Highlands are the natural breeding-grounds for black cattle and sheep. The
inhabitants were not inattentive to agriculture; but their herds and
flocks were the staple commodities, either for their own consumption or
disposal to the dealers of the south, and the extensive proprietor of kine
was formerly synonymous with a rich man.
The Duke of Cumberland’s soldiers drove in from around
the neighbourhood a herd of 20,000 in the short time
during which they lay at Killi-Chuimin, after the battle of Culloden.
In the north of Ireland, the people being of the same
race as the Scots Highlanders, were in a similar state of Society; and an
expedition sent, in 1585, by Queen Elizabeth against Sorle buidh, a
celebrated chief, carried off no fewer than 50,000 head of cattle!
The hurricane which burst from the Highlands in 1745,
spreading consternation and fear as it swept victoriously along, was
followed by measures of coercion, which were characterised by neither
statesmanship nor humanity. The legislative enactments which followed, and
dissolved the patriarchal state in which the Highlanders had lived,
repressed their warlike propensities, and secluded them long from the
The country was scarcely known, save from the numerous
droves of well—pastured cattle, which supplied the southern markets, but a
great revolution in its social state was going on. The altered state of
chiefs and gentlemen required other means of preserving their position in
society than by a numerous clan of humble tenants, who were no longer
wanted for service in war, and could add little or nothing to the
increased exigencies of the proprietor, nor do anything to better their
own dependent condition; and as the land was found admirably adapted for
rearing sheep, long ranges of glen and muir were thrown into extensive
Sheep-walks, yielding a greatly increased rental.
The Store farmer now occupies the place of a very
superior order of tenants called Tacksmen—blood relations of the chief and
men of education, who in many cases had seen much of the world by military
service, either in the British army or that of foreign states. To this
class portions of land were leased on moderate, and occasionally nominal
terms, and besides maintaining a number of servants for management of the
stock, proportionate crofts were sublet by them to a numerous body of
poorer cottars, who claimed with them, a propinquity of blood.
From this change, unhappy for the people, the ruins of
houses and hamlets are so frequently met with throughout the Highlands,
and as every farm had its Bothan-Airidh, or mountain Sheilings, where the
dairy-maids sojourned during the months of summer, preparing their cheese
and butter, the number of abandoned dwellings is more strikingly
Those solitary ruins, around which the green sward and
marks of cultivation may still be seen, impart a melancholy character to
the view, and one is more prone to fancy the desolate sites, where
hundreds dwelt, were the scenes of continued peace and comfort, rather
than the witnesses, mayhap, of warlike feuds and predatory forays.
Much has been written on the system of sheep-farming.
The expatriation of a race, who may be called the indigenous possessors of
the land, is a subject which painfully touches the chord of human
sympathy; but the Act of 1748, which abolished the
hereditary rights of clanship, made so complete a change in the
constitution of Highland government, that the natural and reciprocal bonds
of service and protection were violently dissolved, and the country, under
the regal law, seemed no longer suitable for the disheartened people, or
the people for it.
The introduction of sheep-farming has not, it must at
the same time be noted, been the sole cause of depopulation. Many
proprietors, whose pecuniary wants were above the requirements of such
means of increasing their rental, gratified their other desires in a
different manner. A gentleman writing lately, says :—
"In Glentilt, we counted, in a few hours’ walk, upwards
of thirty ruined villages, not one house of which has been rebuilt, so
that that fine and once cultivated district, is now a solitary waste, used
only as a huge Deer— forest with a few sheep farms."
The loss of the Kelp manufacture, by the introduction
of Barilla, was a heavy blow to both landlord and tenant; but the fleeces
of the numerous flocks now pastured throughout the Highlands, would
furnish material for a manufacture which the country is in every way
adapted for, and which would give useful employment to thousands who now
are so often subject to great distress.
Sheep-walks are sometimes of incredible extent, many
farms being thrown into one, and their tenants are generally from the
southern districts of Scotland. The wages of a shepherd vary in different
localities, and are dependent on the extent of the duty to be performed.
He usually receives between 10/. and 12/. yearly, if he live
in his master’s house. If he occupy one of his own, he will be allowed
ground for raising potatoes, three to five or six bolls of meal per annum,
grazing for two or three cows, a horse, and perhaps fifty to seventy
sheep, with ground sufficient to raise winter fodder.
The shepherds wear the grey plaid common in the great
sheep districts of the border counties, and now so well known everywhere
as a material of general use. It is not, however, of Highland origin, but
was first seen on the shoulders of the southern farmers, who visited the
north in the way of business. The late Mac Leod of Luskintire asserted
that the first plaid of this pattern seen in Skye, was worn by Hogg, * the
celebrated "Shepherd" poet; but even the gamekeepers and foresters on the
estates of some Highland nobles and gentlemen, are seen at the present
day, arrayed in dresses of this homely hue.
The sketch was made from Duncan Mac Niven, or Doncha’
môr Mac Gille Naomh, in the vernacular; a shepherd in the service of
Campbell of Monzič, at that time dwelling in the farm of Dalness.
* We know that the great shepherd poet wore his plaid
during his journey through the Western Highlands and Islands in
1803. He says, "On the twenty-seventh of May I
again dressed in black, put one shirt, and two neckcloths in my pocket;
took a staff in my hand, and a shepherd’s plaid about me, and left Ettrick
on foot, with a view of traversing the West Highlands, at least as far as
the Isle of Skye. I took the road by Peebles for Edinburgh, and after
being furnished with letters of introduction to such gentlemen as were
most likely to furnish me with the intelligence which I wanted respecting
the state of the country, I took a passage in the ‘Stirling Fly’ for that
town. I got only a short and superficial view at the old palace of
Linlithgow, and satisfied myself with only making my uncle’s observation
on viewing the Abbey of Melrose, "Our masons can mak nae sic houses
Again in Glenfalloch he says, "Musing on certain
objects I fell into a sound sleep, out of which I was at length awaked by
a hideous, yelling noise. I listened for some time before I ventured to
look up, and on throwing the plaid off my face, what was it but four huge
eagles howering over me in a circle at a short distance; and at times
joining all their voices in one unconceivable bleat. I desired them to
keep at a due distance, like Sundhope’s man, for I was not yet dead,
which, if I had been, I saw they were resolved that I should not long
remain a nuisance amongst the rocks of Glenfalloch."