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Annals of Dunfermline
A.D. 1301 - 1401 - Part 1


M C C C I.
(BEGINNING OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.)

  1301.—DUNFERMLINE ABBEY AND ROYAL BURGH.—At the commencement of the fourteenth century the Abbey and Monastery buildings stood unrivalled in Scotland for their extent and “noble adornments.”  Within its walls any three sovereigns of Europe could have been accommodated at one time without in the least inconveniencing one another; and for “the holy life” and “discipline of its monks” its fame was in “all the Churches.”  But, alas! in three years after this date, much of the noble pile was destroyed.  (See 1304.)  At the period the Abbey property was surrounded by a wall of about 3000 feet in circumference, 12 feet in height, and 4 to 5 feet think, with ports and postern entrances at necessary places.  At this period meetings of the nobles and heroes of the land were held within its wall to concert measures for their self-defence and the independence of Scotland.

  The Abbey functionaries consisted of a Lord Abbot, Prior, and Sub-Prior.  There were 50 monks, a number of novices learning “the art of theology,” and about 12 subordinate officers, servants, domestics, &c.  In all, probably there would be nearly 100 persons residing within the precincts of the Abbey; and its property in lands, tithes, &c., was very great, and were connected with localities in almost every part of Scotland.

  Regarding the size and population of the Royal Burgh of Dunfermline at this early period, nothing with certainty can be said; but it may be presumed that it was then of some note, and may have had a population of at least 700 souls, governed principally by the Abbot and his officials, and subject to the control of the King for the just conduct of its civil affairs.

  1303.—SIR WILLIAM WALLACE AND HIS MOTHER, in disguise, travel on foot from near Dundee to Dunfermline.—Some time in the autumn of 1303 the renowned Sir William Wallace, “in hiding at or near to Dundee,” finding that he was being surrounded by scouts from the King of England’s army and by “sworn enemies, his countrymen,” suddenly left his hiding-place in disguise, and armed with a concealed sword only.  His mother, also in disguise, accompanied him, and both on foot set out on travel for the south, and, according to Langtoft’s Chronicle, they crossed a ferry over to Lindores, then through the Ochils for the south, and that when they were asked by any wayfarer as to where they were going, made answer that they were going to St. Margaret’s Shrine at Dunfermline.  Whether this was really their place of destination or not, the answer they gave would secure them ecclesiastical protection, and allow them to proceed without molestation.  Alluding to this “walk in disguise,” Langtoft says:--

“His modyr graithit (1) hir in pilgrim weid; (2)
Hym (selff) disgysyt, syne glaidlye with hir yeid, (3)
A schort swerd (4) wndyr his weid (5) priuale,
In all that land full mony fays (6) had he.
Baith on thar fute, with tham may tuk thai nocht
Quha sperd, she said to Sanct Margret thai socht,
Quha serwit hir.  Full gret frendschipe thai fand
With Sothroun folk, for scho was of Ingland.
Besyde Landoris the ferrye oure thai past,
Syne throw the Ochell sped theim wondyr fast.
In Dunfermlyn thai lugyt all that nicht.
Apon the morn, quhen that the day was brycht,
With gentill women hapnyt thaim to pass
Off Ingland born, In Lithquhow wounnand was.”
(Langtoft’s Chronicle, p. 322.) 

(1) Dressed  (2) Pilgrim dress  (3) Went, or travelled  (4) Sword  (5) Dress, Privately  (6) Foes

From Dundee to Dunfermline the distance is about 43 miles, from Lindores to Dunfermline, about 23 miles.  From this metrical account, it would appear that Wallace and his mother sojourned only one night in Dunfermline, setting out on the following day to Linlithgow,

  Shortly afterwards, however, he was in Dunfermline again, probably to escape from the English spies, whom he would find in abundance in the Lothians.  This time he made “the forest of Dunfermline his hiding-place.”  At this period the glen of Pittencrieff was an almost impenetrable forest, extending from the low grounds on the south to Balrig Burn (Baldredge Burn) on the north.  There were also other forests of a lesser degree, such as Fothrich Moor or forest, &c.; but the forest of Dunfermline would most likely be in the former locality, and St. Margaret’s Cave (the Cave Well) may have been his place of shelter.  In the forest of Dunfermline the renowned Wallace appears to have had conferences with his friends as to the propriety of delivering himself up to Edward of England on honourable terms.  When these were made known to Edward, he got “infuriated,” cursed him by the “well known fiend,” denounced him as “a traitor,” and set a price of 300 merks on his head.  On hearing this, the great patriot fled from the forest of Dunfermline to the mountain wilds, subsisting on the bounty of his friends.  Langtoft, referring to this event, says:-

“Turn we now other weyes unto ower geste,
And speke of the Waleys that lies in the foreste;
In the foreste he-landes of Deunfermelyn,
He praied all his frendes and other of his kyn
After that yole thai wilde beseke Edwarde
That he might yelde till him, in a forward
That were honorable to kepe wod or beste,
And with his scirte full stable, and selede at the leaste,
To him, and all his, to haf in heritage,
And none otherwise, als term tyme and stage,
Bot als a proper thing that wer conquest til him.
When thai brought that teithing Edward was full grim,
And bilauht him the fende als his traytour in lond.
Three hundredth marke he hette unto his wanis his own
That with him so mette, or bring his hede to town.
Now flies William Waleys, of pres nouht he spedis
In mores and marcis, roberrie him fedis.”
(Langtoft’s Chronicle, p. 324.) 

  Langtoft, it will be seen, makes Wallace fly over moors and marshes and subsist on robbery.

  SIR WILLIAM WALLACE’S MOTHER.—From this period downward to the present time a tradition has held its ground that the mother of Wallace died at Dunfermline on some one of her son’s flights, and that she was hastily buried at a spot, now in the northern churchyard, marked by a thorn tree. This site was that of the Abbey Weeping Cross (the Churchyard Weeping Cross), which at the time of the Reformation, was destroyed, and the Gospel tree or thorn erected in its stead on the site.  The same thing was, with few exceptions, in all other places.

  If the mother of Wallace was interred at Dunfermline, she would be, no doubt, interred within the consecrated walls of the Abbey Church.  As the tradition continues so firm, we are inclined to believe that the body of the mother of Scotland’s great and true-hearted patriot “rests in peace” within the consecrated walls of the church, where the daily service was conducted, and not in the place pointed out where unknown strangers were interred.  If this tradition is correct,  the interment must have taken place a few weeks only before Edward h

and his Court took up their winter quarters in the Monastery; and when the haughty monarch heard of it, and of the hand the Abbot and the monks would have in the interment, this may have been one of the causes which induced him to fire the Monastery at his leaving it. 

EDWARD I., KING OF ENGLAND, with his Court, arrive in Dunfermline.—There is a discrepancy in the accounts of some early historians regarding the month and day of Edward’s arrival in Dunfermline on the “expedition of his.”  Langtoft’s Chronicle, p. 332, and Tytler’s History of Scotland, vol. i. p. 201, give 6th November, 1303, as the day and month of his arrival, while Hailes, in his Annals of Scotland, vol. i. p. 275, quoting from Prynne and Rymer, &c., gives 11th December, 1303.  We think the first the correct date, because it will be seen by next entry that Edward, on 5th December (six days before the 11th), gave a donation to the Boy-Bishop enactment.  So far as we have been able to ascertain, this visit is the fourth one of Edward to Dunfermline: the first, in 1291, the second and third, in 1296; and the fourth, in 1303. 

  Hardyng, the old chronicler, records, in his own way, in an off-hand manner, Edward’s doings at Dunfermline, viz.:--

“King Edwarde then into Scotland went;
Through all Catness destroyed it in great hette.
The mounths hye and out ysles (straighte) he shent,
Till they obeyed all hole his regiment,
And wyntred then at Dunfermlin Abbey,
Where Saint Margarite is worshipped ever and aye.”
(Hardyng’s Chron. p. 300.) 

  THE BOY-BISHOP “COMEDY” was enacted at Dunfermline this year.  “The Boy” received a fee for his performance from King Edward of England.  The following extract is from King Edward’s Wardrobe Accounts:--“Edward I., King of England, gave to John, the son of John, the Bailiff, the Boy-Bishop, in the King’s Chaple of Dumferline, on the eve of St. Nicholas, 40/.”  (Wardrobe Accounts, Ad. MSS. No. 8835, A.S. Edward I., Brit. Museum; also, vide Brayley’s Historical and Graphical Illustrator, vol. i. p. 89.)

  Chambers, in The Book of Days, says:--“On St. Nicholas’s Day, in ancient times, a singular ceremony used to take place.  This was the election of the Boy-Bishop or Episopus Puerorum, who, from this date (6th Dec.) to Innocent’s or Childermas Day, on 28th December, exercised a burlesque jurisdiction, and, with his juvenile dean and prebendaries, parodied the various ecclesiastical functions and ceremonies.  It is well known that previous to the Reformation these profane and ridiculous mummeries were encouraged and participated in by the clergy themselves………It seems to have constituted literally a mimic transcript of the regular Episcopal functions, and we do not discover nay trace of parody or burlesque beyond the inevitable one of the ludicrous contrast presented by the diminutive bishop and his chapter to the grave and canonical figures of the ordinary clergy of the cathedral.  The actors in this solemn farce were composed of the choristers of the church, and must have been well drilled in the parts which they were to perform.  The boy who filled the character of bishop derived some substantial benefits from his tenure of office, and is said to have had the power of disposing of such prebends or vicarages as fell vacant during the period of his episcopacy.  Besides the regular buffooneries of the Boy-Bishop and his companions in England and Scotland, they seem to have perambulated the neighbourhood and enlivened it with their jocularities, in return for which a contribution, under the designation of the ‘Bishop’s Subsidy’ would be demanded from passers-by and householders.  On one occasion Edward I., on his way to Scotland, permitted a Boy-Bishop to say vespers before him in his chapel at Hetton, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, and his Majesty made a handsome donation to this mock representative.  Edward I. appears to have been fond of Boy-Bishop performances.  See his donation to the Dunfermline Boy-Bishop of 40./”  (Chamber’s Book of Days, vol. ii. p. 565.)

  1304.—DUNFERMLINE MONASTERY BURNED!—King Edward I. of England, after a sojourn of ninety-seven days in the Monastery of Dunfermline, with his retinue of courtiers, took his departure, early on the morning of February 10th, for Cambuskenneth, when he gave orders to destroy the Monastery by fire.  This barbarous order was obeyed, and in a few hours the magnificent Monastery, and adjacent buildings on the east, were a heap of smoking ruins.

“Scarce had arose the dubious light of morn,
When clouds of smoke aloft in the air were borne,
Threat’ning to quench the feeble dawning light,
And bring again the darkness of the night.
What horror seized, when suddenly the day
Waxed brighter than the full meridian ray!
When rudely roused amid its morning dreams,
Dunfermline saw its Abbey red with flames!
Beheld the fiery pyramids mount on high
And flash their waving summits to the sky!
And heard those sounds, that peaceful hearts appal,
Of falling roof, and beam, and fractured wall.
But higher yet their terror was increased,
When rushing on, they saw armed ranks invest
Its total circuit, and with joy exclaim,
At every conquest of the furious flame!
Arose, with savage yell, the horrid cries,
Amid the dread, unhallowed sacrifice!
Like Moloch’s priests around his demon fire,
Their shouts were loudest when the flames rose higher!”
(Mercer’s “Dunfermline Abbey: a Poem,” pp. 65, 66.) 

  This conflagration appears to have been chiefly confined to the monastic buildings, south side of the Church, and its progress destroying the noble Frater Hall, the extensive dormitory (reaching from near the great western window in the hall to the west gable of the Church), the infirmary, lavatory, kitchen, stables, the charter-house, &c. 

  Historians affirm that, on this occasion, the great Abbey Church escaped the flames; but it cannot be supposed that it escaped altogether uninjured in so close proximity to such surges of devouring fire and flames.  Matthew of Westminster, in his account of this fiery disaster, assures us that “the Church was spared,” and also “a few houses fit for the monks.”

“Thus fell in one revengeful day
(Alsa! how easy to destroy!)
The toil of ages, pride of kings,-
Who clothed it in such array:
A pious nation’s chiefest joy;-
Th’ abode of learning; all that brings
Delight unto the eyes, or whence fair knowledge springs.”
“Edward! for this and all th’ atrocious deeds
Thou wrought’st on Scotland in thy fierce career,
As oft as sounded into northern ear,
Thy hated name deep execration breeds;
For wheresoe’er thy armies came,
Was kindled with the ruthless flame
Round all who dared be Scotsmen free,
And spurn’d at Edward’s slavery.”
(Mercer’s “Dunfermline Abbey: a Poem,” p. 67.) 

  Matthew of Westminster appears to stand alone in the vindication of “the atrocious deed.”  Other historians use such epithets as the following when alluding to it:--“Barbarous deed”—“unscrupulous and vindictive act”—“the act of a vile miscreant”—“nothing worthy of a King in this deed of Edward’s”—“the deed exhibited a narrow mind of a low type”—“the act will be held up to scorn by every right-minded historian in all ages to come,” &c.  Matthew of Westminster justifies Edward by saying that “the Scots had converted the house of the Lord into a den of thieves, by holding their rebellious Parliament there, and, in time of war, issuing from thence as from a place of ambush, plundering and destroying the English inhabitants in Scotland.”  (For further particulars see Mat. of Westmin. p. 446; Fordun, xii.; Hailes’s An. Scot. vol. i. p. 276; Heron’s Hist. Scot. vol. ii. p. 82; Tytler’s Hist. Scot. vol. i. pp. 201-204, &c.)

  It may be noted here, that this disaster is given under date 10th February, 1304.  In the old reckoning it occurred on 10th February, 1303.  Then the year began on Ladyday (March 25th), and hence February 10th was in the 11th month of 1303.

  It is probable that on the eventful morning of February 10th, 1304, Edward would not scruple to leave his “fiery mark” on Malcolm Canmore’s Tower, the residence of Scottish Kings; his propensity for revenge and destruction at the time was intense, and it was therefore unlikely that he would leave Malcolm Canmore’s Tower untouched.  Very likely it was also “devoured by a fiery blast” on Feb. 10th, 1304, and a new royal residence would be afterwards erected contiguous to the Monastery.  This would probably be the period when the under part of the Palace was built.

  KING EDWARD I. OF ENGLAND appears to have been in Dunfermline for the fifth time (so far as is known) on the 1st day of May, 1304. (Rotuli Scotiæ, vol. i. pp. 53, 54; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 264.)

  MONASTERY REBUILDING.—It may be presumed that immediate means would be taken for rebuilding and repairing the Monastery, and also for the erection of a new Palace.  Probably the building, &c. of these edifices would progress slowly, the country being then in such a disturbed state, and under English rule.  It would not be before 1315, that the new building would likely be thoroughly completed.

  The following composition view of the restored Monastery is supposed to be taken from a point near the present mansion-house of Pittencrieff—what is now known as the “Pends” was not then in existence.  The south wall, the conical tower, and the great west window will be readily recognized; it is taken fro a drawing made by “J. Kearsly, London, 1780.)

  1305.—“MALCOLM is Prior of Dunfermline Abbey, and Procurator for the Abbot, at this date.”  (Printed Registrum de Dunfermlyn, p. 225.)

  THE PERPETUAL VICAR OF INVERKEITHING AND DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—In a charter of this date, in the Register of Dunfermline—or decree-arbitral, proceeding on a submission between the Abbey of Dunfermline and William Gugy, Perpetual Vicar of Inverkeithing—it is decided and ordered that “a tenth of all the growing corn, both in  the fields and  the gardens, in the whole parish of Inverkeithing, shall be drawn by the Abbey: but the other things (which are known to belong to his vicarage) are reserved to the Vicar.”  (Printed Registrum de Dunfermlyn, pp. 225, 226, No. 338; Dalyell’s Monastic Antiguities. Pp. 32, 33.)

  1306.—CHARTULARY, or Register of the Abbey, which appears to have been much neglected for a long series of years, begins this year to have more frequent entries, probably on account of the coronation of King Robert the Bruce, and an anticipated settled state of public affairs.  It appears singular how this MS. Register was prevented from falling into Edward’s hands.

  RALPH, Lord Abbot of Dunfermline.—It is not known when Ralph ceased his functions at Dunfermline, or if he died before 1306, or if he demitted office or was deposed; the last that is heard of Ralph is, when he was at Berwick in 1296.  It is likely he demitted office in consequence of the disturbed state of affairs, the impoverishing of the Abbey by the frequent visits and sojourns of the English soldiery, and lastly, the destruction of his Monastery; therefore Ralph would cease to be Abbot at the latest in 1304, and have for his successor in 1306, “Hugh, by Divine permission.”

  HUGH, Lord Abbot of Dunfermline.—There is no date on record referring to the election and consecration of Hugh, as Abbot of Dunfermline.  It would appear, however, that he was Lord Abbot as early as this date.

  1309.—THE LORD ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE, in a Charter regarding “Pethbauchly” (in the Register) styles himself “Hugh, Abbot by Divine permission.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 226, No. 339; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 185.)

  1314.—EXCOMMUNICATION OF THE VICAR OF INVERKEITHING.—William Gugy, Vicar of Inverkeithing, was found to be owing the sum of eight merks to the Abbey of Dunfermline, for the non-payment of which it is ordered that he shall be excommunicated.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 230, 231; Dal. Mon. Antiq. p. 59; vide “Excommunication” under dater 1245, 1342.)

  1315.—A PERPETUAL LIGHT TO BE MAINTAINED before the Shrine of St. Margaret in the Abbey.—King Robert the Bruce bestows by Charter, in free gift to the Abbey, the vicarage of the Church of Inverkeithing, to defray the charges of maintaining a “perpetually-lighted wax-candle before the Shrine of the Blessed Margaret in the Choir.”  As this Charter is interesting, we give a free translation of it in full:--

“Robert, by the grace of God King of Scots, to all upright men in his whole land, greeting: Know ye that, for the safety of our own soul and that of our predecessors and successors, Kings of Scotland, we have given, granted, and by this our present Charter, have confirmed to God, the Blessed Mary the Virgin, the Church of the Holy Trinity, and St. Margaret, Queen, of Dunfermlyn, and to the monks serving and to serve God for ever in the same, the right of patronage of the vicar Church of Inverkeithing, with the pertinents, as freely and quietly, fully, peacefully, and honourably as the predecessors formerly of Roger de Moubrary, knight, who had forfeited it to us, have held and possessed the said right of patronage most freely, quietly, and honourably in all things, by rendering to us nothing therefore but only the suffrages of their prayers:  Besides, we give and grant, and, by this our present charter, confirm to the foresaid monks, the whole of our new great Customs from all their lands within our kingdom, viz., the land of the burghs of Dunfermlyne, Kirkcaldy, Musselburgh, and Queensferry, and from all their other lands whatsoever:  To also let the said monks have and use their own Koketa, according to the liberties of their regality, our present concession in all their foresaid lands; and let this Koketa be acknowledged and admitted by all burgesses and our people , and foreign merchants throughout our whole kingdom, without obstruction from our chamberlains, or other servants of our whatsoever for the time being, without petition from any other allocation of liberation, y finding for this our donation and concession of the said Customs for us and our successors, in honour of God and the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the aforesaid Blessed Margaret in the Choir in front of her shrine, one wax candle solemnly lighted, continually and forever.—In testimony whereof we have caused our seal to be attached to our present Charter, these fathers being witnesses.—WILLIAM AND WILLIAM, Bishops of St. Andrews and Dunkeld; BERNARD, our Chancellor, the Abbot of Aberborthick; DUNCAN and THOMAS RANDOLPH, of Fife,” &c. (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 346, p. 232, 233.)

  THE CHURCH OF KINROSS AND THE CHAPEL OF ORWELL bequeathed to the Abbey of Dunfermline by King Robert (I.), the Bruce, in honour of his predecessors who were buried there; and on account of having specially chosen it to be the “place of my sepulture, among the Kings of Scotland, in the honourable Monastery of Dunfermline.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 229, 230, 412.)

  1316.—ROBERT DE CRAIL was Lord Abbot of Dunfermline this year.  It is not known when his predecessor Hugh, the Abbot, died; neither is it known when Robert de Crail was elected and consecrated Abbot.  His name appears in Charters for the first time as early as 1315.  In the printed Register of Dunfermline, charter No. 349, p. 236, date 1316, he is recorded as Abbot of Dunfermline.

  HOMAGE BY THE EARLS OF FIFE TO THE ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE.—A Writ in the Register of Dunfermline, notifies that a jury sat at Kirkcaldy, to decide as to whether or not homage was due by the Earls of Fife to Robert, Abbot of Dunfermline, for the lands of Cluny, and gave the following verdict:--“That the jury well knew, and, indeed, some of them saw Malcolm, Earl of Fife, do homage before the Great Altar (of Dunfermline Abbey) to Robert de Keldeleth, then Abbot, for the lands of Cluny, previous to High Mass, on the day that the Holy Margaret was translated at Dunfermline, in presence of King Alexander III., seven Bishops, and seven Earls of Scotland:  that they know, and some of them also saw Colban, Earl of Fife, his son and heir, do homage to Symon, Abbot of Dunfermline, in the Charter House, by this taken, that John Thyranus, at the time the Abbot’s Chamberlain, got a well-furred cloak for the homage:  likewise, when Duncan, Earl of Fife, son of Earl Colban, passed the night at Dunfermline with Abbot Ralph, the Abbot demanded homage for the lands of Cluny, which he was willing to perform, but the day appointed for that purpose was anticipated by Earl Duncan’s decease; also, that Duncan, Earl of Fife, son of the preceding Earl, on the 9th January, 1316, did homage and swore fealty to Robert de Crail, the Abbot, before the Great Altar for the lands of Cluny, which he held, in capite (in chief) of him and the Monastery.”  There are several notices regarding the lands of Cluny in the Register of Dunfermlin.  The names of the jurymen who sat in this Court were—Henry de Graham, Rector of the Church of Dysart; William de Preston, Richard de Sudy, Simon de Longeton, Magister Malcolmus de Gaitmilk, Symon the son of Sudy, William de Malville, Walter de Benaly, William Scotus, Folanus de Levenauch, Mathew de Doler, Willm Squier, Mathew de Ayton, Duncan de Maysterton, Ralph iuuene burgens de Kraol—fourteen persons on this jury.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 235, 236, No. 348; Dal. Mon. Antiq. pp. 22, 23.)  Some of this jury must have been very aged persons, as they allude in 1315 to what they had seen in 1250, or 66 years precious to the former date.

  1317.—THE CHURCH OF NEWLANDS, in Tweeddale, bequeathed by charter, as a free and perpetual gift to Dunfermline Abbey, by John de Grahm.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 236, 237, No. 350.)

  ENGLISH INVASION OF SCOTLAND BY SEA: their Ships Anchor at Inverkeithing.—“The men of war landed, and were repuls’d by William Sinclair the valiant Bishop of Dunkeld, who chased them in all directions;” a great many were pursued to, and took refuge in, Dunfermline.  (Fordun, lxii. C. 25; Barbour, p. 341.)  Referring to this affair, Barbour says of the fleet—

“Wherefore into the Frith came they,
And endlend up it, held their way,
While they beside Innerkeithing,
On west half beside Dunfermling,
Took land, and fast began to reif”—(Steal.) 

Bishop Sinclair, for this exploit, was, by King Robert, dubbed the King’s Bishop.  Note—Some authours have doubted that this “marauding expedition” got the length of “Dunfermling toun.”  The probability is that it did, and that the “marauders” found their way to things that did not belong to them.

  THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY AND ST. MARGARET.—In a charter, conferring privileges and possessions, c., to the Abbey about this time, the Abbey, for the first time, has the additional name of St. Margaret appended to it; and after this date, in many of the Abbey Charters the designation is, “Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Margaret, Dunfermline.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 243, No. 356; pp. 243, 244, No. 357, &c.)

  1320.—OBLIGATIONS OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY TO ITS BONDMEN.—This year a Jury Court was held in the Chapel of Logyn regarding its bondmen in Tweeddale. The bondsmen, as appears from the Writ in the Register of Dunfermline, demand that the Abbot shall appoint a bailie of their own race, who shall repledge them to the Abbot’s Court: to which demand answer is made by the Jury, that such a bailie should be given to them, not only from feudal right, but from use and wont.  Secondly, They require that, if any of their race shall be verging on want to disabled by old age, they may be maintained by the Abbey.  To this demand the Jury answer on their oath that the Abbey is not bound to do so as a debt (ex debito), but as a favour to men belonging to it.  Thirdly, That if any of their race slay a man, or commit any other crime for which he may be compelled to seek the immunity of the Church, and shall retire to the Abbey of Dunfermline for safety, that so long as he remains there, he shall be defended as the property of the Abbey.  To which demand the Jury answer, that, as the Monastery would do so to a stranger, much more must it be done to their own men.  Fourthly and lastly, the bondmen demand that if any of their race commit homicide, and pay a composition for it, the Abbot and monks shall contribute 12 merks to discharge the composition.  To this last demand the Jury “declare that they never heard of such a thing in all their lives.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 240, 241; Dal. Mon. Antiq. pp. 46, 47.)  This Jury consisted of the following eight persons:--Walter de Logan, William Squiere, William Kylsolanus, Robertus de Dunfermline, Jacobus de Alsla, Thomas de Logyn, Johannes de Gramithis, Richardus Littil, of Burgh Dunf.  Note.—William Kylsolanus and Robertus de Dunfermline are, respectively, the Abbots of Kelso and Dunfermline.

  1321.—RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY, AND HIS PLACE OF SEPULTURE.—The great Randolph, Earl of Moray, has a Charter of this date in the Register of Dunfermline, referring to several matters.  In this Charter he expresses his desire “that his body shall be buried in the Chapel below the Conventual Church of Dunfermline, and donates forty shillings for the support of a priest, who is to say mass for his soul and the souls of his ancestors every day in the year, as well during his lifetime as after his death, and whether his body is buried at Dunfermline or not; and that during the continuance of the mass two great wax candles must burn from the beginning of the mass till its conclusion—one at his head, the other at his feet.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 357, p. 244; also, vide date 1332.)

  As Randolph’s Charter is interesting, we her give a free translation of it in full:--

  “To all who shall see or hear this Charter, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, Lord of Annandale and Man, greeting in the Lord: Know ye that I, for the safety of the soul of our dearest uncle and lord, Robert, by the grace of God the illustrious King of Scotland, and for the safety of our own soul and that of our predecessors and successors, have given, granted, and, by this our present Charter, have confirmed to God, to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and to the Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Margaret (Queen of Scotland) of Dunfermline, to the monks serving and to serve God in the same place, the whole of our land of Cullelouch, with the pertinents in the barony of Aberdour, to be kept and held by the same religious men and their successors, without any hindrance from us or our heirs, in fee heritage, in woods and plains, moors and marshes, petaries and turbaries, standing waters and mills, ways, paths, and pastures, and with all the conveniences, liberties, and easements, as well named as not named, under the earth and above the earth, pertaining to the aforesaid land, or by any right or title proving to pertain, as freely, quietly, fully and honourably as we have held or could have held the said land by its right divisions of our said donation  in all things, most quietly, fully, and honourably.  We give also and grant to the foresaid religious men forth shillings sterling from the land of Monflooer, in the shire of Scone, by the hand of the owner for the time being, to be taken up proportionally every year at the Feast of Pentecost, and St. Martin in winter, by finding for this our donation for ever, in honour of the Holy Virgin Mary, in her Chapel below the Conventual Church of Dunfermline, one waga (according to Ducange, a waga (English, wey) is a weight of 96 lbs.) of wax, to burn solemnly in the usual manner for three solemn days every year: on the night of the Birthday of our Lord, on the say of the Purification of the Virgin aforesaid, and the day of the Assumption of the same.  By finding also in the said Chapel a priest-monk every day for ever to celebrate mass for our soul, and that of our predecessors and successors, where we have ordained our body to be buried, at which mass indeed two wax candles are solemnly to burn from the beginning of mass to the close, one of which to stand at our head and the other at our feel; and it is to be known that the whole of the solemnity before mentioned shall be done and implemented from the day of the concession of the present Charter, in the form aforesaid, as well during our life as after our death, our body being buried or not buried in the same place, by making so much due and customary service from the said land.  We, then, Thomas Randolph and our heirs, shall warrant and acquit and for ever  defend against all men and women the foresaid land of Cullelouch, with forth shillings annually aforesaid to the foresaid religious men and their successors as is granted.  In testimony whereof,” &c.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 243, 244, No. 357.)

  TWO ADDITIONAL MONKS TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—In his Charter entitled, “Carta de Kynedyr,” Randolph gives and confirms to the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, and the Abbot and monks there serving God, an addition of two monks to their number, for which additional burden he leaves property and revenue for their maintenance, &c.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 358. pp. 244, 245.)

  1322.—COCQUET SEAL OF THE REGALITY OF DUNFERMLINE.—The Cocquet Seal of the Regality Court of Dunfermline was engraven this year by sanction of King Robert the Bruce, by Chapter, dated at Scone, 10th July, 1322, along with letters patent to all who paid customs at Bruges, in Flanders, or elsewhere, notifying that wherever this Seal was in due form produced, it was to be recognized as the authority for collecting the customs granted to the Abbey by the King, &c.  This seal is a brass matrix or double seal.

  The above engraving represents, the regality side of the seal.

  The following is a free translation of the Charter, or Writ, of King Robert the Bruce, to the Magistrates of Bruges, respecting the Coketa Seal of the Regality of Dunfermline Abbey:--

  “Robert, by the Grace of God, King of the Scots, wishes prosperity and a continual increase of happiness to our very dear friends, the Magistrates and Ministers of the Burgh, and the whole community of the City of Bruges,--Know ye, that from a regard to Divine charity, we have granted tot eh religious men, the Abbot and Convent of Dunfermline, our Monks, the whole of our large Customs from all their lands within our kingdom, in free, pure, and perpetual alms; wherefore we have thought, wherever and whenever your merchants with their merchandise, shall present to you in due form the seal of the said religious men, your whole community should be requested to be careful to receive it as our own proper Seal.  In testimony whereof we send you these our letters patent.—Given at Scone, on the tenth day of July, in the sixteenth of our reign” [10th July, 1322].  (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 361, p. 246.)

Mr. Laing, in his “Descriptive Catalogue of Impressions from Scottish Seals, Edin. 1850,” refers to the Regality Seal of Dunfermline Abbey as follows:--“The cokete and counter seals [of Dunfermline Regality] are fine and interesting specimens, in most excellent preservation.  The design of the Cokete Seal is an elegant full-length figure of Saint Margaret, with an open crown of three points.  In her right hand she holds a scepter, and a book in her left.  At the dexter side is a shield bearing the arms of Scotland, and at the sinister another, with a cross fleury between five martlets, being the paternal arms of the Queen.  The back-ground is elegantly ornamented with foliage,” [and round the circumference of the seal is the following legend in the ancient letters of the period: S COKETE REGALITATIS DE DVMFERMLYN].  “The Counter Seal merely contains the arms of Scotland, foliage, and round its circumference ROBERTVS DEI GRACIA REX SCOTORVM.”  This seal is and has been in  possession of the writer of the Annals for a greata many years.  (See Annals Dunf. date 1748.)

  CHARTER FROM ROBERT, ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE, TO THE BURGESSES AND COMMUNITY OF DUNFERMLINE.—This is the first Charter from the Monastery to the Burgh.  The following is a free translation of the Charter:--

  “To all who shall see or hear this Charter,--Robert, by Divine permission, Abbot of Dunfermline, and the Convent of the same place, humbly wishes eternal salvation in the Lord:  Be is known to you, that we (after serious and attentive deliberation in our Chapter-House on what regards the interests of our Monastery) have given, granted, and by this present Charter confirmed, to the community of our burgh of Dunfermlyn, and the burgesses thereof, as a Common, that part of our moor, extending in length from the boundaries of Waltirselis to the straight marshes of Beedgall (reserving to ourselves the great moss of Beedgall), and from the highway to Perth, and the boundaries of Breenauch to the straight marches of Tulch, in breadth, together with the peat-moss in said moor: And likewise that piece of land extending from the highway to Perth to Moncor-band, and situated within the two ditches (duo sycheta) running in a line from Moncor, till they reach the highway to Perth, the said piece of land being of equal breadth with that of Moncor opposite thereto, to be freely, and without the slightest disturbance, completely, honourably, and peaceably, holden and possessed by the existing community and burgesses in all time coming, together with all conveniences derivable from said moor, as well as for pasture as for fuel, to be employed for their use, and for grazing their cattle: And, in consideration of the premises, the said community and burgesses are to pay to us and our successors annually, at the Festival of the Blessed Queen Margaret, one pair of white Paris Gloves, or Sixpence sterling, good and lawful money, in addition to the feu-duty yearly payable to us and our Monastery by the said burgesses for the burgage and privileges of our said burgh.—In testimony whereof, we have affixed  to this Charter the seal of our Chapter, the Chapter being witnesses.”

There is also a transcript of this Charter in the Town Council Charter-chest of Dunfermline.  (Vide Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 596, p. 415; Fernie’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 195, 196; Mercer’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 306, 307.)

  Note.—This Charter is not dated; it is placed near the middle year of the Abbotship of Robert of Crail.  His predecessor Hugh was the first Abbot who styled himself Abbot by “Divine permission.”  Robert of Crail, Abbot (from 1313-14 to 1327 -28), continues the style or designation, and as there were no other Roberts Abbot until A.D. 1500, there remains no room to doubt that Robert of Crail was the granter of this Charter, and it has been thus placed about the middle year of his Abbotship to reduce the error of date to a minimum.

  GREAT CUSTOMS OF DUNFERMLINE.—King Robert the Bruce intimated, by Charter, to his Great Chamberlain, that the Abbey had a gift of the Great Customs of Wool, Skins, and Leather, arising from their own lands and men throughout the whole kingdom.  This Charter is dated “Forfar, 10th September, 1322.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 247, No. 362; Dal. Mon. An. p. 20, also p. 252, No. 369.)


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