Inverness was the last place which had a regular
communication by high roads with the southern counties. All the ways beyond it have, I
believe, been made by the soldiers in this century. At Inverness therefore Cromwell, when
he subdued Scotland, stationed a garrison, as at the boundary of the Highlands. The
soldiers seem to have incorporated afterwards with the inhabitants, and to have peopled
the place with an English race; for the language of this town has been long considered as
Here is a castle, called the castle of
Macbeth, the walls of which are yet standing. It was no very capacious edifice, but stands
upon a rock so high and steep, that I think it was once not accessible, but by the help of
ladders, or a bridge. Over against it, on another hill, was a fort built by Cromwell, now
totally demolished; for no faction of Scotland loved the name of Cromwell, or had any
desire to continue his memory.
Yet what the Romans did to other nations, was in a great degree done
by Cromwell to the Scots; he civilized them by conquest, and introduced by useful violence
the arts of peace. I was told at Aberdeen that the people learned from Cromwell's soldiers
to make shoes and to plant kail.
How they lived without kail, it is not easy to guess: They cultivate
hardly any other plant for common tables, and when they had not kail they probably had
nothing. The numbers that go barefoot are still sufficient to shew that shoes may be
spared: They are not yet considered as necessaries of life; for tall boys, not otherwise
meanly dressed, run without them in the streets; and in the islands the sons of gentlemen
pass several of their first years with naked feet.
I know not whether it be not peculiar to the Scots to have attained
the liberal, without the manual arts, to have excelled in ornamental knowledge, and to
have wanted not only the elegancies, but the conveniences of common life. Literature soon
after its revival found its way to Scotland, and from the middle of the sixteenth century,
almost to the middle of the seventeenth, the politer studies were very diligently pursued.
The Latin poetry of Deliciae Poetarum Scotorum would have done honour to any nation, at
least till the publication of May's Supplement the English had very little to oppose.
Yet men thus ingenious and inquisitive were content to live in total
ignorance of the trades by which human wants are supplied, and to supply them by the
grossest means. Till the Union made them acquainted with English manners, the culture of
their lands was unskilful, and their domestick life unformed; their tables were coarse as
the feasts of Eskimeaux, and their houses filthy as the cottages of Hottentots.
Since they have known that their condition was capable of
improvement, their progress in useful knowledge has been rapid and uniform. What remains
to be done they will quickly do, and then wonder, like me, why that which was so necessary
and so easy was so long delayed. But they must be for ever content to owe to the English
that elegance and culture, which, if they had been vigilant and active, perhaps the
English might have owed to them.
Here the appearance of life began to alter. I had seen a few women
with plaids at Aberdeen; but at Inverness the Highland manners are common. There is I
think a kirk, in which only the Erse language is used. There is likewise an English
chapel, but meanly built, where on Sunday we saw a very decent congregation.
We were now to bid farewel to the luxury of travelling, and to enter
a country upon which perhaps no wheel has ever rolled. We could indeed have used our
post-chaise one day longer, along the military road to Fort Augustus, but we could have
hired no horses beyond Inverness, and we were not so sparing of ourselves, as to lead
them, merely that we might have one day longer the indulgence of a carriage.