SUGGESTIONS BY THE BISHOPS
OF SCOTLAND FOR THE
SUPPRESSION OF CONVENTICLES IN THE WEST.
[Lauderdale Papers, edited
by Airy, vol. iii. p. 95. See R'odrow, vol. ii. p. 383, for the
instructions actually given.]
WHEN the forces march
into the west it wold seem expedient:
1°. That a Committee of
council went along with them, who may be empowered to fine confine
imprison or banish as they find cause; wch committee may consist of such
officers and comanders as are privie councellors, viz. the M. of Athole,
Earles of Marr, Linlithgow, Airlie, and Cattiness; the Lord Ross, and
the E. of Glencarne and Perth may be by the Council's autoritie adjoynd
to them and also the L.. Collinton if he may be spared from the session.
2°. That these westren
shyres sould be disarmed, and their armee to be transported to Stirling
or Edinburgh Castle.
3°. That all horses in
possession of these disaffected people, which are above ye value of 40
or fiftie libs soots, could be taken from them at such rates as they
shalbe estimated unto.
4°. That the forces setle
first at Aire, having rested some few days at Glasgow, Aire being the
centre of a great circle of ye disaffected; and after having reduced
Carrick and censured the Conventiclers in those parishes who are served
by indulged ministers, they may goe to Lanerick and Clidsdale, and so
forward to the stewartrie of Kirkcubright and the shyre of Galloway, in
w0h places since the forces are to have free quarters, particular care
wold be taken, that the burthen thereof may be upon ye guiltie, and thus
ye innocent and orderlie people will find ymselves eased and encoraged
to continue in yr orderlines and obedience.
5°. Wherever the Forces
ly, the Comittee wold call befor them the transgressors; and in ye first
place wold cause rase to the ground all their new-erected meeting houses
and punish the builders thereof, as prime incendiaries; and proceed
against such who have mett at field conventicles or have resett or
entertained Welsh, Arnot, or anie other intercomuned preachers according
to yr severall estates with proportionable fynes, Which they wold take
care to cause raise with the greatest diligence; and because the guilt
of field conventicling is great, and the paine arbitrarie, therfor the
fynes to be exacted wold be such as may be smartlie felt by the
transgressors, in all which speciall regard wold be had that ye
Ringleaders and chief abbettors of these disorders should be condignelie
punished as promoters of sedition and rebellious courses; who if they be
heretors, deserve to be deeplie fyned, and also imprisoned; and if they
be persons of no estate, some notable corporall punishment wold be
inflicted upon them in terrorem.
6°. All means wold be
used for apprehending and seizing the persons of Welsh, Arnot, etc. and
for encoraging such as will bring them in, and deliver ym to anie
officer etc. assurance wold be given them of their being discharged from
whatever fynes imposed or to be imposed on them and that they shalbe
exempted from quartering on themselves or tennants and that they shal be
7°. All such fynes as are
to be Levyed wold be carefullie brocht in to ye cash-keeper to Ly as a
fund to reward such as shall approve themselves most faithfull and
diligent in the present service; and his matie would be humblie moved
that those fynes may be so applyed.
8°. The Committee wold
also oblige all the heretors in these countreys to take the oath of
alledgiance, and cause them give bonds that themselves tennants and
servands, shall hereafter carrie themslves peaceablie and orderlie, and
live in obedience to the law, and such who shall refuse so to doe, wold
be censured and punished as the councel shall ordain.
9°. When these places are
reduced, then the Committee and Forces may goe into Tiviotdale, and then
to Stirlingshyre and to Fife and observe the same method and
instructions for suppressing disorders and the disaffected there. But in
all this or where the forces shall begin or end this service and in what
shyres or districts, may be most advysedlie determined by the Committee
and officers forsaid as they shall see most reasonable. For keeping
these shyres in order and obedience for the tyme to come, it would seem
1°. That Besides the oath
of alIedgiance, and bonds to be exacted from all heretors ut supra for
securing the persons and families of orthodox and orderlie ministers
against injurie and violence and keeping the severall parishes free of
conventicles, the heretors of each parish sould give sufficient bonds,
under the forfeiture of six or seven thousand marks at least.
2°. Since under the
pretence of furnishing the militia, armes are brought in among the
disaffected people in great quantities, it seems adviseable that the
militia in these shyres should be quite discharged by his Matie; and the
horses and armes being once out of ye possession of those people, this
wold seem to follow of its owne accord.
3°. Garrisons may be
constantlie kept in Glasgo, Aire and Kirkcudbright, and sometyme in
Dumfries and Lanerk, for kepping ane constant dread and awe over the
disaffected and for asisting the persons intrusted by the council for
punishing disorders in the shyres and districts about them, in levying
fynes etc. and it wold seem convenient that no part of the forces should
ly longer in any of these townes, then three months at one tyme, that by
their constant changing of their quarter, the people may see such forces
to be amongst them, as may suffice to keep them in order and peace.
4°. The persons intrusted
for noticeing and punishing disorders in ye severall shyres etc. would
be requyred to doe their duetie according to their instructions, and
sett dyets would be appoynted to them for giving one account of their
diligence to the Privie Council, wch would be steddilie done, and
carefullie exacted from tyme to tyme.
5°. For rendring this
whole service the more effectual the Committee alreadie appoynted for
Church affairs wold constantlie and steddilie goe on at Edinbr, and wold
keep constant and sure intelligence and correspondence with that
committee wpb shalbe appoynted to goe along with the forces.
Memor, by the Bps anent what is fit to be done for suppressing disorders
in the West.
Dec. 21. 1677-
(In hand of Jo. Paterson, Bp of Galloway, aftd8 of Edinburgh.)
"SOME PARTICULAR MATTERS
OF FACT relating to the administration of affairs in Scotland under the
Duke of Lauderdale, humbly offered to your Majestie's consideration in
obedience to your Royal commands." [Historical MSS. Commission, Report
XI., Appendix iv. p. 30.]
(From MSS. Marquess Townshend, unsigned and undated.)
1st. The Duke of
Lauderdale did grosly misrepresent to your Majestie the condicion of the
westren counties as if they had been in a state of rebellion though
there never had been any opposition made to your Majestie's authority,
nor any resistance offered to your fforces nor to the execucon of the
lawes, but hee purposeing to abuse your Majestie that soe hee might
carry on his sinister designs by your authority advised your Majestie to
raise an army against your peaceable subjects, at least did frame a
letter to be sent to your Majestie to bee signed by your Royall hand to
that effect, which being sent doune to your Councell orders were
thereupon given out for the raiseing an army of 8 or 9000 men the
greatest parte whereof were Hylanders, and notwithstanding that to avert
this threatening the nobility and gentry of that country did send to
Edinburgh and for the security of the peace did offer to engage, that
whosoever should bee sent to put the lawes in execucon should meet with
noe affront and that they should become hostages for their safety; yet
this army was marched into a peaceable country and did take free
quarters according to their comissions and in most places leavyed great
sumes of money under notion of dry quarters and did plunder and robb
your subjects of which noe redresse could bee obtained though complaynts
were frequently made.
2. All which were
expressly contrary to the lawes of the kingdome. In these quarterings it
was apparent, that regard was only had to that Duke's private
animosityes, for the greatest part of these places were mostly quartered
on, and destroyed had not been guilty of any of the field conventicles
complayned of, and many of the places that were most guilty were spared
upon private consideracons.
3. The subjects at that
tyme were required to subscribe an exorbitant and illegall bond which
was impossible to bee performed by them (viz.) that they their wives and
children and servants, their tenants and their wives children and
servants, should live orderly according to law, not goe to conventicles
or entertaine vagrant preachers and severall other particulars. By which
bond those which syned it were made lyable for every man's fault that
lived upon the grounds.
4. Your subjects were
chrged with lawborrowes, denounced rebells and captions were issued out
for seizeing their persons upon there refuseing to signe the aforsaid
bond, and the nobility and gentry there who have been ever faithful to
your Majesty and had appeared in armes for suppressing the last
rebellion were disarmed upon oath, a proclamacon was also issued
forbidding them upon great penaltyes to keepe any horses about £4. 3.
5. The nobility and
gentry of the Shire of Ayre were also indicted at the instance of your
Majestie's Advocate of very high crimes and misdemeanors whereof some
did import treason. These indictments were delivered them in the evening
to bee answered by them next morning upon oath, and when they did demand
two or three day's tyme to consider of their indictments and make
benefitt of Iawyers to advise within matters of soe high concernment and
also excepted of their being put to sweare against themselves in matters
that were capitall, which was contrary to all law and justice, those
their desires were rejected though the like had never been done to the
greatest malefactors in the Kingdome, and it was told them, they must
either sweare instantly or they would repute them guilty and proceed
6. The noblemen and
gentlemen knowing themselves innocent of all that had been surmised
against them did purge themselves by oath of all the particulars that
were objected to them and were thereupon acquitted, and tho' the Comitte
of the Councell used the severest maner of enquiry to discover any
seditions or treasonable designs which were pretended as the grounds of
leading that army into those countreys yett nothing could ever bee
proved, soe false was that suggestion concerning a rebellion then
designed that was offered to your Majestie and prevayled with you for
sending the afore mentioned letter.
7. The oppressions and
quarterings still continuing, the noblemen and gentlemen of those
countyes went to Edenburgh to represent to your Councils the heavy
pressure that they and their people lay under, and were ready to offer
to them all that in law or reason could bee required of them for
securing the peace, the Councill did imediately upon their appearing
sett forth a proclamation requiring them to depart the town within three
days upon all highest paines, and when the Duke of Hamilton did petition
for leave to stay two or three dayes longer for some very urgent
affaires, that was refused him.
8. When some persons of
quality had declared to the Duke of Lauderdale, that they would goe and
represent their conditions to your Majestie, if they could not have
justice from your ministers, for preventing that a proclamation was sett
forth forbidding all the subjects to depart the kingdome without
licence, that soe your Majestic might not bee acquainted with the said
condicon of your subjects, a thing without all president or law for
putting of your subjects from makeing their application to your Majestic
noe Iess contrary to your Majestie's true interest (who must alwayes bee
the refuge of your people) then to the naturall right of the subject.
A MOCK POEM
Who came to destroy the
Western Shires in Winter 1678, by Mr. William Cleland, Lieutenant
Collonel to my Lord Angus's Regiment.
(In a Collection of
Several Poems and Verses, composed upon various occasions, printed in
the year 1697.)
who were their chief Commanders,
As such who bore the pirnie Standarts;
Who led the Van, and drove the Rear,
Were right well mounted of their Gear.'
With Brogues, Trues, and pirnie Plaides,
With good blew Bonnets on their Heads:
Which on the one side had a flipe,
Adorned with a Tobacco pipe,
With Durk, and Snap work, and Snuff-mill,
A bagg which they with Onions fill,
And as their strick observers say,
A Tupe Horn filled with Usquebay
A slasht out Coat beneath her plaides,
A Targe of timber, nails and hides;
With a long two handed Sword,
As good's the Countrey can afford
Had they not need of bulk and bones,
Who fights with all these Armes at once,
It's marvelous how in such weather,
Ov'r hill and hop they came together,
How in such stormes they came so farr,
The reason is they're smeared with tar,
Which doth defend them heel and neck,
Just as it doth their sheep protect;
But least ye doubt that this is true,
They're just the colour of tarr'd wool,
Nought like Religion they retain,
Of moral Honestie they're clean.
In nothing they're accounted sharp,
Except in Bagpipe and in Harpe,
For a nulobliging word,
She'll durk her neighbour ov'r the boord.
And then she'll flee like fire from flint.
She'll scarcely ward the second dint;
If any ask her of her thrift
Foresooth her nainsell lives by thift.
THE CONDUCT OF THE HOST.
they more cruel carrie,
Than ever Frenchmen under Yarie,
Or Spaniards under Ferdinando did,
Or French, when Duke of Guise commanded,
Yea they more savage far than those were,
Who with Kollkittoch and Montrose were,
And sixtie times they're worse than they
Whom Turner led in Galloway,
They durk our Tennents, shames our Wives,
And we're in hazard of our Lives,
They plunder horse, and them they loaden,
With Coverings, Blankets, Sheets and Plaidin'
With Hooding gray, and worsted stuff,
They sell our Tongs for locks of snuff,
They take our Cultors and our soaks,
And from our doors they pull the locks,
They leave us neither shoals nor spaids,
And takes away our Iron in laids,
They break our pleughs, ev'n when they're working
We dare not hinder them for durking:
My Lords, they so harasse and wrong us:
There's scarce a pair of shoes among us,
And for Blew bonnets they leave non,
That they can get Clauts upon,
If any dare refuse to give them,
They Durk them, strips them, and so leaves them,
They ripe for Armes, but all they find,
Is armes with them, leaves nought behind.
They take our Sadles and our Pades,
They stripe our Lecquies, ripes their Pouches,
They leave us neither Beds nor Couches.
Yea to be short they leave us nought,
That can from place to place be brought,
The Red Coats can tell them who spiers,
When they with them fell by the Bares,
When that their bootie they laid hold of,
They had much more than I have told of,
Where some gott wounds with sword and ball
I'm sorrie for't they were so small,
As if they could not Doe eneugh,
They fall on poor man at the pleugh,
Because they doe not understand,
Their Language they'll cut off their hand,
And for a proofe, I think I have it
Took out the hand and to them gave it.
Another Instance I shall tell
In which the Irish they excel
When they a poor man had Destroyed
Of meat cloathes money made him voide,
They left him nought that they could take
Except two horses and a corne stack.
The stacke they fired through very spyte,
But with the horse they would not quite,
Till he some money them did give,
One half whereof they did receive,
To buy the other nought he had,
Yet they so savage were and mad,
While the poor man with heavie Looks,
Was begging favour from these Ruikes,
The horse must die without remead,
They drove Lead Bullets through his head:
Another instance I shall give yet,
I shall be brief and to you Leave it,
When they by violence and force,
Had plundered a poor man's horse,
And Loaded him with his own gier,
For they took more than they could bear
The poor man followed to releave him,
Still begging that they bake would give him,
But finding he could not prevail,
That his requests did not avail,
He split the branks from his horses head
For which they shot this poor man dead.
Even Instantly without remorse
Because they could not grip the horse.
which is good Hens and Veal
The best of Bread, good Ale, and Wine
It sets them ill, shame on their kind;
Would us destroy in a short space,
It's true as I hold up my face,
For they most have four times a day,
And more at once, I'm clear to say,
Than might sustain a great Coach Mare,
For any half day in the Year:
For sixty men or but few more
They'll take up quarters for seven Score,
An shilling Starling we must grant,
For each person that they want,
And six pence also they receive,
For each Tail of them they have,
And thus each day must be renew'd
That they take meat, I wish they spew'd.
Now had the
Red Shanks ran away,
How these behaved that did stay,
How they the Halie Kirk Reform'd
What Castles, and what Towns they storm'd
Whose Hens was slain, whose Geese murder'd,
What great Designes by them was further'd
And what great Credit to the King
His Grace procur'd by this designe:
How Conventickles all were quast,
And Schismaticks destroy'd and dasht:
And how our nobles Journeyed
How their addresses did succeed
Att court how they did represent
The countries Losse, and sad complaint,
And what success therein they had,
And whether it was good or bad,
How they gott off, and how things past,
Ye'll hear when my Parnassus winchie
Gets of Fount Cablin a pounchie,
And therewith stives her empty Tearses
And hatcht up with lumps of Verses.
For the following
information I am almost entirely indebted to the efforts on my behalf of
the late Mr. F. K. Macpherson, schoolmaster, Tarbolton, to whom my
grateful thanks are due. Mr. Macpherson's queries were answered by the
gentlemen whose names are appended to the various notes. The information
with regard to the mention of the Highland Host in the various parish
records, although entirely of a negative character, is nevertheless
Library: "Neither in this Library nor in the Hunterian Library are there
any MSS. relating to the 1678 incident " (James L. Galbraith, Esq.,
Lanark: "I am sorry that
the particular account of the depredations of the Highland Host in
Lanark in 1678 is not extant" (James Annan, Esq., Town Clerk).
Records for 1677-78: "These contain no reference to the Highland Host "
(Rev. Joseph Mitchell, Parish Minister).
St. Quivox Parish: "The
Records of date 1677-78 were destroyed by fire" (Alexander Moody, Esq.,
Galston Parish: "The
Records of Kirk-Session for 1677-78 are not in existence " (Robert
Smith, Esq., Session Clerk).
Craigie Parish: "The
Session Records in my possession extend back only to 1775" (Andrew
M'Farlane, Esq., Session Clerk).
New Cumnock: "We have no
records dating so far back as 1677-78 " (James M'Farlane, Esq., Session
"Our minutes are a blank from 1643 to 1702 " (H. Gibb, Esq.).
Auchinleck: "The Session
Records in my possession do not go so far back as 1678" (John Henderson,
1787, begins the Records here" (John A. Gordon, Esq., Session Clerk).
Cumnock: "The oldest
record in my custody is 1704" (James Muir, Esq., Session Clerk).
Straiton: "The Records do
not go so far back" (W. MacMorland, Esq.).
Maybole: "The Session
Records do not go further back than 1777" (R. M. Nisbet, Esq., Session
Dailly: "There is no
record in our books of the presence of the Highland Host" (C. Goodall,
Kirkoswald: "There is a
blank in our oldest Kirk-Session book, extending from 29th October,
1660, to 30th December, 1694" (Rev James Muir).
Kirkmichael: "I have made
a search, and find no mention of the `Highland Host ' in the Records"
(J. Kirkland, Esq., Session Clerk).
Beith: "We do not appear
to have any Records prior to 1701" (M. Gilmore, Esq., Session Clerk).
Kilmaurs: "The Record for
the period has been lost" (John Arron, Session Clerk).
West Kilbride: "There is
no information of the kind desired" (George M'Nee, Esq., Session Clerk).
Irvine: "The only Session
Records in our possession date from 1709" (Robert Boyd, Esq., Session
Dairy: "I have no records
as far back as 1677-78, all having been sent to Edinburgh Register
Office" (Andrew Aitken, Esq., Session Clerk).
Stevenston: "The furthest
back records are those of 1700" (George Forsyth, Esq., Session Clerk).
Tarbolton: "The records
are in the Register House, Edinburgh" (F. K. Macpherson, Esq., Session
Kilwinning: "No reference
is found to the Highland Host in the records" (Andrew Speir, Esq.).
Kilmarnock: "I can find
no trace in our records of the presence of the Highland Host in our
district" (M. Robertson, Esq., Session Clerk).
Ardrossan Kirk: "The
first Kirk-Session Book is begun in 1691" (Alexander Wood, Esq.).
Dunlop: "There is no
record here relating to the Highland Host" (Rev. James Symon).
Muirkirk: "The records
are almost undecipherable, but seem to contain nothing on the Highland
Host" (John HaIIiday, Esq.).
Mauchline: "The Records
go back only to x692, when the parish was created" (Rev. D. C. Lyell).
Dalrymple: "We have no
Session Records further back than 1798" (G. A. Leach, Esq.).
Ochiltree: "We have no
trace in our Session Minute Book of the presence of the Highland Host in
Ochiltree" (Arch. Andrew, Esq., Session Clerk).
Coylton: "The earliest
record in our Kirk-Session books commences in the year 1700" (J. Smith,
Esq., Session Clerk).
records are wanting from 1666 to 1690 or '91" (Rev. George S. Hendrie).
Session Records of this parish previous to 1845 have long since
disappeared" (Robert Marshall, Esq.).
Barr: "There are no
Session Records at Barr prior to 1781" (Rev. George Dods).
Monkton and Prestwick:
"The records contain nothing relating to the Highland Host" (James