THIS memoir of General Sir James Browne has been drawn up in
compliance with the wishes of the late Lady Browne, and is based on
information kindly given by his family and friends and brother officers. .
My hearty thanks are due to General Pollard, General Sir
Alexander Taylor, and Colonel Henry Blair—all of them Royal Engineers—with
whom Sir James was associated throughout the whole of his career; also to
the late General Sir Michael Biddulph, Sir G. Molesworth, General Sir R
Sankey; Colonels Bum-Murdoch and Boughey, with whom he served from time to
time in Engineer or Military operations; and most especially to General Sir
Buchanan Scott, his invaluable second in the stupendous task of the Hurnai
Field-Marshal Earl Roberts, under whose command in India he
served as Quartermaster-General of the army, said of him, with emphasis, “
He was grand!"
For advice in regard to Browne’s Frontier Policy, I am very
greatly indebted to Sir D. Fitzpatrick, lately Governor of the Punjab.
J. J. M. I.
LIST OF CHAPTERS
Chapter I - Antecedents and Early Years
James Browne introduced—His Father, Dr. Robert Browne—His Childhood and
Boyhood in France and Germany— Preparations for India.
Chapter II - The India of Dalhousie and Canning
India under Lord Dalhousie—The First Year of Lord Canning’s Rule—The Course
of the Mutiny—Robert Browne’s Adventures, Services, and Death during the
Mutiny—Changes in the Sute of India after the Mutiny.
Chapter III - Beginning of Browne's Indian Career: 1860
The Wuzeeree Campaign—Browne joins under Pollard’s Command—Wuzeeree
Characteristics—A Night Attack—Advance of the Force—Capture of Kanagorum and
Makeen, and End of the War—Work at Attock—Local Fanaticism.
Chapter IV - North Frontier Engineer Work: 1860-3
Work at Attock—The Bara Bridge—Experience of a Flooded River—Browne’s
Methods—Punjab Frontier Division.
Chapter V - The Frontier Umbeyla Campaign: 1863
Change in the Frontier Administration—Rise of Fanaticism under Patna
Propagandists—Preparations against the Sitana Fanatics—The Umbeyla
Campaign—The British Position—
British Attack and Victory.
Chapter VI - Lord Lawrence’s Viceroyalty: 1864-9
Browne and the Frontier System—The Two Policies: the 41 Forward Policy ”and“
Masterly Inactivity "—How the Mullah Episode Began—Furlough, Marriage, and
the Roorkee Appointment—Lahore—The Kangra Valley.
Chapter VII - Lord Mayo's Viceroyalty: 1869-72
Lord Mayo's Rule—Russian Movements—Lord Mayo's Frontier Policy—Settlement of
Chapter VIII - Foreign Politics and the Sukkur Bridge: 1871-6
Furlough: Engineer Travels—Sukkur Bridge—The Cantilever System — Lord
Northbrook's Rule — Russian Advance — Suppression of Slave Trade—Afghanistan
Chapter IX - The Belooch 1st A N Appointment: 1876
Lord Lytton’s Preparation for the Viceroyalty—His Arrival in India—Palmerston’s
Views about Russian Methods— History and Character of Beloochistan.
Chapter X - The Cutchee and Beloochistan Frontier: 1876-8
Further History of Browne's Double—Brown in the Cutchee—Colley sent to
Beloochistan—Lord Lytton’s Policy—Russia’s Movements—Browne’s Post on the
Chapter XI - Eve of the Afghan War: 1877-8
Keeping open the Kakur Door—The Mullah Episode again— Russian Intrigues—The
Ameer’s Proceedings—Lord Lytton’s Measures.
Chapter XII - The Afghan War: 1878-9
Start of the Afghan War—Browne with Sir Donald Stewart’s Force—Entry into
Candahar—Khelat-i-Ghilzie and Girishk —Stewart’s Memorandum on the
Strategical and Political Value of Candahar—Thul Chotiali Expedition.
Chapter XIII - Two Years on Furlough: 1879-81
On Furlough—Russian Studies—Paris—A Fortress Episode— Candahar
Question—Death of Colonel Pierson—End of Lord Lytton’s Rule.
Chapter XIV - The Egyptian War: 1882
The Egyptian War—General Sketch—Palmer’s Expedition and Death—Details of the
Campaign as regards the Indian Contingent—Deductions from the Campaign.
Chapter XV - The Hurnai Railway: (i) 1882-3
Simla after Return from Egypt—The Humai Railway—Preliminary Measures—The
Cutchee Mess—Difficulties of the Engineering Work.
Chapter XVI - The Hurnai Railway: (ii) 1883-7
The Difficulties encountered in the Works of the Hurnai Railway—Its
Construction—The Opening Ceremony.
Chapter XVII - The Political Situation: 1884-9
The Penjdeh Incident—Browne's Appointment as Q.M.G. in India—His Views on
the Position of Affairs.
Chapter XVIII - Quartermaster-General: 1889-92
General Work as Q.M.G.—Special Subjects dealt with—Frontier
Expeditions—Black Mountain Expedition—The Russian and Persian Question—Zhob
Valley Expedition—Frontier Policy.
Chapter XIX - Beloochistan: 1888-94
Browne's Appointment to the Agency of Khelat and Beloochistan —Close of
Sandeman’s Rule—Affairs of Khelat—Deposition of the reigning Khan—British
Beloochistan—The High Courts—Public Works and Improvements in the Province.
Chapter XX - Two Great Durbars: 1893-4.
Press Accounts -
Two Great Durbars at Quetta—The Durbar of 1893 held by Sir James Browne—His
Speech—Lord Elgin's Speech at the Durbar of 1893—Installation of the Khan of
Khelat as Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.
Chapter XXI - Afghanistan: 1888-96
Frontier Administration and Policy—Puiyab and Beloochistan contrasted—Last
Phase of the Mullah Episode.
Chapter XXII - The Close of Browne's Career: 1896
Close of Memoir—Close of Career and Death.