AND GIBSONES AT
The part of Jacob Kabrun’s will
referring to Danzig runs as follows:-
"I have sought from my youth up
for the mind not only in my main profession as a
merchant but elsewhere also, and I have found it in the arts and sciences,
to which I owe many a pure joy during my life. This being my opinion and
having had the occasion of making purchases on my travels, a collection of
paintings, drawings, prints and books has been formed, which cannot
indeed, be pronounced unique, but is still not quite unimportant.
"Amongst many proposals, which I
considered beneficial for my native city, I had once formed the project of
endowing an educational establishment for those youths, who were to devote
themselves to commerce and the sciences connected therewith. I was then
counting on the patriotic assistance of my fellow-citizens. But I
experienced again that he who expects the fulfilment of his well-meant
proposals from others in undertakings aiming at the common good, and
setting aside all private advantages, is mistaken. Thus in this case also,
partly from the want of public spirit, partly by reason of the
unfavourable political aspect of the times, these my proposals had to
remain amongst the list of unfulfilled wishes. Nevertheless I shall not
doubt that success will ultimately obtain,
if only after my death. I
rather do hope that later on men will be
found with the same good intentions but more good fortune, who amongst a
band of public-spirited contemporaries, will be able to realise those
ideas which I have already thrown out and which I need not repeat here at
I therefore do bequeathe all my
paintings, drawings and prints and my whole library (together with the
book-cases), of which special catalogues will be found after my death, for
the foundation of an educational establishment, which has been wanting in
my native city for so long a time, and I leave the sum of 100.000 gulden
Danzig money in City shares, as a fund, out of which all expenses
necessary for the most profitable working of this institution shall be
The Gibsons or Gibsones were another
family of rich merchants of Scottish extraction at Danzig. They derive
their title of nobility from one William Gibsone, who was employed by King
James V on various diplomatic missions, amongst others to the Pope at
Rome. By him he was ennobled, and received as coat-of-arms the three keys
and the motto: "Caelestes pandite portae." A descendant, named Alexander
Gibsone, was living at Danzig during the reign of Frederick the Great.
There he was considered a clever, honest, well-to-do, if somewhat
eccentric merchant. Towards the end of the year 1776 he submitted to the
President of the Province, von Domhardt, his plea to settle in the
territory of the King of Prussia and to buy the estates known as the
Neustädter or Przebendowski estates for the sum of 150,000 thaler
(ca. £23,000) for the benefit of his two nephews the young Counts
Keyserling. In this document, which was duly forwarded to the King,
Gibsone sets forth that he wished to prove himself a faithful vassal and a
useful citizen of the kingdom by erecting factories at Neustadt for the
manufacture of woollen cloths, stockings and hats; by improving the
breeding and rearing of sheep and by settling Scottish colonists on his
estates. At the same time he begged of the King to grant him the title of
"Freiherr" (Baronet), which would enable him to live amongst the Polish
noblemen, his neighbours, as one of their rank.
By an order of the King, dated
Potsdam, January 7th, 1777, the patent as Baron von Gibsone was duly
forwarded not without an additional note of Frederick insisting on his
keeping his promise and buying the estates.
The purchase was not completed
without considerable difficulties and delays, first of all on account of
disagreement amongst the heirs. Gibsone again applied to the King and the
"Wellborn, most dear. Your
settlement in my lands is by no means restricted to the purchase of the
Przebendowski Estates. There are others in plenty, and you can attain your
ends by purchasing those. I do not doubt that the sooner the better you
will cause me to call myself your sovereign and feudal lord. Your gracious
It was only in the year 1782 that
the above-named estates were in the market for the sum of 220,000 gulden.
Gibsone was not only ready to buy but to expend a further considerable sum
on the repairs. On the other hand, he expects several privileges to
facilitate matters and these the King grants with the exception of a
reduction of taxes. The royal decree says:
"His R.M. of Prussia, etc. Our
gracious Sovereign is well pleased that Alexander Gibsone in Danzig
intends to settle in his lands and permission has already been granted to
him. All privileges granted by royal edicts to strangers, colonists, their
workmen, furniture, etc., shall also be accorded to him and his at his
request. Only the common taxes, which compared with English taxes are a
trifle, can not be remitted, much less can the permission be given to
establish factories on his estates against the dear tenor of the laws of
the kingdom. Their proper place is in the towns. He may settle weavers if
he likes, but otherwise the common law can not be changed for the sake of
one man, but each subject, just as in England, must duly obey it. This His
M. did not wish to conceal from the said Gibsone in reply to his letter of
"POTSDAM, April 3rd, 1782."
Gibsone’s importunities finally
mused the anger of the King. "You trouble me too often with your affairs,"
he writes on May 28th, 1782. "A foreigner must absolutely obey the
constitution and the laws of the kingdom."
At last the purchase was concluded.
Gibsone swore the oath of allegiance at Marienwerder on the 12th of June
of the same year. But far from trying to live at peace now, he entered
into a series of conflicts and law-suits partly with his government,
partly with the magistrates of Neustadt, where he assumed the right of
appointing the members of that august body. These quarrels lasted till
1796; and even then new
dissensions arose between Gibsone and the Count Otto Alexander Keyserling,
to whom the estates had been transferred in that year.
Keyserling refused to give up his own patrimonial estate and solely to
farm the Neustadt property.
Embittered and disappointed the hard old man retired at
last to his office at Danzig. Here he carefully drew up his will, leaving
the bulk of his fortune, amounting to over £70,000, to a nephew from
Scotland, whom he had taken into business, reserving the small sum of
£3000 only for his recalcitrant nephew Keyserling.
No blessing seems to have rested on Gibsone’s money.
There was trouble and vexation in store even after his death in the year
1811. It was Napoleon, who under the pretext that
the deceased was an English subject, caused his fortune to be seized and
only released it after the representations of the
Courts of Vienna, Berlin and Dresden. In the mean time, however, it
had diminished considerably, because it had become mixed up
with the unsettled debts of war of the former free-state of Danzig.’
It is not quite certain in what year Gibsone’s nephew
Alexander arrived in Danzig. He was a man of many excellent qualities, and
so efficient was his assistance in the defence of of his adopted City in
1807, that General Kalkreuth, the Commander, publicly thanked him and
appointed him his aide-de-camp, that he might be included in the
capitulation, which the French insisted on confining to the garrison for
the express purpose of depriving Mr Gibsone of the benefit of it.
His Majesty, the King of Prussia, afterwards wrote to
Gibsone, thanking him in the strongest manner for his services and
subsequently conferred upon him the Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle.
During the dominion of the French, Gibsone was indefatigable in his
endeavours to rouse the patriotism, and having become associated in these
exertions with General Gneisenau, a warm friendship commenced, which only
terminated with the death of that Commander. Gibsone was appointed British
Consul at Danzig in 1814 and Consul General of Hanover some time later.
His death was viewed by the whole community of Danzig as a general
calamity. To the business-talent and the energy, which he shared with his
uncle, he added a kindness of heart which gained him the love of
everybody, and an ardent Prussian patriotism, which made the interference
of the German courts on his behalf a natural expression of gratitude.
Gibsone’s connection with Stein, Gruter and the other
principal actors of the Prussian rising against the "Corsican Tyrant" is
mentioned in many memoirs of the time. His co-operation seemed especially
valuable on account of his being a native of Great Britain: the idea of
British auxiliaries in German pay, who were to land in Prussia, just then
engaging the attention of the Prussian patriots.
Of his friendship with Gneisenau the following letter
of the famous Prussian general gives an interesting account. It is dated
Berlin, Nov. 21st, 1819, and runs
"MY DEAR AND HONOURED FRIEND,
"It is only now, that my son-in-law has sent me the cup
of Bonaparte, taken from his carriage during the night of the 18th of June
1815 and which I left with him at Coblenz. I now fulfill my promise of
presenting it to you, that were never tired of the struggle against the
victorious general even when the greater part of Europe bowed before him
without hope of redemption. If all the ministers and all the
generals had opposed him with the like zeal, we should certainly never
have been conquered by him.
"I was very sorry to hear that your brother John died
so unexpectedly and prematurely. When I saw him last he never appeared to
have enjoyed better health of body and greater peace of mind. His death
held out to me the hope of your visit, but you have not been able to come.
"Like so many others you will have been puzzled at the
intentions of our government published in the papers, but he who is
tolerably well acquainted with the history of all this, is not amazed. It
is only the natural development of certain premises. Once the incident
terminated and all the documents being published, people will perhaps
perceive among the motives of the procedure of government a certain fear
needlessly increased by the circumstances; but at the same time they will
be convinced, that serious measures against unseemly acts, punishable
plans and, in part at least, detestable principles had to be taken by the
"I can only say this much, knowing only the smallest
part of the progress of the investigation, all the rest and the latest
being as yet concealed from me.
"Baron Schön will be satisfied with the steps taken for
the restoration of our Northern Alhambra—as Prince Hardenberg calls the
ruins of the Marienburg. Schinkelis delighted with the plans.
"What you say about the pleasures of a life in the
country finds an echo in my heart. It seems quite incomprehensible to me,
how I could exchange the slavery of town-life for the country. But I
thought it right to sacrifice my wishes to duty. Since you can do as you
like and have tasted its pleasures you ought surely to give it the
preference. If I could get you in our valley an estate with good shooting,
I should like you to buy it. But such a thing is not to be had here.
Another plan would be for you to buy the lands over which your present
shooting extends, and for me to acquire an estate in your neighbourhood.
As it is I am parcelling out part of my Magdeburg property. May God keep
you, and may you remain my friend as I shall always remain
"Yours most affectionately,
Gibsone sent this letter together with one of his own,
in which he modestly deprecates the praises given to him by Gneisenau, to
his sister, who was at that time living at Leith. The cup also went to her
as a contribution "towards her museum."
FREDERICK II AND ANDERSON.
Frederick the Great everywhere promoted the commercial
enterprise of the Scots in his countries. In the year 1748 he conducted an
agreement with George Anderson, who had proposed to erect large
tanning-works at Berlin with a capital of £6000. Anderson, however, made
the condition, that not only should the travelling expenses of himself and
six workmen be paid, but also that the latter and every other workman of
his should be exempt from military service. The King granted these
requests, and offered moreover to erect the buildings for preliminary
trials with certain kinds of skins. The document concludes with these
words: "Toutes ces conditions ont été accordées à
THE CRAFFTERS (CRAWFORDS) IN
James Crawford, the youngest son of David, the third
Earl, accompanied the Scottish Princess Eleanor Stuart to Germany in 1449,
where she was married to Archduke Sigmund of Austria. On the journey he
remained at Augsburg in Bavaria, where he himself marrying a rich heiress
became the founder of a prominent and very wealthy family, the Craffters,
as they were called. Raphael Custos, a writer of the XVIIth Century, has
the following rhymes referring to the Scottish descent of the family:
When a queen came from Scotland
Forth, Archduke Sigmund to take,
There came with her out of the kingdom
Also one of the Crawfords,
Of noble family there,
He remained in Germany henceforth,
Also his posterity
Afterwards went to Augsburg,
There, when with the race of patricians
They had bound themselves to the honour of marriage,
They according to old custom
Were added to the honourable guild.
The four great-grandsons of this Crawford were ennobled
by the Emperor Charles V in 1547, and admitted amongst the patricians of
the city as so-called "Mehrer der Gesellschaft " =
patrons of the Society. One of these brothers, Hieronymus, is
mentioned in an epitaph formerly in the church of St Anna.
LETTERS FROM GUSTAVUS ADOLFUS
TO DONALD MACKAY.
We, Gustavus Adolfus, by the Grace of God, King of the
Suedes, &c., &c.
Be it known to all by these presents, that we have
appointed the noble and highly beloved Donald, Lord of Reay, to be our
Colonel over a Regiment of foreign soldiers which he is to raise and
equip, conduct and command for our service, which Regiment, the officers
as well as the soldiers, shall at all times fulfil this letter of
agreement, and, participating in our advantages, shall not turn away from
us in times of misfortunes, and, as becometh such honourable and brave
cavaliers and soldiers, they shall always be ready cheerfully and
indefatigably to venture body and life, whether in presence of or away
from the enemy, in battles, in skirmishes, and on watches, in attacks, in
sieges, and in garrisons; and on all occasions, whether with the whole
army, or on any special service to which they may be ordered by us or our
generals, they shall, by day or night, by water or by land, fulfil our
articles of War, and thereby attain to honour and renown; also, the
soldiers, wherever they may be, on the march or in quarters, shall do
everything that is necessary in approaches, sieges, trenches, or
strongholds of the enemy; shall throw up earth-works, and when attacked,
defend same; and shall also repair and build any necessary field-works
with all despatch wherever they may be needed. In fulfilling this
engagement, we hereby agree to give to the Colonel and the Regimental
Staff the following allowance or monthly pay, reckoning the month at
Then follows a list of further considerable
remunerations amounting to almost half of the regular pay. After this the
"And we undertake and expressly agree always to provide
a sufficient monthly allowance, and to make a settlement twice in the
year, and to pay at that time whatever balance may be then found due for
the preceding six months; also that we shall not reduce the soldiers’ pay;
but if any of the men shall have carelessly damaged or broken their
accoutrements, the cost of same shall be deducted from their pay, and they
must at all times undertake to keep and deliver them to us again in good
Also, that the Regiment shall without demur be bound to
muster in whole or in part at any time or place we may be pleased to
appoint; and further, that no officer shall venture to draw the balance
due to any dead, disabled or absent soldier, for the balances due to all
such shall in every case revert to us and our kingdom of Sweden.
. . . If any officers or soldiers should be
taken prisoners by the enemy, while in our service, we shall ransom them
at our own cost; and if any officers or soldiers.... shall be bruised or
in any way disabled, so that they are incapable of taking part in warlike
operations, we shall provide a temporary home for them in our own
dominions; but should they prefer going beyond our kingdom, a month’s pay
shall be given to each. In testimony whereof we have subscribed this with
our own hand and attested the same with our Royal Seal. Done in the Camp
of Marienburg, June 17th, 1629."
Of the two Latin letters of the King to Mackay the
first 15th March 1631, refers to the sack of New Brandenburg by Tilly, and
expresses a regret that nearly the whole of the soldiers had been
massacred. The King hopes that the three regiments may be filled up by
levies from Scotland. The second Latin letter dated 4th July, 1631, from
the Camp at Werben is addressed: "Illustri Tribuno nostro, nobis sincere
dilecto ac fideli Domino Donald Macquei, Domino de Reay et Streinever." In
answer to a letter from Mackay, who was then in England, endeavouring to
procure new recruits for His Majesty, the King says :—
"It is very agreeable to us to learn that the levies of
the Marquis of Hamilton are favoured both by the King himself and the
English States; and as we have undertaken the burden of this war not only
to be avenged for injury done and for our own security, but also for the
relief of our oppressed friends in the afflicted Evangelical Religion, so
we wish his Serene Majesty, the English King, our brother and friend, to
be quite convinced, that if he will help us we shall not be unmindful of
the King of Bohemia and the oppressed House of the Palatine; but we shall
vindicate his dignity and former state as the Divine favour shall help us.
For this purpose there is now the most favourable opportunity, seeing that
the enemy has been expelled from the whole of Pomerania and nearly all the
Electorate of Brandenburg. . . It is pleasing to
us that the Marquis of Hamilton raises his levies with so much ardour; and
although it has been reported to us that the munitions of war which we
were sending him have been intercepted near Dunkirk, we do not doubt that
our agent, Eric Larson, has provided for the promised amount."
The King then urges the Marquis of Hamilton to hurry
and bring his troops into Germany without delay, and explains that he has
given orders to Larson to pay Mackay the sum of 9600 Imperial dollars for
the expense of enlisting. He concludes with promised proofs of his favour
and recommends him to God.’
LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL SCOTTISH
OFFICERS EMPLOYED BY
GUSTAVUS AADOLFUS IN GERMANY.
Three Field Marshalls:-
Sir Alex. Leslie, Governor of the Baltic Provinces.
Sir Patrick Ruthven, Governor of Ulm.
Sir Robt. Douglas, commanded the left wing of Torstensohn's Army at
James, Marquis of Hamilton
Sir James Spence
George, Earl of Crawford-Lindsay
Andr. Rutherford, afterwards Earl of Teviot
Alex. Forbes, tenth Lord Forbes
Sir James King, Governor of Vlotho
Sir D Drummond, Governor of Stettin
Sir James Ramsay, Governor of Hanau
Alex. Ramsay, Governor of Kreuznach
W. Legge, Governor of Bremen
Th. Ker, at Leipzig
Sir G. Douglas.
Sir J. Hepburn
Robt. Munroe, Lord of Foulis at Ulm
Sir Donald Mackay, Lord Reay
G. Lindsay, at Neu-Brandenburg
Lord Forbes, at Hamburg
Sir Hector Munroe at Buxtehude
Lord St Colme
W. Bonar of Rossy, in Fife
Sir J. Ruthven
Sir Jas. Lumsden, Governor of Osnabrück
Sir J. Hamilton
Sir J. Innes
Henry Lindsay, at Hamburg
Jas. Macdougall (called Dewbattle. He stormed Landsberg, defended
Schweinfurt and beat the Imperial troops at Liegnitz)
W. Bruntsfield, at Buxtehude
William Stewart, brother of the Earl of Traquair
Seven other Leslies, amongst them George Leslie, Governor of Vechta in
John Sinclair, son of the Earl of Caithness, at Neumark in the Palatinate
Robt. Munroe, at Wittenberg
J. Lindsay, at Neumark
— Armin, wounded at Stralsund
— Beatoun, wounded at Stralsund
W. Gunn, afterwards Colonel and Imperial General
John Gunn, afterwards Colonel
John Innes, at Stralsund
P. Innes, at Nürnberg
G. Learmouth, at Boitzenburg
W. Mackay, at Lutzen
Three other Mackays
Moncrieff at Brandenburg
And many others.
COLONEL ROBERT MUNRO AND HIS
DEATH AT ULM
In the minute-books of the Town Council of Ulm in
Würtemberg we read (Feb 20, 1633):-
"Michael Rietmuller, the surgeon, has permission to
have Colonel Munroth in his house, until the time of his recovery.
May 2nd 1633.
"Received by me Paul Held, secretary to the Board of
Works of the Church from the Brother of the late Robert Monroth a Scottish
Baronet and Colonel to H. M. the King of Sweden the sum of 100 Reichs
Thaler, which had gratefully been left to the said Board ad pies causas,
because the Magistrates had the above named Robert interred in the
Franciscan Church and his standard, armour and spurs hung up there; for
which the Swedish Mayor again thanked the Board and begged to express his
gratitude to the Council.
Contin. fol. 159.
"According to a decree of the Council, dated Friday,
May 3, of the 100 Reichs Thaler left by the late Swedish Colonel Robert
Monro, because of the permission to be buried in the Franciscan Church,
one half, namely 75 Gulden or 25 Ducats at 3 fl. shall be given to
the Hospital, and in future, when such donations shall occur again, it
shall be held likewise."
In the Register of Deaths of the Church mentioned above
we find the following entry:-
"I, Magister Balthasar Kerner have done my 96th Funeral
Sermon for Robert Monraw, Baron of Failis (I), late Colonel of H.M. the
King of Sweden of two regiments of foot and horse, on the 29th of April
hor. 3. He lies buried in the said Church."
Another Munro, whose Christian name was John, was
killed at Bacharach on the Rhine and lies buried in the Church of St
Peter. But there is neither stone nor inscription to indicate the spot.
LETTER OF GENERAL JAMES RAMSAY
RELATING TO THE
TREATY OF MAYENCE.
James Ramsay, Major General of the kingdom of Sweden
and its allies also Governor of the fortress of Hanau is constrained, with
regard to the Chief-Points of the Treaty handed to him by the Hessian
Ambassadors, to remark as follows :—
"Firstly, that the above-mentioned six points do not
relate to the common welfare but chiefly to the person of the General
himself; although he by force of his office aimed in all his actions
military and civil, above all things, at the common good of the County of
Hanau and especially of this fortress and its sovereign. To turn aside
from such a scope and simply to deal with personal matters would cause
prejudice and grievance with my superiors and disreputable rumours with
friend and foe.
"Secondly, that it is apparent from the document signed
by the Emperor at the Castle of Ebersdorff on September 14th of last year
that the "peace-accord" concluded at Mayence on the 31st of August eodem
anno was not inserted in its entirety, but only some paragraphs of it,
which had been in consideration up to the 21st of August, but which had
never been signed by the General.
"Thirdly, the treaty is a patched up work. The dear
letter, however, showeth that certain stipulations took place as to the
pardon and reconciliation of Count Philip Moritz and the eventual
surrender of this town; likewise some paragraphs were agreed upon and
signed and then sent to His Imp. Maj. the late Emperor ad ratificandum,
which ratification took place at Regens Purgk on Dec. 5th Ao. 1636.
"Therefore the public interest requireth, that both the
stipulations settled as well as the Imperial ratification concerning these
first points should without any delay be brought to hand, considering that
the Crown of Sweden can not rest, satisfied with the present Imperial
Document de dato Sept. 14th, far less accept its many discrepancies (Lit.
"To this must be added, that, as may be seen both from
the treaty itself and from the Salvoconduct dated Laxenburg, May 8th,
1637, this fortress was to be handed over to the Count of Hanau,
but that in the Imperial letter of intercession to the Duke of Mecklenburg
of the 4th of September, "the surrender shall take place into the hands of
His Imperial Majesty."
"It is likewise a grievous alteration, that the General
with all his soldiers and belongings was to have a free pass and a convoy
and enjoy every futherance and support, nevertheless in the forged
Imperial confirmation this is tacitly omitted; also that the hostages
refer to the person of the General alone instead of the officers and
soldiers on foot and horse and to all persons in the service of the Crown
of Sweden and other good friends staying with him.
"Now because the foundation of the treaty is not
properly established, and because common faith and truthfulness require a
‘consummation’ free from any blame: let the Hessian ambassadors duly
co-operate that such defects be remedied and word for word, a just
agreement (of the documents) be obtained. Expecting Your written
communications, signatum, the 2nd of Feb., 1638."
DUKE BERNHARD OF WEIMAR AND
Ramsay never neglected his duty towards his superior officers. He
informed the Duke immediately of the treaty of Mayence; but the latter had
already heard of it through a different channel. He wrote on the 11th of
Sept. 1637 :—
"We have been told for certain, that you concluded a
treaty with the enemy concerning the surrender of the town and fortress of
Hanau. Considering that by your great industry and perseverance, you have
held the place up to this time, which not only earned you immortal glory,
but our own gratitude, we can fancy only, that extreme necessity and
adversity compelled you to give up such an important place."
In a second letter the Duke expressed his surprise to
the General, that he had obtained such favourable conditions, adding (Nov.
20th) that he had sufficient proof of Ramsay’s constant and true affection
for the Crown of Sweden and for the whole evangelical cause, and that he
had no doubt whatever, that to his immortal honour and praise, he would
persevere in it unshaken and do his best as hitherto.
In another letter the Duke recommends Ramsay to observe
the paragraphs of the treaty carefully with the express order to see to
it, "that all articles of the contract be fulfilled, because to promise
much is nothing, the keeping of the promises is the principal thing."
The General, who left an extremely large fortune,
exhorts his wife in the introduction to his will "to educate their son
David in the fear of God," at the same time recommending her not to mourn
for him longer than six weeks, and after that to marry a gentleman of good
family for the best of her child. The new husband was to receive one third
of the money left by him, the second third belonging to her and the third
to their son. In case the latter should die without heir, the money was to
go to the General’s cousin, Lord William Ramsay, and his male heirs. A
part of the interest on the property was set aside for the support of five
students of divinity.
Finally it was ordered that immediate payment should be
made for 500 pairs of shoes, bought at Elbing for the regiment.
SCOTTISH OFFICERS UNDER
FREDERICK THE GREAT.
Too late to be incorporated into the text, the
following additional information regarding Scottish Officers under
Frederick the Great, chiefly derived from Charles Lowe’s delightful tale,
A Fallen Star, must find a place here.
Major General Grant mentioned in the text, Frederick’s
favourite aide-de-camp, belonged to the Grants of Dalvey, and was
designated of Dunlugas, "an estate on the pleasant banks of the Deveron, a
few miles above the port of Banff. At first, being a cadet who had to push
his own fortune in the world, he took service under Elizabeth, the Empress
of Russia, where his countryman Keith procured him a commission. After a
time, however, he exchanged it after the example of his general, to whom
he was devotedly attached, for the Prussian army. Frederick the Great
quickly discovered his great force of character, his blunt honesty and his
excellent capacity for hard riding. As the King’s messenger, he performed
feats of horsemanship which seem incredible. Shortly before the outbreak
of the Seven Years’ War he covered the distance between Berlin and Vienna
and back again, including a delay of three days in the Austrian capital,
that is close on nine hundred miles, in ten days.
By these and other performances he contributed much to
the well-known readiness of the King against all surprises, and therefore,
if indirectly, to the victorious issue of the war.
One of Grant’s eccentricities was his great love for
his dogs. His two intelligent Scotch collies accompanied him everywhere,
and he is said to have trained and used them for military purposes where
the services of scouts were required.
When the war was over in 1763 his grateful King made
him a Major-General and Governor of Neisse, an important fortress on the
frontier of Silesia. But a life of peace and quiet monotony did ill agree
with this man of daring. He died about 1764, and
lies buried in the churchyard of the
Garrison Church. Of two other officers under the great Prussian King,
Colonel Drummond and Quartermaster Spalding we know little more than the
names. A third one, however, named Gaudy or von Gaudy, obtained no little
The Gaudys were originally Goldies or Gowdies, and
hailed from Ayrshire and Dumfries-shire. One Andrew Gaudie from Craigmuie,
a parish adjacent to Craigenputtock, the temporary home of Carlyle,
entered the service of Prince Ragozzi in Hungary (1641), who sent him as
ambassador to Hamburg and employed him in various military capacities. He
was present in several of the later battles of the Thirty Years’ War. In
1650 he bought estates in Eastern Prussia, and in 1660 exchanged into the
service of the Elector of Brandenburg as Major-General. From this Gaudy
sprung quite a number of famous Prussian military leaders. One of them is
mentioned by Frederick the Great in his Memoires de Brandenburg in
connection with the siege of Stralsund, then occupied by the Swedes under
Charles XII., as the Prussian officer who facilitated the attacking of the
Swedish trenches. It appears that Gaudy recollected having, in his school
days at Stralsund, bathed in the arm of the sea near the ramparts finding
it neither deep nor muddy. To make sure of the matter, however, he sounded
it in the night "and found that the Prussians might ford it, turn the left
of the Swedish trenches, and thus take the enemy in flank and rear." This
was successfully done, and the merit of defeating such a renowned soldier
as Charles XII was due, or in part at least, due to a man of Scottish
Another Gaudy, a son of the above, was attached to the
staff of Field-Marshal Keith. He was a most intelligent officer and wrote
a Diary of the Seven Years’ War,
in ten folio volumes of manuscript still preserved but unpublished in the
Archives of the "General Stab" at Berlin. He also wrote treatises on
A third Gaudy was Fred. W. Leopold von Gaudy,
Lieutenant-Colonel of Infantry and Knight of the Order Pour Ie mérite in
1809. His son again became the famous soldier-poet, Franz von Gaudy, who
has been called, though not very aptly, the "Burns! and Béranger of the
Fatherland rolled into one." The simplicity and sweetness of his lyrics is
still much admired in Germany.
Descendants of old Gaudys are still to be met with in
the Prussian Army List.
The family of Spalding is still flourishing in Germany.
The ancestor Andrew, who emigrated to Plau in Mecklenburg about 1600,
became a member of the Senate; his son a Burgomaster. His grandson,
Thomas, removed to Güstrow in the same country, where he likewise obtained
the dignity of a "Senator." Here he and his family remained for almost two
hundred years, inhabiting the same house, an old monastery of the
mendicant Friars. In its gable the following verses were read:
Die mich nicht können leiden,
Die sollen mich meiden,
Die mich hassen,
Sollen mich lassen,
Die mir nichts wollen geben,
Sollen mich mit Gott doch lassen leben;
i.e. "Those that
cannot bear me, let them avoid me; those that hate me, let them leave me
alone; those that will not give me anything, must yet with God let me
The most eminent of the family was Johann Joachim
Spalding, born at Triebsees (Pomerania) in 1714 as the son of a clergyman.
He studied divinity, and was appointed "Probst" (Archdeacon) and member of
the consistorial board at Berlin (1764). Here he continued to write and to
preach with much acceptance for twenty-five years. He was a great
favourite with the Queen, the consort of Frederick the Great. His
writings, some of which have been translated into English, bear the
rationalistic stamp of his time. His piety and uprightness were
acknowledged by everybody. He died in retirement at Charlottenburg in
1804. Visitors will see his bust in the Hohenzoller Museum at Berlin. His
son George Ludwig also was an author. He was a member of the Academy of
Sciences, and Professor at the High School. He wrote, among other works, a
biography of his father.
In Gauhen’s Adels Lexicon are mentioned:—George
Ogilvie, who settled in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War and became
Commandant of the Fortress of Spielberg, near Brünn, in Moravia; George
Benedict, his son, died as Polish and Saxon General and Field-Marshal in
1710; Carl Hermann, his son, was a general commanding in Bohemia and
Governor of Prague (abt. 1740).
Another Colonel Gunn was Governor of the town of Ohlau
in Silesia (1638). He fortified the place, which had been destroyed by the
Imperialists, with walls and moat. A Swedish garrison remained till after
the Peace in 1648. Colonel John Gunn, lamented by the grateful citizens,
died on the 9th of April 1649. The inscription on his tombstone in the
Evangelical Church at Ohlau says of him: "Col. Johann Gunn, who laid the
foundations of the fortifications of this town, was born in 1608 in the
month of October. He was the descendant of a very old noble family, of the
house of Golspie in the Kingdom of Scotland. He died aged forty years and
six months. God grant him a peaceful rest until the joyous resurrection.
"His remains were deposited in this vault by his wife,
née von Arnim, on the 14th of July, according to the custom of the
Gunn’s coffin was removed in 1825 to a place near the
vestry; his mail-armour is hung up in the High School; two of his rings
are preserved in the church at Ohlau.
STATESMAN AND SCHOLAR.
Erskine, also called Eskin or Esken in German
documents, was twice married, his second wife being Lucie Christine von
Wartensleben, the widow of a Baron von Maltzahn in Mecklenburg. In 1631-32
he was Swedish Plenipotentiary at Erfurt, where he gained the gratitude of
the inhabitants by suggesting and actively promoting the arranging of the
City Records. In Motschmann, Erfordia litterata, iv, 305, we read:
i.e. The Magistrates of the City of Erfurt at their
own expense appointed a Commission, which together with members of the
University requisitioned for the purpose, were to examine the privileges,
records and other like documents, and to deliberate on their restoration
if required. They then handed a Memorial to the Swedish Counsellor of
State and Resident in this City, Alexander Erskine, to whose suggestion
and assistance they were chiefly indebted in this matter, on the 31st of
August 1632. The chief points therein were, etc., etc.
The name Schott or Schotte (Polish Scoda) occurs
as early as 1383 in Breslau. It is frequently met with in the XVth and
XVIth Centuries, especially in the eastern parts of Prussia, where the
Scottish immigration was particularly numerous. Care, however, must be
exercised in tracing the name Schotte back to Scottish ancestors in every
case, since the German word has various other meanings. There is also a
small town called Schotten in Hesse. The name Scott occurs in
Prussia. One Walter Scott is a landowner and Hauptmann (captain in the
army). His ancestor emigrated towards the close of the XVIth Century from
near Edinburgh and settled in PiIlau. There are now six representatives of
the family in Eastern Prussia alone, four of them landowners.
The Piersons, who are settled in Berlin and
Karlsruhe, trace their origin to one James Pierson of Balmadies, who went
to Riga towards the end of the XVllIth Century. (See Families Chronik
der Pierson, privately printed.)
The family - von Mietzel
in Brandenburg derive their name from Mitchel; the von Marshalls
from the Earl Marschal. They settled in Königsberg in the XVIIth
Century. One Samuel Marschall, a Privy Counsellor and Domdechant at
Havelberg, was ennobled in 1718. (Märkisches Adels Lexicon.)