A JOURNEY TO THE WESTERN ISLANDS OF SCOTLAND by Samuel Johnson
We came somewhat late to Aberdeen, and found the inn
so full, that we had some difficulty in obtaining admission, till Mr. Boswell made himself
known: His name overpowered all objection, and we found a very good house and civil
I received the next day a very kind letter from Sir
Alexander Gordon, whom I had formerly known in London, and after a cessation of all
intercourse for near twenty years met here professor of physic in the King's College. Such
unexpected renewals of acquaintance may be numbered among the most pleasing incidents of
The knowledge of one professor soon procured me the notice of the
rest, and I did not want any token of regard, being conducted wherever there was any thing
which I desired to see, and entertained at once with the novelty of the place, and the
kindness of communication.
To write of the cities of our own island with the solemnity of
geographical description, as if we had been cast upon a newly discovered coast, has the
appearance of very frivolous ostentation; yet as Scotland is little known to the greater
part of those who may read these observations, it is not superfluous to relate, that under
the name of Aberdeen are comprised two towns standing about a mile distant from each
other, but governed, I think, by the same magistrates.
Old Aberdeen is the ancient episcopal city, in which are still to be
seen the remains of the cathedral. It has the appearance of a town in decay, having been
situated in times when commerce was yet unstudied, with very little attention to the
commodities of the harbour.
New Aberdeen has all the bustle of prosperous trade, and all the
shew of increasing opulence. It is built by the water-side. The houses are large and
lofty, and the streets spacious and clean. They build almost wholly with the granite used
in the new pavement of the streets of London, which is well known not to want hardness,
yet they shape it easily. It is beautiful and must be very lasting.
What particular parts of commerce are chiefly exercised by the
merchants of Aberdeen, I have not inquired. The manufacture which forces itself upon a
stranger's eye is that of knit-stockings, on which the women of the lower class are
visibly employed. In each of these towns there is a college, or in stricter language, an
university; for in both there are professors of the same parts of learning, and the
colleges hold their sessions and confer degrees separately, with total independence of one
on the other.
In old Aberdeen stands the King's College, of which the first
president was Hector Boece, or Boethius, who may be justly reverenced as one of the
revivers of elegant learning. When he studied at Paris, he was acquainted with Erasmus,
who afterwards gave him a public testimony of his esteem, by inscribing to him a catalogue
of his works. The stile of Boethius, though, perhaps, not always rigorously pure, is
formed with great diligence upon ancient models, and wholly uninfected with monastic
barbarity. His history is written with elegance and vigour, but his fabulousness and
credulity are justly blamed. His fabulousness, if he was the author of the fictions, is a
fault for which no apology can be made; but his credulity may be excused in an age, when
all men were credulous. Learning was then rising on the world; but ages so long accustomed
to darkness, were too much dazzled with its light to see any thing distinctly. The first
race of scholars, in the fifteenth century, and some time after, were, for the most part,
learning to speak, rather than to think, and were therefore more studious of elegance than
of truth. The contemporaries of Boethius thought it sufficient to know what the ancients
had delivered. The examination of tenets and of facts was reserved for another generation.
Boethius, as president of the university, enjoyed a revenue of forty
Scottish marks, about two pounds four shillings and sixpence of sterling money. In the
present age of trade and taxes, it is difficult even for the imagination so to raise the
value of money, or so to diminish the demands of life, as to suppose four and forty
shillings a year, an honourable stipend; yet it was probably equal, not only to the needs,
but to the rank of Boethius. The wealth of England was undoubtedly to that of Scotland
more than five to one, and it is known that Henry the eighth, among whose faults avarice
was never reckoned, granted to Roger Ascham, as a reward of his learning, a pension of ten
pounds a year.
The other, called the Marischal College, is in the new town. The
hall is large and well lighted. One of its ornaments is the picture of Arthur Johnston,
who was principal of the college, and who holds among the Latin poets of Scotland the next
place to the elegant Buchanan.
In the library I was shewn some curiosities; a Hebrew manuscript of
exquisite penmanship, and a Latin translation of Aristotle's Politicks by Leonardus
Aretinus, written in the Roman character with nicety and beauty, which, as the art of
printing has made them no longer necessary, are not now to be found. This was one of the
latest performances of the transcribers, for Aretinus died but about twenty years before
typography was invented. This version has been printed, and may be found in libraries, but
is little read; for the same books have been since translated both by Victorius and
Lambinus, who lived in an age more cultivated, but perhaps owed in part to Aretinus that
they were able to excel him.
Much is due to those who first broke the way to knowledge, and left
only to their successors the task of smoothing it. In both these colleges the methods of
instruction are nearly the same; the lectures differing only by the accidental difference
of diligence, or ability in the professors. The students wear scarlet gowns and the
professors black, which is, I believe, the academical dress in all the Scottish
universities, except that of Edinburgh, where the scholars are not distinguished by any
In the King's College there is kept a public table, but the scholars
of the Marischal College are boarded in the town. The expence of living is here, according
to the information that I could obtain, somewhat more than at St. Andrews.
The course of education is extended to four years, at the end of
which those who take a degree, who are not many, become masters of arts, and whoever is a
master may, if he pleases, immediately commence doctor. The title of doctor, however, was
for a considerable time bestowed only on physicians. The advocates are examined and
approved by their own body; the ministers were not ambitious of titles, or were afraid of
being censured for ambition; and the doctorate in every faculty was commonly given or sold
into other countries. The ministers are now reconciled to distinction, and as it must
always happen that some will excel others, have thought graduation a proper testimony of
uncommon abilities or acquisitions.
The indiscriminate collation of degrees has justly taken away that
respect which they originally claimed as stamps, by which the literary value of men so
distinguished was authoritatively denoted. That academical honours, or any others should
be conferred with exact proportion to merit, is more than human judgment or human
integrity have given reason to expect. Perhaps degrees in universities cannot be better
adjusted by any general rule than by the length of time passed in the public profession of
learning. An English or Irish doctorate cannot be obtained by a very young man, and it is
reasonable to suppose, what is likewise by experience commonly found true, that he who is
by age qualified to be a doctor, has in so much time gained learning sufficient not to
disgrace the title, or wit sufficient not to desire it.
The Scotch universities hold but one term or session in the year.
That of St. Andrews continues eight months, that of Aberdeen only five, from the first of
November to the first of April. In Aberdeen there is an English Chapel, in which the
congregation was numerous and splendid. The form of public worship used by the church of
England is in Scotland legally practised in licensed chapels served by clergymen of
English or Irish ordination, and by tacit connivance quietly permitted in separate
congregations supplied with ministers by the successors of the bishops who were deprived
at the Revolution.
We came to Aberdeen on Saturday August 21. On Monday we were invited
into the town-hall, where I had the freedom of the city given me by the Lord Provost. The
honour conferred had all the decorations that politeness could add, and what I am afraid I
should not have had to say of any city south of the Tweed, I found no petty officer bowing
for a fee. The parchment containing the record of admission is, with the seal
appending, fastened to a riband and worn for one day by the new citizen in his hat.
By a lady who saw us at the chapel, the Earl of Errol was informed
of our arrival, and we had the honour of an invitation to his seat, called Slanes Castle,
as I am told, improperly, from the castle of that name, which once stood at a place not
The road beyond Aberdeen grew more stony, and continued equally
naked of all vegetable decoration. We travelled over a tract of ground near the sea,
which, not long ago, suffered a very uncommon, and unexpected calamity. The sand of the
shore was raised by a tempest in such quantities, and carried to such a distance, that an
estate was overwhelmed and lost. Such and so hopeless was the barrenness superinduced,
that the owner, when he was required to pay the usual tax, desired rather to resign the