"THE Presbytery of Philadelphia,
founded by (Francis) Makemie in 1706,
the tap root from which the institutional growth of Presbyterianism
proceeded." Presbyterianism took root in. New York in 1707, but ten years
passed ere the first regular congregation was established, now the Old
First Presbyterian Church, under the Rev. James Anderson, a native of
Montrose. The Church prospered in its new home, and by 1738 it was ordered
that the Presbytery of Long Island and the Presbytery of New Jersey should
be united and thenceforward known as the Presbytery of New York. To
Jonathan Dickinson (1688-1747) is mainly due the credit of the advancement
of Presbyterianism, and to him also it is due that "the Church became an
American Presbyterian Church, and that it was not split into fragments
representing and perpetuating the differences of Presbyterians in the
mother countries of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales."
Francis Makemie was the pioneer
Presbyterian missionary to the New World, his labors taking him from
Virginia to New England, and he is rightly considered the chief founder of
the Presbyterian Church in America. He was born about 1658 in Ramelton,
County Donegal, Ireland, and was educated at the University of Glasgow. He
came out as an ordained Evangelist from the Presbytery of Lagan in 1683,
at the request of Col. William Stevens, to minister to the people of the
eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia. He was the founder of the first
organized Presbytery and the first moderator. Makemie was a distinguished
advocate of religious liberty, and was banished from Taunton, Mass., and
other localities, and suffered imprisonment and trial in New York, in
1707, for holding services in that city as a Presbyterian minister. His
acquittal in this action, and the masterly appeal he delivered before the
court on that occasion were a potent influence in crystallizing public
opinion and in assuring religious liberty in the United States. Makemie
died in the Summer of 1708 and was buried near his home, in Accomac
County, Virginia. May 14, 1908, his grave was marked with an imposing
monument dedicated by the American Presbyterian Historical Society, of
The Rev. Richard Webster in his
exhaustive History of the Presbyterian Church in America has traced
the nativity of two hundred ministers before 1760, and of these fifty-five
were Ulster-Scots, twenty-six were from Scotland direct, six were from
England, five from Wales, seventy-three were native born, many of
Ulster-Scots and Scots parentage, and of the remaining thirty-three their
places of nativity were unknown.
Some of the early Presbyterian
ministers of Scottish birth or parentage deserving of brief mention are:
The Rev. John Wilson of Delaware (died 1712)
; Nathaniel Taylor, who came here from
Scotland with his congregation and settled in Upper Marlborough, Maryland,
about 1690; Rev. George MacNish, who came to America in 1705; Rev. Robert
Orr, ordained and installed at Maidenhead in 1715; Rev. George Gillespie,
who came to America in 1712, bearing a letter of recommendation from
Principal Sterling to Cotton Mather; Rev. James Anderson, ordained by
Presbytery of Irvine, Ayrshire, in 1708, and came to the colonies the year
following, and died in 1760; Rev. John Moorhead, born near Belfast, and
educated in Scotland (died 1773) ; Rev. John Elder, minister of Paxton and
Derry, from 1738 to 1792; Rev. John Hogg, licensed by the Presbytery of
Newcastle, Delaware, October, 1753; Rev. John Miller, of Scottish
parentage, born in Boston in 1722; Rev. Samuel Kennedy, minister of the
congregation of Basking Ridge, New Jersey, for thirty-seven years
(1750-1787), was born in Scotland; Rev. Henry Patillo, born in Scotland in
1726, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Hanover
in 1757; Rev. James Latta, ordained by the Presbytery of Philadelphia in
1759; Rev. William Arthur, born in Peebles in 1769, held a charge in
Paisley, and in 1793 came to the United States; Rev. Alexander McWhorter,
minister in Newark. New Jersey (died 1807).
In the South, Presbyterianism was a direct importation
from Scotland. Its introducers here were Scots who emigrated from Scotland
after the Battle of Bothwell Brig in 1679. Ford mentions that a body of
twenty-two sailed from Glasgow to Carolina and settled at Port Royal on
the Broad River. Their minister was the Rev. William Dunlop, who
afterwards returned to Scotland and eventually became Principal of the
University of Glasgow. Some additions were made to the Presbyterian
colonies here by emigrants from the ill-fated Darien Colony (1699-1700).
With the abandonment of that colony, many of its members sought refuge in
New England and in the Carolinas.
Rev. William Tennent (1673-1746), a Scot from the North
of Ireland, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, came to Pennsylvania in
1718. In 1726 he became pastor of a church in Neshaminy, Bucks County,
Pa., and two years later, on fifty acres of land given to him by his
kinsman, James Logan, established the famous Log College. Probably no
other school, says Ford,
ever produced so many eminent men in proportion to the
number of its pupils, and it became the progenitor of numerous
institutions of learning. Here he educated his three sons, Gilbert
(1703-1764), William (1705-1777), John (1706-1732)
; all of whom worthily
carried forward their father’s ministry in the Colonies. Among his pupils
were such distinguished men as Samuel Blair, John Rowland, James McCrea,
William Robinson, John Blair, Samuel Finley, John Roan, Charles Beatty,
Daniel Lawrence and William Dean; earnest preachers of the Word and many
of them interested in the early educational life of the country.
Samuel Finley (1715-1766) was born of Scottish parents
in County Armagh, Ireland, and came to America in 1734. He completed his
education at the Log College and preached in New Jersey, Connecticut and
Indiana. With other Log College graduates he was active in securing the
charter for the College of New Jersey, now Princeton, and succeeded to the
presidency in 1761. His brother; Rev. James Finley, was also a noted
educator and pioneer missionary of the Presbyterian Church. Dr. John
Huston Finley, Commissioner of Education for the State of New York, is a
descendant of Rev. James Finley.
Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D. (1772-1851), one of the
most eminent clergymen of his time, was the grandson of a Scottish settler
in Pennsylvania. His eldest son, James Waddell Alexander, D.D.
(1804-1859), was also a distinguished clergyman, author, and a professor
in Princeton. Another son, Joseph Addison Alexander, D.D. (1809-1860), was
also a professor in Princeton and was particularly distinguished as an
Rev. William Craig Brownlee (1783-1860), D.D., was the
fourth son of the Laird of Torfoot, Lanarkshire. He was graduated from the
University of Glasgow with the degree of M. A., and came to the United
States some time after 1808. He held various charges in this country, and
was appointed professor of languages in Rutgers College in 1825. He
published a number of works and was editor of the Magazine of the
Reformed Dutch Church.
A worthy successor of Witherspoon was Rev. Dr. James
McCosh, who became president of Princeton in 1868. Dr. McCosh was born in
Carskeoch, Ayrshire, Scotland, April 1, 1811. He studied at Glasgow
University, 1824-1829, and Edinburgh University, 1829-1834; was ordained
at Arbroath in
1835, and removed to Brechin, 1839, where his
congregation numbered 1400. In 1843 he took an active part in organizing
the Free Church of Scotland. He early attracted attention by his writings
on philosophical subjects, and for sixteen years before coming to America
was professor of logic and metaphysics in Queen’s College, Belfast. Dr.
McCosh died in 1894.
Rev. Dr. William Mackergo Taylor was born in
Kilmarnock, Scotland, October 23, 1829. He studied at Glasgow and
Edinburgh Universities, and after preaching for two years at Kilmaurs, in
Ayrshire, went to Liverpool, in 1855, where he brought together a very
large congregation. In 1872, Dr. Taylor was called to the Broadway
Tabernacle, New York City, where his labours were blessed for many years,
until his death, July, 1895. He lectured at Yale, 1876, and 1886, and at
Princeton, 1880; and from 1876-1880 was the editor of the Christian at
Work. He was one of the most noted preachers in the country
in connection with the Congregational body.
The Rev. Aeneas Mackenzie was sent by Queen Anne in
1704 to minister to her faithful subjects on Staten Island, New York, and
in 1708-1711 built the historic St. Andrew’s Church in the old village of
Samuel Auchmuty (1725-1777), D.D., another
distinguished minister of the Episcopal Church, was born in Boston of
Scottish parents. He was graduated at Harvard University and afterwards
studied divinity at Oxford. On his return to the United States he became
assistant rector of Trinity Church, New York, and afterwards had charge of
all the Episcopal churches in the city.
Charles Pettit Mcllvaine, one of the oldest bishops of
the Protestant Episcopal Church in America, was of Scottish descent. He
was also noted as an educator; Bishop Matthew Simpson, one of the ablest
leaders of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America, was also of Scottish
descent; James Dempster, sent by John Wesley to America as a missionary,
was a Scot. His son, John Dempster, was the founder of the School of
Theology, Boston University. "Father McCormick" organized the first
Methodist Episcopal Church in the Northwest Territory. John Rankin was the
founder of the Free Presbyterian Church; Alexander Campbell of the
Christian Disciples Church; Robert Turnbull was the most scholarly divine
of the New England Baptist Church; and Edward Robinson, of the Puritan
Church, was recognized as among the ablest American Biblical scholars.
The Presbyterian Church not only established Princeton
but nearly fifty other colleges; Rev. Dr. John C. McMillan and the
Finleys—Samuel and James—themselves established nearly a score in the West
and South, and Rev. Charles Clinton Beatty, the first women's college west
of the Alleghenies. Thomas Jefferson gave to the South the University of
Virginia. Jefferson’s teacher at William and Mary College was Dr. William
Small, a native of Glasgow, professor of mathematics, "a man profound in
most of the useful branches of science, with . . .
an enlarged and liberal mind." "From him," says Jefferson, "I got
my first views of the expansion of science, and of the system of things in
which we are placed" (Autobiography, p. 2).
James Blair (1656-1743), a native of Scotland, founded
William and Mary College, February 14, 1692, and was its first president.
William Graham was the founder of the classical school in Lexington that
afterward became Washington and Lee University.
Other early educators of Scottish birth or descent
were: Rev. Archibald Alexander (1772-1851), previously mentioned, a native
of Virginia, the noted divine and author of the History of the Log
College, who became president of Hampden-Sydney College in 1796.
Rev. Charles Nisbet (1736-1804), who was born in
Haddington, Scotland, and educated at Edinburgh University. He was
licensed in 1760 and was a popular preacher in Montrose when called as the
first president of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., in 1785. His library,
containing many rare books, was presented to Princeton by two of his
Rev. Dr. William Smith (1723-1803), a native of
Aberdeen, was educated in Aberdeen University, and came to America in 1751
as a missionary of the established Anglican Church. He was the first
provost of the Academy and College of Philadelphia (afterward the
University of Pennsylvania), and held the office for twenty-five years
with great honour. As a clergyman, he was one of the most profound and
eloquent of his day. He was a liberal and practical educator and one of
the founders of the American Philosophical Society.
Peter Wilson, of Scottish birth, was professor
- of classics in Columbia College, 1789-1820. He
served several years in the New Jersey legislature, until his death in
Francis Allison, who was considered by competent judges
the greatest classical scholar in the United States, played an important
part in educating the American people for independence.
In more recent years, James MacAlister, M.A., LL.D.,
one of the foremost educators of America, was born in Glasgow in 1840.
After studying in Glasgow University for some years he came to the United
States and completed his education in Brown University, Providence. He
became Superintendent of Public Schools in Milwaukee in 1874, and in 1878
he became a Regent of State Normal schools in Wisconsin. He published a
number of important works on educational subjects, including a Manual
of Primary Education (1884), Manual of Instruction in United States
History and Civil Government (1887), Manual Training in the Public
Schools of Philadelphia (1890), etc. In 1891 he became President of
the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, and the success of that institution
has been attributed largely to his wise management. Dr. MacAlister died
December 11, 1913.
David Murray, Secretary of the Board of Regents of the
University of New York, was the son of Scottish parents. In the interests
of the Department of Education he collected materials for the. Museums of
Japan, and became an authority on Japanese matters. In 1876 he edited a
volume on Japanese Education.
Fanny Wright (1795-1852), the first American woman
lecturer, was born in Dundee, Scotland, and was the intimate friend of
Adam Smith and other noted contemporaries, who appraised her gifts highly.
She visited America in 1818-1820, and finally settled here in 1825 and was
an efficient worker in the anti-slavery movement and in other reforms.
Lindley Murray (1745-1826), the son of a Pennsylvania
Scot, Robert Murray, who was afterward a successful merchant in New York
City, gave us our first English grammar. Lindley Murray himself made a
large sum of money by speculation during the Revolutionary War, which
enabled him to retire and devote himself to literary labour. His grammar
made his name a household word wherever English is spoken.
Henry Ivison published the first American series of
school readers, and Joseph Ray and William H. McGuffey—all of Scottish
descent—furnished other early school-books. Stoddard, the grandson of an
Edinburgh Scot, wrote the arithmetic that was in use for many years in the
I think I wrote you once
before on another subject. I am a direct decedant of a few early
Presbyterian Ministers that played a key role in the establishment of
the Presbyterian Church.
The first was Rev. John
Thomson. He was my GGGGGG grandfather and arrive in America around
1712/1713. He ministered first at Lewis, Delaware then at Chestnut Level
in Lancaster County, PA, and various churches in the back parts of
Virginia and North Carolina. His unnamed daughter, Ms Thomson, married
my GGGGG Grandfather, John Finley. Her first name has been lost to time.
The second was Rev. James
Latta. He was my GGGG Grandfather. My grandmother's name was Mary
Bingham Latta Finley. His Uncle was Rev. Francis Alison. Mary Alison,
Rev. Francis Alison's sister, was Rev. James Latta's mother. Rev. Alison
is created with founding the University of Delaware and then went to
University of Pennsylvania and helped establish that institution at the
behest of Benjamin Franklin.
Interesting Note: My
Finley family attended the same church as the Latta's near Elkton,
Maryland and about 200 years later my Grandfather Dozier Finley married
Mary Bingham Latta. This church is still in existence and is named Rock
Rev. James Latta attended
school at Rev. Alison's academy with three signers of the Declaration of
Independence and at the University of Pennsylvania attended college with
one signer of the Declaration of Independence and one signer of the
Constitution. He went on to attend the first General Assembly in 1789
and was elected Moderator at the third General Assembly.
The third and fourth
was/were Rev. Samuel Finley, a distant cousin, founding trustee, and
fifth President of Princeton. He also founded West Nottingham Academy in
1744 and it is the oldest academy in continuous operation in America.
His brother, Rev. James Finley was also an early graduate of Princeton
and certainly played a major role in helping establish the Presbyterian
Church in America.
Anyway, I was going to
recommend you consider adding the names of Rev. John Thomson and Rev.
Francis Alison to your article. Their contribution was quite large as
well. Thomson was elected Moderator more than once, and Alison played a
key role in helping settle the new side, old side dispute, as well as,
found two Universities.
Wm. Earl Finley