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Annals of Garelochside
Chapter I - History of The Clan Campbell, and its Connection with Rosneath


Rosneath

THE Clan Campbell was not originally designated by its present surname of Campbell, but in remote ages was known as Sliochd Dhiarmid MacDhuibhn. In the time of Malcolm Canmore, who ascended the throne in the year 1057, the Clan Dhuibhn assumed the surname of Campbell upon the marriage of Eva, the heiress of the lands of Argyll, then called Lochow, with Gillespie Campbusbellus, a Norman by birth. In the Gaelic language the family of Argyll and their posterity are known as Siol Diarmid, the offspring of Diarmid. The crest of the boar's head erased, which is carried in the arms of the Argyll family, was gained through an achievement of Diarmid o' Divine while hunting the wild boar at Glenshie, in Perthshire, when he killed a boar of monstrous size which had already caused the death of several persons.

In the House of Argyll and Clan Campbell is the following regarding the Argyll family:-

"Some writers have endeavoured to trace the name as well as lineage of the Campbells up to Diarmid O'Duine, they say: I It is personal, like some others of the Highland names, being composed of the words Cam, bent or arched, and beal, mouth, this having been the most, prominent feature of the great ancestor of the Clan Diarmid, a brave warrior, celebrated in traditional story, and contemporary with the heroes of Ossian.' But this theory is highly improbable, as we do not find, in other cases, that the affix to the names of any of the chiefs, to denote their personal qualities, was transmitted even to their grandsons, much less to a whole clan. Pinkerton, who has devoted some attention to this subject, while deriving it from Campo bello, wishes to give it a Gothic rather than a Celtic origin, but fails to produce proof in support of his theory.

"In the matter of spelling we may notice the fact that many old writers call the head of the house Arigil, and many of the present day still write it Argyle, though the Argylls themselves have always used the two 11's. Perhaps one of the most convincing proofs of the correct derivation of the name is the record of the Parliament held by Robert Bruce in 1314, where the name of the then head of the house, `Neil or Nigel M'Cailen More Na Sringe,' is entered as `Sir Nigel de Campo Bello;' he was the eighth from Gilespie Campus Belles, which tends to show the gradual shortening of the name. We also find that, in a charter of the Monks of Newbattle, Sir Colin, known as Mac Cailen More, is thus described, 'Dominus Colinus Camp-bell, Miles fillius Dominus Gileuspec Camp-bell."

The following is an extract from "The Argyle Papers" 1834:

"The Campbells, according to Chalmers, are undoubtedly of an Anglo-Norman lineage. It has been contended they were genuine Celts, and Lords of Lochow, as early as 401.—Wood's Peerage. To reconcile these conflicting theories matters are thus accommodated. The Lordship of Lochow is conferred on Paul O'Dwbin, or O'Dwin, commonly called Paul Inspuran, a genuine Celt, whose daughter Eva married Gillespie Campbell, a gentleman of Anglo-Norman lineage."

Another extract as to the origin of the family may be given from R. Campbell's Life of John Duke of Argyll and Greenwich:-

"The Bards derive theoriginalof the family from one Diarmid Odwin, who came with Fergus the Second from Ireland to assist the Scots against the Picts in 404. This D. Odwin settled in Argyllshire, and he and his successors were styled Knights of Lochow for ages. One of his descendants went to Normandy and settled on a small estate which his heirs enjoy to this day and changed his name to Le Camile, which his progeny in that country still retain. Two brothers, his sons, came to England with William the Conqueror; one of them went to Scotland and married Eva, heiress of Lochow, who was his relation. He retained his own name Le-Camile, which was used for 300 years."

Colonel Robertson, F.S.A., in his learned work upon the Clans of Scotland, traces the rise of the powerful Clan Campbell. It appears that the earliest spelling of the name is Cambel, in the Ragman Rolls of 1292 to 1296, and also A'ambel. The author considers that the idea of the derivation of the name from the Gaelic cam-beul or crooked mouth, cannot be maintained. The first Crown charter of the Argyll, or Mac Cailean Mor branch of the name, for lands in Argyllshire, was one by Robert the Bruce to his nephew Sir Colin Cambel, dated at Arbroath, February 1316. The other designation of the Clan in Gaelic is, "Clan Diarmid na'n Torc," or Diarmid of the wild boar, an ancient and celebrated Pictish hero. The Mac Cailean Mor family rose to great influence, and obliged several small clans to assume the name of Campbell. In 1420 to 1423 the ancestor of this branch of the family was designated "of Lochawe," and became first Lord Campbell. He was reputed one of the wealthiest of the barons of Scotland, his revenue, a very large one in those times, being stated to be 1500 merks.

Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow distinguished himself by his warlike actions and was knighted by King Alexander III. in 1280 ; he added greatly to the possessions of the family, and from him the chief of the Clan is styled in Gaelic, Mac Chaillan Mor. Sir Colin, who was slain in 1294 in a battle with the Lord of Lorn, and his son, Sir Neil, fought with King Robert the Bruce in most of his great battles. His eldest son, Sir Colin, accompanied the King to Ireland, and married a daughter of the house of Lennox. Passing by his son, Sir Archibald, we come to Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, who first assumed the designation of Argyll, and became a lord of Parliament in 1445, under the title of Lord Campbell, and was buried at Kilmun. His grandson, Colin, was first created Earl of Argyll in 1457, and acquired the lands of Rosneath in 1489. He was one of the Commissioners for negotiating a truce with King Edward the Fourth of England in 1463, was one of the Commissioners sent to France to renew the treaty with that Crown in 1484, and became Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. The Earl died in 1493, and shortly afterwards Archibald, his son, the second Earl, acquired the fine property of Castle Campbell, near Dollar, in 1497 by grant of confirmation by James IV., which remained in the family till 1808, when it was sold. At the fatal battle of Flodden, 9th September, 1513, the Earl of Argyll was killed along with his brother-in-law, the Earl of Lennox, and the flower of the Scottish nobility. Passing by Colin, the third Earl, we come to Archibald, fourth Earl of Argyll, who distinguished himself at the disastrous battle of Pinkie, in September 1547, and who was the first of the Scottish nobility who embraced the principles of the Reformation. Archibald, the fifth Earl, was famous as one of the most able of the Lords of the Congregation. His name appears in the bond subscribed by some of the nobility in favour of Queen Mary's marriage with Bothwell, in which affair he seems to have played a double part. He carried the Sword of State at the coronation of James the Sixth, 29th July 1567, and was appointed Lord High Chancellor in 1572.

The first of the Argyll family who took a commanding part in Scottish history and affairs was Archibald, eighth Earl, and first Marquis of Argyll, who was born in 1598, son of Archibald, seventh Earl, and Lady Anne Douglas, daughter of the Earl of Morton. He attended the famous General Assembly of the Church of Scotland held in Glasgow in 1638, and in 1641, when Charles I. came to Scotland, he was created first Marquis of Argyll. In 1644 Argyll was commissioned by the Convention in Edinburgh to raise an army to oppose the Marquis of Huntly, who had hoisted the standard of rebellion. This he did, and throughout the year was engaged in various hostilities in different parts, reaching Inverurie, in Aberdeenshire in October, with an army of 2500 foot and 1200 horsemen, when he found himself close to the camp of Montrose. With a much inferior force, Argyll attacked the army of Montrose, and threw the followers of the latter into confusion, but after a time they were rallied and assailed their foes with success, forcing Argyll to draw off his men. In February 1645, Argyll's troops were totally defeated, at the battle of Inverlochy, by his powerful rival Montrose, when some 1500 of his family and name were killed. Shortly afterwards, at the battle of Kilsyth, his counsel was disadvantageous to the Covenanters, who were signally defeated by Montrose. It, however, was not so much as a warrior that Argyll achieved distinction, but as a statesman and as a patriot. Very strongly attached to the Presbyterian party, the Marquis sought to bind Charles II., when he came as a fugitive to Scotland, to support that form of religious observance. At the coronation of the King at Scone, in January 1651, Argyll placed the crown on Charles's head, and was the first to swear allegiance to him.

On the Restoration of the King in 1660, the Marquis was accused of a multitude of crimes by his great enemy, the Earl of Middleton, who was sent purposely to be present at his trial, as Lord Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland, in February, 1661. Notwithstanding the fullest and most searching investigation to blacken his character, and to bring in a conviction, the only species of treason which could really be charged against him was that common to all his judges—that they submitted to and acknowledged the Government established in Scotland under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. The Marquis, in his reply, successfully vindicated his position in the judgment of every impartial person. "That what he did, he did with a good intention, with a desire to serve His Majesty, and to preserve his subjects; and that he blessed God he had succeeded in both. That, however, he had done no more than others did, even those who were now his prosecutors and his judges. He advised them, therefore, to consider how fatal a precedent they were about to establish, with respect to themselves and to their posterity." It is said that the King wrote his Commissioner, the Earl of Middleton, to press no acts of treason but such as happened after 1651, and not to proceed to sentence before his Majesty had revised the proceedings. Lord Middleton complied with the first instruction, but pretended that the latter showed such a distrust of Parliament that he could not bring it forward. Accordingly sentence was pronounced on 25th May, 1661, "That he should be beheaded on Monday following, at the Cross of Edinburgh, his head set up where the Marquis of Montrose's formerly stood, and his coat-of-arms torn before the Parliament and at the Cross." The noble Marquis received the sentence with great firmness, and with calm dignity, and raising up his eyes to Heaven, thus addressed his judges: "I had the honour to set the crown upon the King's head, and he now hastens me to a better Crown than his own. You have the indemnity of an earthly King in your hands, and have denied me a share in that, but you cannot hinder me from the indemnity of the King of Kings, and shortly you must come before His tribunal. I pray He mete not out such measure to you, as you have done to me, when you are called to an account for all your actions, and this among the rest."

The last words of the great Marquis of Argyll were: "I desire you gentlemen, and all that hear me, again to take notice, and remember that now, when I am entering on eternity, and am to appear before my Judge, and as I desire salvation and expect eternal happiness from Him, I am free from any accession by knowledge, contriving, counsel, or any other, to his late Majesty's death; and I pray the Lord to preserve the present King, his Majesty, and to pour His best blessings upon his person and Government, and the Lord give him good and faithful councillors." On the scaffold his behaviour was calm and heroic. After affectionately taking leave of all his friends, he gave away his watch and other small articles of jewellery to his sons-in-law and others, not omitting some money to the executioner, and gave the signal for his death by holding up his hand. His head was struck from his body by the instrument called the Maiden, and fixed on the west-end of the Tolbootb as a monument of the iniquity and injustice of Parliament. His friends placed his body in a coffin, and it was conveyed with all respect and honour, accompanied by a number of attendants, through Linlithgow and Falkirk, to Glasgow, and thence to Kilpatrick, where it was placed in a vessel, and buried in the family vault in the church of Kilmun. [The Parish Church of Kilmun. This burying-place of the Argyll family took its name from St. Mund, a native of Ireland, who, after a life of devotion, came to Scotland, and took up his abode on the Holy Loch, where he founded a monastery and church, in which he was buried, and which was hence called by his name. The church of Kilmun was erected into a Collegiate Church, with a provost and six canons or prebendaries, in the year 1442 by Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, the first peer of the family, The foundation bears to be made "For the soul's repose of Marjory, his deceased wife, of his wife that now is, and of the deceased Celestine, his first-born son." The Knight of Lochow died in the year 1453, and was buried in the church which he had thus founded, where a stately monument was raised to his memory, with an inscription in Latin, which, as translated, runs : " Here lies Sir Duncan, the Lord Campbell, Knight of Lochow," and from thence forward this has become the burying-place of the great house of Mac Chaillan Mor. ]

Though the head of Montrose was exposed for ten years on the Tolbooth, that of his rival was more tenderly dealt with, and on the 8th June, 1664, by a warrant from King Charles II., it was taken down, and interred along with his body in the tomb of his ancestors at Kilmun. Such was the end of the Marquis of Argyll, "the true portrait of whose character," says Wodrow, "cannot be drawn." His enemies allow that he was a man of great piety, remarkable wisdom and prudence, of singular gravity and authority, and who had rendered inestimable services to his country. He was the head of the noble band of the Covenanters of Scotland, and had much to do in building up the majestic structure of civil and religious liberty in his distracted country, and upheld the principles of the Reformation when many of his contemporaries of less foresight had forsaken the glorious cause in which he found a patriot's and a martyr's death.

Archibald, the eldest son of the Marquis, succeeded to the family honours, with the exception of the Marquisate, and had been educated by his father in the true principles of loyalty to the Crown and the Protestant religion. In 1654 he received a commission as Lieutenant-General from Charles II., and joined the Earl of Glencairn with the view of taking arms on behalf of the royal cause. In 1657 he was thrown into prison by order of General Monk, and kept in confinement until the restoration of Charles to the throne. During the troubles which befel his father, Lord Lorne endeavoured to save his life, and incurred the displeasure of the Earl of Middleton, Lord High Commissioner, and the sworn foe of the Marquis of Argyll, and afterwards again underwent a long term of imprisonment in the Castle of Edinburgh. Charles, becoming sensible of the services which Lord Lorne had rendered him, at last, in 1663, restored him the estates of his father, and the title of Earl of Argyll. In 1681, when the Duke of York, afterwards James II., went to Scotland, a Parliament was summoned at Edinburgh, which established certain oaths and tests to be subscribed by those who possessed offices—civil, military, and ecclesiastical—and this test was taken by Argyll. Soon after this he was committed to prison on a charge of high treason, but contrived to make his escape, and fled to Holland, where he resided during the remainder of Charles' reign. On the King's death in 1685 he came over to Scotland with the view of trying to preserve the civil and religious liberties of his country, in concert with the King's nephew, the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth.

This expedition proved disastrous in the extreme, and after trying in vain to rouse the country in the extreme North of Scotland, Argyll sought his own territory, but even the fiery cross failed to bring men to his standard, and at Tarbert, on Loch Fyne, his whole force was found to be under 1800 men. He thought of dislodging Atholl from Inveraray, but did not attempt this, and was obliged, by the appearance of some English frigates, to land his troops and fortify the castle of Ellengreg in the Kyles of Bute. More recruiting was tried at Glendaruel and Loch Striven, but so few were induced to join, that Argyll made for the low country by crossing Loch Long. Hearing on the Gareloch that Atholl and Huntly were intending to effect a junction with the Earl of Dunbarton in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, Argyll, after considerable marching to and fro, crossed the country to Rosneath, with the object of engaging the royal troops. From Rosneath he marched his men round the Gareloch, and then, by way of Glenfruin, to the Leven, which river he crossed at Balloch at the foot of Loch Lomond. Next day the king's forces were discovered near Kilmaronock, and Argyll was anxious to engage them, but Sir Patrick Hume opposed it, and it was agreed to pass the enemy in the night, and try for Glasgow. Large fires of peat were kindled, and the rebels escaped in the darkness, but were misled by their guides, and wandered through bogs and morasses, and utter confusion ensued, officers and men getting mixed up together, until order and discipline were at an end. Next morning, when the scattered remains of the army were gathered together at Kilpatrick, there were scarcely 500 worn out and dispirited men. Most of the men now made for the hills, and Argyll, forced to shift for himself, sought shelter in the house of an old retainer near Kilpatrick, but was refused, and disguised as a common yeoman, crossed the Clyde and tried to elude his pursuers. At the ford on the river Cart near Inchinnan, he was assailed by two mounted militiamen and was nearly overcoming them, when some soldiers came up and the Earl was overpowered and knocked over, falling to the ground with the exclamation "Alas! unfortunate Argyll."

Very soon he was tried in Edinburgh, and his sentence was that he should be beheaded at the Tolbooth on 30th June, 1685. His behaviour during his confinement and on the scaffold was worthy his noble Christian character. Addressing the spectators he said, "I hope by God's strength to join with Job, and the Psalmist, and to trust and pray, and hope as they did. I freely forgive all men their wrongs and injuries done against me, as I desire to be forgiven of God." Mr. Annand, the Episcopal clergyman who attended him, for be was denied the consolation of any Presbyterian minister, repeated his words louder to the people, and said "this nobleman dies a Protestant." The Earl then stepped forward and said, "I die not only a Protestant, but with a heart hatred of Popery, Prelacy and all superstition whatsoever." Having taken leave of his friends, he at last kneeled down, and embracing the maiden, said, "This is the sweetest maiden I ever kissed, it being the means to finish my sin and misery, and my inlet to glory, for which I long." Then he prayed a little within himself, thrice uttering these words "Lord Jesus, receive me into thy glory," and giving the signal to the executioner by lifting his hand, his head was struck off, and the martyr's crown was gained.

The following extract from the Council Record gives the particulars regarding the execution of the Earl of Argyll. "Edinburgh, 29th June, 1683.

"The same day Bailie Robertson and Bailie Spence produced an order from the Lords of Justiciary for executing the late Earl of Argyle; which being read, the Council appoints the same to be recorded in the Council Books, whereof the tenor followed—' Forswameikle as Archibald Campbell, lait Earle of Argyle, as being found guilty of the cryme of treasone, is, by warand of his Majestie's prive counsell, founded on a letter from his sacred biajestie, adjudged by us to be taken to ye mercate-cross of Edinburgh, on the threttie day of this instant month of June 1685 years, and tber, betwixt two and five of the clock in the afternoon, to be beheaded; and thereafter his head to be affixed on the tolbuith of Edinburgh, on ane high piece of irone: These therefor require and command the magistrates of Edinburgh to see the sd sentence and dome put to due execution in all poynts, as they will be answerable, and for that end, to receive the person of the sd Archibald Campbell, lait Earle of Argyle, at the Castle-gate of Edinburgh the sd threttie day of June, at twelve of the clock precisely, from which they are to carie him down to the laich town Counsell house of Edinburgh, with a strong guard, where they are to keep him till the ordinary tyme of execution, and for the doing of all which, thir presents are to be to them ane sufficient warand.'"

From a curious publication entitled Account of the Depredations committed on the Clan Campbell and their Followers, printed in Edinburgh in 1816, and taken from a lately discovered manuscript, there occurs the following details of the burial of the bodies of three members of the Argyll family. Andrew Brown, a near relative of the writer of the letter, John Brown, was nearly 100 years old when he died, having been born in the parish of Inverchaollan, on Easter day, 1674, and buried at Dunoon in 1774. Andrew Brown also stated that, on the 27th day of June, 1703, he attended at Dunglas, along with the numerous vassals, or military tenantry of Argyll, who had been summoned, according to the common form used on such occasions, to assemble there, in order to accompany the remains of Archibald, first Duke of Argyll, and those of his father and grandfather to the place of interment at Kilmun.

"Archibald was created Duke by King William III. in 1701, and died at Newcastle, on his way to Scotland in 1703. On his remains being brought to Edinburgh, they were joined by those of his two predecessors, Archibald, Marquis of Argyll, and Archibald, ninth Earl, who had been deposited in the family vault of the Marquis of Lothian at Newbattle, since their execution in 1661 and 1685. From Edinburgh they were carried to Dunglas, a place situated on the banks of the river Clyde, about two miles east from Dunbarton. Here a suitable entertainment was provided for the numerous company who attended. After which the remains of the Marquis and Earl were shown; their heads properly disposed in their places in the coffins. This ceremony having ended, the remains of these three illustrious personages were put on board of the principal barge decorated with suitable devices. They sailed down the Clyde, the 27th June, 1703, with the numerous attendants arranged under their various chieftains; and the procession was closed by a band of national musicians playing high martial airs. The Highlanders were at this period an unmixed people, attired in their native garb, all using the same language, and having uniformity in dress. As they passed Dunbarton Castle, the fortress saluted with minute guns.

The day was fine, and the declining western sun shone beautifully on the numerous whole. Having at length arrived at Kilmun, the burying place of the family of Argyll, and having performed the usual ceremonies on such occasions, with all due solemnity, the three were interred in the mausoleum of their ancestors. Archibald, the third Duke of Argyll, who died at London in 1761, and deposited here, is the first coffin to be seen above ground."

This account, though curious, is however at variance as regards the burial of the famous Marquis, with the usually accepted belief that his body, shortly after his execution, was interred at Kilmun, and the head, upon being removed from the Tolbootb at Edinburgh, was also placed in the family mausoleum.

The next bolder of the title was Archibald, son of the preceding nobleman, who, for certain services performed, but probably more on account of what his father and grandfather had done for the cause of civil and religious liberty, was created, in 1701, Duke of Argyll and Marquis of Lorne. His son was the celebrated John, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich, a distinguished soldier, who served under Marlborough, and contributed to the victories of Ramillies and Malplaquet. In January, 1711, he was sent to Spain as ambassador, at the same time being appointed Commander-in-Chief of the English forces in that kingdom. His conduct as regards the Union between Scotland and England was peculiar, for in 1713, though only four years previously he had forwarded that great measure, he supported a motion in the House of Lords for its repeal. In the year 171; the Duke, while Commander-in-chief in Scotland, was largely instrumental in suppressing the rebellion, and totally defeated the Pretender's army at the Battle of Sheriffmuir, although at the bead of much inferior forces. Famous alike in the Cabinet as in the field, he was a Privy Councillor, an Extraordinary Lord of Session, and a Knight of the Thistle, and was appointed by Queen Anne as Lord High Commissioner, to represent her in the Scottish Parliament in 1705 ; on his return to Court he was created a Peer of England by the title of Baron Chatham and Earl of Greenwich. In 1710, when Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Charles the Third of Spain, he was created a Knight of the Garter. At the battles of Ramilies, Oudenarde, and Alalplaquet ; at the sieges of Menin, Ostend, and Tournay, be greatly distinguished himself, and completely defeated the rebel army at Dunblane in November, 1715. In addition to various high offices which, under King George II., he enjoyed, such as Governor of Portsmouth, Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, Master General of the Ordinance, and Field Marshal of Great Britain, he was Lord Steward of the King's Household, and created Duke of Greenwich in 1718.

For a number of years the Duke held a high position as a patriotic nobleman and a soldier of renown, and the lines of Pope indicate his character:-

"Argyll, the State's whole thunder born to wield
And shake alike the Senate and the field."

On his death, without male issue, in 1743, a fine monument was erected in his honour in Westminster Abbey, and he was succeeded in his Scotch title by his brother Archibald, third Duke of Argyll. [In the special vote of both Houses of Parliament the Duke was characterised as "A truly noble and magnificent prince, the true father of his own people, and one who had most largely contributed to the prosperity of England, by elevating the House of Hanover; thus securing a firm succession to the British throne." On the base of the monument is this inscription:—"In memory of an honest man, a constant friend, John, the great Duke of Argyll and Greenwich; a general and orator exceeded by none in the age he lived. Sir Henry Farmer, Bart., by his last will left the sum of five hundred pounds towards erecting this monument, and recommended the above inscription."

The motto of John, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich was "Vix ea nostra voco," which has been rendered, "I scarce can call these things mine own." The best known motto of the Argyll family is "Ne obliviscaris"—"Forget me not."]

This Duke also entered the army, and served under Marlborough, being present at the battle of Sberiffmuir, when his elder brother, who was commander of the King's forces, defeated the followers of the Earl of Mar, at the Jacobite rising in 1715. He held various important civil appointments, was a Lord of Session and Privy Councillor for Scotland, Keeper of the Privy Seal, and Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen, He rebuilt the family seat at Inveraray, and was the confidential friend of Sir Robert Walpole. He had the chief management of Scottish national affairs, besides being most attentive in assisting the trade and manufactures of his country. John, fourth Duke, was the son of the Honourable John Campbell of Mamore, on the Gareloch, and also was an officer in the British army. He was active on the Royal side in the rebellion of 1715, and served in the war in Germany in 1744, besides being commander of the forces in the West of Scotland when the rebellion of 1745 broke out. John, fifth Duke, was eldest son of the preceding, and became General in the army in 1778, and Field Marshall in 1796, and was first President of the Highland Society of Scotland. He married the widow of the Duke of Hamilton, who was one of the three beautiful Miss Gunnings, and their son, George William, became sixth Duke in 1806. Duke George was an amiable, highly esteemed nobleman, and a good landlord, and dying in 1839, was succeeded by his brother, Lord John Campbell, who long resided at Ardencaple Castle, Row. He was thrice married, his second wife, Joan, heiress of John Glassel of Long Niddry, being the mother of the present Duke, George John Douglas Campbell, born in 1823. The Duke married in 1844 Lady Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the Duke of Sutherland, and their son, the Marquis of Lorne, born in 1845, is the heir to the ancient title of Mac Chaillan Mor and head of the house of Argyll.

The present holder of this title is well-known to his fellow-countrymen. He is the thirty-second Knight of Lochow, and the thirtieth Campbell in the direct line of descent. From his exalted position as head of the great Clan Campbell, from his extensive territorial possessions, and, above all, from his talents, he is well worthy of taking the highest place in the councils of the nation. From his earliest years he has diligently applied himself to acquire knowledge, and to study the varied and intricate political, social and scientific problems of the day. He is eminent as an author, and has written various volumes of learning and merit, his best known work, perhaps, being the Reign of Law, which has gone through many editions. More recently, in the Unity of Nature, in Scotland as it Was and as it Is, in the Unseen Foundations of Society, and in his last work,- the Philosophy of Belief, he has shown what a clear grasp he can take of great social and political and religious problems. The Duke of Argyll's political career has been long and distinguished. He first accepted office as Lord Privy Seal, under the administration of the Earl of Aberdeen, in December 1852. After Lord Palmerston assumed the office of Prime Minister, he was continued in the same office, until, in 1855, he exchanged it for the office of Postmaster General. In 1859 he again became Lord Privy Seal till 1866 ; in 1868 he was Secretary of State for India till 1874, under Mr. Gladstone's administration. Again, in 1880, he was appointed to his old office of Lord Privy Seal, which he retained till 1881, when he resigned office, and since then has held no place in the Gladstone administration. In addition to his various hereditary titles, such as Duke and Earl of ArgylI, Marquis of Lorne, Earl of Campbell, and Viscount of Lochow, and others, the Duke is Knight of the Thistle and of the Garter, and Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire. In 1854 he was elected Lord Rector of Glasgow University, and in 1855 he presided over the meeting of the British Association held in Glasgow.

The heir to the high honours of the house of Argyll is the Honourable John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, by courtesy, Marquis of Lorne, K.T. He was born August 6th, 1845, was educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, and for some years was member of Parliament for Argyllshire. He has been a diligent reader, and has travelled extensively, and for five years occupied the high position of Governor-General of Canada, where he gained great popularity by his genial charm of manner and attention to business. Like his father, the Marquis of Lorne possesses considerable literary abilities, and has written several volumes, both in prose and in poetry, which have obtained wide circulation; be is also a diligent man of business. While filling the post of private secretary to his father, it was publicly remarked that Lord Lorne had carried out with assiduity and success, a much larger amount of business than is usually attempted by a private secretary. The Marquis was married on 21st March, 1871, to Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise, fourth daughter of Her Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria. [On the occasion of the marriage the designation of the "91st Argyllshire Highlanders," or "91st Foot," was changed to the "Princess Louise's Argyllshire Highlanders," with the crest and motto of the Argyll family, in addition, inscribed on the regimental colours. This distinguished regiment received its letter of service from King George III. on the 10th February, 1794, being then numbered the 98th, until it became known as above. The complete Highland uniform, so greatly prized, which was lost soon after the regiment was raised on proceeding to join the British expedition against the Dutch, in Cape Colony, was granted in 1881, when affiliation took place with the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders, of which the 91st became the 1st Battalion Princess Louise's (Argyll and Sutherland) Highlanders, when the honoured numeral "91st" was dropped. ] In the Queen's "Journal of our Life in the Highlands," there is noted the following in the account of the royal visit to Inveraray. "The pipers walked before the carriage, and the Highlanders on either side, as we approached the house. Outside stood the Marquis of Lorne, just two years old, a dear, white, fat, fair little fellow, with reddish hair, but very delicate features, like both his father and mother; he is such a merry, independent little child. He had a black velvet dress and jacket, with a 'sporran,' scarf, and Highland bonnet."

The Court Journal thus speaks of the Princess Louise, now Marchioness of Lorne.—"Fourth daughter of the Queen, and was born at Buckingham Palace on the 18th May, 1848. The Princess is a lady of a very graceful presence and—if a word so familiar may be used—of most gracious and engaging manner. She is, of course, as accomplished as the highest culture could render her ; and she has besides developed something more than artistic tendencies in regard to drawing, painting, and sculpture. It is understood that Her Royal Highness has also decided literary tastes, and is so assiduous a reader as to be in some sense a student. Her amiability of disposition is well-known in the circle of the Court, and is proved by her popularity with every member of the Royal Family; while possibly no better proof of her excellence and singleness of character could be given than the fact of her having, in the bestowal of her affections, stepped out of the narrow bounds of choice to which our princesses are usually limited, and being willing to honour a subject of the Queen with her hand in marriage. On several occasions of State ceremony Her Royal Highness has officiated for Her Majesty, and has always called forth remark for a combination of dignity and kindly graciousness which was considered to be the perfection of the art of Royal reception."

The Marquis and his Royal bride visited Rosneath the year after their marriage, and were welcomed on arriving at the Castle by the principal tenants, the magistrates of Kilcreggan, and others. On more than one occasion they stayed at the Castle, and greatly enjoyed the quiet life, rambling through the woods and along the shore, sketching many of the lovely views, or frequently calling upon some of the old cottagers on the estate. Every one who met the Marchioness was charmed with her pleasant and unassuming manners, and she and her husband won golden opinions from both high and low for their invariable kindliness of demeanour. An enthusiastic lover of Nature, with a keen eye for its beauties, the Marquis can use his pencil to advantage, while he has long wielded the pen. Amongst the works which he has published are, a Trip to the Tropics, The Psalms of David in Verse, Guido and Lila, Life of Lord Palmerston, and an excellent Guide to Windsor Castle. In 1895 the Marquis was elected to represent one of the divisions of Manchester, thus returning to the House of Commons, in which he formerly represented the County of Argyll. He has acquired the fine estate of Rosneath by purchase from his father, and often visits the property, taking a deep interest in its management and successful development.


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