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Annals of Dunfermline
A.D. 1701 - 1801 - Part 3


  1718.—PARLIAMENT BRIDLE, &C.—Previous to the Union, Royal Burghs “usually provided a bridle and other appendages for the horses their members rode on in procession to the Scottish Parliament.”  The Dunfermline “horse appendages” had been lying useless since the Union (1707), and as they were, from “the altered state of things,” no longer needed for sustaining “the dignity of the burgh,” they were put up for sale, as shown by the following minuter in the Burgh Records:--“9th April, 1718:  The same day, John Stevinson, shoemaker, bought the parliament bridle, curple, and the strip leathers and strip irons, for seven pounds six shillings and eight pennies (Scots) at a roup, which he instantly payed to Robert Anderson, treasurer.”  (Burgh Records.)

  THE OLD BRASS CANDLESTICK OF THE KIRK.—“9th April, 1718:  The same day, John Stevinson bought the old brass  candlestick that hung in the church for seven shillings (Scots) per pound; the same weighing in heall tuenty-four and a half pounds weight, and so the price extending to eight pounds eleven shillings six pennies (Scots), was pd to the treasurer.”  (Burgh Records.)

  EAST-PORT TO BE RE-BUILT.—It would appear from the following minute in the Burgh Records, that the East-Port had either become so ruinous, or had fallen, that it had to be re-built:--“9th April, 1718:  The counsel appoints the dean of gild convener, and the treasurer with any of the baillies to agree with workmen for laying the causey betwixt the Cross and the Port, and for building the Port again.”  (Burgh Records.)

  DAMASK WEAVING INTRODUCED INTO DUNFERMLINE.—The then new operation in weaving called Damask Weaving, appears to have been in operation at Drumscheugh, near Edinburgh, as early as the year 1715.  For many years this new department in weaving was kept secret, and no one but tried men were admitted into the weaving establishment at Drumscheugh.  The trade was a paying one, and accordingly the process was the subject of much conversation and debate among the weaving populations in Scotland.  James Blake, an ingenious weaver in Dunfermline, skilled in mathematics and mechanics,” &c., and endowed with a most retentive memory, resolved at all hazards to get into the Drumscheugh factory.  According to tradition, he feigned himself of weak intellect, and by telling queer stories to the workmen, he was allowed to come inside the factory to amuse them.  This was Blake’s opportunity; his keen eye and mechanical mind mastered all the details of the mystery of damask-weaving.  After obtaining his object he regained his senses, came back to Dunfermline with the whole of the Drumscheugh weaving mechanism, in full working order, on his mind.  He then drew plans for the construction of his loom, which he got made by a wright and a smith; this effected, it was erected in the lower north-west room of “the Pends,” immediately above the archway, and there he commenced his damask-weaving during the summer of 1718.  Shortly afterwards, John Beveridge and John Gilmour, weavers, of “the Brucefield Feus,” joined Blake in the damask trade, and the whole of the empty rooms in “the Pends”, &c., were filled with damask looms.  (See Histories of Dunfermline,)  John Blade was the maternal great-grandfather of the writer; he appears to have been born about the year 1690, and would therefore be about twenty-eight years old when he set up his loom in Dunfermline.  “He died respected and regretted by the haill burgh,” about the year 1770, aged eighty years.  (Newspapers, Magazines, &c.)

  “THE ANCIENT SOCIETY OF GARDENERS,” whose members had previous to this period been confined to the “craft,” began this year (1718) to attract the notice of noblemen and others, who through solicitation were admitted members.  Henceforward, their preses or deacon was dignified with the title of Governor, and lastly by the title of Chancellor.”  (Vide Histories of Dunfermline; Gardeners’ Records, &c.)

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.—“6th October, 1718: The said day the grand counsel re-elected Sir Peter Halket of Pitferrane Provost.”  (Burgh Records.)

  REV. JAME SWARDLAW translated from Cruden, Aberdeenshire, and admitted minister of the Second Charge of the Church of Dunfermline, 20th Nov., 1718.  (Par. Records; also An. Dunf. date 1742.)

  1719.—SEAL OF CAUSE OF THE MASONS.—“19th Jany. 1719: A new Gift and Seal of Cause was granted to the masons by the Provost, Baillies, and Council.”  (Burgh Records.)

  THE KING’S BIRTH-DAY ordered to be held.—“16th April, 1719:  The counsel ordains the King’s Birth Day to be observed upon Thursday nest the 28 instant and the Marches to be rid the same day after the ordinar manner.”  (Burfh Records.)

  ELIZABETH HALKET’S poem of “Hardy-knute” was first published in 1719.  (Finlay’s Domestic Ballads, &c.; see also An. Dunf. date 1263, 1618, 1802, 1727.)

  WEAVING.—A Servet or Table Napkin, Woven by James Blake.—An unique 7/8 Servet, or Table-Napkin, of single damask, was this year woven by James Blake, damask-weaver in “the Pends,” Dunfermline.  It is still in a state of excellent preservation.  In the centre of the servet there is the representation of a mansion-house of five storeys, with a sort of tower and a pillar on each side, and attached to the house there is a row of buildings like offices; while in other places there are the figures of a horse, a unicorn, a dog, a monkey, a ship, a chariot and a charioteer, a St. Andrew’s Cross, branches of trees, &c.  There are also woven on it at different places the following three mottoes:--

“’Quid gravius capta’-‘Fortunam causamque sequor’-
Jan. 30, MDCXLIX.”
“’Deceptis custodibus’—MDCCXIX.”

For a considerable length of time the writer was of opinion that all these mottoes (especially the first one) had reference to the unfortunate in consequence of being made aware of the existence of two medals of a later date, bearing similar words in their legends.  On March, 30, 1861, Messrs. Dowell & Lyon, auctioneers, Edinburgh, exposed for sale a large lot of coins and medals.  At page 10 of their catalogue, and Nos. 138 and 139, are the following remarks on these medals:--

  No. 138, Portrait of “James (VIII.),” to the right:  Legend, ‘Unica Salus’—R.A.  View of London, with Hanoverian horse trampling on the British Lion; Britannia weeping, family emigrating, &c.: Legend, “Quid Gravius Capta.”  (Size 13 ½ silver.)

  No. 139, Portrait of “Clementina,” with her titles as Queen of Great Britain.  R. View of Rome in the distance.  Clementina in a biga at full speed.  “Fortunam Causamque Sequor:”  Exerque, “Deceptis Custodibus,” referring to her escape in domestic female attire, having deceived the keepers.  (Size 13 ½ silver.)  There are also similar medals in bronze. 

  Here we have all the three mottoes, as also the dates, on the napkin, and they are the same as struck on the medals.  It therefore appears evident that the mottoes and dates on the napkin were taken from the medals.  A set of the medals would probably be in the possession of some “Dunfermline Jacobite” in 1719, and Blake would thus have an opportunity of copying them, and, without attending to their proper arrangement, wove them into his napkin.

  The three mottoes may be arranged as follows:--

   1st, “Quid Gravius Capta,” i.e.,  “What is graver (or sadder) than a captive.”  The date, January 30th, 1649, is that of the decollation of King Charles I.  It will be observed that the so-called “James VIII.” adopts this motto for his medal legend )vide his medal.)

  2nd, “Fortunam Causamque Sequor,” i.e., “I follow fortune and the cause”  (Clementina’s medal).

  3rd, “Deceptis Custodibus,” i.e.”Deceived the custodier (or keeper)”—also on Clementina’s medal.  She—Clementina—was for a short period a prisoner, and effected her escape by disguising herself “in domestic female attire.”  The date (1719) is that of her escape.

  No doubt specimens of these medals will be seen in the British Museum, and in the great museums of the country.  The several figures of animals, ship, mansion, &c., on the napkin may refer to nothing; probably they are”fanciful creations.”  This napkin was long in the possession of the late Mr. Laurence Wilson, of Midmill, near Dunfermline, who shortly before his departure for America in 1855, sold it privately to the late Mr. Erskine Beveridge, manufacturer, Dunfermline.  (See Mercer’s History of Dunfermline, p. 163; also Chalmers’s History of Dunfermline, vol. i. p. 382; vol. ii. P. 330.)

  LITERATURE.—The Rev. James Grame, the last Episcopalian minister of Dunfermline, was tried for Nonconformity, and deposed 20th June, 1701.  This year (1719) his “Trial” was published.  The following is a copy of the title page:--

The Famous
R  Y  A  L 
Of the late REVEREND and LEARNED
M  R.   J  A  M  E  S   G  R  A  M  E 
Episcopal Minister of Dunfermline
Formerly
PROFESSOR OF HUMANITY AT
ST. ANDREWS,
Before the Several
COURTS OF CHURCH JUDICATURE
In Scotland.

____________

Edin. 1719.

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.—“5TH Oct. 1719: The said council elected and continued Sir Peter Halket as Provost.”  (Burgh Rec.)

  1720.—GREAT SNOW-STORMS.—“In January and February, 1720, there were three great falls of snow in the West of Fife.  In Dunfermline the streets were covered with snow two-three times to the depth of at least of dozen of feet.”  Afterwards, “severe frost set in.”  (MS.)

  LIMEKILLS ROAD PLEA.—“25 June:  This day the counsel commissionat the Clerk to go to Edinburgh and consult Mr. Grame, Mr. Dalryample, Mr. Wedderburn, Mr. Walker, and any other George Robertson shall direct to defend Sir Philips plea aagainst the toun, and to tell George Robertson to be very carefull and spare no money in defending the touns plea, and to give George Robertson twelve guineas to disburse on the plea.”

  THE KIRK UNDERGOING REPAIRS.—“The roofs made tight; Bellhouse repaired; windows glazed, and the fabric pointed with lime.”  (Old Account.)

  FREE HOMORARY BURGESSES OF DUNFERMLINE.—The Rev. Dr. J.T. Desaguilier, LL.D., London and Mr. William Walls, were this year made free burgesses.—“26th August, 1720:  The council appointed ye Clerk to writ out, Seall and Subscribe two burges andGild tickets, ye ane for Mr. William Walls, and ye oyr for John Theophilus Desaguliers, doctor of laws, fellow of ye royal society and chaplain to his grace ye Duke of Chandos, and to transmit to Captain Halketm now in London.  (Sic Subs)  PET.HALKET.”  (Bur. Rec.)  Why these gentlemen were made burgesses of Dunfermline in now not known.  The Records do say—“Dr. Desagulier was an eminent scientific man, Public Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in London, and author of several scientific works.”  Of Mr. Walls nothing is known.

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.—“The grand counsel re-elected Sir Peter Halket Provost.”  (Burgh Records, Oct. 10, 1720.)

  FREE HONORARY BURGESS OF DUNFERMLINE.—“This day ye counsel ordered ye Clerk to writ out, sign and seall a burges ticket to Samuell Walker, merchant in Leeds, and to transmit it to Mr. David Walker, advocate, who deserved it.”  (Burgh Records, 17th Oct. 1720.)

  1721.—FIRE BUCKETS.— 9TH Jan. 1721:  The counsel appoints the thesaurer to send to Edinburgh for a hyde of good inglish uppers to make water buckets, to be kept by ye toun in case of fire.”  (Burgh Records.)

  BORING FOR WATER NEAR THE EAST PORT.—“23rd March, 1721:  The counsel, after voting, ordered the thesaurer to pay to James Anderson six pounds scots as a help to him and ye neighbourhood about ye east port in defraying ye charges lately made by ye neighbourhood in setting down for water at the east port.”  (Burgh Rec.)  This boring for water for the supply of the town proved abortive.

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.—Sir Peter Halket, of Pitfirrane, re-elected Provost.  (Burgh Records, 9th Oct., 1721.)

  THE PRINCE’S BIRTH-DAY.—“28th Oct., 1721:  The counsel ordained the prince’s birth-day to be observed as usual.”  (Burgh Records.)  “As usual” may mean that it was to be observed with the assistance of “dram-glasses!”

  THE NETHERTON AND THE HOWGATE CAUSEWAYS TO BE REPAIRED.—“The Counsell appointed the Dean of Gild Conveener, and John Mayn to order the repairing of the street at the east-end of the Nethertoun, and help the broken causey in the howgeat.”  (Burgh Records, 3rd Nov., 1721.)  The Howgate, a name now unknown, refers to the lower part of the Newrow, between the east end of Priory Lane and Bothwell Street. 

  LIST OF THE GUILD BRETHREN IN 1721.—The following list of the Guild Brethren of Dunfermline is extracted from the last page of one of the volumes of the Guildry Records.  It cannot fail to be interesting, as it shows forth the holders of wealth and position of that period in the burgh and vicinity.  We therefore insert it:--

            William Walker                                Andrew Turnbull
            John Brown                                     John Turnbull
            Jerome Cowie                                 John Henderson, Drymiln
            Thomas Mitchell                             James Bayn
            James Hutton, Primrose                  John Halkerston
            Patrick Angus                                John Cowie
            Robert Anderson                            John Brand
            Andrew Symsone                           Robt. Baxter
            John Allan                                     John Finlay
            Robert Wilsone                              David Ramage
            Wm. Wilson, litster                         Wm. Stevinson
            John Anderson                               Alex Ady
            Adam Wilson                                 John Brown (Junior)
            James Rolland                               Andrew Belfrage
            Robert Walker                                Wm. Ady
            Wm. Black                                     Robert Hutton
            David Gray                                     Andrew Mayn
            James Wilsone, Limekilns               Adam Anderson
            Wm. Alexander,Llimekilns               John Hutton (Cross)
            James Mc Beath                            Wm.
Marshall
            Robt. Pierson                                 John Scotland
            John Hart                                       Alex Veatch
            Wm. Wilson, maltster                     James Elder
            George Chrysty                             John Deall
            Patrick Currie                                John Wilsone
            Robert Belfrage                             Peter Rolland
            Thomas Anderson, Crossford         Wm. Meldrum
            John Bethune                                David Hutton
            Charles Chalmers                         Matthew Kier
            John Walker                                 James Young
            David Sands                                 John McClaron
            John Barclay, Georgetoun              Heugh Craig
            Rovert Paterson                            John Kirk
            John Thomson, Barns.                   William Wilsone
            Alexander Duncan                         John Gib
            James Hutton, Dunduff                   George Turnbull
            Wm. Hutton, Dunduff                      Peter Black
            Robt. Dalgliesh, Dunnygask            David Wilsone
            Gavin Stanhouse                           David Morres
            George Wilsone, Knockhouse        David Adie
            Patrick Wilsone, Knockhouse        James Hoog
            Adam Rolland                              William Hutton
            Adam Walker                               George Shaw
            Lau.
Henderson                            Peter Curry
            John Kindsey                               George Adie
            James Crawford                           John Black
            John Flockart                               George Kellock
            Thomas
Scotland                         John Wilsone
            John Adie

Total 97 member of Dunfermline Guildry.  (Vide MS. Guildry Record for 1605-1770.)

  ANCIENT SOCIETY OF GARDENERS.—The Marquis of Tweeddale elected Chancellor of the Society.—(Abrid. Hist. Soc. Gardeners.)

  1722.—DANIEL DEFOE VISITS DUNFERMLINE.—Daniel Defoe, the celebrated author of “Robinson Crusoe,” visited Dunfermline early in 1722, while on his second tour through Scotland collecting materials for his work—“A Journey through Scotland,”—which was published in London in 1723.  (See date 1723 for extract of his article on Dunfermline in that work.)

  A COMMISSIONER TO BE ELECTED FOR THE NEW PARLIAMENT.—“8th Oct., 1722:  A letter from the Earl of Rothes, Sheriff-Principal of Fifeshire, directs the Provost, Baillies, Counsellors, &c., to meet and elect a Commissioner for the New Parliament, to be holden at Westminster on 10th May.  On the 10th May, 1722, the counsel of Dunfermline met, when they elected Captain Halket to be their Commissioner.”

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.—“8th Oct., 1722:  Sir Peter Halket of Pitfirrane re-elected Provost.  (Burhg Records.)

  PROPRIETOR OF PITTENCRIEFF.—Mr. Arthur Forbes was proprietor of Pittencriedd in 1722.

  THE TOWN-DRUMMER CLANDESTINELY SOLD HIS DRUM.—“17th Oct., 1722:  This day James Hatton, convened before the counsel, confessed he sold the toun’s drum to John Hood, and was to have got account therefore tho he never got it.  The counsel considering that he disposed thereon without the toun’s leave, orders him to pay the said crown to the Treasurer.”  (Burgh Records.)

  GARDENER’S SOCIETY AND TH E “CIRCULATION OF SAP IN VEGETABLES.”—“On the 10th October, 1711, the following subject was given out to David Bowie, Garderner, viz.:--On the circulation of the Sap in Begetables, and a reason given why Brambles, Allars, and Sallows, are of such large pith, and put forth greater growth the first year, than those of smaller pith, such as Oaks, Box, &c.  Nothing more is said on this matter in the Gardeners’ Book than that the thanks of the meeting was given to Mr. Bowie.”  (Abrid. Hist. Soc. Gard. of Dunf. p. 62, pub. In 1816.)

1723.—DE FOE’S “JOURNEY THROUGH SCOTLAND” PUBLISHED.—Under date 1722, An. Of Dunf., it is noted that in that year De Foe visited Dunfermline during his travels, collecting materials for his new work, entitled, “A Journey through Scotland,” which work was published this year (1723) in London.  It has been styled “a vaguely written work.”  The following are a few extracts from his “Journey” relating to Dunfermline.  He says—

  “From Kinross, in eight miles more I arrived at the Royal Palace of Dunferling.  This was the Habitation of King James the Sixth, before he came to England.  It was here that Prince Henry, King Charles the First, and the Princess Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, were born.  It was also the Jointure-House of Queen Anne of Denmark, who built an apartment for herself, at the top of the Entry or pend, with a Gallery of Communication with the Royal Apartments.  This Palace consists of two courts, the upper Hawks and Hounds, and the officers belonging to them.  The upper court makes the Palace, the Royal Apartments to the South and West—Queen Anne’s Jointer-House to the North, and the Church and Remnants of the ancient Monastery on the East.

  “The church was above three hundred foot long.  It was built after the manner of that at Litchfield, with a Steple between two Spries on the West, and Two Spires more on each side of the middle of the church.  At the Reformation King James the Sixth repaired and butteressed the West End of it for a Protestant Parochial Church; the body of the church and choir, where several Kings of Scotland lye buried, continuing still a heap rubbish; their tombs are still preserved in the open air; and particularly that of St. Margaret, in Black Alabaster.  From this church to the refectory, or Frater Hall, as they call it here, was a noble Cloyster, turned into a Tennis court after the reformation.  The refectory was a noble room fifty foot long, forth high, and thirty broad; in it are nine windows to the south, twelve foot high, and thirty broad, from whence one hath a most delicious prospect of the Frith at four miles distance.  This hall is erected upon two several vaults, supported by pillars, like the foundation of some of the Cathedrals in England; the lowermost vault, as I suppose was a Burying-Place there, but what use the second vaulted story was I cannot imagine.  The roof of this hall, as also of the Royal Apartments is all down, and Jack-Daws build now in the room where King Charles the First was born.  I believe this was a Royal Palace before the reformation, for the Arms of James the Fifth, with his Queen of the House of Guise are still fresh upon the apartments, as are also those of the Lord Hamilton, Governor of Scotland in the Minority of Queen Mary.  The Gardens, as by the walls still standing, have been very spacious, with a rivulet running through them.”  (De Foe’s Journey Through Scotland, pp. 173-176.)

  De Foe makes several slips of the pen in his description, viz., Prince Henry was not born at Dunfermline, but in the Castle of Stirling.  The entire length of the Church was 275 feet, not 300.  It was not built “after the manner of Litchfield Cathedral,” but that of Durham in miniature, two west towers with a large central or lantern tower at the junction of the Choir and the Nave.  “The Noble Room of the Refectory” was 119 feet long, not 50; the height outside is 43 feet, and about 30 in breadth.  The lower vaults could never have been a “Burying Place.”  The apartment where Charles I. was born has long been “an ivy mantled ruin.”

“Sad are the ruthless ravages of time—
The bulwark, turret frowning, once sublime,
Now totters to its base, and displays
A venerable wreck of other days.”

De Foe says that several of the royal tombs in ruins amongst the rubbish were to be seen.  These were likely the “six large flat stones,” under the pavement of the north transept of the new Abbey Church, and now known not to have been royal tombstones.  The stone having on it the arms, &c., of James V. and Mary of Guise, is still to be seen; it has had many sites of late; at present it stand on the ground inside Frater Hall, adjacent to the Great Western Window. 

  Since Defoe’s time, the Palace ruins have been nearly all swept away; the royal ruins are now represented by “one long, lone ivy-buttress’d wall”—

“And now dismantled—prostrate all
Thy former might—there scarce remains
Enough of what thou wert to call
Thy bulwarks and thy wide domains.”

  ENCROACHMENT ON THE GUILDRY’S PRIVILEGE.—“At a Guild Council held by the Dean of Guild, 27th February, 1723, John MacIaron, indweller in Dunfermline, was brought before said counsel for encroaching on the Gildrie’s privileges by selling staple ware within the burgh.  He confessed his cryme, and referred himself to the counsel, who fyned him in three pounds Scots, and ordained him to remain in prison till payment.”  (Guildry Records; MS. For 1723.)

  THE RACE SADDLE.—26th Apr. 1723:  The said day the counsel resolved to put out a saddle for a race to be run on Wednesday next at two o’clock afternoon.  And Commissionat the two baillies, the gild and thesaurer to buy the saddle and draw out the articles.”  (Burgh Records.)

  THE GARDENERS’ RACE.—“30th Apr. 1723;  The said day the counsel, for incouraging of the gardener’s race to be keept up here they agreed that the town shal next year contribute thirty shillings sterling for buying and putting a plete [plate?] for next year.”  (Bur. Records.)

  SEAL OF CAUSE FOR THE TAILORS.—“22d June, 1723:  This day the magistrates and counsel granted the incorporation of Tailors a new gift or Seal or Cause.  (Bur. Rec.)  It consists of 3 fol. pp.

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.—“8th Oct. 1723 this day Sr. Peter Halket was re-elected Provost.  (Burgh Records.)

  BARCLAY’S DESCRIPTION OF THE PARISH AND THE TOWN OF DUNFERMLINE IN 1723.—The following description of the Parish and Town of Dunfermline by Mr. Barclay (in MS.) is in “Macfarlane’s Geographical Collections,” vol. i., Advocates’ Library, Edinburgh.  (See also Fernie’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 175, 182.)

  :The Parish of Dunfermlin, in the Shire of Fife, hath to the S. the Parish on Innerkeething 3 miles distant.  To the north Clysh 6 miles; to the NE and NW Baith and Carnock; the first 3 and the other 2 ½ miles distant; to the W. Torryburne 3 miles distant; and from Edinburgh 12 miles, including the breadth of the river at Queensferry.  [Note these miles are old Scotch miles, add a half more to each to adjust to modern miles.]

  “The most remarkable houses in the Parish are just adjoining the Church.  On the southside Pittencrieff, the Hill call’d Anster Feild ½ mile, S.E. Pitravy 2 miles SSW.; Broomhall 1 ½ mile, just over Limnekilnes, a little thriving village belonging to Sir Peter Halket of Pitfirren, with a commodious harbour for shipping of his coal, which has been long esteemed the best for Forges in foreign countries.  S.W. Pitliver 1 ½ mile; NW. Balmoole  2 miles, and Barrige ¼ mile; NE Garvock; W. Pitfirren 1 ¼ mile, and just joining to it Cavill.

  “The town is pleasantly situate, in a fruitful soil, on a rising ground with a brooke, or Rivolet on the west side commonly call’d the Toureburn, rising from a lake about 2 miles from the town, running to the south under the Abbay.

  “A little without the west gate are the ruines of a tower, called Malcolm Canmore’s, who probably lived here.  This Malcolm 3d. built the Church, at the same time with that of Durham, near the same manner and figure.  More than half the church is in ruines, where lye buried, under plain and coarse marble stones, Malcolm 3., with his son Prince Edward, his Queen S. Margaret, Donald 7., Edgar, Alexander I., David I., Malcolm 4., Alexander 3., Robert the Bruce and Thomas Randall, Regent in King David Bruce’s minority.

  “The Abbay has been a spacious and noble building, but now all in ruines, except a part built by King James 6. soon after his accession to the Crown of England.  At the Revolution (1699) the room was entire where was borne the Royal Martyr, Charles I., on 2 Nov. 1061; and it may glory in being the birthplace of Mathilda, Malcolm Canmore’s daughter.  Dunfermline is a Regality, where two head courts are held yearly by the Marquis of Tweeddale, or his Deputies, and is a Burgh Royall.”  (Fernie’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 175-178.)

  There are several errors in this description, e.g.—Pitreavie is south-east, Balmule noth-east, and Baldridge north from Dunfermline.

  The following is another description of the Burgh and Parish of Dunfermline; author unknown. 

  “The antient and royall Burgh of Dunfermline, in the Shire of Fife, stands on the north syde of the little water of Lyne, when it hath a part of its name.  It lyes two miles north from the river forth at Lymekills, &c.  The burgh of Dunfermline is the head burgh of the regality of Dunfermline, and is bounded on the west by the tourburn, which derives its name from a tour of King Malcolm Kanmore’s, standing without the west port thereof.  On the west end of the burgh stands the remains of a stately palace and monastrie of old, the greatest and richest in Scotland.  And on the north syd on the monastrie stood a very stately Church of Old Gothick work, now all ruinous except the west end thereof, which makes a large parochiall church.

  “The Burgh is divided into an upper and lower town, having the Palace Garden and park in the middle.  On the south-east corner of lower or nether town, and on the south syde of the Water of Lyne, stand a hospitall, for maintenance of eight Widows, called St. Leonard’s Hospital. 

  “The north, the east, and west parts of the parach are full of coall, a great part of which are exported from the harbour of Lymkills, lying in the paroch, on the north syd of the River Forth, and two miles south fra Dunfermline.

  “Within the paroch of Dunfermline are the Gentlemen’s houses following, viz.:  The house of Pitfirran, pertaining to Sir Peter Halket, a large mile west from the town; about a ridge lenth east from Pitfirran lyes the house of Cavile, pertaining to James Lindsay of Cavile; the house of Pitliver, pertaining to Mr. John Lumsdean, a mile and a half south-west from the town; the house of Broomhall, pertaining to the Earl of Kincardin, near two miles south from the town, and within a ridge lenth of the river Forth; the house of Pittencrieff, at the west end of the town, pertaining to Henry Wellwood, one mile south from the town; the house of Pitravy, two miles south-east from the town, pertaining to Mr. Robert Blackwood; the house of Hill, half a mile south fra the town, pertaining to William Black; the house of Baldridge, half a mile north from the town, and the house of Garvock, half a mile east from the town, both pertaining to the said Mr. Harry Wellwood; the house of Balmule, two miles north from the town, pertaining to Sir Henry Wardlaw

  “A mile north, and l little east from the town, lyes a Loch, called Moncar Loch, or the town Loch, of about seven or wight hundred elns long and four hundred elns broad.  Near two miles north lyes another Loch, called Lochend, about the extent of the former.  Two miles north-east from the town lyes Lochfitty, near thrice as large as any of the other two.

  “In the burgh are a great many weavers, constantly imployed in working damask and diaper, tyckings, and bongall.  In the burgh there is a good foundation for a grammar school, affording a good salary both to a Master and Usher.  There is also another foundation for a Music School.”  (Fernie’s Hist. Dunf. pp. 179-182.)

  PROVOST OF DUNFERMLINE.  --Sir Peter Halket was re-elected Provost.  (Burgh Rec.)

  PENDULUM TO THE AULD KIRK CLOCK.— 4th Dec. 1723:  The sd. day Adam Stevinson, having acquainted the council yt he had turned the clock in the steeple to a pendulum [clock] and desired ye council might appoint some persons to visit her and report, if ye cloak be bettered yrby. “  (Burgh Records.)  It would appear that this clock had been regulated in its motions by a horizontal vibrating-bar, fixed on the top of the vertical verge, or ‘scape-pallets.  From about 1292 to 1642, this was the usual regulator of all clocks.  The son of Galileo first applied the pendulum to a clock about the year 1639.  Shortly afterwards, “the application” was improved by the celebrated Huygens.  A “universal altering of clocks from the old vibrating-bar to that of the pendulum began in 1650.”  Previous to the application of the pendulum, clocks frequently made an error of half-an-hour, or even an hour in a day!  The pendulum applied to the works will keep the clock to time for months within a few seconds.  “A glorious invention was the pendulum.”  (See an account of De Vick’s vibrating-bar clock, in Reid’s “Treatise on Horology.”

  THE AULD KIRK BELLS, &C.—Application is to be made to the Presbytery regarding the repairs of the “Auld Kirk” bells, the roof, and the “glasses.”  (Burgh Records, 21st Dec.)

  A TOWN-GUARD ESTABLISHED.—“21st Dec. 1723:  The said day the council taking to ye consideration ye prest state of ye country by reason of robbing and stealing, and that many of ye inhabitants have been desering yt for some time a Guard of ye neighbourhood might be kept nightly.  They yefor appointed yt ye magistrates appoint a Guard of ten men to be kept nightly in ye Guard house in the meall mercat and yt ye toun furnish ym with coall and candle, and yt ye magistrates name the Captain of the Guard out of ye number of ten to be on Guard each night.—Sic subscribitur, JO WALKER.”  (Burgh Rec.)

  THE GUILDRY BATON.—According to the Guildry Records, the Guildry got a Baton this year; it was of ebony wood, was about eight inches long, and half-an-inch in diameter.  A broad ring of silver round it has an inscription on it.


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