The agricultural state of
society succeeds the pastoral. Mankind, in the earliest stage of social
existence, is found rearing herds and feeding numerous flocks; but the
practice of agriculture indicates a considerable advance in civilization.
On the formation of settled communities, the occupations of the shepherd
and tiller of the ground are pursued at the same time, as a double means
of providing for comfortable subsistence; and nations, in the practice of
both, frequently pay more attention to the former than to the latter,
which is attended with a greater amount of care and labour.
We find from the
Commentaries of Caesar that the Britons, on the first Roman descent,
raised ample stores of corn, a proof that they were not in the savage
state which some writers have represented. Caesar arrived in Britain on
the 26th August, B. C. 55,
according to Dr. Halley, and the harvest was then
almost finished, as only one field was seen uncut, having been later than
usual in ripening. The ingenious method by which the Gauls reaped their
fields is described by Pliny; but the inhabitants of Britain do not appear
to have made any improvement on the sickle.
Both Gauls and Britons, however,
used a Flail in separating the ears from the straw, when among the Romans
the clumsy and dilatory practice of treading it by cattle was still in
use. The Flail consists of two pieces of hard round wood, about four feet
in length, loosely fastened together by thongs of sheep-skin, or other
hide; and a dexterity, acquired by long practice, is necessary to perform
the work, and save the workmans head, as he whirls the implement around
in making each successive stroke.
Threshing is usually performed in
the barn, but, in fine weather when the corn has been sufficiently dried,
and the weather is favourable, the Highlander performs the operation on
the field; by which he is enabled speedily to remove the crop, a matter of
no slight importance in a watery climate, like that of the West Highlands.
For this purpose a floor is constructed of planks, on which is placed a
sail or piece of canvas, where such may be had, and in many places a mat
of sufficient size is spread underneath, formed of rushes, woven or
plaited, as we find similar articles of furniture from India. On this
platform, in general temporary, called LÓr-bualadh, the vigorous workmen
very cleanly and expeditiously detach the grain from the stalk, contriving
in the operation to cast the straw to one side. It is then carried home
and stored up until a suitable time for the Fasgna, or winnowing from the
chaff, preparatory to grinding. The Threshers are called Buailtearan, from
Buail, to strike, or beat.
Women in the Highlands perform most
of the operations of agriculture, and they may be seen carrying on their
backs, from the field, loads of the straw or the corn sheaves; but this is
not to be considered a proof of any disrespect to the fair, for the Gael
have a high regard for their females; it is one of the many practices
derived from their ancestors. M. de Cubieres, writing on the services
rendered to agriculture by females, shows that in all primitive nations,
while the men were employed in hunting, fishing, and in war, the women
attended to agriculture, the dairy, and their domestic avocationsan
onerous accumulation of duties.
If the use of oats is not now so
exclusively prevalent among Scotsmen in the low country as it was in the
days of Dr. Johnson, it is still so in the Highlands. His definition of
this grain, as being "the food of horses in England and men in Scotland,"
gave an offence which has not yet been forgiven; but the Doctor, without
intending it, passed a high eulogium on this grain, for it is well
ascertained, and recent scarcity has drawn particular attention to the
subject, that it is a much more nutritious substance than wheaten flour,
being lighter and more digestive; and hence the use of oatmeal is often
prescribed by medical men to patients of weakly stomachs. It has been
observed that the products of a country have been adapted by Providence to
the circumstances of its inhabitants. In this respect the oatmeal and milk
of the Gael have served on many an occasion to carry them through severe
and protracted exertion, and prolonged their health and lives to a goodly
term. It is farther proved that a Scottish labourer will perform a greater
amount of work, with unabated strength, on his humble fare, than that of
an Englishman in similar employment, say field labouron a much greater
proportion of his wheaten bread, dumpling, and bacon; and it has been
wittily remarked, that the horses of England and workmen
in Scotland, fed on
the same materials, are the most useful and best specimens of their kind.
The subject of illustration is from
a party at work near the old castle of Inverlochie, in the county of
Inverness, within twenty yards of a spot where thirteen gentlemen of the
Campbells lie buried, side by side, having fallen in the battle which took
place in the vicinity, anno 1645, when the Earl of Argyle, with the whole
power of his clan, opposed the Marquis of Montrose in arms for King
Charles, whom he thought to subdue with facility, but suffered an
unexpected attack and complete defeat, with the loss of i500men,
leaving the royalists to proceed southwards to further conquest. This
plain was battle ground from an earlier period.
The turbulence of Clan Donald
induced the government to commission the Earls of Caithness and Mar to
attempt a pacification, taking the precaution, at the same time, to back
their persuasions with a powerful army; but the energetic Donull du, or
black Donald Ballach of the Isles, landed in 1431, and with
inferior numbers, he at once engaged his enemies, defeated and compelled
them to a speedy retreat. Very different are the pursuits of the group
here represented; their swords, if not converted into Suistean, or flails,
are, happily, no longer required to guard the produce of their labour.
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