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A History of British Columbia
Chapter XI - Governors and Lieutenant Governors of British Columbia


The official lives of the Governors and Lieutenant Governors of British Columbia embody the political history of fifty years, and incidentally embrace much else of interest. In colonial days the Governor was a factor in politics, representing Imperial interests and in a large measure Imperial politics. His personal influence, too, counted for much more than it has in the case of latter day Governors, because he had greater power to enforce his views on his Executive Council, of which he was one de facto, as well as in name. Before the days of responsible government in British Columbia, at it was in the old Canadas, the Legislative Assembly was rather an advisory than a governing body, and as the real head of the Executive, the Governor possessed an authority which to assert today would be dangerous.

Responsible government brought with it to the Dominion and to the Province the complete recognition of the right of the people, through their representatives elect, to govern. Parliament is supreme, and the Government or Executive, while by an unwritten code of proxy is entrusted, as the best modern solution of practical Government, with a large measure of discretionary powers, its will is, nevertheless, in the final analysis, but the registered index of the popular will, and the Governor or Lieutenant Governor simply affixes his seal to the fiat of the court of public opinion.

The one was the direct representative of the Imperial Government, with a large measure of control and influence, and the other, under responsible government, is an indirect representative, whose authority, except under extraordinary circumstances, is derived solely from the people over whom he is nominally set to govern.

In the one case, in dealing with the Governors, .we are dealing with part of the policy which directed public affairs, in the other we have a series of pegs which may or may not be convenient upon which to hang current history.

When the colonial Governors assumed office they were waited upon by delegations and memorialized on public matters and were authoritative and sometimes mandatory in their replies.

Now representations are sometimes made to the Governor, but not strictly in matters of State, or if by courtesy this is done, they are referred to the Executive. His influence is often sought, but, if exerted, is done so unofficially, and need not necessarily be respected. The Home Government may seek advice from the Governor of Canada independently respecting matters of Imperial interest, but as a rule he is simply the medium of communication between the two Governments. The same thing may occur in regard to Dominion and provincial affairs, but a similar rule applies.

Richard Blanshard.

It is usual to regard Sir James Douglas as the first Governor of British Columbia, but, although he was virtually the first, nominally he was not. The consideration of Blanshard's place in our history carries us back to the time of Hudson's Bay Company rule, when that corporation exercised sovereign control not only over Vancouver Island but over a vast tract of territory known as Rupert's Land, as well as exclusive trading rights over another vast area known as the Indian Territory. It may be said of Blanshard, as has been said of many another good man in a somewhat different sense, that he was before his time. Space will not permit of my going into a consideration of all the circumstances connected with his appointment and the tenure of his office as Governor. Bancroft and other writers on the Hudson's Bay Company period have dealt with these, nor indeed, does the importance of his gubernatorial career justify elaborate treatment. He was appointed simply to satisfy the conditions of the time. Sir James Douglas would have been the man had it not been felt that (where the interests of the company and the colonist as such might at times come into conflict) one independent of the company altogether would be desirable. Moreover, an independent appointee gave at least a semblance of Imperial above company control. Under other circumstances, the precaution would have been a very wise one, but there were practically none other than Hudson's Bay Company employes to govern, and they owed no allegiance to any power other than the chief factor, who had neither inclination nor intention to acknowledge any governor other than the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. A memorial presented to Governor Blanshard, which set out, among other things, the names of all the persons in the colony not connected directly with the Company, had fifteen signatures to it, and Blanshard himself solemnly asserts that there were not more than thirty persons of all sorts and conditions, that is, white persons, outside of the company's employ.

From what we know of Blanshard, he was a man of good parts, and under other circumstances would probably have succeeded in as great a degree as he failed at that time. In England the post of Governor of a Colony is regarded as one of honor and emolument, and we can in some measure judge of his disappointment when he landed in Victoria and fully realized for the first time the conditions then existing in this country. He found governing a hollow mockery. Upon his own testimony we learn that his only duties consisted in settling disputes between members of the company, or such as would form part of the work of an ordinary justice of the peace, and we cannot wonder at and can readily forgive the irritation he displayed and the pessimism of his letters and reports home. Without a- population to govern, with scant recognition of his office, without official residence or a stipend and without even the undisputed sway of Alexander Selkirk over the fowl and the brute, he nevertheless, as he wandered forlornly over his domain, could doubtless echo to the faintest whisper the sentiment of that other monarch when he exclaimed:

"O Solitude, where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms
Than reign in this horrible place."

Coming out to Vancouver Island in January, 1850, he left again in 1851, his governorship extending over a term of about two years, and we hear of him again giving evidence before the Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1857, appointed to enquire into the title and the conditions of occupancy of land held by the Hudson's Bay Company, an opportunity that no doubt afforded him much satisfaction for the treatment he had received, treatment that cannot be described as other than shabby and undeserved. He was succeeded by James Douglas, then chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Pacific. Coast. Taking all things into consideration, Douglas was the only man at that time with any claim to the position who could have satisfactorily filled it. As already intimated practically the only interests to be considered were those under his own care, and from his official standing in the company, he had almost perfect control of the population, as every person in the colony was directly or indirectly dependent on the company. He knew the whole country intimately, had the confidence and respect and a familiar knowledge of the Indians, and above all was a man born to rule.

Sir James Douglas.

I have referred to him elsewhere as "remarkable," and when the historian of the future comes to write dispassionately on British Columbia in a light uncolored by the atmosphere of the day and generation in which Sir James lived, that estimate of him will be fully sustained. To my mind the most remarkable feature of his career is the development of a character and a personality unique in its fullness and moral strength. It was a character that grew up in and out of a western soil almost barbaric in the rudeness and primitiveness of its product, and yet so diverse in many respects that had it not been for its ruggedness and strength might be termed exotic. As a boy of sixteen out of school launched on a sea of Far West adventure, entirely removed from the social influences and culture comforts of his home in Scotland, associating for years with the uncivilized Indian tribes of the country, and moulded by the stern experience of an isolated life on -prairie, in forest and on mountain; out of touch with the civilizing forces of the wonderful century in which he began life; engaged in an occupation that begat no ambitions or aspirations of a future that such a man in other walks of life might, reasonably entertain—with such environments it is remarkable, I contend, that he should not only retain the accomplishments of his youth throughout life, but increase and perfect them; acquire a knowledge of many subjects of an academic nature, and particularly of the principles of political economy and statescraft; develop a strong literary style of composition and familiarize himself with formalities of government and parliamentary procedure; nurture the moral and religious instincts of his youth; observe a becoming temperance and abstemiousness; cultivate a striking dignity of person; and in the midst of his busy life, full of practical and unromantic details, keep abreast of the thought of his day, and that when he was called upon to fill the responsible and dignified position of Governor of one of Her Majesty's colonies, without any previous experience or training for such a post, he should do so with the utmost ability and acceptability. It is true that in many of the qualifications possessed by James Douglas—education, intelligence, tact, force of character, physical prowess, bravery, resourcefulness, systematic habits, dignity, moral rectitude—the Hudson's Bay Company service was a splendid training school, and it is only fair to say that our hero was but one, though a conspicuous member, of a long list of pioneers in the nobility of the fur trade to whom history can never do too much honor. In this respect, however, Douglas was particularly notable, that while he evinced many if not all of the better qualities of men of his class, he was singularly free from the moral defects and excesses, not unnatural in a rough and ready school of ethics through which all alike graduated, that distinguished some of them. In his day, Sir James was undoubtedly remarkable among many remarkable men, and it is not unnatural to conclude that under other conditions of life, and with a wider opportunity, would have equally distinguished himself as a man of affairs and as a leader of men. We can, therefore, honor him not only for what he was in life, but for what he might have been.

James Douglas was born in 1803, in Lanarkshire, Scotland, and went to school there and in Chester, receiving a good education. His knowledge of French was acquired (not in the Northwest, as stated by Dr. Bryce), but from an old French count, who counselled him upon leaving for America to keep it up as it would always be useful to him. So well was the advice followed that when Sir James visited France on his journey through Europe many years afterwards, he was complimented upon his excellent and courtly use of the language. He was a student until the day of his death, and his reading embraced a very wide range of subjects.

Upon the formation of the two colonies under Imperial control in 1859, having severed his connection with the Hudson's Bay Company, he became governor of both, retiring in 1864 with the honor of knighthood. He died in 1877, after the problem of confederation and in a large measure that of railway connection, had been solved, thus living to behold in his own lifetime, the consummation of what as a pioneer and founder of a province he had been a factor in achieving. Whatever differences in opinion there may have been among his contemporaries as to his policy as a governor or whatever may have been the varying estimates of his character as a man among men with whom he had personal relations—every strong man has his enemies and in all politics there is strife—that today he is by general consensus of opinion regarded as the man representative of his times, the one about whose individuality must cluster as a nucleus the materials for the history of the early life of British Columbia, is the strongest possible testimony to the part he played as a pioneer and statesman.

After Douglas came three Governors, about whom the present generation know but little, for while they were within the memory of many of the older inhabitants, as governors there was nothing special connected with their administrations to make their tenure of office memorable. During Sir James Douglas's regime British Columbia was in a purely formative stage. Permanency depended upon future developments. Regarding these, hopes had always been high, and prospects, though bright, were indefinite, and based on a sanguineness characteristic of a strong, hardy, brave, intelligent and adventurous class of people, who, loving the freedom of Western life, had an instinctive faith in the country—a faith that has remained steadfast with them and us, and which is now finding its justification in many ways. All things come to those who know how to wait, is the true rendering of the old proverb, and waiting is being amply rewarded.

Kennedy and Seymour.

When Arthur Edward Kennedy and Frederick Seymour succeeded Douglas in the colonies of Vancouver Island and (the mainland of) British Columbia, respectively, the country was settling down to an organized state of affairs. There were separate political institutions in the Colonies, separate seats of Government, and a distinct separateness of feeling, which later crystallized into a sectionalism that had its influence for many a day afterwards, and is not yet wholly eliminated. After, however, the early mining excitements had subsided and Cariboo had been exploited, there was a period of long rest, during which development was slow and little change was experienced in the outward appearance of things. Political events were shaped largely upon the main issue of the union of the colonies, which was favored on the Island, and opposed on the Mainland. Governor Seymour, who had a fine residence in New Westminster, fought against the removal of the capital to Victoria, and even after that had been decided upon, delayed the inevitable as long as possible in the hope that the Imperial authorities might .be influenced to change their views. The union, after a hard struggle, was effected in 1866, when Governor Kennedy retired and-Governor Seymour succeeded as Governor of all British Columbia. The first session after union was held in Victoria in 1867. One of the strong levers in bringing about union was the expense of the civil list, which high even for the united colonies, was burdensome when maintained separately in colonies with limited population and undeveloped resources. The salary of the governors alone was $15,000 a year each, and although the salary of Seymour was increased to $20,000 after the union, the saving was considerable, and in a similar way the expenditure for civil service was correspondingly reduced all round.

I am indebted to the Hon. D. W. Higgins, ex-Speaker, for ..impressions of the early governors. Governor Kennedy arrived in Victoria on Good Friday, 1864, and was received with open arms and salvos of artillery. He had been a captain in the regular army and had seen service in India. Retired on captain's half pay, he had mixed in Imperial politics, and was a fluent and graceful speaker. Handsome in appearance, gray, decidedly military in his bearing, very suave, amiable, and clever, he was a striking figure and a man of character as well. While addressing a deputation of citizens from the steps of the Government buildings on one occasion he used the memorable expression that it was better to be decidedly wrong than undecidedly right, a note that was attuned to his own policy. Governor Kennedy took a strong interest in the affairs of the colony and personally investigated the resources of the Island as far as was possible with a view to its betterment. The agitation for union of the colonies began early in his reign, and his influence was a strong factor in bringing it about. He had two daughters, one of whom married Lord Gilford, afterwards Governor of Queensland.

Governor Seymour was a man of different stamp, smaller in physique and of nervous, active temperament. He was quite bald. He had been governor of British Honduras, where he had made a good record for himself, but where his experience probably influenced his views of Colonial policy, and to some extent his disposition. His advent to office as Governor of the united colonies was coincident with the completion of the Atlantic cable, which brought his instructions respecting union, and which as has been seen he delayed as long as possible before carrying into effect. Seymour continued in office until June, 1869, in which year his death occurred. He died on board Her Majesty's ship Sparrowhawk at Bella Coola, whither he had gone on a trip for his health. After coming to British Columbia he returned to England and married there.

The principal feature of his Governorship was the movement for union with Canada, which began almost immediately as soon as the lesser union had been effected. Seymour used all the influence in his power in its favor, and as the policy of the Home Government in this matter was well known, he undoubtedly acted under instructions.

Sir Anthony Musgrave.

Sir Anthony Musgrave succeeded, and by this time Confederation was the one absorbing issue. Curiously enough, in contrast with the attitude on the union of the colonies, Confederation was strongly supported on the Mainland while the principal opposition came from the Island, although there was a strong party in Victoria in its favor. There was also an insignificant element advocating annexation with the United States. Musgrave's instructions were explicit on the subject, and his mission as Governor had principally that end in view. His efforts, backed up by Imperial influence, strong even to the point of command, brought the issue to a head sooner than it otherwise would have been, and in the end sentiment was unanimous in its favor.

The year 1871 saw Confederation an accomplished fact, and with it came responsible government. Musgrave's services upon his retirement were recognized by knighthood. , He is described as a tall, slim, handsome man, of excellent parts and intellectual attainments. In the West Indies, where he had written himself into the notice and favor of the Governor of St. Vincent, he had been a journalist, and with favor came well deserved preferment. During his residence in British Columbia he had the misfortune, while riding, to break his leg. His sister, Mrs. Dodgson, still lives in Victoria, and another sister married Mr. John Trutch, an engineer, formerly Land Commissioner of the E. & N. Railway, well known to all old Victorians.

Sir Joseph Trutch.

After Confederation, as was proper, the honor of being the first Lieutenant-Governor fell to the lot of a British Columbian, who had been long and prominently identified with its affairs as a member of the Legislative Assembly and as Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor-General—Sir Joseph W. Trutch. He had been one of the three delegates who went to Ottawa to arrange the terms of Confederation, and after the successful completion of his mission returned to Victoria with his commission as governor in his pocket, and was appointed in July, 1871. During his term of office, responsible government and the initiation of the work of surveying the C. P. R. line of railway came about. Sir Joseph acquired considerable wealth, and subsequent to his retirement from office he went to England to live, but although he had his residence mainly there, he continued to have large interests in the Province, being one of the heavy shareholders in the Hall mines and smelter at Nelson, B. C. He died very recently. Sir Joseph Trutch was a man of more than ordinary ability; but, although estimable in every respect, had personal qualities which did not render him popular. He was careful in business matters, exact in the fulfillment of his official duties, and was at all times concerned that the dignity of his person or office should not suffer. When he retired, in 1876, he did so retaining the respect of the citizens generally.

Sir Joseph was the son of an English solicitor, who was afterwards Clerk of the Peace in St. Thomas, Jamaica, where he married the daughter of a Judge of the Supreme Court, and where Sir Joseph was born. The latter was educated at Exeter, England, and was trained -as a civil engineer. In 1849 ne came out to the Pacific Coast and practiced engineering in California and Oregon, and was thus a pioneer of pioneers in mining life on this coast. Afterwards he was assistant engineer on the Illinois and Michigan canal and on the Illinois River improvement works. In 1855 ne married a daughter of Mr. Louis Hyde, of New York. In 1859 he came to Victoria, and up until 1864 was employed on the construction of public works in British Columbia, notably on the section through the canon of the Fraser River and the wagon road from Yale to Cariboo, including the suspension bridge over the Fraser River, built by him under the terms of a toll charter. He succeeded Lieutenant-Colonel Moody, R. E., as Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor-General of the Province in 1866.

Hon. A. N. Richards.

The Hon, Albert Norton Richards, Q. C, who succeeded Sir Joseph Trutch, was a man of considerable prominence in the old Canadas before coming to this province, having sat for South Leeds, in the Canadian Assembly of Canada from the general elections of 1863 until January, 1864, and for the same constituency for the House of Commons from the general election of 1872 to the dissolution in 1874. For a brief period in 1863-64 he was a member of the Executive Council of Canada and Solicitor-General of Upper Canada. He was a brother of the late Chief Justice of Canada. When Hon. William McDougall, C. B., made his memorable trip to the Northwest in 1869 to be Governor of Manitoba, Mr. Richards accompanied him as Attorney-General in the provisional government about to be established in that province.

As is well known, owing to the rebellion headed by Louis Riel, the proposed arrangements fell through. He was afterwards for several years legal agent of the Dominion Government in British Columbia. It was during his term of office here in Government House, and during the latter part of that of his predecessor, as well as during the early part of that of his successor in office, that the most notable agitation in the history of British Columbia took place. I refer to the trouble over the non-fulfillment of the terms of Con-| federation with reference to the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is a long chapter, with many incidents, including the change of the terminus from Esquimalt to Port Moody, the Hon. Mr. Walkem's mission to England, and Carnarvon Terms, mass meetings and memorials, the secession cry, Lord Dufferin's celebrated peace mission in connection herewith, the demand for an Island railway, the Settlement Act, and many others, which all finally culminated in a full and satisfactory adjustment of provincial grievances and a new era of development of which we have already reaped the first fruits.

Governor Richards was a man of character, intellectual ability, highly developed legal attainments and rugged honesty. He was plain and unassuming, an effective, but not eloquent pleader, and a sturdy old-time Reformer, who never swerved in his allegiance to Baldwin liberalism. Had his party been in power at an earlier period prior to his death, his services and conspicuous ability would doubtless have been recognized. Born in 1822, twice married, made a Q. C. in 1863, always a leader at the bar, and a prominent Provincial Bencher, he died within recent years. Other men with no greater ability perhaps took a more prominent part in provincial life than he did, but none have earned a higher place in the esteem of the people of British Columbia as an able and honorable man.

Cornwall.

Lieutenant-Governor Cornwall followed. The son of an English clergyman, he was born in 1839 at Ashcroft, Gloucestershire, England; was educated in and graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, as B. A. in 1856; called to the bar in 1862; came to British Columbia in the same year; was admitted to the bar here in 1865, was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1864-65, and was a member of that body at the time the terms of Confederation were agreed upon; was made a senator in that year and continued to sit as a supporter of Sir John Macdonald until his appointment as Lieutenant-Governor in 1881; was appointed a judge of the County Court of Cariboo in 1889; married in 1871 the daughter of Rev. A. G. Pemberton, rector of Kensal Green, London, England. His term of office expired in 1886, just after the C. P. R. had been completed to the coast and was in full operation;

Nelson.

Upon the retirement of Cornwall, another pioneer of the province came to the front as Lieutenant-Governor in the person of the Hon. Hugh Nelson, than whom as a pioneer none was better known or appreciated. He was the son of a linen manufacturer, Robert Nelson, of Larne, County Antrim, Ireland, and was born in 1830; came to the province in 1858 by way of California, whither he had gone in 1854. He settled in Yale as a merchant and was also interested in the express business under the well known firm name of Dietz & Nelson, running an express line from Victoria as far as Yale. His business prospering, he engaged in many other enterprises, notable among which was his successful venture as a partner in the lumbering firm of Moody, Dietz & Nelson, Moodyvilie, now opposite the city of Vancouver, where a large lumbering business was carried on for many years. As might be expected, he early took an interest in public affairs. He was a member of the famous Yale Convention, called to further the interests of Confederation, and of the last Legislative Assembly of the colony of British Columbia. Immediately after Confederation he was elected to represent New Westminster district in the House of Commons and continued to do so until the year 1879, when he was appointed to the Senate. He retired from business altogether in 1882, and was married in 1885 to Emily, daughter of J. BJ Stanton, of the civil service of Canada, who survived him.

Hon. E. Dewdney.

Mr. Nelson's successor was the Hon. Edgar Dewdney, C. E., another prominent pioneer of the province, who came to British Columbia in 1859. In the early days he was identified with various mining enterprises in Cariboo and elsewhere, and built the well known Dewdney Trail, which penetrates the province to its eastern boundary. He first sat for Kootenay in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia in 1868-69, and in the House of Commons from 1872-79, when he was appointed Indian Commissioner; and again for East Assiniboia from September 12, 1888, until November, 1892. He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Northwest Territory, 3rd December, 1881, until 3rd July, 1888. He was a member of the Privy Council, Minister of the Interior and ex-officio Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 3rd August, 1888, to 2nd November, 1892, when he became Lieutenant-Governor.

Hon. T. R. McInnes.

In 1896 the defeat of the Liberal-Conservative administration resulted in the appointment of a Liberal to the office of Lieutenant-Governor in the person of the Hon. T. R. Mclnnes, M. D. This was followed soon after by the general elections in the province. The events which grew out of the appointment of Senator Mclnnes to office really form a sort of turning point in the political history of British Columbia, and as they are recent, are within the memory of almost every person in the province. Political development had reached the point where there was a parting of the ways between new and old conditions. Many new-comers, who had begun to take a prominent interest in public affairs had created an atmosphere wholly different from that of the past. That element was assisted and materially strengthened by the members of the party that had been opposed to the administration of the Hon. J. H. Turner, and several other administrations of which his was the logical successor. There was also the feeling- of the Mainland as against the Island of Vancouver, which had long protested against what was alleged to be the undue political influence and ascendancy of the Island in consideration of its limited area and population, as compared with those of the Mainland. It is not possible in limited space to go fully into all the circumstances of the situation at that time, which was peculiarly of a transitionary character. Mr. Joseph Martin, only recently come to the province from Manitoba, where he had been a prominent figure and a political factor of more than ordinary force, stepped into his natural position of the leader of the new and disturbing forces, and gave expression in a forcible and rather explosive way to their views. The history of the remarkable episodes which followed is given impartially here. Briefly, after the general election of 1898 the result was very much in doubt, with Cassiar to hear from. In the ordinary way the Premier of the day would have been permitted to meet the Legislature and determine his strength on the floor of the House. Lieutenant-Governor Mclnnes took the extraordinary course of dismissing the Turner Ministry on the grounds that it had ceased to possess his confidence. He, however, did a more remarkable thing still, in calling upon Mr. Robert Beaven, who was not in the Legislature, and had been a defeated candidate at the general election, to form a government. In fact, at that time Mr. Beaven, though a skilful parliamentarian and a man of long political experience, had no political status so far as an existing party was concerned, and had no following. He was not even allied with the existing recognized opposition, of which Mr. C. A. Semlin was the acknowledged leader. Mr. Beaven very naturally failed to get a ministry together and then the Lieutenant-Governor turned to Mr. Semlin. The latter selected, among others, Mr. Martin, who has been described as the " stormy petrel " of Canadian politics, as his Attorney-General, and Mr. F. C. Cotton, editor of the News-Advertiser, Vancouver, as his Finance Minister, two of the ablest public men of the province, but temperamentally and in their methods very unlike. It was not long before they were at cross purposes and in strong antagonism to each other. It was simply a question of time as to which of the two should remain in the cabinet to the exclusion of the other, and the rashness and open indiscretion of the Attorney-General furnished the opportunity for Mr. Cotton to demand his resignation. As a result of a party caucus, Mr. Martin stepped out and went into active and effective opposition to the Government. With a small majority to start with, the Government, at the following meeting of the Legislature, found itself practically in power by the vote of the Speaker. It struggled along for a time, but, through the defection of Mr. Prentice, who afterwards became Finance Minister in the Dunsmuir Government, Mr. Semlin was defeated upon a vote of want of confidence, by which a crisis was brought about. Subsequently, however, a compromise was effected by the Premier with some members of the opposition for their support, and he was enabled to advise his Honor that he could command the support of a majority of the members of the House. Contrary to Constitutional precedent, the Lieutenant-Governor refused to be further advised by the Semlin Ministry, whose dismissal followed immediately. A second time the Governor did a remarkable thing. He called in Mr. Martin, who stood absolutely alone in the House, as Premier. Prorogation under unusual and somewhat boisterous circumstances, took place, and the Premier proceeded to form his ministry, which he did by selecting four men as colleagues who were not in politics, had never had a seat in the Legislature, and were practically unknown outside of their respective places of abode. As was remarked on more than one occasion, the procedure followed was making a travesty of constitutional government. As soon as the voter's list could be made in readiness, general elections were held. There was a general uncertainty as to the political lines upon which many of the members returned, but Mr. Martin could not count more than seven out of the number. His Honor, having acted upon his own responsibility in dismissing the Semlin Government and calling into existence a Government to succeed it, and not having been sustained by the country in the course pursued, his own retirement was inevitable. In other words, in departing from well understood constitutional methods, he took his official life in his hand. His dismissal came almost immediately from Ottawa, whereupon he became once more plain Dr. Mc-Innes, being neither Lieutenant-Governor nor Senator. He lived in retire-ment afterwards in Vancouver, and died four years later.

Dr. Mclnnes, like his predecessors, was a pioneer in the province, having moved from Dresden, Ontario, in 1874, where he practiced medicine. While continuing in medicine, he began to take an interest in public affairs almost immediately after his arrival. He was Mayor of New Westminster from 1876-78, and elected for the district for the House of Commons in 1878 as a supporter of Sir John Macdonald. He was called to the Senate in 1881, in which body he was prominent in debate in all matters pertaining to British Columbia. He married in 1865, the relict of the late George M. Webster, Dresden, Ontario, who still survives him. He is succeeded in public life by his eldest son, Hon. W. W. B. Mclnnes, Commissioner of Yukon, who has occupied a seat in the Dominion House of Commons, also in the local Legislature and was for a time a member of the Prior administration.

Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere.

By a somewhat peculiar coincidence, the Hon. Sir Henri Gustave Joly de Lotbiniere, who had been called upon to form an administration in Quebec at the time Lieutenant-Governor Letellier had dismissed the De Boucherville Government in 1878, succeeded Governor Mclnnes in somewhat similar circumstances. As a statesman to whose career and personality attaches special interest, I beg to reproduce here a sketch of Sir Henri's life which appears in Morgan's " Canadian Men and Women of the Time."

"Hon. Sir Henri Gustave Joly de Lotbiniere, statesman, is the eldest son of the late Gaspard Pierre Gustave Joly, a Huguenot native of France, who became Seigneur de Lotbiniere by his marriage with Julie Christine Chartier de Lotbiniere, granddaughter of the last Marquis de Lotbiniere, engineer-in-chief of New France. Born in France, December 5, 1829, he was educated at the Keller School, Paris, in company with the late Mr. Wad-dington, the French Minister. Coming to Canada, he devoted himself to the study of law and was called to the Quebec bar, 1855. He practiced his profession in the city and district of Quebec, and was created a Q. C. 1878. A" Liberal politically, he was returned in that interest to the Canadian Assembly, general election, 1861, as the representative of the county of Lotbiniere. He took a prominent part in the debates on the Confederation of the provinces, 1865-66, joining Messrs. Dorion; Holton, Huntington and other Liberal leaders from Lower Canada, in opposition to that measure. In the first election for the United Provinces, 1867, he was returned to the House of Commons and to the Provincial Assembly. He remained a member of both these bodies until 1874, when at the abolition of dual representation he elected to remain in the local Legislature. He led the opposition in the assembly against the De Boucherville Government until March, 1878, when, on the dismissal of his ministers by Lieutenant-Governor Letellier, he (Mr. Joly) was called to the Premiership. While at the head of the Government, he initiated and carried out a vigorous policy of retrenchment, as well as of political purity. The salaries of the ministers and the indemnity of members of the Legislature were reduced. An effort was made to abolish the Legislative Council and all unnecessary outlays were cut off. Defeated in the House, 1879, ne resigned, and from that time up to 1883, was again the leader of the opposition. In 1885, he retired from public life in consequence of his disapproval of the course of the Liberal parity and on the Riel question. He re-appeared on the surface, June, 1893, as a delegate to the Reform Convention at Ottawa, and was then elected vice-chairman of that important gathering. Later, in February, 1894, he undertook a mission of peace and good-will to the Province of Ontario, to dispel the prejudice existing there against the people of the Province of Quebec, and to bring about a better feeling between the two provinces. In February, 1895, in response to a general call from his party; he agreed to return to public life, and from that time took an active part in the agitation which led to Sir Wilfrid Laurier's success at the polls at the general election, 1896. During the contest he was returned to the House of Commons for Portneuf. On the formation of the new administration at Ottawa, he was offered and accepted the office of Controller of Inland Revenue. He became a Privy Councillor with the title of Minister of Inland Revenue, June 30, 1897. He is an Honorary D. C. L. of Lennoxville University (1887), an LL. D. of Queen's University (1894), and in acknowledgment of his public services received the K. C. M. G. from Her Majesty, May, 1895. He declined a seat in the Senate in 1874, and again in 1877. In the latter year he also declined a seat, with the office of Minister of Agriculture, in the Mackenzie administration. Sir Henri is known all over the continent for his interest in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, having written and spoken frequently on these subjects.

"During the existence of the Imperial Federation League, he gave the scheme his entire support, and he is now as warmly inclined towards the British Empire League. He is also connected with the United Empire Loyalist Association. In religious belief he is a member of the Church of England, and has served as a delegate to the diocesan and provincial synods of the Church. In 1888 he was authorized by the Quebec Legislature to add de Lotbiniere, his mothers name, to that of Joly. He married in 1856, Mar-garette Josepha, daughter of the late Hammond Gowen, of Quebec. Their eldest son, Edmund, adopted the legal profession. His two other sons are in the British Army, and are now and have been for some time, employed as officers in India."

Sir Henri, during the term of his office, now coming to a close, has endeared himself to all classes, and won the respect and esteem of those with whom he has come into contact. He has taken a keen interest in everything pertaining to the welfare of the province.


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