L. of Bomby (Maclellan). Maclellane of Maertoun. L. of Cardenes (Macculloch). Lidderdaill of S. Mary Ile. Lindesay of I3arcloy. Heries of Madinhoip. L. of Mabie, Hereis. Macknaught of Kilquhanatie. Glenduynning of Drumrasche. Maxwell of the Hill. Sinclair of Auchinfranke. Maxwell of the Logane. Maxwell of Dromcoltrane. Stewart of Fintillauche. Levinston of Little Ardis. L. of Drumlanrig, Dowglasse. Dowblasse of Caskogill. Creichtoun of Carco. Creichtoun of Liberie. Macmath of that Ilk. Dowglasse of Dalvene. Menzies of Castelhill. Menzies of Auchinsell. L. of Auchingassill, Maitland. L. of Closeburne, Kirk Patrik. Kirkmichael. Goodman of Frier, Kerse. L. of Lag, Grier (Grierson). L. of Amysfield, Charteris. Maxwell of Gowhill. Maxwell of Porterrake. Maxwell of Tynwald. Maxwell of Conhaith. Maxwell of Carnsallauch. Maxwell of the Ile. Browne of the Lawne. Cunningham of Kirkschaw. L. of Craigdarroch (Ferguson). L. of Bardannoch (Pringle 2). Kirko of Glenesslane. Ballagane (Hunter 2). L. of Johnestown (Johnstone). L. of Wamfra, Johnestone. L. of Eschescheilis (Jo/ins/one). L. of Corheid, Johnstone. L. of Corry (Johnstone). L. of Newbie, Johnstone. L. of Graitnay, Johnestone. Johnstone of Craighop-burne. Johnestone of New-tone. Johnstone of Kirkton. L. of Apilgirth, J arden. L. of Holmends (('arruthers). L. of Cockpoole, Murray. L. of Moryquhat (Murray of Murraylhwaite). L. of Wormondby (Irving). L. of Knok (Knox 2). Goodman of Granton (Melville or Gordon 2). Boidisbyke (Hewitt?).

Peiblis.

The Knight of Traquair, Stewart. L. of Pyrn, Cranstoun. L. of Horsburgh [Horsburgh]. L. of Greistown (Middelmaist 2). L. of Cardono [ Williamson]. L. of Henderstown (E1hinsione). L. of Smeythfield [Haye] (anciently Dickson). L. of Winkiston [ Twedie] (anciently Dickson). L. of Blackbarrony, Murray. Bernys [Burnet]. Caverhill. Fowlloeche, Stewart. L. of Drummelzear,Twedie. Dawik [ Veitch], Pobinde [Hunter]. Frude (Fronde). Halkshaw (Douglas?). Glengirk (Porteous of Glenkirk). Geddes of Rachane. Inglis of Langlandhill. L. of Straling, Hartrie (Brown, afterward Dickson). Romannos [Penicuik]. Prettishoil. Meluingshland (anciently Dickson). Ormestoun (Dickson). Bonytoun (Wooa). Posso, Nasmyth. John Hamilton of Coltcote.

Entire dependence cannot be placed upon this list, as among the Highland Clans I find Monipenny calls the then Lord Lovat John, while on the contrary his name was Hugh. It appears to be an appendix to his first list, but still imperfect.

Some Scottish families have been described with reference to the qualities of their more conspicuous members. I am indebted principally to Dr. Rogers (Traits and Stories of the Scottish People), for the following list in alphabetical order, but must confess to having omitted a few, which, to say the least, were not complimentary.

The sturdy Armstrongs.
The trusty Boyds. [So called by Blind Harry five centuries ago.]
The famous Dicksons.
The lucky Duffs.
The bauld (bold) Frasers.
The gay Gordons.
The gallant Grahams.
The haughty Hamiltons.
The handsome Hays.
The haughty Humes.
The jingling Jardines.
The gentle Johnstones. [This must have been ironical.]
The angry Kerrs.
The light Lindsays. ["The Lindsays light and gay."]
The brave Macdonalds.
The fiery Mackintoshes.
The proud Macneils.
The black Macreas.
The wild Macraws.
The manly Morrisons.
The muckle mou'ed Murrays. [The origin of this appellation is too well known to be repeated.]
The gentle Neilsons.
The bauld Rutherfords.
The saucy Scotts.
The proud Setons. [Or tall and proud as the Setons.]
The pudding Somervilles. [From a king's joke. King James V was often entertained at the hospitable board of Lord Somerville and told him he ought to carry a pudding in his coat of arms.]
The worthy Watsons.

Not only Borderers but also Highlanders and Lowlanders are included in the above. The latter were the inhabitants of Fife and the Lothians, which were situated between the two others. The Douglasses had two appellations: the house of Angus was characterized as The red Douglas; that of Liddesdale as The black Douglas.

The Border Clans were broken up about the time of the Union of the Crowns, A. D. 1603, when the King prohibited the name of the Borders any longer to be used, substituting in its place those of middle shires. He also ordered all the places of strength to be demolished except the habitations of noblemen and barons, their iron gates to be converted into plough-shares, and the inhabitants to betake themselves to agriculture and other works of peace.

Peace did not immediately follow however. In 1609 the Earl of Dunbar informs the King that he had cut off "the Laird of of Tynwald, Maxwell, sundry DougIasses, Johnstones, Jardines, Armstrongs, Beatisons and sic others, mani nominis luces in that broken parts," and thereby rendered that part of the kingdom peaceable. In 1618 a hundred and twenty men of the Borders were apprehended by the landlords and wardens of the Middle Marches and sent to the Bohemian Wars, and as late as 1637, a commission headed by the Earl of Traquair sat at Jedburgh, when a great number were branded, fined or banished, and thirty were hanged.

But highwaymen plied their trade in the suburbs of the very city of London itself long after the Borders were comparatively secure.


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