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Annals of Dunfermline
A.D. 1101 - 1201 - Part 2


RE-INTERMENT OF THE REMAINS OF MALCOLM III., AND OPENING OF THE CHURCH FOR THE CELEBRATION OF WORSHIP.—It may be taken for granted that Alexander I. would not exhume his father’s remains at Tynemouth in Northumberland (where they had lain since 1093, a period of 22 years) until the completion of the new tomb, erected before the High Altar of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, and we have therefore place the event in the Annals as having taken place just before the Church was opened.  No doubt Alexander I. would arrange all this for the purpose of giving solemnity and éclat to the opening and re-interring ceremonies. 

  It may be presumed that the ceremonies on this occasion would be conducted in presence of a large assembly of the then notables of Scotland.  Alexander I., acting as chief mourner at the re-interment, would be accompanied by his brothers David and Ethelrede, as also, in all probability, by their uncle, Edgar the Atheling, and by the venerable Turgot, their late mother’s confessor.  A large number of Earls, Bishops, Abbots, and other ecclesiastics, would swell the procession at the double ceremony.

  The remains of Malcolm III. were thus, with much ecclesiastical pomp and ceremony, deposited in the tomb prepared for them, before the High Altar of the Church.  (See Fordun, v. 35, &c.)  At the same time, the Church of the Holy Trinity was opened for the celebration of public worship.

  ROYAL GIFTS TO DUNFERMLINE CHURCH BY ALEXANDER I. AND SIBILLA THE QUEEN.__ Alexander I. bequeathed to the Church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline the following properties, viz., Duninald, Schyre de Gatemilc, Petconmarthin, Balekerin, Drumbernin, Keeth.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 3,5,&c.)

  Sibilla, the Queen, bequeathed Beeth, and also mortified to it her lands of Clunie.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 3-5, &c.; Sibbald’s Hist. Fife, p. 377;--see date 1107.)

  It is probable that many of these munificent gifts were bestowed on Dunfermline Church of the Holy Trinity on the day of the re-interment, and the opening of the Church, as a token of their veneration for the Church in which now lay the remains of Malcolm III., Margaret the Queen, Edward, and Edgar.

  Duninald—either Duninald in Forfarshire, or Dunino in Fife, probably the former.  Schyre de Gatemilc, now called “Gaitmilk” and “Goatmilk” is a small district of land, about 14 miles north-east of Dunfermline.  Petconmarthin, Balekerin, and Drumbernin—places now unknown.  Keeth or Keith now supposed to be Humbie, in Haddingtonshire.  The lands of Beeth, or Beath, occupied a considerable district of country, perhaps either the Kirk lands of Beath, or Keirs-Beath (Castle Beath) formed the nucleus; the lands lie between two and six miles north-east of Dunfermline.

  CIVIL PRIVILEGES GRANTE TO THE CHURCH.—About this period Alexander I. conferred on this Church the privilege, or right of holding its courts in the fullest manner, and to give judgment either by combat, by iron, by fire, or by water; together with all privileges pertaining to its court, including the right in all persons residing within its territories of refusing to answer except at their own proper court.  (Tytler’s Hist. Scot. vol. i.)

ROYAL BURGH OF DUNFERMLINE.—The date of erection of Dunfermline into a Royal Burgh has not been ascertained, but it has bee supposed that it was so constituted by Alexander I. who, by charters, raised Stirling, Dunfermline, Perth, St. Andrews, Haddington, &c. to the dignity of Royal Burghs.  These towns are each designated in these charters as “burgum meum”—i.e., “my Burgh,” the King’s burgh, hence a Royal Burgh.   Dunfermline first appears in a charter as “burgum meum” in the year 1126.  We place the date of the erection of Dunfermline into a Royal Burgh in the middle of his reign, viz., A.D. 1115, which may be received as the nearest approximate date now to be obtained.  (see also date 1126.)  We place the date of the erection of Dunfermline into a Royal Burgh in the middle of his reign, A.D. 1115, which may be received as the nearest approximate date now to be obtained.  (See also date 1126.)

  1117.—PRINCE ETHELREDE, son of Malcolm and Margaret, appears to have died about this period in England, while on a visit to his sister, Matilda, Queen of England; and, no doubt, it would be at his own request that his remains were conveyed to such a distance as Dunfermline to be interred.  He was buried before the Altar of the Holy Cross, near his mother Margaret the Queen, and his brother Prince Edward, in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline.  (Balfour’s An. Scot. vol. i. p. 2; Wynton’s Orygynale Cronikil, vol. ii. pp. 217, 272, &c.) 

  According to several histories, it would appear that this Prince accompanied his father and elder brother to Alnwick.  At all events, it was he who conveyed to his dying mother, in Edinburgh Castle, the sad and disastrous account of that expedition.  Ethelrede had his mother’s remains removed to Dunfermline for interment.  (Wynton’s Cronikil, &c.)  In the “Admore Charter” he is styled, “Vir veneranadae memoriae Abbas de Dunkelden et insuper comes de Fyfe.”   It is well known that he was Abbot of Dunkeld; but his being also Earl of Fife has been the occasion of much dispute among archaeologists; the dispute continues.  Ethelrede was married; he had at least three sons named Edwy, Alfred, and Edward, and they are styled “Clito,” i.e. an imbecile.  (S. Dunelm, pp. 176-179; Hailes’s An. Scot. vol. i. p. 7)

  Ethelrede was one of the benefactors of Dunfermline Church, about the year 1104, having then donated to this church his property of Hailes.  Wynton refers to his place of sepulture, and also his brothers’, when noticing his mother’s interment. (See Wynton’s Orygynale Cronikil, vol. ii. pp. 271, 272, and also An. Of Dunf. in notice of Queen Margaret’s decease and interment.)

  1120.—PETER, PRIOR OF DUNFERMLINE.—Alexander I. sent Peter, the Prior of Dunfermline, along with other ambassadors, to Radulph, Archbishop of Canterbury, to congratulate him on his return from Rome, and beg of  him Eadmerus, one of his monks, to be the Bishop of St. Andrews.  (Keith’s Catal. P. 402.)  Eadmerus, in his lib. v. p. 130, says “Horum unus quidam monachus et prior ecclesiae Dunfermline”—i.e., “One of these a certain monk and prior of the Church of Dunfermline.”  (See also Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 776; and An. Of Dunf. date 1121.)

  1124.—ALEXANDER I. INTERRED AT DUNFERMLINE.—Alexander I., the King (fifth son of Malcolm III.), died at Stirling on April 26th, in the 18th year of his reign, and about the 48th of his age, and was interred before the High Altar of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline.

  According to Fordun, he was interred “near his father before the Great Altar.”  The Great Altar and the High Altar are identical.  (Fordun, v. 40.)  The following are a few notices from authorities relative to the death and funeral of Alexander I.:--

  “Alexander, soun freir, et fitz Maulcoum regna xvij. Aunz, et iij. Moys et demy, et gist a Dunfermlyn”—(Skene’s Chron. Picts and Scots)—i.e., Alexander, his brother (Edgar) and son of Malcolm, reigned 17 years and 3 months and a-half, and lies at Dunfermlyn.

  “Alexander xvij. Annis et tribus mensibus et dimidio et mortuun in Strafleth et sepultus in Dunfermlyn”—(Skene’s Chron. Picts and Scots)—i.e., Alexander reigned 17 years and a-half; he died at Strafleth, and was interred at Dunfermlyn.  (Strafleth, Stirling?)

  Winton, in referring to the death and place of interment of Alexander I., thus rhymes the event:--

“ A thowsand a hundyr twenty and foure,
The yheris of Grace were past oure;
The Kyng Alysawndyr in Strevylyng,
Deyed, and wes browcht till Dwnfermlyn;
Quhare he wes with gret honoure,
Enteryed in halawyed Sepulture,” c.
(Wynton’s Orygynale Cronikil, vol. i. p. 281.) 

  It may be noted that there is a blank in the history of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, from 1115 to Alexander’s death in 1124.  Such a blank can now only be dilled up by conjecture.

  From what is known of Alexander I., and his strong Romish proclivities—as strong as those which influenced his brother and successor, David I.—it may be presumed that at the time, or shortly after the time of the opening the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline—the most splendid church Scotland had yet seen—he had, besides the munificent gifts he had bestowed on it, resolved to raise it still higher in importance, viz., to the rank of an Abbey; but to carry out such a resolution, monastic buildings for the domestic accommodation of an abbot, monks, and their necessary attendants, would in the first place have to be erected.  It may be presumed, therefore, that a considerable portion of the time between 1115, and the time of his somewhat sudden death in 1124, was employed in erecting the necessary buildings.  His sudden death in the latter year prevented him from carrying out his pious wishes, and the duty of doing so fell on his brother, David I.  It well be seen by the next entry in the Annals, that immediately after ascending the throne, David, apparently without the least delay, sent to Canterbury for his 13 monks, which fact implies that the monastic buildings erected for their accommodation by his brother and predecessor, Alexander, were complete.  There can be little or no doubt that it was Alexander I. who founded and finished the Monastery of Dunfermline, between the years 1115 and 1124, and not David I. as has been hitherto asserted.

  DUNFERMLINE ABBEY AND MONASTERY OF THE ORDER OF ST. BENEDICT.—Shortly after his accession to the throne this year, David I. raised the Church of the Holy Trinity, at Dunfermline, to the rank and dignity of an Abbey and translated to it a colony of 13 Benedictine monks from Canterbury, in England—thus carrying out the pious wishes of his deceased brother and predecessor.  Thus there were belonging to the Abbey, in 1124, 13 Culdees and 13 Benedictine monks.

  ABBOT GAUFRID, sometimes called “Gosfredus,” one of the 13 monks brought to Dunfermline from Canterbury, was chosen Abbot (first abbot) of Dunfermline; but in consequence of a dispute regarding the election of a Bishop of St. Andrews, Gaufrid, although elected Abbot, could not therefore at the time be consecrated Abbot until after the dispute was settled, which was not until 1127, the year in which the Bishop of St. Andrews was consecrated.

  THE MONASTERY, founded and finished by Alexander I., inter 1115-1124, stood a little to the south of the Abbey, was of such ample dimensions that any three sovereigns could be accommodated and entertained within its walls without inconvenience.  (Mathew of Westminster; Mercer’s Hist. Dunf. p. 55, &c.  See also date 1304 of Annals of Dunfermline.)

  It may here be noticed, that a very great many historians write down the names of “Abbey” and of “Monastery” indiscriminately, as if they were interchangeable.  They are quite distinct in their meanings.  “Abbey” is the building in which worship was conducted; and” Monastery,” the houses and offices for the accommodation of the monks, the resident worshippers, &c.

  Although Dunfermline had now an Abbey, it is remarkable that it is not so designated in its chartulary, or register—perhaps “Church of the Holy Trinity” was retained in consequence of the great many valuable properties that had been bequeathed to it under that title or designation, previous to its elevation to the rank of an Abbey (1074-1124), and probably it would be more secure to keep by its early dedication title, in order to prevent future legal disputes about its gifts and possessions.  Henceforward from this date the designation, “Church of the Holy Trinity” will, in the Annals, be in a great measure superseded by the new designation of “Abbey.”

  CHARTERS, &C., OF DAVID I. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—There are in the printed “Registrum de Dunfermelyn,” between pages 2 and 19, no less than 34 charters, writs, and memoranda, from David I. to the Abbey, viz., Two Confirmation Charters, followed by 32 lesser ones consisting of from 3 to 20 lines).  None of them are noted with either “Anno Gratiae,” or “Anno Regni;” and, in one or two instances, even the names of the places, where they were written or granted, are omitted!  Besides all this, they do not follow each other in the order of tiem in which they were written, which, unfortunately, is the case with many other charters and writs in the Register.  But there can be no doubt that the greater number of them were granted between the years 1124 and 1130.  (See An. Of Dunf. dates 1127 and 1130.)  A great many of these writs should have preceded the town Confirmation Charters, both in the MS. Chartulary and in its printed Registrum de Dunfermelyn.  Dalyell, in his “Monastic Antiquities,” p. 8. in alluding to the manuscript Register (which he had perused), states that “it contains above 600 deeds of different descriptions, all arranged in the most irregular manner, &c.  This circumstance, along with want of dates of any kind, makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, I many cases, to fix the time when some of the charters, &c., were written.

  In order to approximate to the dates of the charters, recourse must be had to the list of witnesses affixed to them; we must then find out when any of the witnesses died, nearest to the supposed date of the given charter, and the date of the death will be a stop to advancing further; while some notable incident may be found as a limit in the opposite direction.  (See the two testing cases at the close of “David’s Confirmation Charters,” Nos. 1 and 2, in the Annals, under dates 1127 and 1130; and for an account of the Chartulary itself, see Appendix D.)

  TRANSLATION OF MONKS FROM CANTERBURY TO DUNFERMLINE BY DAVID I.—In the year 1124, David I. translate Gauford

 and 13 monks from Canterbury for the service of his newly-founded Abbey and Monastery of Dunfermline.  Gaufred, or Gosfrid, was “an eminent theologian of his day , was chosen Abbot of Dunfermline in 1124, but was not consecrated until 1127 or 1128.”  Of the translation, Winton, in his “Cronykil,” says—

“Of Canturbery in Dunfermlyne
Mwnkis he browcht, and put thame syn,
And dowyt thame rycht rychely,
With gret possessyounys and mony.”
(Wynton’s “Cronikil,” vii. P. 6; Hist. of Scot. &c.) 

  ST. JEROME’S LATIN BIBLE.—A beautifully written and illuminated copy (in MS., of course) of Jerome’s Latin Bible was used in the Abbey service, at Dunfermline, from its foundation in 1124 till its destruction in 1560.  Some have thought that this Dunfermline copy is as old as the days of Malcolm III. and St. Margaret; but we are rather inclined to think that it was brought from Canterbury this year by Gaufrid, the Abbot.

  This Bible is still in existence, and in good preservation in the Advocates’ Library, where it is shown as one of its choicest literary treasures.  It is written on vellum, is quite entire, legible, and clean except at some parts where it is a little soiled with grease spots, which appears to have been caused by the frequent anointing with the Holy Oil.  The leaves are ornamented with a great variety of figures, such as scriptural and historical subjects, and there are several seemingly out of place, as they are singularly grotesque.  It is not in the original binding; it was re-bound about 40 years ago in a very elegant and expensive way.  This Bible was used in the Abbey service at Dunfermline from about this period, 1124, down to the Reformation in 1560, when it was taken by Abbot Dury, the last Abbot, to France, along with other sacred relics.  Afterwards it came into the possession of the celebrated Mons. Foucalt, as appears from his arms on it.  At his sale it was bought by a Scotch gentleman, and brought back to this country, and deposited as a gift in the Advocated Library, Edinburgh.  (Fernie’s Hist. Dunf. p. 89; Mercer’s Hist. Dunf.; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 156, &c.)

  1125.—DUNFERMLINE MONKS TRANSLATED TO URQUHART.—This year David I. transferred a colony of 13 Benedictine Monks from Dunfermline Abbey to his newly erected Priory at Urquhart, in Morayshire.  (Chalmers’s Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 204.)

  1126.—DAVID I.: HIS (APOCRYPHAL) “VISIOUN.”—As the following note has long been in print, and although questionable, still continues to be now and then quoted, we here reproduce it under this date, the probable on, if it ever did occur:--

  “In the quilk tyme David mad mony castell and abbays, and chanounryes, with sundry nunerys and mayson Dieuwis—that is to say, almis houssis, in the honoure of God and our Lady, Sweet Saynt Mary—and began throu a visioun he ment in his sleep at Dunfermlyn,”  (Hailes’s An. Scot. vol. iii. p. 311.)

  BURGUM MEUM DE DUNFERMLYN (ROYAL BURGH OF DUNFERMLINE.—As previously noted, a great many of the small writs of David I. in favour of the Abbey were granted between 1124 and 1130, and, although they are incorporated in the great “Confirmation Charters” (see dates 1127 and 1130) we shall copy, at least, one of the writs entire, because it has in it the first intimation on record of Dunfermline being “my burgh” (burgum meum), or “King’s burgh.”  The writ on which it occurs in No. 26, p. 15, of the printed “Registrum de Dunfermlyn,” and it titled “De Decimis de Dunfermlyn.”  This writ, like the other writs in the chartulary, is in Latin.  The following is a free translation of it:--

  “David, by the Grace of God, King of Scots, wished health to Robert, elect of St. Andrews, and also to all his Earls and Barons, and all his faithful subjects.  Know ye that I have granted and given in perpetuity in alms, for the soul of  my father and mother and brothers, and predecessors, to the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, all the teinds of all my property quiet; and another in my BURGH OF DUNFERMLINE (Burgo meo de Dunfermlyn),  and another in my burgh of Stirling, and another in my burgh of Perth, and another in my burgh of Edinburgh.—Witness, Robert elect of St. Andrews, and Herbert, Chancellor.—At Dunfermline.”

  This writ has no date, neither is the year of the reign mentioned; but it is evident that David was King of Scots when it was granted.  He succeeded to the Scottish throne in the year 1124; and Robert was Bishop-Elect of St. Andrews from 1122 to 1127; consequently, the writ dates 1124-1127.  We place it under date 1125 as the most probable date.  It may be noted that, although the expression, “burgo meo de Dunfermlyn” is the first time noticed in this writ, it does not imply that the designation was for the first time used in 1126.  It comes into notice in the charter as a use-and-wont designation.  Alexander I., between 1107 and 1124 created several Royal Burghs, among which were those, it would appear, noticed in the writ.  It is likely that Dunfermline was made a Royal Burgh by Alexander I. early in his reign.  (See An. Dunf. dates 1109, 1112, 1115.)

  1127.—GAUFRID CONSECRATED ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE—Gaufrid, appointed Abbot of Dunfermline in 1124, was this year (1127) consecrated Abbot of Dunfermline, by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews.  After the consecration, the Abbot could legally attend clerical meetings,  and append his signature to charters, deeds, and writs. 

  He was a man of singular piety and learning, and was previous to his leaving Canterbury in 1124, Prior thereof.  Gaufrid’s name often occurs as a witness in charters, &c., inter 1129-1154.

  Sir James Dalrymple, in his “Historical Collections,” at p. 243, notes:--“In 1128, it is observed in continuation—Vir religionis eximiae Cantuariae, Prior Gosfridus nominee, Rege Scottorum David petente et Archiepiscopo Willielmo annuente, Abbas eligitur adlocum in Scotia qui Dunfermlin dicitur;  Ordinatus est autem a Roberto, Episcopo Sancti Andreae.”  Translation: “Prior of Canterbury, Gosfrid by name, a man of singular piety, at the request of David, King of Scots, and with the consent of Archbishop William, is elected abbot to a place in Scotland which is called Dunfermline.  He was ordained, moreover, by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews.”  (See also Chalmers’ History of Dunfermline vol. ii. p. 212.

  TRANSLATION OF THE CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF KING DAVID I. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—No. I. (Printed Registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp. 3, 4.)

  “In the name of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, I, David, by the Grace of God, King of the Scots, by my Royal authority and power, with the consent of Henry, my son, and of Matilda, the Queen, my wife, with the confirmation and testimony of the Bishops, Earls and Barons of my Kingdom, the Clergy also, and the People acquiescing, do hereby grant and, in perpetual peace, confirm all the possessions written below to the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, which was begun through the zeal and liberality of my predecessors; and I set forth the gifts of my father and mother as follows, viz.:--PARDUSIN, PETHNAURCHA, PETCORTHIN, PETBACHELIN, LAUER, BOLGIN, SCHYRE OF KIRCALETHIN, INUIRESC, the Lesser: The Gifts of my brother EDGAR—the SCHYRE OF GELLALD:  The Gifts of my brother ETHELREDE—Hale:  The Gifts of my brother ALEXANDER, the King—DUNINAD, SCHYRE OF GATEMILC, PETCONMARTHIN, BALEKERIN, DRUMBERNIN, KEETH:  The Gifts of SIBILLE, the Queen—BEETH.  And these foresaid Gifts of my predecessors, with their appendages and right divisions, I freely grant forever to the foresaid Church.  Further, my own Gifts follow, viz.—DUNFERMLINE on this side of the water on which the same Church is situated; KINGORN, nearest to Dunfermline, and its appendages: FOETH, INVERESK, the Greater, with its MILL and FISHINGS; a MANSION in Berwick, another in the Burgh of Edinburgh, a third in the Burgh of Stirling, a fourth in the Burgh of Dunfermline, and a fifth in the Burgh of Perth, and the CHURCH of the Burgh of Perth; also the interest of 100 shillings in England:  All these foresaid Gifts I grant to the foresaid Church, in free and quiet possession, in the same manner as I possess my own lands, excepting the defence of my kingdom and Regal justice, should the Abbot in his Court decide cases with a disregard to justice;:  Likewise, I grant the eighth part of all the judgments and lawsuits of Fife and Forthrif, and the tenth part of the whole of my Can which shall be brought to Dunfermline:  And all the teinds of the Prebend which shall be brought to the same place from Fife and Forthrif; and a tenth of all the game that shall be brought to the same place; and the HALF of the SKINS, TALLOW, and FAT of all the beasts that shall be killed for the festivals to be held at Stirling, and between the Forth and the Tay:  I grant likewise the CAN of one SHIP, free and quiet, wherever it my land in my kingdom:  I grant likewise, that they have in my forests everything necessary for fire, and for their buildings, as to myself, and to their men, as to mine:  Further, I wish that they have freely without calumny all the offerings that shall be presented at the High Altar of the said Church:  Also, I grant of the Seals taken at Kinghorn, that they have the SEVENTH, after they have been tithed:  I likewise grant the tenth of all the Iron and the Salt that may be brought for my use at Dunfermline:  Furthermore, I give a taxed Church, with all its privileges, which through the clemency of God it at present possesses, as the present privilege testifies, and in future, through the same clemency may posses:  We decree that it be possessed, in the utmost tranquility, entirely free from any subjection or exaction, either ecclesiastical or secular, with the exception of canonical obedience, which every Church, all the world over, owes to its mother Church:  And let it possess the same freedom in all things which the Church of St. Andrews holds, with rights undiminished, forever.  To preserve its rights, also previously noticed in this grant, and the privileges of its rank unimpaired, and to strengthen them with perpetual stability, We, who are present, by confirming, ordain, and by ordaining confirm, to our successors, under this condition, that if any one should wish to disturb these things, and strive to overturn, diminish, and violate our decrees, let him not be ignorant that he is striving against the Saviour of the world himself, and, unless he repent, he will incur eternal damnation, and God will blot out of the Book of Life him who abstracts anything from the right and powers granted to the foresaid Church.  Amen.  So be it.--*I, ROBERT, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirm; * I, JOHN, Bishop of Glasgow, confm; * I, CORMACCUS, Bishop of Dunkeld, confm; *I, GREGORY, Bishop of Moray confm; * I, MACBETH, Bishop of Rosemarky, confm.   Of the privilege also are witnesses and assertors:-- EDWARD, Earl; CONSTANTINE, Earl; MALISE, Earl; ROTHERI, Earl; MADETH, Earl; GILLEMICHEL MACDUFF; HERBERT, Chancellor; HUGO DE MOREVILL, ROBERT CORBET, ROBERT MONTACUTE,  MALDOUENI MACCOBETH; MALDOUENI of Scoon; GILLEPATRIC MACIMPETHIN; ALWYN MACARKIL; ROBERT BURGH; EDWARD, son of Siward; WALCLINUS, Chaplain.”  (vide Printed “Registrum de Dunfermelyn,” pp. 3, 4.)

  It will be observed that this Charter has neither the date of the year, nor the year of the reign in it; but as Robert Bishop of St. Andrews was not consecrated a bishop until late in the year 1127, and he appears to have been disqualified from adhibiting his signature to legal documents until after his consecration ceremony was accomplished.  He was nominated Bishop of St. Andrews in the year 1122; but owing to “a vexatious dispute,” he was not consecrated until 1127, as noted, and therefore no legal document connected with the diocese of St. Andrews, in which Dunfermline was situated, appears to have been signed by him.  Therefore, this first Confirmation Charter of David I. to Dunfermline Abbey would not be written before 1127: and as Constantine, Earl of Fife, is one of the witnesses to it, the date cannot be later than 1129, for Constantine died during this year; consequently, 1127-1129 is the period when it was written, but it is probable that 1127 is the correct date of it, viz., that of the date of Robert’s consecration as Bishop of St. Andrews, who thereby had a legal right to sign legal documents in his diocese.            

  1129.—CONSTANTINE, THIRD EARL OF FIFE, died was interred at Dunfermline (perhaps within the walls of the Abbey).  He is one of the witnesses to David I.’s Charter of Confirmation to Dunfermline Abbey.  (Regist. de Dunf. p. 4; Sibbald’s Hist. Fife, p. 227; Chalmer’s Hist. Dunf. p. 133.)

  THE MILL OF DUNFERMLINE.—There must have been a Mill for grinding victual in Dunfermline as early as this period.  David, in his second Confirmation Charter, gives the tenth part of it to the Abbot and Monks.  (David’s Confirmation Charter, No. 2.)

  “THE SHIP OF INVERKEITHING.”—David I. bestowed on the Abbot and Monks the “Ship of Inverkeithing,” under certain conditions.  (Vide Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 7; also Second Confirmation Charter, Annals of Dunfermline.)  In the original charter, the words conveying the gift, are—“I concede to the Church of the Holy Trinity the Passage and Ship of Inverkeithing.”

  1130.—TRANSLATION OF THE CONFIRMATION CHARTE OF KING DAVID I. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—No 2.  (Printed Registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp. 5-7.)

  “In the name of the Holy Trinity, I, David, by the Grace of God, King of the Scots, by my Royal authority and power, with the consent of Henry my son, and of Matilda, the Queen, my wife, with the confirmation and testimony of the Bishops, Earls, and Barons of my Kingdom, the Clergy also and the People acquiescing, do hereby grant, and in perpetual peace confirm, all the possessions written below to the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, which was begun through the zeal and liberality of my predecessors.  I set forth the gifts of my father and mother as follows, viz.:--PARDUSIN, PETNAURCHA. PETTECORTHIN, PETBACLACHIN, LAUAR, BOLGIN, the SCHIRE of KIRCALADINIT, INVERESK the LESSER:  The Gifts of my brother DUNCAN—the two Villas called LUSCAR:  The Gifts of my brother EDGAR—The SCHYRE OF GELLALD:  The Gifts of my brother ETHELREDE—HALES:  The Gifts of my brother ALEXANDER, the King—PRIMROS, the SCHYRE of GATEMILC, PETCONMARCHIN, BALCHERIN, DRUMBERNIN, KETH:  The Gifts of SIBILLE, the Queen—BEETH:  And these foresaid Gifts of my predecessors, with their appendages and right divisions, I feely grant forever to the foresaid Church.  Further, my won gifts follow:-- Dunfermline, on the side of the water on which the same Church is situated; Kingorn, nearest to Dunfermline, and its appendages—FOET; INVERESK the Greater, with its MILL and FISHING; and SMITHETUN and CREFBARRIN; and the CHURCH of INFESK and WYMET (Wemyss), with their right divisions; FOTHERCS, near St. Andrews, with its right divisions; and PETHENACH, with its right divisions, and a carrucate of land, and PETIOKER:  Besides, I give and grant, with the consent of Earl Henry, my son, for the salvation of our souls and those of our ancestors, in perpetual alms, NITHBREN and its appendages, and BELACHRISTIN, with its proper divisions in meadows and pastures, excepting the rights which the Culdees ought to possess and everything justly belonging to them, as they were granted to the foresaid Church as an endowment on the day it was dedicated:  Besides, I give to the same Church a MANSION in BERWICK, another in ROXBURGH, another in the Burgh of HADDINGTON, another in EDINBURGH, another in LINLITHGOW, another in the Burghs of STIRLING, and two Churches in the same, and a carrucate of land adjoining the Church; and also all the tithes of my Lordships, in fruits, in animals, in fish from my own nets, and also in feu-duties, and the tenth of my Can of the whole Castle district and the mansions of Roger the presbyter, as fully as he himself sane and safe has held them, and one net and a-half; and one MANSION in the BURGH of DUNFERMLINE, in free and quiet possession, and a tenth of the feu-duties of the BURGH,  and a tenth of its MILL, and of all my Lordships in Dunfermline; also a MANSION in the burgh of Perth and likewise its Church and a Mansion belonging to the Church, with all the tithes of my Lordship:  Moreover, all the foresaid Gifts I grant to the foresaid Church in free and quiet possession, in such a manner as I possess my own lands, excepting the defence of my kingdom and regal justice, should the Abbot in his Court decide cases a with a disregard to justice:  I also grant every eighth part of all decrees and fines of Fife and Fothrif and all the tithes of the whole of my Can, and of the malt of Fife and Fothrif, excepting the rights belonging to the Abbey of Dunkeld:  And likewise the tenth of all the game taken between Lammermuir and the Tay; and also the half of the skins, tallow, and fat of all the beasts that shall be killed for the festivals to be held at Stirling, and between the Forth and Tay:  I also grant that they may have in my forests every thing necessary for fire, and for their building, as to myself, and to their men, as to mine, I wish that they have freely without calumny all the offerings that shall be presented at the High Altar of the foresaid Church:  And I also grant that of the Seals taken at Kinghorn, they have the seventh  after they have been tithed:  I likewise grant the tenth of all the Iron and the Salt that may be brought for my use at Dunfermline:  Furthermore, my father and my mother gave to the Church of the Holy Trinity the whole parish of Fothrif, and so I grant:  Further, I give and grant in alms, for ever, to the Church of the Holy Trinity, that tract of land called ALDESTELLE, and all that justly belongs to it; the tract given is in Berwick, free and quiet; besides, I prohibit any caution from being taken over  the lands or the vassals belonging to the Holy trinity for the forfeiture of any one, not for their own proper forfeiture; and also I grant that all their slaves, that my father and my mother and my brother gave to it, be justly restored to the church of the Holy Trinity, and all their cumerlache [runaway slaves], from the time of Edgar, the King, until this day, with all their money, wherever they may be found, I prohibit them on my forfeiture from being unjustly retained:  I grant also to the Abbot and Monks all the Men, with all their money, in whose land soever they may have been, who were on the lands at the time they were offered and given to the Church of the Holy Trinity:  I likewise grant to the foresaid Church the tenth of all my wild mares of Fife and Fothriff:  And I also grant to the Abbot and Monks that they have, throughout the whole of my land, everything they buy for their own necessary wants free of duty:  Besides all before mentioned, I grant and give to the Abbot and Monks the sum of 5 merks of silver yearly for the purchase of vestments brought in the first ships that arrive at Stirling or Perth:  I also grant to the Church of the Holy Trinity the SHIP and the PASSAGE OF INVERKEITHING, such as I possessed it in my Lordship, on condition, however, that all travelers and messengers, coming and going to and from me, and also the persons belonging to my Court, and also that my sons have a free passage in the same ship; and it should happen at any time, that any one of the before-mentioned persons should not be permitted a free passage, and the Abbot hear the complaint without giving redress, that I myself shall have power to correct this without hindrance from the Abbot and the brethren of the Church:  I also grant willingly to what extent the Abbot and Monks of the Church of the Holy Trinity do not reply to an one inflicting damage in regard to the vassals who were in the lands, at the time they were offered and given to the Church of the Holy Trinity:  Also, I grant to the Church of the Holy Trinity the tenth part of the whole of my Can of Clackmannan; the Abbot and Monks of the Church of the Holy Trinity have, in the whole of the King’s jurisdiction on this side of Lammermuir, every Saturday in Court one skin, and on the sixth Saturday they have two skins and two parts of the fat, and the sixth skin of the RAMS and LAMBS:  I also grant to the same Church the half part of my tithe of Ergaithel [Argull] and of Kintire, in every year in which I myself receive the Can:  And, furthermore, I give a taxed Church, with all its privileges, which through the clemency of God it now possesses, and in future through the same clemency may possess:  We decree that it be possessed, in the utmost tranquillity and entirely free from any subjection or exaction, either secular or ecclesiastical, excepting only that canonical obedience which, all the world over, every Church owes to its mother Church:  I likewise grant to the foresaid Church a certain Fishery at Perth, as freely and peaceably as I possess my own there.  To preserve its rights, also previously noticed in this grant, and the privileges of its rank unimpaired, and to strengthen then with perpetual stability, We, who are present, by confirming, ordain, and by ordaining confirm, to our successors, under this condition, that if any one should wish to disturb these things, and strive to overturn, diminish, and violate our decrees, let him not be ignorant that he is striving against the Saviour of the world himself, and, unless he repent, he will incur eternal damnation, and God will blot out of the Book of Life him who abstracts anything from the right and powers granted to the foresaid Church.  Amen.  So be it.--*I, ROBERT, Bishop of St. Andrews, confm.; *I, G.G., Bishop of Dunkeld, confm.; *I, ANDREW, Bishop of Catiness, confm.  Of this privilege also are witnesses and assertors:--WALTER, the Chancellor; DUNCAN, Earl; HUGH DE MOREVILLE; WALTER DE LINDSAY; ROBERT AUENEL; WALTER RIDEL; HERBERT, the Chamberlain; NICHOLAS, the Clerk; ALWYN, the son of Arkil; EWEN, the Marischal; GILLECOLM MAC CHIMPETHIN; MACBETH MAC TORFIN; MEVIN, the son of Colbain.”  (Vide Printed Registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp. 5-7; Fernie’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 187-193; Mercer’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 316-320.)

  This Charter enumerates several gifts &c., bequeathed to the Abbey by David I., which are not noticed in the First Confirmation Charter; besides, it recapitulates the gifts and privileges of that charter; consequently, this Second Confirmation Charter must have been written after the date of the first one, for the special purpose of incorporating in it the several new gifts and privileges which he had bestowed on the Abbey after the first was written.  By comparing the two Confirmation Charters with each other, the new additional gifts, &c., inserted in this second Charter, and not to be found in the first one, will readily be discovered.

  Like the first Confirmation Charter, this second one has neither date of the year, not year of the reign; and, there fore, to ascertain the date of this Charter, within as narrow limits as possible, recourse must be had to the first recurring deaths amongst the witnesses affixed to it.  In the investigation it will be found that Constantine, Earl of Fife, who died in 1129, is not in the list of witnesses here.  His successor, Duncan, Earl of Fife, is a witness.  Again, Matilda, the Queen, died in 1130.  At the beginning of the Charter she is noticed as an acquiescing witness; there fore, this second Confirmation Charter must have been written between 1129 and 1130—the date 1130 being probably the most correct one—and we have place this Charter under it in the Annals.  It thus appears that nearly three years may have elapsed between the first and the second Confirmation Charter, granted by King David I. to Dunfermline Abbey.


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