Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in
By J. A. MacDonell (1983)
RELATING PRINCIPALLY TO THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR OF 1775-83,
THE WAR OF 1812-14 AND THE REBELLION OF 1837-8, AND THE SERVICES OF THE
KING'S ROYAL REGIMENT OF NEW YORK, THE 84 OR ROYAL HIGHLAND EMIGRANT
REGIMENT, THE ROYAL CANADIAN VOLUNTEER REGIMENT OF FOOT, THE GLENGARRY
FENCIBLE OR BRITISH HIGHLAND REGIMENT, THE GLENGARRY LIGHT INFANTRY
REGIMENT, AND THE GLENGARRY MILITIA.
"I beg to state that the County of Glengarry has on every
occasion been distinguished for good conduct, and will on any emergency turn
out more fighting men in proportion to its population than any other in Her
Majesty s dominions". Extract from a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel
Carmichael, Particular Service, to Lieutenant-General Sir James Macdonell,
K.C.B., K.C.H., commanding Brigade of Guards and second in command of Her
Majesty s Forces in Canada, dated December, 1840.
Glengarry in Scotland. Result of the disarming, proscribing
and other acts introduced into the Scottish law. Formation of Highland
Regiments and Emigration. A large number leave Glengarry in Scotland
in 1773 at the instigation of Sir William Johnson and settle in the Mohawk
Valley in the Province of New York. Death of Sit William in 1774. His
services, influence and character.
Breaking out of the Revolutionary War.—The "Committee of Safety" at Albany
Warned against Sir John Johnson, and notified that the Scotchmen were
arming.-the Whigs "daily scandalized, provoked and threatened" by the Loyal
Catholic Highlanders.—Correspondence between Sir John and Governor Tryon,
and the latter and Lord George of Maine. — General Schuyler, of the
Revolutionary Army, invades Tryon County.—Negotiations between him and Sir
John and Mr. Macdonell (Collachie).—Sir John and the Highlanders escape to
Canada.—-Lady Johnson taken prisoner.—Her letter to General Washington.
Formation of the King's Royal Regiment of New York under Sir John
Johnson.—It is placed on the Establishment.— A Second Battalion
Authorized.—List of Glengarry Gentlemen to whom Commissions were Granted in
that and other Loyalist Corps. — Arrest of Wives and Families of the
Highland Loyalists.—Retribution.—The Valley of the Mohawk Rendered a scene
of "Widespread, Heart Sickening and Universal Desolation."—Battle of
Oriskany.—Dr. Moses Younglove's Alleged "Brutalities." -- Highlanders Rescue
their Families.— Capture of Exeter amd Fort Wintermoot by Butler's Rangers.—
Americans Abandon Fort Wyoming.— Highlanders make Another Incursion into the
Sullivan's Expedition against the. Senacas and Cayugas-— Intended Capture of
Niagara frustrated. — Sir John Johnson and his Regiment return to Tryon
County.— Brant destroys Canajoharie.— Still another Invasion into the
Schoharie Country—Investment of Fort Middleberg—Americans fire on a Flag of
Truce.—Immense Destruction of Grain and other Property.— Caughnawaga and
Stone Arabia laid in ashes. — Defeat of Americans at Fort Keyser.—Haldimans
approbation of Sir John Johnson's zeal. — Negotiations for return of
Prisoners.—Sufferings of Loyalist families.—Fight at Schele's Settlement,
near Fort Dayton. — A brave disciple of Martin Luther. — Americans
victorious in two engagements near Johnstown.—Deathi of Walter Butler. —
Awful Massacre by American miscreants of the Moravian tribe of non-combatant
Indians.—Conclusion of the War.
Settlement of the Disbanded Soldiers in Glengarry and Adjacent Counties of
Stormont and Dundas—List of Officers of the First and Second Battalions of
the King's Royal Regiment of New York.—Colonel Stewart's Account of the
Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment (Old Eighty-Fourth).—List of Officers.
United Empire Loyalists.—List of Scottish names appearing in Lord
Dorchester's list. — A "Distinguished Individual's" opinion of the
Highlanders of that Generation.—Mr. Croil's description of the situation and
condition of the Loyalist Settlers in the United Counties.
Loyalists in the Upper Country of Canada Desire a Change in the Tenure of
Land and Separation from the Province of Quebec.—Address to Lord Dorchester
from Leading Settlers in Glengarry and Vicinity.— His Reply.— He Recommends
Acquiescence in Request of Loyalists.—Formation of Districts of Lunenburg,
Mecklenburg, Nassau and Hesse by Proclamation, 24th July, 1785.—Province of
Upper Canada Established and Constitutional Government Assigned to its
People, 26th December, 1791.—-Divided into Counties.—First Commission of the
Peace, Eastern District.—Extracts from records of first Court of the
Services of Sir John Johnson.-200,000 Acres Abandoned by Him in the United
States—Lord Dorchester Recommends Him as First Lieutenant-Governor of Upper
Canada-Policy of Home Government Opposed to the appointment of Residents to
the Government—Despatch of the Colonial Secretary.— First Reference to
Glengarry Settlement. — Colonel John Macdonell (Aberchalder) and His Brother
Hugh Macdonell Elected Members in First Parliament of Upper Canada—He. is
Elected its Speaker—List of Members—Some Facts Relating to them—Acts Passed
at First Session.
The First Regiment Raised in Upper Canada.—The Second Battalion R. C. V.
Regiment of Foot.—Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonell, M.P. for Glengarry, Placed
in Command.— Headquarters at Fort George - Volunteer their Services to any
Quarter of the Globe - Thanks of Duke of Kent.—Reduction of Regiment during
Peace of Amiens.—Return of Officers.—List of Officers First or Lower
Canadian Battalion—Colonel Macdonell's Memorial.— State of the Militia.—
Lieutenants of Counties.—Colonel Macdonell Recommends Formation of a Corps
of Highland Fencibles in Glengarry - Colonel Brock Approves of Proposal and
Transmits Recommendation to War Office—Death of Colonel Macdonell.
Career of Hugh Macdonell (Aberchalder), M.P. for First Riding of Glengarry
in First Parliament of Upper Canada.—Testimony of Colonel Mathews, Military
Secretary to Lord Dorchester, as to Services of Himself and his
Family.—First Adjutant-General of Militia Upper Canada.—Appointed
Consul-General at Algiers.—Duke of Kent's Tribute to his Memory.— His
Family.—His Brother, Colonel Chichester Macdonell, Another U. E. Loyalist
Officer.—Alexander Macdonell (Collachie), M.P. for Glengarry and Speaker
House of Assembly, 1804.—His Services in Revolutionary War and War of 1812.
The Reverend John Bethune, First Presbyterian Minister —Chaplain First
Battalion Eighty-Fourth Regiment.— Minister of St. Gabriel Presbyterian
Church, Montreal.—Removes to Glengarry.—His Death in 1815.— His Sons.—Bishop
Stachan's School at Cornwall.— The Reverend Roderick Macdonell (Leek), First
Catholic Priest.—Letter from Lord Sydney, Secretary of State, to
Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, Introducing Him.—Knoydart Emigration to
Glengarry, 1786.—-Other Early Settlers in the County.
Raising of the Glengarry Fencible or British Highland Regiment in
Scotland.—-Incidents Previous Thereto.—Mr. Alexander (Afterwards Bishop)
Macdonell Accompanies a number of the Highlanders to Glasgow, where they are
Employed by the Manufacturers.—Closing of the Manufactories on Proclamation
or War Between Britain and France.—Proposal to Raise a Regiment to be Under
Command of the Young Chief of Glengarry.— First Catholic Corps since the
Reformation.—Stationed in Guernsey.—Offer to Garrison St. Marcou.—Services
in Ireland in Suppression of Rebellion of '98.—Disbanded with other
Fencibles in 1802.—Services of the Chaplain on behalf of the Men.—He
Procures a Grant of 200 Acres for each man in Glengarry in Canada.—Lord
Hobart's Letter to Lieut.-Gov. U. C.
Emigration from Kintail and Glenelg, Ross-shire,.—Six-divisions of the
County.—Local Nomenclature.—Kenyon, Lochiel, Breadalbane, Dunvegan, Eigg,
Strathglass, Cist, Little Knoydart, Laggan, Fassifern, &c., &c.—Members of
Parliament to Union of Upper and Lower Canada, 1840—Enumeration of the
Outbreak of the War of 1812.—Expressions of the American Press and Public
Men.—Situation of Affairs in-Upper Canada.—Colonel Denison's Account of
General Brock's Difficulties.—Treason of Willcocks, Mallory, Marcle and
other Renegades.—Extra Session of Parliament Summoned.—Martial Law
Proclaimed.—Expulsion of Willcocks and Marcle.
Sir Isaac Brock— His Parentage and Former Services - Raising of the
Glengarry Light Infantry by Captain George Macdonell of the King's Regiment
and the Reverend Alexander (Afterwards Bishop) Macdonell— List of
Officers—Officers of Flank Companies Glengarry Militia—Corps des Voyageurs
Canadiens—Canadian Fencible Infantry.
First Blood of the War of 1812—A British Indian Scalped by an American
Officer.—Capture of Michilimacinack.— Brock Leaves York for the Scene of
Action.—Letter of Colonel Macdonell, A.D.C., M P. for Glengarry, to
Honourable Duncan Cameron.—Surrender of Fort Detroit by the
Americans.—Articles of Capitulation.— List of Gold Medals Granted.—Armistice
Between Prevost and Dearborn.—Battle of Queenston Heights.— Death of General
Brock and Colonel Macdonell, A.D.C. — Their Funeral. — Movements on
Queenston Heights.—The Prince Regent's Tribute.—Colonel Macdonell's Address
to the. Electors of Glengarry, March 18th, 1812. — Letter Describing His
Death. — Bishop Strachan's Verses.
Forays Along the St. Lawrence.—Unsuccessful Attack on Ogdensburg.— St. Regis
Surprised.—Americans Repulsed at Fort Erie.—"General Van Bladder" and His
Proclamations.—Naval Encounters.—Battle of Stoney Creek.— The Taking of
Ogdensburg.—York taken by the Americans, April 27th, 1813.
General Dearborn in Turn Superseded.—Successful Attacks on Fort Schlosser
and Black Rock.—Death of Colonel Bisshopp.—Attack, on Sackett's Harbour.—
Prevost's Demonstration on Fort George.— The Glengarry Regiment's Timely
Occupation of Burlington Heights. — York Again Taken.— Canada Menaced in
Three Directions in the Autumn of 1813. — Disasters on Lake Erie.—Evacuation
of Detroit.—General Proctor Defeated at Moraviantown.—Death of Tecumseth
—Court-Martial on Proctor.
General Wilkinson Assembles Ten Thousand American Troops at Sackett's
Harbour.— Kingston Threatened. —Defenceless State of Montreal.—He Determines
to Attack that Place with General Hampton.—Colonel George Macdonell Asked
When His Light Battalion Would be Ready to Embark to its Defence—"As Soon as
my Men Have Finished their Dinner."—His Extraordinary Descent of the St.
Lawrence in Batteaux.— "Here, Sir; Not One Man Absent."—Battle of
Chateauguay.—Gold Medals.—Defeat of the Americans at Chrystler's Farm.—Gold
Medals for that Action.— Presentation of Colours to Lower Canadian Militia
by the Prince Regent.—Hampton Declines Juncture with Wilkinson.—Attack on
Montreal Abandoned.— Unfair Treatment of Colonel Macdonell.
Evacuation of Fort George by the Americans, Who, Before Leaving, Destroy the
Town of Newark (Niagara).—Taking of American Fort Niagara by British,
December 19th, 1813, and or Lewiston, 20th, and or Black Rock and Buffalo,
December, 1823—Retaliation.—Close of Second-Year of the. War.
Opening of Parliament February, 1814--Campaign of that Year.—Americans
Defeated at Lacolle.—Raid near Cornwall.—Oswego Taken by British May
6th.—General Brown Succeeds to Command of Northern Division U.S.
Army.—Drummond's Dire Distress.—Abandonment of Upper Canada Contemplated
Owing to Lack of Supplies.—Desperate Fighting on Niagara Frontier.—Fort Erie
Surrendered 3rd July.—-Americans Victorious at Chippewa July 5th.—The Battle
of Niagara or Lundy's Lane, the Most Sanguinary of the War, 25th July.
Capture of Prairie du Chien by the British.—Americans Repulsed at
Michilimacinac.—British Capture the American Ships "Scorpion" and
"Tigress."—Arrival of Large Reinforcements from Britain.—Prevost's
Disastrous Expedition to Plattsburg, N.Y.—Americans Repulsed at Port Erie
Sept. 17, 1814.—Americans Cross to their own shores.—McArthur's Incursion
and Retreat.—Close of the War.—Treaty of Ghent Signed Dec. 24, 1814, and
Ratified Feb. 17, 1815.
The Rebellion of 1837-8. — William Lyon Mackenzie's subsequent Letter to
Earl Grey—Extracts from Bishop Macdonell's Address. — No Rebels in
Glengarry.— Statement showing where the Disaffection prevailed in Upper
Canada. — Outbreak in Lower Canada in October 1837.—Four Regiments in
Glengarry.—List of Officers.—Sir John Colborne notifies Colonel Macdonell
that he has called on the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada for Assistance
and to keep up Communication with the Upper Province.—Requests the
Glengarrys Regiment to Proceed to Lower Canada.—Two Thousand Men Muster at
Lancaster. — Temporary Suppression of the Rebellion.
Sir John Cox borne Commissions Colonels Macdonell and Fraser to Raise Two
Battalions of Glengarry "Lads" for Service in Lower Canada.—List of Officers
ob "Lancaster Glengarry Highlanders."—Charlottesburg Regiment Stationed at
St. Philippe, and Lancaster Regiment at Napierville.—Comments of the
Montreal "Herald" on their Appearance on their Return.— General Clitherow
Testifies to their Service and Efficiency.—Temporarily Relieved from Further
Departure of Lord Durham.—Renewal of Insurrection in Lower Canada.—Bishop
Macdonell's Loyal Address.— Seizure of the "Henry Brougham" at Beauharnois.—
Glengarry Regiments Called out a Third Time.—March on Beauharnois.—Its Easy
Capture.—Appreciation of Sir John Colborne.—Congratulations of
Lieutenant-Governor Upper Canada.—Ordered to Upper Canada to Repel Invasion
of Brigands.—Battle of the Windmill.
Events in Upper Canaoa..—Supineness of Sir Francis Head —A Typical Address
from the Loyal Men of Lochiel —His Characteristic Reply.—Toronto in Serious
Peril. —Rescued by Colonel MacNab and the "Men of Gore." Murder of Colonel
Moodie.—Navy Island.— Cutting out or the "Caroline."—She is sent over the
Fails of Niagara. — "General" Van Rensellaer dislodged.—Trouble on the
Michigan Frontier.—A Specimen "Proclamation."— Attacks at Amherstburg.—Rendezvous
at Watertown.—Further Attacks in the West.—Departure of Sir Francis Head. —
Advent of Sir G. Arthur.— Execution of Lount and Mathews.
Further Attacks on Border Towns in Upper Canada.— Colonel Prince's Laconic
Despatch.—Glengarry Regiments and others garrison Cornwall in winter of
1838-9.— Officers on Particular Service - Colonels Turner, K.H, and
Carmichael,—Their Thanks to the; Militia of District. — Letters of both to
Colonel Fraser, Commanding Charlottenburg Regiment.— Arrival of Sir James
Macdonell, in Command of Brigade of Guards.—His Great Military Career.—Defence
of Hougoumont.—Invested with Order of the Bath by Sip John Colborn.—Addresses
of Magistrates of Glengarry and Stormont on his Arrival and Departure.
Bishop Macdonell—His Services to the Crown, His Countrymen and the Catholic
Church.—His Death at Dumfries, Scotland.—Funeral in Edinburgh.—Obituary
Notices.—Tablet at St. Rajwaels.—Gilfinnan's Poem —Removal of his Remains to
The Old Northwest Company.—Partners who Subsequently Resided in
Glengarry.—Mr. Duncan Cameron, the Honourable John MacGillivray, Mr. John
Macdonald, Mr. Angus Macdonell, Mr. Alexander Macdonell, Laird McGillis.
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