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The Scots in Germany
Appendix


KABRUN AND GIBSONES AT DANZIG.

The part of Jacob Kabrun’s will referring to Danzig runs as follows:-

"I have sought from my youth up food for the mind not only in my main profession as a merchant but elsewhere also, and I have found it in the arts and sciences, to which I owe many a pure joy during my life. This being my opinion and having had the occasion of making purchases on my travels, a collection of paintings, drawings, prints and books has been formed, which cannot indeed, be pronounced unique, but is still not quite unimportant.

"Amongst many proposals, which I considered beneficial for my native city, I had once formed the project of endowing an educational establishment for those youths, who were to devote themselves to commerce and the sciences connected therewith. I was then counting on the patriotic assistance of my fellow-citizens. But I experienced again that he who expects the fulfilment of his well-meant proposals from others in undertakings aiming at the common good, and setting aside all private advantages, is mistaken. Thus in this case also, partly from the want of public spirit, partly by reason of the unfavourable political aspect of the times, these my proposals had to remain amongst the list of unfulfilled wishes. Nevertheless I shall not doubt that success will ultimately obtain, if only after my death. I rather do hope that later on men will be found with the same good intentions but more good fortune, who amongst a band of public-spirited contemporaries, will be able to realise those ideas which I have already thrown out and which I need not repeat here at length.

I therefore do bequeathe all my paintings, drawings and prints and my whole library (together with the book-cases), of which special catalogues will be found after my death, for the foundation of an educational establishment, which has been wanting in my native city for so long a time, and I leave the sum of 100.000 gulden Danzig money in City shares, as a fund, out of which all expenses necessary for the most profitable working of this institution shall be defrayed."

The Gibsons or Gibsones were another family of rich merchants of Scottish extraction at Danzig. They derive their title of nobility from one William Gibsone, who was employed by King James V on various diplomatic missions, amongst others to the Pope at Rome. By him he was ennobled, and received as coat-of-arms the three keys and the motto: "Caelestes pandite portae." A descendant, named Alexander Gibsone, was living at Danzig during the reign of Frederick the Great. There he was considered a clever, honest, well-to-do, if somewhat eccentric merchant. Towards the end of the year 1776 he submitted to the President of the Province, von Domhardt, his plea to settle in the territory of the King of Prussia and to buy the estates known as the Neustädter or Przebendowski estates for the sum of 150,000 thaler (ca. £23,000) for the benefit of his two nephews the young Counts Keyserling. In this document, which was duly forwarded to the King, Gibsone sets forth that he wished to prove himself a faithful vassal and a useful citizen of the kingdom by erecting factories at Neustadt for the manufacture of woollen cloths, stockings and hats; by improving the breeding and rearing of sheep and by settling Scottish colonists on his estates. At the same time he begged of the King to grant him the title of "Freiherr" (Baronet), which would enable him to live amongst the Polish noblemen, his neighbours, as one of their rank.

By an order of the King, dated Potsdam, January 7th, 1777, the patent as Baron von Gibsone was duly forwarded not without an additional note of Frederick insisting on his keeping his promise and buying the estates.

The purchase was not completed without considerable difficulties and delays, first of all on account of disagreement amongst the heirs. Gibsone again applied to the King and the later replied:

"Wellborn, most dear. Your settlement in my lands is by no means restricted to the purchase of the Przebendowski Estates. There are others in plenty, and you can attain your ends by purchasing those. I do not doubt that the sooner the better you will cause me to call myself your sovereign and feudal lord. Your gracious King.

"FRD."

"P0TSDAM, April 2nd, 1777."

It was only in the year 1782 that the above-named estates were in the market for the sum of 220,000 gulden. Gibsone was not only ready to buy but to expend a further considerable sum on the repairs. On the other hand, he expects several privileges to facilitate matters and these the King grants with the exception of a reduction of taxes. The royal decree says:

"His R.M. of Prussia, etc. Our gracious Sovereign is well pleased that Alexander Gibsone in Danzig intends to settle in his lands and permission has already been granted to him. All privileges granted by royal edicts to strangers, colonists, their workmen, furniture, etc., shall also be accorded to him and his at his request. Only the common taxes, which compared with English taxes are a trifle, can not be remitted, much less can the permission be given to establish factories on his estates against the dear tenor of the laws of the kingdom. Their proper place is in the towns. He may settle weavers if he likes, but otherwise the common law can not be changed for the sake of one man, but each subject, just as in England, must duly obey it. This His M. did not wish to conceal from the said Gibsone in reply to his letter of March 26th.

FRD."

"POTSDAM, April 3rd, 1782."

Gibsone’s importunities finally mused the anger of the King. "You trouble me too often with your affairs," he writes on May 28th, 1782. "A foreigner must absolutely obey the constitution and the laws of the kingdom."

At last the purchase was concluded. Gibsone swore the oath of allegiance at Marienwerder on the 12th of June of the same year. But far from trying to live at peace now, he entered into a series of conflicts and law-suits partly with his government, partly with the magistrates of Neustadt, where he assumed the right of appointing the members of that august body. These quarrels lasted till 1796; and even then new dissensions arose between Gibsone and the Count Otto Alexander Keyserling, to whom the estates had been transferred in that year. Keyserling refused to give up his own patrimonial estate and solely to farm the Neustadt property.

Embittered and disappointed the hard old man retired at last to his office at Danzig. Here he carefully drew up his will, leaving the bulk of his fortune, amounting to over £70,000, to a nephew from Scotland, whom he had taken into business, reserving the small sum of £3000 only for his recalcitrant nephew Keyserling.

No blessing seems to have rested on Gibsone’s money. There was trouble and vexation in store even after his death in the year 1811. It was Napoleon, who under the pretext that the deceased was an English subject, caused his fortune to be seized and only released it after the representations of the Courts of Vienna, Berlin and Dresden. In the mean time, however, it had diminished considerably, because it had become mixed up with the unsettled debts of war of the former free-state of Danzig.’

It is not quite certain in what year Gibsone’s nephew Alexander arrived in Danzig. He was a man of many excellent qualities, and so efficient was his assistance in the defence of of his adopted City in 1807, that General Kalkreuth, the Commander, publicly thanked him and appointed him his aide-de-camp, that he might be included in the capitulation, which the French insisted on confining to the garrison for the express purpose of depriving Mr Gibsone of the benefit of it. His Majesty, the King of Prussia, afterwards wrote to Gibsone, thanking him in the strongest manner for his services and subsequently conferred upon him the Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle. During the dominion of the French, Gibsone was indefatigable in his endeavours to rouse the patriotism, and having become associated in these exertions with General Gneisenau, a warm friendship commenced, which only terminated with the death of that Commander. Gibsone was appointed British Consul at Danzig in 1814 and Consul General of Hanover some time later. His death was viewed by the whole community of Danzig as a general calamity. To the business-talent and the energy, which he shared with his uncle, he added a kindness of heart which gained him the love of everybody, and an ardent Prussian patriotism, which made the interference of the German courts on his behalf a natural expression of gratitude.

Gibsone’s connection with Stein, Gruter and the other principal actors of the Prussian rising against the "Corsican Tyrant" is mentioned in many memoirs of the time. His co-operation seemed especially valuable on account of his being a native of Great Britain: the idea of British auxiliaries in German pay, who were to land in Prussia, just then engaging the attention of the Prussian patriots.

Of his friendship with Gneisenau the following letter of the famous Prussian general gives an interesting account. It is dated Berlin, Nov. 21st, 1819, and runs :—

"MY DEAR AND HONOURED FRIEND,

"It is only now, that my son-in-law has sent me the cup of Bonaparte, taken from his carriage during the night of the 18th of June 1815 and which I left with him at Coblenz. I now fulfill my promise of presenting it to you, that were never tired of the struggle against the victorious general even when the greater part of Europe bowed before him without hope of redemption. If all the ministers and all the generals had opposed him with the like zeal, we should certainly never have been conquered by him.

"I was very sorry to hear that your brother John died so unexpectedly and prematurely. When I saw him last he never appeared to have enjoyed better health of body and greater peace of mind. His death held out to me the hope of your visit, but you have not been able to come.

"Like so many others you will have been puzzled at the intentions of our government published in the papers, but he who is tolerably well acquainted with the history of all this, is not amazed. It is only the natural development of certain premises. Once the incident terminated and all the documents being published, people will perhaps perceive among the motives of the procedure of government a certain fear needlessly increased by the circumstances; but at the same time they will be convinced, that serious measures against unseemly acts, punishable plans and, in part at least, detestable principles had to be taken by the crown.

"I can only say this much, knowing only the smallest part of the progress of the investigation, all the rest and the latest being as yet concealed from me.

"Baron Schön will be satisfied with the steps taken for the restoration of our Northern Alhambra—as Prince Hardenberg calls the ruins of the Marienburg. Schinkelis delighted with the plans.

"What you say about the pleasures of a life in the country finds an echo in my heart. It seems quite incomprehensible to me, how I could exchange the slavery of town-life for the country. But I thought it right to sacrifice my wishes to duty. Since you can do as you like and have tasted its pleasures you ought surely to give it the preference. If I could get you in our valley an estate with good shooting, I should like you to buy it. But such a thing is not to be had here. Another plan would be for you to buy the lands over which your present shooting extends, and for me to acquire an estate in your neighbourhood. As it is I am parcelling out part of my Magdeburg property. May God keep you, and may you remain my friend as I shall always remain

"Yours most affectionately,

"G."

Gibsone sent this letter together with one of his own, in which he modestly deprecates the praises given to him by Gneisenau, to his sister, who was at that time living at Leith. The cup also went to her as a contribution "towards her museum."

FREDERICK II AND ANDERSON.

Frederick the Great everywhere promoted the commercial enterprise of the Scots in his countries. In the year 1748 he conducted an agreement with George Anderson, who had proposed to erect large tanning-works at Berlin with a capital of £6000. Anderson, however, made the condition, that not only should the travelling expenses of himself and six workmen be paid, but also that the latter and every other workman of his should be exempt from military service. The King granted these requests, and offered moreover to erect the buildings for preliminary trials with certain kinds of skins. The document concludes with these words: "Toutes ces conditions ont été accordées à Mr Anderson."

THE CRAFFTERS (CRAWFORDS) IN AUGSBURG

James Crawford, the youngest son of David, the third Earl, accompanied the Scottish Princess Eleanor Stuart to Germany in 1449, where she was married to Archduke Sigmund of Austria. On the journey he remained at Augsburg in Bavaria, where he himself marrying a rich heiress became the founder of a prominent and very wealthy family, the Craffters, as they were called. Raphael Custos, a writer of the XVIIth Century, has the following rhymes referring to the Scottish descent of the family:

When a queen came from Scotland
Forth, Archduke Sigmund to take,
There came with her out of the kingdom
Also one of the Crawfords,
Of noble family there,
He remained in Germany henceforth,
Also his posterity
Afterwards went to Augsburg,
There, when with the race of patricians
They had bound themselves to the honour of marriage,
They according to old custom
Were added to the honourable guild.

The four great-grandsons of this Crawford were ennobled by the Emperor Charles V in 1547, and admitted amongst the patricians of the city as so-called "Mehrer der Gesellschaft " = patrons of the Society. One of these brothers, Hieronymus, is mentioned in an epitaph formerly in the church of St Anna.

LETTERS FROM GUSTAVUS ADOLFUS TO DONALD MACKAY.

We, Gustavus Adolfus, by the Grace of God, King of the Suedes, &c., &c.

Be it known to all by these presents, that we have appointed the noble and highly beloved Donald, Lord of Reay, to be our Colonel over a Regiment of foreign soldiers which he is to raise and equip, conduct and command for our service, which Regiment, the officers as well as the soldiers, shall at all times fulfil this letter of agreement, and, participating in our advantages, shall not turn away from us in times of misfortunes, and, as becometh such honourable and brave cavaliers and soldiers, they shall always be ready cheerfully and indefatigably to venture body and life, whether in presence of or away from the enemy, in battles, in skirmishes, and on watches, in attacks, in sieges, and in garrisons; and on all occasions, whether with the whole army, or on any special service to which they may be ordered by us or our generals, they shall, by day or night, by water or by land, fulfil our articles of War, and thereby attain to honour and renown; also, the soldiers, wherever they may be, on the march or in quarters, shall do everything that is necessary in approaches, sieges, trenches, or strongholds of the enemy; shall throw up earth-works, and when attacked, defend same; and shall also repair and build any necessary field-works with all despatch wherever they may be needed. In fulfilling this engagement, we hereby agree to give to the Colonel and the Regimental Staff the following allowance or monthly pay, reckoning the month at thirty-one days.

Then follows a list of further considerable remunerations amounting to almost half of the regular pay. After this the King continues:-

"And we undertake and expressly agree always to provide a sufficient monthly allowance, and to make a settlement twice in the year, and to pay at that time whatever balance may be then found due for the preceding six months; also that we shall not reduce the soldiers’ pay; but if any of the men shall have carelessly damaged or broken their accoutrements, the cost of same shall be deducted from their pay, and they must at all times undertake to keep and deliver them to us again in good order.

Also, that the Regiment shall without demur be bound to muster in whole or in part at any time or place we may be pleased to appoint; and further, that no officer shall venture to draw the balance due to any dead, disabled or absent soldier, for the balances due to all such shall in every case revert to us and our kingdom of Sweden. . . . If any officers or soldiers should be taken prisoners by the enemy, while in our service, we shall ransom them at our own cost; and if any officers or soldiers.... shall be bruised or in any way disabled, so that they are incapable of taking part in warlike operations, we shall provide a temporary home for them in our own dominions; but should they prefer going beyond our kingdom, a month’s pay shall be given to each. In testimony whereof we have subscribed this with our own hand and attested the same with our Royal Seal. Done in the Camp of Marienburg, June 17th, 1629."

"GUSTAVUS ADOLFUS."

Of the two Latin letters of the King to Mackay the first 15th March 1631, refers to the sack of New Brandenburg by Tilly, and expresses a regret that nearly the whole of the soldiers had been massacred. The King hopes that the three regiments may be filled up by levies from Scotland. The second Latin letter dated 4th July, 1631, from the Camp at Werben is addressed: "Illustri Tribuno nostro, nobis sincere dilecto ac fideli Domino Donald Macquei, Domino de Reay et Streinever." In answer to a letter from Mackay, who was then in England, endeavouring to procure new recruits for His Majesty, the King says :—

"It is very agreeable to us to learn that the levies of the Marquis of Hamilton are favoured both by the King himself and the English States; and as we have undertaken the burden of this war not only to be avenged for injury done and for our own security, but also for the relief of our oppressed friends in the afflicted Evangelical Religion, so we wish his Serene Majesty, the English King, our brother and friend, to be quite convinced, that if he will help us we shall not be unmindful of the King of Bohemia and the oppressed House of the Palatine; but we shall vindicate his dignity and former state as the Divine favour shall help us. For this purpose there is now the most favourable opportunity, seeing that the enemy has been expelled from the whole of Pomerania and nearly all the Electorate of Brandenburg. . . It is pleasing to us that the Marquis of Hamilton raises his levies with so much ardour; and although it has been reported to us that the munitions of war which we were sending him have been intercepted near Dunkirk, we do not doubt that our agent, Eric Larson, has provided for the promised amount."

The King then urges the Marquis of Hamilton to hurry and bring his troops into Germany without delay, and explains that he has given orders to Larson to pay Mackay the sum of 9600 Imperial dollars for the expense of enlisting. He concludes with promised proofs of his favour and recommends him to God.’

LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL SCOTTISH OFFICERS EMPLOYED BY
GUSTAVUS AADOLFUS IN GERMANY.

Three Field Marshalls:-
Sir Alex. Leslie, Governor of the Baltic Provinces.
Sir Patrick Ruthven, Governor of Ulm.
Sir Robt. Douglas, commanded the left wing of Torstensohn's Army at Iankowitz.

Four Generals:-
James, Marquis of Hamilton
Sir James Spence
George, Earl of Crawford-Lindsay
Andr. Rutherford, afterwards Earl of Teviot

Lieutenant-General:-
Alex. Forbes, tenth Lord Forbes

Majors-General:-
Sir James King, Governor of Vlotho
Sir D Drummond, Governor of Stettin
Sir James Ramsay, Governor of Hanau
Alex. Ramsay, Governor of Kreuznach
John Rentoun
W. Legge, Governor of Bremen
John Leslie
Th. Ker, at Leipzig
Sir G. Douglas.

Colonels:-
Sir J. Hepburn
Robt. Munroe, Lord of Foulis at Ulm
Sir Donald Mackay, Lord Reay
G. Lindsay, at Neu-Brandenburg
Lord Forbes, at Hamburg
Sir Hector Munroe at Buxtehude
Lord St Colme
Lud. Leslie
Will. Baillie
W. Bonar of Rossy, in Fife
A. Ramsay
Sir J. Ruthven
Sir Jas. Lumsden, Governor of Osnabrück
Sir J. Hamilton
Sir J. Innes
W. Ballantine
Henry Lindsay, at Hamburg
Alex. Lindsay.
Jas. Macdougall (called Dewbattle. He stormed Landsberg, defended Schweinfurt and beat the Imperial troops at Liegnitz)
Henry Fleming
W. Bruntsfield, at Buxtehude
William Stewart, brother of the Earl of Traquair
Seven other Leslies, amongst them George Leslie, Governor of Vechta in Oldenburg
Six Hamiltons
Two Lumsdens
John Sinclair, son of the Earl of Caithness, at Neumark in the Palatinate
Robt. Munroe, at Wittenberg
Fr. Sinclair
J. Lindsay, at Neumark

Captains :—
Annan
Armin, wounded at Stralsund
Beatoun, wounded at Stralsund
A. Gordon
W. Gunn, afterwards Colonel and Imperial General
John Gunn, afterwards Colonel
G. Heatley
Rob. Hume
John Innes, at Stralsund
P. Innes, at Nürnberg
G. Learmouth, at Boitzenburg
W. Mackay, at Lutzen
Three other Mackays
Moncrieff at Brandenburg
Three Stewarts.
Alex. Tulloch.
And many others.

COLONEL ROBERT MUNRO AND HIS DEATH AT ULM

In the minute-books of the Town Council of Ulm in Würtemberg we read (Feb 20, 1633):-

"Michael Rietmuller, the surgeon, has permission to have Colonel Munroth in his house, until the time of his recovery.

May 2nd 1633.

"Received by me Paul Held, secretary to the Board of Works of the Church from the Brother of the late Robert Monroth a Scottish Baronet and Colonel to H. M. the King of Sweden the sum of 100 Reichs Thaler, which had gratefully been left to the said Board ad pies causas, because the Magistrates had the above named Robert interred in the Franciscan Church and his standard, armour and spurs hung up there; for which the Swedish Mayor again thanked the Board and begged to express his gratitude to the Council.

Contin. fol. 159.

"According to a decree of the Council, dated Friday, May 3, of the 100 Reichs Thaler left by the late Swedish Colonel Robert Monro, because of the permission to be buried in the Franciscan Church, one half, namely 75 Gulden or 25 Ducats at 3 fl. shall be given to the Hospital, and in future, when such donations shall occur again, it shall be held likewise."

In the Register of Deaths of the Church mentioned above we find the following entry:-

"I, Magister Balthasar Kerner have done my 96th Funeral Sermon for Robert Monraw, Baron of Failis (I), late Colonel of H.M. the King of Sweden of two regiments of foot and horse, on the 29th of April hor. 3. He lies buried in the said Church."

Another Munro, whose Christian name was John, was killed at Bacharach on the Rhine and lies buried in the Church of St Peter. But there is neither stone nor inscription to indicate the spot.

LETTER OF GENERAL JAMES RAMSAY RELATING TO THE
TREATY OF MAYENCE.

James Ramsay, Major General of the kingdom of Sweden and its allies also Governor of the fortress of Hanau is constrained, with regard to the Chief-Points of the Treaty handed to him by the Hessian Ambassadors, to remark as follows :—

"Firstly, that the above-mentioned six points do not relate to the common welfare but chiefly to the person of the General himself; although he by force of his office aimed in all his actions military and civil, above all things, at the common good of the County of Hanau and especially of this fortress and its sovereign. To turn aside from such a scope and simply to deal with personal matters would cause prejudice and grievance with my superiors and disreputable rumours with friend and foe.

"Secondly, that it is apparent from the document signed by the Emperor at the Castle of Ebersdorff on September 14th of last year that the "peace-accord" concluded at Mayence on the 31st of August eodem anno was not inserted in its entirety, but only some paragraphs of it, which had been in consideration up to the 21st of August, but which had never been signed by the General.

"Thirdly, the treaty is a patched up work. The dear letter, however, showeth that certain stipulations took place as to the pardon and reconciliation of Count Philip Moritz and the eventual surrender of this town; likewise some paragraphs were agreed upon and signed and then sent to His Imp. Maj. the late Emperor ad ratificandum, which ratification took place at Regens Purgk on Dec. 5th Ao. 1636.

"Therefore the public interest requireth, that both the stipulations settled as well as the Imperial ratification concerning these first points should without any delay be brought to hand, considering that the Crown of Sweden can not rest, satisfied with the present Imperial Document de dato Sept. 14th, far less accept its many discrepancies (Lit. B.).

"To this must be added, that, as may be seen both from the treaty itself and from the Salvoconduct dated Laxenburg, May 8th, 1637, this fortress was to be handed over to the Count of Hanau, but that in the Imperial letter of intercession to the Duke of Mecklenburg of the 4th of September, "the surrender shall take place into the hands of His Imperial Majesty."

"It is likewise a grievous alteration, that the General with all his soldiers and belongings was to have a free pass and a convoy and enjoy every futherance and support, nevertheless in the forged Imperial confirmation this is tacitly omitted; also that the hostages refer to the person of the General alone instead of the officers and soldiers on foot and horse and to all persons in the service of the Crown of Sweden and other good friends staying with him.

"Now because the foundation of the treaty is not properly established, and because common faith and truthfulness require a ‘consummation’ free from any blame: let the Hessian ambassadors duly co-operate that such defects be remedied and word for word, a just agreement (of the documents) be obtained. Expecting Your written communications, signatum, the 2nd of Feb., 1638."

DUKE BERNHARD OF WEIMAR AND RAMSAY.

Ramsay never neglected his duty towards his superior officers. He informed the Duke immediately of the treaty of Mayence; but the latter had already heard of it through a different channel. He wrote on the 11th of Sept. 1637 :—

"We have been told for certain, that you concluded a treaty with the enemy concerning the surrender of the town and fortress of Hanau. Considering that by your great industry and perseverance, you have held the place up to this time, which not only earned you immortal glory, but our own gratitude, we can fancy only, that extreme necessity and adversity compelled you to give up such an important place."

In a second letter the Duke expressed his surprise to the General, that he had obtained such favourable conditions, adding (Nov. 20th) that he had sufficient proof of Ramsay’s constant and true affection for the Crown of Sweden and for the whole evangelical cause, and that he had no doubt whatever, that to his immortal honour and praise, he would persevere in it unshaken and do his best as hitherto.

In another letter the Duke recommends Ramsay to observe the paragraphs of the treaty carefully with the express order to see to it, "that all articles of the contract be fulfilled, because to promise much is nothing, the keeping of the promises is the principal thing."

RAMSAY’S WILL

The General, who left an extremely large fortune, exhorts his wife in the introduction to his will "to educate their son David in the fear of God," at the same time recommending her not to mourn for him longer than six weeks, and after that to marry a gentleman of good family for the best of her child. The new husband was to receive one third of the money left by him, the second third belonging to her and the third to their son. In case the latter should die without heir, the money was to go to the General’s cousin, Lord William Ramsay, and his male heirs. A part of the interest on the property was set aside for the support of five students of divinity.

Finally it was ordered that immediate payment should be made for 500 pairs of shoes, bought at Elbing for the regiment.

SCOTTISH OFFICERS UNDER FREDERICK THE GREAT.

Too late to be incorporated into the text, the following additional information regarding Scottish Officers under Frederick the Great, chiefly derived from Charles Lowe’s delightful tale, A Fallen Star, must find a place here.

Major General Grant mentioned in the text, Frederick’s favourite aide-de-camp, belonged to the Grants of Dalvey, and was designated of Dunlugas, "an estate on the pleasant banks of the Deveron, a few miles above the port of Banff. At first, being a cadet who had to push his own fortune in the world, he took service under Elizabeth, the Empress of Russia, where his countryman Keith procured him a commission. After a time, however, he exchanged it after the example of his general, to whom he was devotedly attached, for the Prussian army. Frederick the Great quickly discovered his great force of character, his blunt honesty and his excellent capacity for hard riding. As the King’s messenger, he performed feats of horsemanship which seem incredible. Shortly before the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War he covered the distance between Berlin and Vienna and back again, including a delay of three days in the Austrian capital, that is close on nine hundred miles, in ten days.

By these and other performances he contributed much to the well-known readiness of the King against all surprises, and therefore, if indirectly, to the victorious issue of the war.

One of Grant’s eccentricities was his great love for his dogs. His two intelligent Scotch collies accompanied him everywhere, and he is said to have trained and used them for military purposes where the services of scouts were required.

When the war was over in 1763 his grateful King made him a Major-General and Governor of Neisse, an important fortress on the frontier of Silesia. But a life of peace and quiet monotony did ill agree with this man of daring. He died about 1764, and lies buried in the churchyard of the Garrison Church. Of two other officers under the great Prussian King, Colonel Drummond and Quartermaster Spalding we know little more than the names. A third one, however, named Gaudy or von Gaudy, obtained no little fame.

The Gaudys were originally Goldies or Gowdies, and hailed from Ayrshire and Dumfries-shire. One Andrew Gaudie from Craigmuie, a parish adjacent to Craigenputtock, the temporary home of Carlyle, entered the service of Prince Ragozzi in Hungary (1641), who sent him as ambassador to Hamburg and employed him in various military capacities. He was present in several of the later battles of the Thirty Years’ War. In 1650 he bought estates in Eastern Prussia, and in 1660 exchanged into the service of the Elector of Brandenburg as Major-General. From this Gaudy sprung quite a number of famous Prussian military leaders. One of them is mentioned by Frederick the Great in his Memoires de Brandenburg in connection with the siege of Stralsund, then occupied by the Swedes under Charles XII., as the Prussian officer who facilitated the attacking of the Swedish trenches. It appears that Gaudy recollected having, in his school days at Stralsund, bathed in the arm of the sea near the ramparts finding it neither deep nor muddy. To make sure of the matter, however, he sounded it in the night "and found that the Prussians might ford it, turn the left of the Swedish trenches, and thus take the enemy in flank and rear." This was successfully done, and the merit of defeating such a renowned soldier as Charles XII was due, or in part at least, due to a man of Scottish origin.

Another Gaudy, a son of the above, was attached to the staff of Field-Marshal Keith. He was a most intelligent officer and wrote a Diary of the Seven Years’ War, in ten folio volumes of manuscript still preserved but unpublished in the Archives of the "General Stab" at Berlin. He also wrote treatises on fortification.

A third Gaudy was Fred. W. Leopold von Gaudy, Lieutenant-Colonel of Infantry and Knight of the Order Pour Ie mérite in 1809. His son again became the famous soldier-poet, Franz von Gaudy, who has been called, though not very aptly, the "Burns! and Béranger of the Fatherland rolled into one." The simplicity and sweetness of his lyrics is still much admired in Germany.

Descendants of old Gaudys are still to be met with in the Prussian Army List.

The family of Spalding is still flourishing in Germany. The ancestor Andrew, who emigrated to Plau in Mecklenburg about 1600, became a member of the Senate; his son a Burgomaster. His grandson, Thomas, removed to Güstrow in the same country, where he likewise obtained the dignity of a "Senator." Here he and his family remained for almost two hundred years, inhabiting the same house, an old monastery of the mendicant Friars. In its gable the following verses were read:

Die mich nicht können leiden,
Die sollen mich meiden,
Die mich hassen,
Sollen mich lassen,
Die mir nichts wollen geben,
Sollen mich mit Gott doch lassen leben;

 i.e. "Those that cannot bear me, let them avoid me; those that hate me, let them leave me alone; those that will not give me anything, must yet with God let me live."

The most eminent of the family was Johann Joachim Spalding, born at Triebsees (Pomerania) in 1714 as the son of a clergyman. He studied divinity, and was appointed "Probst" (Archdeacon) and member of the consistorial board at Berlin (1764). Here he continued to write and to preach with much acceptance for twenty-five years. He was a great favourite with the Queen, the consort of Frederick the Great. His writings, some of which have been translated into English, bear the rationalistic stamp of his time. His piety and uprightness were acknowledged by everybody. He died in retirement at Charlottenburg in 1804. Visitors will see his bust in the Hohenzoller Museum at Berlin. His son George Ludwig also was an author. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences, and Professor at the High School. He wrote, among other works, a biography of his father.

In Gauhen’s Adels Lexicon are mentioned:—George Ogilvie, who settled in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War and became Commandant of the Fortress of Spielberg, near Brünn, in Moravia; George Benedict, his son, died as Polish and Saxon General and Field-Marshal in 1710; Carl Hermann, his son, was a general commanding in Bohemia and Governor of Prague (abt. 1740).

Another Colonel Gunn was Governor of the town of Ohlau in Silesia (1638). He fortified the place, which had been destroyed by the Imperialists, with walls and moat. A Swedish garrison remained till after the Peace in 1648. Colonel John Gunn, lamented by the grateful citizens, died on the 9th of April 1649. The inscription on his tombstone in the Evangelical Church at Ohlau says of him: "Col. Johann Gunn, who laid the foundations of the fortifications of this town, was born in 1608 in the month of October. He was the descendant of a very old noble family, of the house of Golspie in the Kingdom of Scotland. He died aged forty years and six months. God grant him a peaceful rest until the joyous resurrection.

"His remains were deposited in this vault by his wife, née von Arnim, on the 14th of July, according to the custom of the nobility."

Gunn’s coffin was removed in 1825 to a place near the vestry; his mail-armour is hung up in the High School; two of his rings are preserved in the church at Ohlau.

STATESMAN AND SCHOLAR.

Erskine, also called Eskin or Esken in German documents, was twice married, his second wife being Lucie Christine von Wartensleben, the widow of a Baron von Maltzahn in Mecklenburg. In 1631-32 he was Swedish Plenipotentiary at Erfurt, where he gained the gratitude of the inhabitants by suggesting and actively promoting the arranging of the City Records. In Motschmann, Erfordia litterata, iv, 305, we read:

i.e. The Magistrates of the City of Erfurt at their own expense appointed a Commission, which together with members of the University requisitioned for the purpose, were to examine the privileges, records and other like documents, and to deliberate on their restoration if required. They then handed a Memorial to the Swedish Counsellor of State and Resident in this City, Alexander Erskine, to whose suggestion and assistance they were chiefly indebted in this matter, on the 31st of August 1632. The chief points therein were, etc., etc.

The name Schott or Schotte (Polish Scoda) occurs as early as 1383 in Breslau. It is frequently met with in the XVth and XVIth Centuries, especially in the eastern parts of Prussia, where the Scottish immigration was particularly numerous. Care, however, must be exercised in tracing the name Schotte back to Scottish ancestors in every case, since the German word has various other meanings. There is also a small town called Schotten in Hesse. The name Scott occurs in Prussia. One Walter Scott is a landowner and Hauptmann (captain in the army). His ancestor emigrated towards the close of the XVIth Century from near Edinburgh and settled in PiIlau. There are now six representatives of the family in Eastern Prussia alone, four of them landowners.

The Piersons, who are settled in Berlin and Karlsruhe, trace their origin to one James Pierson of Balmadies, who went to Riga towards the end of the XVllIth Century. (See Families Chronik der Pierson, privately printed.)

The family - von Mietzel in Brandenburg derive their name from Mitchel; the von Marshalls from the Earl Marschal. They settled in Königsberg in the XVIIth Century. One Samuel Marschall, a Privy Counsellor and Domdechant at Havelberg, was ennobled in 1718. (Märkisches Adels Lexicon.)


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