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The History of Glasgow
Chapter XI - Episcopate of Bishop Ingelram—Barony Courts—Erection of Burghs—Rutherglen


INGELRAM who had been chancellor of the kingdom was, on 10th September, 1164, elected Bishop of Glasgow, in succession to Herbert who died in that year, and he was consecrated by Pope Alexander III. at Sens in France, on 28th October. In a letter of the latter date, addressed to Salomon, the dean, and the canons of Glasgow, and all the clergy and people dwelling in the bishopric, the Pope states that Ingelram had come to him for consecration and had brought letters from Malcolm, the illustrious King of Scots. Although the messenger of the Archbishop of York was present and strongly opposed the proceedings, the Pope, mindful of the necessity, both in spiritual and temporal matters, which threatened the church of Glasgow from the want of a pastor, consecrated the new bishop and cordially commended him to the people in his diocese. Ingelram had succeeded Asceline as archdeacon, in 1160, and had then distinguished himself as one of the leaders of the Scottish church in opposing the claims of the Archbishop of York, conduct which sufficiently accounts for the opposition to his consecration. [Dowden's Bishops, pp. 297-8; Lawrie's Annals, pp. 84-86, 149.]

King Malcolm died in 1165 and was succeeded by his brother, usually styled William the Lion, whose long reign, extending into seven episcopates, lasted till 1214. In these early reigns —those of David, Malcolm and William—the King travelled from place to place attended by a retinue of prelates, earls, churchmen and barons, administering existing laws and sometimes sanctioning new or imported ordinances. Latterly assemblies of King, bishops, earls and barons, and great councils, attended by the "magnates" of the land, come into notice, but it was only after a long course of years that these developed into what could be properly called a National Parliament. Subsidiary to such assemblies and councils, sheriffs and justiciars, bishops of dioceses, abbots of monasteries, and the greater of the crown vassals likewise exercised judicial and administrative functions of varying degree, and throughout the twelfth century these baronial courts increased both in number and power. By an ordinance of King William, passed at Stirling on 14th July, 1180, " throw common consent of prelatis, erlis and barounis and fre haldaris," it was provided that neither bishops, abbots, earls, barons nor freeholders should hold their courts unless the King's sheriff or his sergeant were summoned thereto to see that the court was rightly held. If, however, neither sheriff nor sergeant should attend, it should be lawful for the baron to hold his court in their absence. The four Pleas of the Crown—murder, rape, robbery and wilful fire-raising—were reserved, and it was specially declared that no baron might hold court of life and limb, "as of jugement of bataile or of water or of het yrn," unless the sheriff or his sergeants were there to see law and justice done. [A.P.S. i. p. 374; Trial by Combat, p. 83.] It may, therefore, be assumed, in the absence of any definite evidence on the subject, that the bishops of Glasgow, by themselves or through their bailies and other officers, were entrusted with the preservation of order and the dispensing of justice throughout their territories, long before the date of any extant record of court procedure or even of any charter bearing on the subject. Such baronial jurisdiction was of course quite apart from the proceedings of the bishop's spiritual or consistorial courts, presided over by a judge, named the Official, and latterly monopolizing most of the judicial business transacted throughout the diocese. [The Medieval Church in Scotland (Dowden), chap. xviii.]

It is during William's reign that charters to royal burghs begin to make their appearance, but all such charters, with the exception of that of the burgh of Ayr, were granted to burghs already existing, most of these burghs tracing their constitution and privileges to a time when the soil was either all "folc" or public land, or just beginning to be "boc" or individually owned land and crown property. [Ancient Laws and Customs, i. p. xxxvii.] As an illustration of the form of such grants it may be mentioned that, by the Rutherglen charter, previously referred to, [Antea, p. 39.] King William confirmed to that burgh and to his burgesses there, all customs and rights which they had in the time of King David, and those marches which he granted to them. Then follow the bounds of a wide district which apparently included the whole of the bishop's territory north of the River Clyde and east of the Kelvin, within which area no one was to bring anything for sale unless it was first presented at the burgh. It was also declared that if any one should take away the toll or other rights which belonged to the town in the time of King David, the lord of the land in which such abstracted toll might be attached should assist the officers of Rutherglen in recovering the same and securing the King's rights. [Acts of Parliament, i. p. 86.] A similar provision as to customs occurs in the charter of erection of the burgh of Ayr, which was granted by William between the years 1202 and 1207. Here also a wide district is assigned for the collection of "toll and other customs," five outlying places, on the boundaries of the shire and commanding the principal roads by which merchandise could be taken to and from the burgh, being named as the stations where the dues were to be given and received. [Ayr Charter, pp. 1-4.] The provision as to sale of goods at the burgh is in accordance with an old Burgh law, attributed to William's reign, whereby it is ordained that all merchandise should be presented at the market cross of burghs, and there "preofferit" to the merchants of the burgh, "and the custome therof salbe payit to the king." By another old law it is provided that all dwellers in the country, as well freeholders as peasants, should come with all their moveable wares for sale to no other than the king's market within the sheriffdom where they dwell. [Ancient Laws, i. pp. 61, 183.]

Scottish prelates and monasteries frequently purchased at Rome confirmations of their lands and privileges, and many such writings by the Popes in favour of the church of Glasgow are recorded in the Register of the Bishopric. In this way Pope Alexander III. confirmed to Bishop Ingelram the tenth of the "chan" of lands in Carrick, Kyle and Cunningham, of Strathgrif and Largs, and the eighth penny of fines exacted in the king's courts throughout the bishopric, all of which had been granted by King David, and at the same time the chapel of Roxburgh castle and the churches of Carmichael and Carnwath were confirmed. The year in which this confirmation was obtained is not stated, but it seems to have been after 1164. By another writing of the supposed date 26th April, 1166, the Pope required the patrons of churches in the diocese to present to the bishop persons fit for the cure of souls, and to supply them with becoming stipends. In a Papal Bull dated 5th April, 1170, the church of Glasgow and all its possessions, among which are enumerated a number of churches throughout the diocese, were taken under the protection of St. Peter and the Roman see, and confirmed to the bishop and his successors. [Reg. Episc. Nos. 24, 26, 27; Lawrie's Annals, pp. III, 149.] Unless there is some ambiguity in this document it would appear that seventeen of the churches were mensal, the revenues of such belonging to the bishop, under burden of the maintenance of vicars for the due observance of religious services. Several of these churches, however, such as Glasgow parish, Govan and Cadiho, had already been constituted prebends of members of the chapter. Included in the list of mensal churches are one in the town of the daughter of Sadin (villa flue Sadin) and another on the lands of Conclud, but beyond vague references in subsequent confirmatory Papal Bulls and Charters there is no subsequent trace of these churches, and their sites are unknown. Villa llie Sadin becomes Inienchedin (and by misprint Mineschadin) in subsequent documents, the prefix "Inien" being the Gaelic equivalent of the Latin "filie," and latterly develops into Schedinestun, now known as Shettleston.

A Papal Bull, dated 25th March, 1172, was addressed to Salomon, the dean, and to the canons of Glasgow, whereby their possessions were confirmed. These comprehended the parish of Glasgow with all its rights, liberties and teinds, as they were given in the time of Bishop John, and with the addition of a ploughgate of land at the burgh of Renfrew which Bishop Herbert gave in augmentation of the prebend; the church of Govan, with the whole of Perdehic; the church of Renfrew, with the teinds and customs which it held from the time of King David; a ploughgate of land in Glasgow, with the church of Cadiho and its pertinents, as in the time of King David; Barlanark, with Budlornac, which Bishop Herbert gave for augmentation of the prebend; the prebend which the same bishop instituted of one measured ploughgate of land in Glasgow and of one-seventh part of the proceeds of the benefices in common which were formerly divided among six canons; the prebend which Bishop John instituted of the teinds of the farms, as well in cheeses as in grain and in other things which came into the bishop's cellar, and of the teind of the eighth penny of the king's pleas. After the enumeration of these prebends, presumably possessed by members of the cathedral chapter as then constituted, the Bull provides for the bishop and the canons having sole jurisdiction and patronage within the territories of Glasgow, Govan, Partick and Shettleston; and the customs of Sarum which had been adopted in the cathedral by Bishop Herbert were likewise confirmed. [Reg. Episc. No. 28; Lawrie's Annals, pp. 151-2. Shettleston is again alluded to postea p. 98; and for further particulars and speculations on the subject reference may be made to the Rev. J. F. Miller's paper, Old Shettleston, printed in Transactions of the Old Glasgow Club (1918-19), vol. iv. pp. 16-24.]

Two undated charters were granted by King William to the church, but whether in the time of Bishop Ingelram or in that of one of his successors is uncertain. By the first of these charters the king confirmed to God and St. Kentigern and to the bishop of Glasgow, Conclud, Cader and Badermonoc, with their whole lands and pertinents, which had originally been given by King Malcolm, in perpetual alms. By the second charter the king bestowed forty shillings yearly from the farms of his burgh of Rutherglen, to be applied for the lights of the church. [Reg. Episc. Nos. 29, 31.]

By Badermonoc is understood to be meant the district now included in the parish of Old Monkland. The territory of New Monkland was bestowed by King Malcolm on the monks of Neubotle. [Reg. de Neubotle, p. xxxvi.] That part of the lands of Old Monkland called Kermil, now Carmyle, had likewise been given by Bishop Herbert to the monks, but after the middle of the thirteenth century these lands were redeemed and dedicated for the sustenance of three chaplains who were to celebrate divine services in the church of Glasgow. [Glasgow Protocols, No. 1934, and authorities there cited.]


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