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The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company
By George Bryce


Including The French Traders of North-Western Canada
and of the North-West, XY, and Astor Fur Companies

Four Great Governor's of the Hudson's Bay Company

Preface

THE Hudson's Bay Company! What a record this name represents of British pluck and daring, of patient industry and hardy endurance, of wild adventure among savage Indian tribes, and of exposure to danger by mountain, precipice, and seething torrent and wintry plain!

In two full centuries the Hudson's Bay Company, under its original Charter, undertook financial enterprises of the greatest magnitude, promoted exploration and discovery, governed a vast domain in the northern part of the American Continent, and preserved to the British Empire the wide territory handed over to Canada in 1870. For nearly a generation since that time the veteran Company has carried on successful trade in competition with many rivals, and has shown the vigour of youth.

The present History includes not only the record of the remarkable exploits of this well-known Company, but also the accounts of the daring French soldiers and explorers who disputed the claim of the Company in the seventeenth century, and in the eighteenth century actually surpassed the English adventurers in penetrating the vast interior of Rupert's Land.

Special attention is given in this work to the picturesque history of what was the greatest rival of the Hudson's Bay Company, viz, the North-West Fur Company of Montreal, as well as to the extraordinary spirit of the X Y Company and the Astor Fur Company of New York.

A leading feature of this book is the adequate treatment for the first time of the history of the well-nigh eighty years just closing, from the union of all the fur traders of British North America under the name of the Hudson's Bay Company. This period, beginning with the career of the Emperor-Governor, Sir George Simpson (1821), and covering the life, adventure, conflicts, trade, and development of the vast region stretching from Labrador to Vancouver Island, and north to the Mackenzie River and the Yukon, down to the present year, is the most important part of the Company's history.

For the task thus undertaken the author is well fitted. He has had special opportunities for becoming acquainted with the history, position, and inner life of the Hudson's Bay Company. He has lived for nearly thirty years in Winnipeg, for the whole of that time in sight of Fort Garry, the fur traders' capital, or what remains of it; he has visited many of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts from Fort William to Victoria, in the Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods region, in Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, and British Columbia; in those districts he has run the rapids, crossed the portages, surveyed the ruins of old forts, and fixed the localities of long-forgotten posts; he is acquainted with a large number of the officers of the Company, has enjoyed their hospitality, read their journals, and listened with interest to their tales of adventure in many out-of-the-way posts; he is a. lover of the romance, and story, and tradition of the fur traders' past.

The writer has had full means of examining documents, letters, journals, business records, heirlooms, and archives of the fur traders both in Great Britain and Canada. He returns thanks to the custodians of many valuable originals, which he has used, to the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1881, Right Hon. G. J. Goschen, who granted him the privilege of consulting all Hudson's Bay Company records up to the date of 1821, and he desires to still more warmly acknowledge the permission given him by the distinguished patron of literature and education, the present Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, to read any documents of public importance in the Hudson's Bay House in London. This unusual opportunity granted the author was largely used by him in 1896 and again in 1899.

Taking the advice of his publishers, the author, instead of publishing several volumes of annals of the Company, has condensed the important features of the history into one fair-sized volume, but has given in an Appendix references and authorities which may afford the reader, who desires more detailed information on special periods, the sources of knowledge for fuller research.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

Dn favor which has been shown to the" Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company" has resulted in a large measure from its being written by a native-born Canadian, who is familiar with much of the ground over which the Company for two hundred years held sway.

A number of corrections have been made and the book has been brought up to date for this Edition.

It has been a pleasure to the Author, who has expressed himself without fear or favor regarding the Company men and their opponents, that he has received from the greater number of his readers commendations for his fairness and insight into the affairs of the Company and its wonderful history.

GEORGE BRYCE.

KILMADOCK, WINNIPEG,
August 19, 1910.

Contents

CHAPTER I - THE FIRST VOYAGE FOR TRADE.
Famous Companies—" The old lady of Fenchurch Street "The first voyage—Radisson and Groseilliers—Spurious claim of the French of having reached the Bay—"Journal published by Prince Society"—The claim invalid—Early voyages of Radisson—The Frenchmen go to Boston—Cross over to England—Help from Royalty—Fiery Rupert—The King a stockholder—Many hitherto unpublished factsCapt. Zachariah Gillam—Charles Fort built on Rupert River—The founder's fame.

CHAPTER II. - HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY FOUNDED.
Royal charters—Good Queen Bess--"So miserable a wilderness"—Courtly stockholders—Correct spelling—" The nonsense of the Charters "—Mighty rivers—Lords of the territory—To execute justice—War on infidels—Power to eize—" Skin for skin "—Friends of the Red man.

CHAPTER III. - METHODS OF TRADE.
Rich Mr. Portman—Good ship Prince Rupert—The early adventurers—"Book of Common Prayer"—Five forts—Voting a funeral—Worth of a beaver—To Hudson Bay and back —Selling the pelts—Bottles of sack—Fat dividends—"Victorious as Ceasar"-"Golden Fruit".

CHAPTER IV. - THREE GREAT GOVERNORS.
Alen of high station—Prince Rupert primus—Prince James, "nemine contradicente"—The hero of the hour—Churchill River named—Plate of solid gold—Off to the tower.

CHAPTER V. - TWO ADROIT ADVENTURERS.
Peter Radisson and "Mr. Gooseberry" again—Radisson v. Gillam—Back to France—A wife's influence—Paltry vessels —Radisson's diplomacy—Deserts to England—Shameful duplicity—"A hogshead of claret"—Adventurers appreciative—Twenty-five years of Radisson's life hitherto unknown—"In a low and mean condition"—The Company in Chancery—Lucky Radisson—A Company pensioner.

CHAPTER VI. - FRENCH RIVALRY.
The golden lilies in danger—"To arrest Radisson"—The land called "Unknown"—A chain of claim—Imaginary pretensions—Chevalier de Troyes—The brave Lemoynes—Hudson Bay forts captured—A litigious governor—Laugh at treaties —The glory of France—Enormous claims—Consequential damages.

CHAPTER VII. - RYSWICK AND UTRECHT.
The "Grand Monarque" humbled—Caught napping—The Company in peril—Glorious Utrecht—Forts restored—Damages to be considered—Commission useless.

CHAPTER VIII. - DREAM OF A NORTH-WEST PASSAGE.
Stock rises—Jealousy aroused—Arthur Dobbs, Esq.—An ingenious attack—Appeal to the "Old Worthies"—Captain Christopher Middleton—Was the Company in earnest? The sloop Furnace—Dobbs' fierce attack—The great subscription—Independent expedition—"Henry Ellis, gentleman"-"Without success"—Dobbs' real purpose.

CHAPTER IX. - THE INTERESTING BLUE-BOOK OF 1749.
"Le roi est mort"—Royalty unfavourable—Earl of Halifax—"Company asleep"—Petition to Parliament—Neglected discovery—Timidity or caution—Strong "Prince of Wales" —Increase of stock—A timid witness—Claims of discovery —To make Indians Christians—Charge of disloyalty—New Company promises largely—Result nil.

CHAPTER X. - FRENCH CANADIANS EXPLORE THE INTERIOR.
The "Western Sea"—Ardent Duluth—'Kaministiquia "Indian boasting—Pere Charlevoix—Father Gonor—The man of the hour :—Verendrye----Indian map-maker—The North Shore--A line of forts—The Assiniboine country—A notable manuscript—A marvellous journey—Glory, but not wealth—Post of the Western Sea.

CHAPTER XI. - THE SCOTTISH MERCHANTS OF MONTREAL,
Unyielding old Cadot—Competition—The enterprising Henry —Leads the way—Thomas Curry—The elder Finlay—Plundering Indians—Grand Portage—A famous mart—The plucky Frobishers—The Sleeping Giant aroused—Fort Cumberland—Churchill River—Indian rising—The deadly smallpox—The whites saved.

CHAPTER XII. - DISCOVERY OF THE COPPERMINE.
Samuel Hearne—"The Mungo Park of Canada"—Perouse complains—The North-West Passage—Indian guides—Two failures—Third journey successful—Smokes the calumet—Discovers Arctic Ocean—Cruelty to the Eskimos—Error in latitude—Remarkable Indian woman—Capture of Prince of Wales Fort—Criticism by Umfreville.

CHAPTER XIII. - FORTS ON HUDSON BAY LEFT BEHIND.
Andrew Graham's "Memo."—Prince of Wales Fort—The garrison—Trade--York Factory—Furs—Albany—Subordinate forts—Moose—Moses Norton—Cumberland House—Upper Assiniboine—Rainy Lake—Brandon House—Red River—Conflict of the Companies.

CHAPTER XIV. - THE NORTH-WEST COMPANY FORMED.
Hudson's Bay Company aggressive—The great McTavish—The Frobishers—Pond and Pangman dissatisfied—Gregory and McLeod—Strength of the North-West Company—Vessels to be built—New route from Lake Superior sought—Good will at times—Bloody Pond—Wider union, 1787—Fort Alexandria—Mouth of the Souris—Enormous fur trade—Wealthy Nor'-Westers—"The Haunted House".

CHAPTER XV. - VOYAGES OF SIR ALEXANDER MACKENZIE.
A young Highlander—To rival Hearne—Fort Chipewyan built —French Canadian voyageurs—Trader Leroux—Perils of the route—Post erected on Arctic Coast—Return journey —Pond's miscalculations—Hudson Bay Turner—Roderick McKenzie's hospitality—Alexander Mackenzie—Astronomy and mathematics—Winters on Peace River—Terrific journey —The Pacific Slope—Dangerous Indians—Pacific Ocean, 1793—North-West Passage by land—Great achievement—A notable book.

CHAPTER XVI. - THE GREAT EXPLORATION.
Grand Portage on American soil—Anxiety about the boundary —David Thompson, astronomer and surveyor—His instructions—By swift canoe—The land of beaver—A dash to the Mandans—Stone Indian House—Fixes the boundary at Pembina—Sources of the Mississippi—A marvellous explorer —Pacific Slope explored—Thompson down the Kootenay and Columbia—Fiery Simon Fraser in New Caledonia—Discovers Fraser River—Sturdy John Stuart—Thompson River—Bourgeois Quesnel—Transcontinental expeditions.

CHAPTER XVII. - THE X Y COMPANY.
"Le Marquis" Simon McTavish unpopular—Alexander Mackenzie, his rival—Enormous activity of the "Potties"- Why called X Y—Five rival posts at Souris—Sir Alexander, the silent partner—Old Lion of Montreal roused—"Posts of the King"—Schooner sent to Hudson Bay—Nor'-Westers erect two posts on Hudson Bay—Supreme folly—Old and new Nor'-Westers unite—List of partners.

CHAPTER XVIII. - THE LORDS OF THE LAKES AND FORESTS. - I
New route to Kaministiquia—Vivid sketch of Fort William "Cantine Salope"—Lively Christmas week—The feasting partners—Ex-Governor Masson's good work—Four great Mackenzies—A literary bourgeois—Three handsome domoiselles—"The man in the moon"--Story of "Bras Croche"—Around Cape Horn—Astoria taken over—A hotheaded trader—Sad case of "Littlo Labrie"—Punch on New Year's Day—The heart of a "vacher" .

CHAPTER XIX. - THE LORDS OF THE LAKES AND FORESTS. - II
Harmon and his book—An honest man—"Straight as an arrow" —New views—An uncouth giant—"Gaelic, English, French, and Indian oaths"—McDonell, "Le Prêtre"—St. Andrew's Day—"Fathoms of tobacco"—Down the Assiniboine—An entertaining journal—A good editor—A too frank trader -"Gun fire ten yards away"—Herds of buffalo—Packs and pemmican—"The fourth Gospel"—Drowning of Henry -"The weather cleared up"—Lost for forty days "Cheepe," the corpse—Larocque and the Mandans - McKenzie and his half-breed children.

CHAPTER XX. - THE LORDS OF THE LAKES AND FORESTS. - III
Dashing French trader—"The country of fashion"—An air of great superiority—The road is that of heaven—Enough to intimidate a Caesar—"The Bear" and the "Little Branch" —Yet more rum—A great Irishman—"In the wigwam of Wabogish dwelt his beautiful daughter"—Wedge of gold—Johnston and Henry Schoolcraft—Duncan Cameron on Lake Superior—His views of trade—Peter Grant, the ready writer—Paddling the canoe—Indian folk-lore----Chippewa burials—Remarkable men and great financiers, marvellous explorers, facile traders.

CHAPTER XXI. - THE IMPULSE OF UNION.
North-West and X Y Companies unite—Recalls the Homeric period—Feuds forgotten—Men perform prodigies—The new fort re-christened—Vessel from Michilimackinac—The old canal—Wills builds Fort Gibraltar—A lordly sway—The "Beaver Club"—Sumptuous table—Exclusive society -"Fortitude in Distress"—Political leaders in Lower Canada.

CHAPTER XXII. - THE ASTOR FUR COMPANY.
Old John Jacob Astor—American Fur Company—The Missouri Company—A line of posts—Approaches the Russians—Negotiates with Nor'-Westers--Fails—Four North-West officials join Astor—Songs of the voyageurs—True Britishers—Voyage of the Toaquin—Rollicking Nor'Westers in Sandwich Islands—Astoria built—David Thompson appears—Terrible end of the Tonquin—Astor's overland expedition—Washington Irving's "Astoria", a romance The Beaver rounds the Cape—McDougall and his small-pox phial—The Beaver sails for Canton.

CHAPTER XXIII. - LORD SELKIRK'S COLONY.
Alexander Mackenzie's book—Lord Selkirk interested—Emigration a boon—Writes to Imperial Government—In 1802 looks to Lake Winnipeg—Benevolent project of trade Compelled to choose Prince Edward Island—Opinion as to Hudson's Bay Company Charter—Nor'-Westers alarmed—Hudson's Bay Company's Stock—Purchases AssiniboiaAdvertises the new colony—Religion no disqualification—Sends first colony—Troubles of the project—Arrive at York Factory—The winter—The mutiny—"Essence of Malt"- Journey inland—A second party—Third party under Archibald Macdonald—From Helmsdale—The number of colonists.

CHAPTER XXIV. - TROUBLE BETWEEN THE COMPANIES.
Nor'-westers oppose the colony—Reason why—A considerable literature—Contentions of both parties—Both in faulty—Miles Macdonell's mistake—Nor'-Wester arrogance—Duncan Cameron's ingenious plan—Stirring up the Chippewas - Nor'-Westers warn colonists to depart—McLeod's hitherto unpublished narrative—Vivid account of a brave defence —Chain shot from the blacksmith's smithy—Fort Douglas begun—Settlers driven out—Governor Semple arrives—Cameron last Governor of Fort Gibraltar—Cameron sent to Britain as a prisoner—Fort Gibraltar captured—Fort Gibraltar decreases, Fort Douglas increases—Free traders take to the plains—Indians favour the colonists.

CHAPTER XXV. - THE SKIRMISH OF SEVEN OAKS.
Leader of the Bois Brolés—A candid letter—Account of a prisoner—"Yellow Head"—Speech to the Indians—The chief knows nothing—On fleet Indian ponies—An eyewitness in Fort Douglas—A rash Governor—The massacre - "For God's sake save my life"—The Governor and twenty others slain—Colonists driven out—Eastern levy meets the settlers—Effects seized—Wild revelry—Chanson of Pierre Falcon.

CHAPTER XXVI. - LORD SELKIRK TO THE RESCUE.
The Earl in Montreal—Alarming news—Engages a body of Swiss—The De Meurons—Em bark for ,the North-WestKawtawabetay's story—Hears of Seven Oaks—Lake Superior —Lord Selkirk—A doughty Douglas—Seizes Fort William —Canoes upset and Nor'-Westers drowned—"A banditti" —The Earl's blunder—A winter march—Fort Douglas recaptured—His Lordship soothes the settlers—An Indian treaty—"The Silver Chief"—The Earl's note-book.

CHAPTER XXVII. - THE BLUE-BOOK or 1819 AND THE NORTH-WEST TRIALS.
British law disgraced—Governor Sherbrooke's distress—A commission decided on—Few unbiassed Canadians—Colonel Coltman chosen—Over ice and snow—Alarming rumours—The Prince Regent's orders--Coltman at Red River—The Earl submissive—The Commissioner's report admirable—The celebrated Reinhart case—Disturbing lawsuits—Justice perverted—A storehouse of facts—Sympathy of Sir Walter Scott—Lord Selkirk's death—Tomb at Orthes, in France.

CHAPTER XXVIII. - MEN WHO PLAYED A PART.
The crisis reached—Consequences of Seven Oaks—The noble Earl—His generous spirit—His mistakes—Determined courage Deserves the laurel crown—The first GovernorMacdonell's difficulties—His unwise step—A captain in red —Cameron's adroitness—A wearisome imprisonment—Last governor of Fort Gibraltar—The Metis chief—Half-breed son of old Cuthbert—A daring hunter—Warden of the plains—Lord Selkirk's agent—A Red River patriarch—A faithful witness—The French bard—Western war songs - Pierriche Falcon.

CHAPTER XXIX. - GOVERNOR SIMPSON UNITES ALL INTERESTS.
Both Companies in danger—Edward Ellice, a mediator—George Simpson, the man of destiny—Old feuds buried—Gatherings at Norway House—Governor Simpson's skill—His marvellous energy—Reform in trade—Morality low—A famous canoe voyage—Salutes fired—Pompous ceremony at Norway House—Strains of the bagpipe—Across the Rocky Mountains—Fort Vancouver visited—Great executive ability—The governor knighted—Sir George goes round the world —Troubles of a book—Meets the Russians—Estimate of Sir George.

CHAPTER XXX. - THE LIFE OF THE TRADERS.
Lonely trading posts—Skilful letter writers—Queer old Peter Fidler—Famous library—A remarkable will—A stubborn Highlander—Life at Red River—Badly-treated PangmanFounding trading houses—Beating up recruits—Priest Provencher—A fur-trading mimic—Life far north—"Ruled with a rod of iron"—Seeking a fur country—Life in the canoe—A trusted trader—Sheaves of letters —A find in Edinburgh—Faithful correspondents—The Bishop's cask of wine—Red River, a "land of Canaan"—Governor Simpson's letters—The gigantic Archdeacon writes—"MacArgrave's" promotion—Kindly Sieveright—Traders and their books.

CHAPTER XXXI. - THE VOYAGEURS FROM MONTREAL.
Lachine, the fur traders' Mecca—The departure—The flowing bowl—The canoe brigade—The voyageurs' song—"En roulant ma boule"—Village of St. Anne's—Legend of the church—The sailors' guardian—Origin of "Canadian Boat Song"—A loud invocation—"A la Claire Fontaine " - "Sing, nightingale"—At the rapids—The ominous crosses - "Lament of Cadieux"—A lonely maiden sits—The Wendigo—Home of the Ermatingers—A very old canal—The rugged coast—Fort William reached—A famous gathering—The joyous return.

CHAPTER XXXII. - EXPLORERS IN THE FAR NORTH.
The North-West Passage again—Lieutenant John Franklin's land expedition—Two lonely winters—Hearne's mistake corrected—Franklin's second journey—Arctic sea coast explored—Franklin knighted—Captain John Ross by sea—Discovers magnetic pole—Magnetic needle nearly perpendicular—Back seeks for Ross—Dease and Simpson sent by Hudson's Bay Company to explore—Sir John in Erebus and Terror—The Paleocrystic Sea—Franklin never returns—Lady Franklin's devotion—The historic search—Dr. Rae secures relics—Captain McClintock finds the cairn and written record—Advantages of the search.

CHAPTER XXXIII. - EXPEDITIONS TO THE FRONTIER OF THE FUR COUNTRY.
disputed boundary—Sources of the Mississippi—The fur traders push southward—Expedition up the Missouri—Lewis and Clark meet Nor'-Wcsters—Claim of United States made—Sad death of Lewis—Lieutenant Pike's journey—Pike meets fur traders—Cautious Dakotas—Treaty with Chippewas—Violent death—Long and Keating fix 49 deg. N.—Visit Fort Garry—Follow old fur traders' route—An erratic Italian—Strange adventures—Almost finds source—Beltrami County—Cass and Schoolcraft fail —Schoolcraft afterwards succeeds—Lake Itasca—Curious origin of name—The source determined.

CHAPTER XXXIV. - FAMOUS JOURNEYS IN RUPERT'S LAND.
Fascination of an unknown land—Adventure, science, or gain —Lieutenant Lefroy's magnetic survey—Hudson's Bay Company assists—Winters at Fort Chipewyan—First scientific visit to Peace River—Notes lost—Not "gratuitous canoe conveyance"—Captain Palliser and Lieutenant Hector—Journey through Rupert's Land—Rocky Mountain passes—On to the coast—A successful expedition—Hind and Dawson—To spy out the land for Canada—The fertile belt—Hind's description good—Milton and Cheadle—Winter on the Saskatchewan—Reach Pacific Ocean in a pitiable condition—Captain Butler—The horse Blackie and dog "Cerf Vola "—Fleming and Grant—"Ocean to ocean" -"Land fitted for a healthy and hardy race"—Waggon road and railway.

CHAPTER XXXV. - RED RIVER SETTLEMENT. 1817-1846.
Chiefly Scottish and French settlers—Many hardships—Grasshoppers—Yellow Head—"Gouverneur Sauterelle"—Swiss settlers—Remarkable parchment—Captain Bulger, a military governor—Indian troubles—Donald McKenzie, a fur trader governor—Many projects fail—The flood—Plenty follows—Social condition—Lower Fort built—Upper Fort Garry—Council of Assiniboia—The settlement organized—Duncan Finlayson governor—English farmers—Governor Christie—Serious epidemic—A regiment of regulars—The unfortunate major—The people restless.

CHAPTER XXXVI. - THE PRAIRIES: SLEDGE, KEEL, WHEEL, CAYUSE, CHASE.
Picturesque life—The prairie hunters and traders—Gailycaparisoned dog trains—The great winter packets—Joy in the lonely forts—The summer trade—The York boat brigade—Expert voyageurs—The famous Red River cartShagganappe ponies—The screeching train—Tripping—The western cayuse—The great buffalo hunt—Warden of the plains—Pemmican and fat—The return in triumph.

CHAPTER XXXVII. - LIFE ON THE SHORES OF HUDSON BAY AND LABRADOR.
The bleak shores unprogressive—Now as at the beginning—York Factory—Description of Ballantyne—The weather—Summer comes with a rush—Picking up subsistence—The Indian trade--Inhospitable Labrador—Establishment of Ungava Bay—McLean at Fort Chimo—Herds of cariboo - Eskimo rafts—"Shadowy Tartarus"—The king's domainsMingan—Mackenzie--The gulf settlements—The Moravians—Their four missions—Rigolette, the chief trading post—A school for developing character—Chief Factor Donald A. Smith—Journeys along the coast—A barren shore.

CHAPTER XXXVIII. - ATHABASCA, MACKENZIE RIVER, AND THE YUKON.
Peter Pond reaches Athabasca River—Port Chipewyan established—Starting point of Alexander Mackenzie—The Athabasca Library—The Hudson's Bay Company roused—Conflict at Fort Wedderburn—Suffering—The dash up the Peace River—Fort Dunvegan—Northern extension—Fort Resolution—Fort Providence—The great river occupied—Loss of life—Fort Simpson, the centre—Fort Reliance—Herds of cariboo—Fort Norman built—Fort Good Hope—The Northern Rockies—The Yukon reached and occupied—The fierce Liard River—Fort Halkett in the Mountains —Robert Campbell comes to the Stikine—Discovers the Upper Yukon—His great fame—The districts—Steamers on the water stretches.

CHAPTER XXXIX. - ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE.
Extension of trade in New Caledonia—The Western Department—Fort Vancouver built—Governor's residence and Bachelors' Hall—Fort Colville—James Douglas, a man of note--A dignified official—An Indian rising—A brave woman—The fertile Columbia Valley—Finlayson, a man of action—Russian fur traders—Treaty of Alaska—Lease of Alaska to the Hudson's Bay Company—Port Langley—The great farm—Black at Kamloops—Fur trader v. botanist—"No soul above a beaver's skin"—A tragic death—Chief Nicola's eloquence—A murderer's fate.

CHAPTER XL - FROM OREGON TO VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Fort Vancouver on American soil—Chief Factor Douglas chooses a new site—Young McLoughlin killed—Liquor selling prohibited—Dealing with the Songhies—A Jesuit father—Fort Victoria—Finlayson's skill—Chinook jargon—The brothers Ermatinger—A fur-trading Junius—"Fifty-four, forty, or fight"—Oregon Treaty—Hudson's Bay Company indemnified—The waggon road—A colony established—First governor—Gold fever—British Columbia—Fort Simpson—Hudson's Bay Company in the interior—The forts—A group of worthies—Service to Britain—The coast becomes Canadian.

CHAPTER XLI. - PRO GLORIA DEl.
A vast region—First spiritual adviser—A locum Ienen8—Two French Canadian priests—St. Boniface founded—Missionary zeal in Mackenzie River district—Red River parishes—The great Archbishop Taché—John West—Archdeacon Cochrane, the founder—John McCallum—Bishop Anderson—English Missionary Societies—Archbishop Machray—Indian Missions—John Black, the Presbyterian apostle—Methodist Missions on Lake Winnipeg—The Cree syllabic—Chaplain Staines—Bishop Bridge—Missionary Duncan—Metlakahtla----Roman Catholic coast missions—Church of England bishop--Diocese of New Westminster—Dr. Evans—Robert Jamieson—Education.

CHAPTER XLII. - THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY AND THE INDIANS.
Company's Indian policy—Character of officers—A race of hunters—Plan of advances—Charges against the Company - Liquor restriction - Capital punishment - Starving Indians—Diseased and helpless—Education and religion—The age of missions—Sturdy Saulteaux—The Muskegons - Wood Crees—Wandering Plain Crees—The Chipewyans - Wild Assiniboines—Blackfoot Indians—Polyglot coast tribes—Eskimos—No Indian war—No police—Pliable and docile—Success of the Company.

CHAPTER XLIII. - UNREST IN RUPERT'S LAND. 1844-1869.
Discontent on Red River—Queries to the Governor—A courageous Recorder—Free Trade in furs held illegal —Imprisonment--New land deed—Enormous freights—Petty revenge—Turbulent pensioners—Heart burnings Heroic Isbister—Half-breed memorial—Mr. Beaver's letter —Hudson's Bay Company notified—Lord Elgin's reply—Voluminous correspondence—Company's full answer—Colonel Crof ton's statement—Major Caldwell, a partisan—French petition—Nearly a thousand signatures—Love, a factor—The elder iRiel—A court scene—Violence—"Vive la liberté"—The Recorder checked—A new judge—Unruly Corbett—The prison broken—Another rescue—A valiant doctor—A Red River Nestor.

CHAPTER XLIV. - CANADA COVETS THE HUDSON'S BAY TERRITORY.
Renewal of licence—Labouchere's letter—Canada claims to Pacific Ocean—Commissioner Chief-Justice Draper—Rests on Quebec Act, 1774—Quebec overlaps Indian territories—Company loses Vancouver Island—Cauchon's memorandum —Committee of 1857—Company on trial—A brilliant committee—Four hundred folios of evidence—To transfer Red River and Saskatchewan—Death of Sir George—Governor Dallas--A cunning scheme—Secret negotiations—The Watkin Company floated—Angry winterers—Dallas's soothing circular—The old order still—Ermatinger's letters —McDougall's resolutions—Cartier and McDougall as delegates—Company accepts the terms.

CHAPTER XLV. - TROUBLES OF THE TRANSFER OF RUPERT'S LAND.
Transfer Act passed—A moribund Government—The Canadian surveying party—Causes of the rebellion—Turbulent Metis—American interference—Disloyal ecclesiastics "Governor" McDougall—Riel and his rebel band—A blameworthy governor—The "blawsted fence"—Seizure of Fort Garry—Riel's ambitions—Loyal rising—Three wise men from the East--The New Nation—A winter meeting —Bill of Rights—A Canadian shot—The Wolseley expedition—Three renegades slink away—The end of Company rule—The new Province of Manitoba.

CHAPTER XLVI. - PRESENT STATUS OF THE COMPANY.
A great land company—Fort Garry dismantled—The new buildings—New v. old—New life in the Company—Palmy days are recalled—Governors of ability—The present distinguished Governor—Vaster operations—Its eye not dimmed.

CHAPTER XLVII. - THE FUTURE OF THE CANADIAN WEST.
The Greater Canada—Wide wheat fields—Vast pasture landsHuronian mines—The Kootenay riches—Yukon nuggets —Forests—Iron and coal—Fisheries—Two great cities—Towns and villages—An glo-Saxon institutions—The great outlook.

APPENDIX.
A.—AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES
B.—SUMMARY OF LIFE OF PIERRE ESPRIT RADISSON
C.—COMPANY POSTS IN 1856, WITH INDIANS
D.—CHIEF FACTORS (1821 -1896)
E.—RUSSIAN AMERICA (ALASKA)
F.—THE CREE SYLLABIC CHARACTER
G.—NAMES OF H.B.Co. OFFICERS IN PLATE OPPOSITE

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