OF birds, the eagle naturally occupies the first
place, but the constant warfare waged against it by keepers,
shepherds, and cotters, who have generally a few sheep, will no
doubt soon exterminate it. Such a result would probably have arrived
before this, if it were not that the rugged cliffs of Harris and the
wilder parts of Uige afford them secure breeding-places. Even in the
time of Buchanan, before 1790, he mentions that the factor, Mr.
Mackenzie, for every eagle killed in Lews gives half-a-crown; and
as the country north of Harris is flat and offers them no security,
those found are generally from the west or south. Among the Barvas
hills an eagles nest was recently destroyed by letting down burning
bushes from the top; and in their immediate neighbourhood we have
frequently seen a pair of white sea-eagles coursing in circles.
The golden and common eagles also speed north for an
occasional breakfast during the lambing season, or hover in circles
about some braxy-haunted hill-side.
Of hawks, the noble peregrine falcon is the most
common and most beautiful, rivalling the eagle in grace and power of
flight. How often have we seen them hovering over the sea-cliffs,
scaring their peculiar prey, the blue rock-pigeon, bullying the
croaking ravens who dared to dispute their reign, and driving them
helter-skelter to shelter ignominiously in the crevices of the
rocks. You daring brigands! how the savage in our nature cottons
to you after all!
The sparrow-hawk and the kestrel skirt the brows of
the lesser eminences, and pounce upon a weaker prey. The goshawk has
been shot in the west; and we were informed of a single instance of
the buzzard having bred in the Uige district, but saw no specimen.
Of the brown and barn owls vve saw none, but
understand they are not unknown, although the want of congenial
breeding-places no doubt prevents their multiplying. The snowy owl (Surma
nyctea)has been frequently shot: the head-keeper procured three
specimens in one morning at Ness. These large, handsome, finely
marked owls may come south from Iceland or the Faroe Isles, or over
Ravens (Corvus cor ax) are by far too numerous for
the good of the cotters, farmers, and sportsmen; as their appetite
for lamb requires no assistance from mint-sauce, and game-laws are
as little regarded by these blackbirds as by Lanarkshire colliers.
They have young in April, and require to place their nests in the
most inaccessible rocks to escape the bold Lewis cragsman. We have
dangled in vain over a sea-cliff, in our efforts to reach their
eggs, the nest being unapproachable either from above or below. The
grey crows (Corvus cor nix) go in troops of twenty to fifty
together, and commit many a depredation put down to the debit of the
cotter children. We have known them steal the hens eggs from about
the farmyard, kill the chickens, and otherwise hang about like
footpads, ready for any weak or unprotected victim that might turn
up. Like all the crow race, they are far too shrewd to be readily
caught napping, and, as Lewismen dont show great ingenuity in
securing them, they increase and multiply to the detriment of the
sportsman and the farmer. Grouse eggs, young moorfowl, chickens, or
weakly birds, are at once attacked; and let but a sheep show a sign
of sickness, and the proverbial Corby picks out its een.
Rooks have been bred about the castle, eggs having
been imported for this purpose, but they have not shown any
attachment to the place, nor, so far as we saw, any intention to
remain. We observed a flight of rooks crossing Loch Roag in
September, 1871; these were probably straying from Skye or the
mainland, as a large flock had been picnicing in the Uige district
for some weeks before. They are said only to come with a severe gale
of southeast wind, and to leave the first moderate weather, thus
pointing to Skye as their home.
The rock-pigeon (Columba livid) is the principal
representative of its family, and all around the rocky parts of the
coast may be seen in great flocks, sometimes numbering several
hundreds. They breed in the so-called pigeon caves everywhere
plentiful, or in the numberless clefts among the rocks. As they
seldom proceed far from the coast, and are always on the alert,
passing like a flash from place to place, they rarely come in the
way of the ordinary sportsman. The uncertainty as to their
whereabouts, difficulty of approach, and their small size and little
value when shot, prevent the sportsman seeking them in their haunts.
Thus they increase and multiply and replenish the sea-board, forming
a charming adjunct to the rude coast scenery, and only kept down by
a reiving Hebridean or dashing peregrine. In the early morning we
have often seen them settled among the seaware before our dwelling,
feeding diligently. This was especially the case in the autumn about
September. We have found their young as early as April.
A turtle-dove has been shot in the neighbourhood of
Of game birds we merely mention the names. The red
grouse (.Lagopus scoticus) is now of more importance in the eyes of
Scottish proprietors than the tillers of the soil. Great part of the
Lews is comparatively well stocked with them : and, to the credit of
the law-abiding people be it said, the loss by poaching is in
Although the country may be said to be well stocked
with grouse, still a sportsman need not expect to shoot his twenty
or thirty brace in a stroll before breakfast. The great advantage of
the country, indeed, to a true sportsman, lies in the fact that he
will always get his eight to twelve brace after covering an
extensive tract of moor. The birds too never get very wild even in
November, so that you are always sure of a fair bag after a fair
days hard work. The ground, although occasionally boggy, is not too
trying to the pedestrian.
No doubt this fact of the moors not carrying too many
birds, and heather never growing rank and strong, is favourable to
the health of the birds, which have hitherto escaped disease to any
The ptarmigan (Lagopus vulgaris) is shot on the
hills, but is necessarily more numerous to the south. Snipes are
widely distributed over the country, and, from the prevalence of
marshy land, are often very numerous : like all the birds of this
country, they are exquisitely tender.
The woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) arrives in numbers
in September. Certain districts are noted for them, their habitats
being exceedingly local. They have been known to breed in the
island. Of the same family we have the curlew (Numenius arquata:),
everywhere abundant. Before it has taken up its permanent residence
on the sea-coast, and become a little fishy, there is no more
delicate bird for the table; and we consider a slice from the breast
of a curlew in good condition superior in every respect to a golden
plover in the short days.
The whimbrel (Numenius phoeBopus\ a smaller species
of curlew, arrives sometimes in April and May in its northern
The sandpiper frequents the margins of the numberless
In the winter golden plover [Charadrius filu-vialis)
frequent the vicinity of the clachans in great numbers, and always,
in the very shortest days, rolling in fat and in superb condition.
In fine weather they retire to the more distant moors, where also
they breed in summer. The dotterell (Charadrius morinellus) has also
been shot in the west.
The lapwing (Vanellus cristatits) we have seen in the
Uige and Barvas districts in small flocks. It only arrives in Barvas
to breed, leaving immediately the young are sufficiently strong.
Formerly they were in immense flocks, but are not by any means
Grey herons (Ardea cinerea) are exceedingly common,
as might be anticipated in such a land of fish-haunted pools. They
are generally believed to be in best condition during full moon,
when they have most success in their piscatory excursions. Their oil
is considered capital for guns, and is obtained by the primitive
mode of burying them in a manure heap, with their bill stuck in a
bottle, into which the oil distils.
The starling (Sturnus vulgaris) may be said to be a
Lews institution. They frequent the whole country in large flocks,
roosting in chattering groups upon the rocks, and haunting the sea
caves in myriads. We have often amused ourselves in the evenings
rolling stones from the top of the cliffs over into some ocean cave,
to bring out the excited, and vehemently expostulating, tenants.
Around the lighthouse at Ness are ranged rows of horsehair nooses to
catch the troublesome birds that will defile the purity of the
surrounding glass, that dominates their rocky fastnesses. Like the
pigeons they feed among the seaware, if not also upon it.
Another institution may be said to be the
song-thrush (Turdus musicus\ whose name is legion around the coast.
The double intimation of their presence everywhere greets the
rambler, by the shore. Here, it is their ringing song re-echoed from
the cliffs; there it is the everlasting tap, tap, as they break up
the shellfish and gobble the unmailed mollusc. The destruction they
caused among bur bed of mussels gave some idea of the infinite
quantity of shell-fish these indefatigable songsters swallow, either
following the example of more highly cultivated singers, or ordered
by their physician to strengthen their chests. Whenever we hear the
mavis now, it recalls the cracking of the homes of the winkles,
sacrificed on the altar of song.
Blackbirds (Turdus merula) are by no means so common,
as they are a much shyer bird, and have not accommodated themselves
to living in this unclad land. About the castle woods they may be
found, and we have seen a few about Limshider and the west, where
there is a little cover, but none are seen in the Uige district.
The fieldfare (Turdus pilaris) and the redwing [T.
iliacus) arrive in the Lews in December, the former being much the
The corncrake (Crex pratensis) arrives in the west in
May, and during the summer we have seen more in the Lews than in any
other part of the country; indeed they showed a carelessness in
exposing themselves to view we have never elsewhere observed in
these usually shy and retiring birds. Mr. Caunter found a corncrake
alive, deep in a peat boghole, near Stornoway, in winter: no doubt
it had been unable to join its comrades in their autumn migration,
and may have partially hibernated. Such instances in the case of
swallows have been frequent. The cuckoo also appears in May, but not
in any number. Wheatears, in Lewis miscalled Clacheran, or
stonechats, adorn the top of every rock; and their note is almost as
ear-monopolizing on the moor, as the thrushs by the sad
The grey wagtail arrives in March.
Redbreasts have frequented the west for twenty years;
but, no doubt, like the various linnets, they only date from the
plantations around the castle.
The snowfleck, or snow bunting (Pledro-Q phanes
nivalis) is exceedingly common all along the roads in the winter,
skipping along before the traveller ever a little further as he
comes up. It is a beautifully marked little bird, and although
seldom all white in this mild climate, yet shows so brightly white
under the wings and on the body, as it suddenly lifts its wings in
flight, that even here it well deserves its title of snowfleck. It
retires into the moors to breed in the summer-time.
The wren is represented all over the country, and the
golden-crested wren has been observed among the castle woods.
We have observed several specimens of a species of
Hirundo, near Barvas, but have not heard of their nesting anywhere
in the Lews; whether house-martins or land-martins could not be
The wild goose (Anser ferus) sleeps with one eye open
throughout the Lews. On the Flannan Isles it breeds in immense
flocks, and often several hundred together may be seen in the Island
of Pabba, on Loch Roag. They have favourite spots on the mainland
where they proceed to feed, and there the ground, over a great
extent, is rutted up by their strong bills, and often every sign of
vegetation destroyed. If their eggs are hatched under domesticated
birds, the young become quite tame, and little more given to
rambling than their fellows of the farmyard. Still we have seen a
flock of domesticated wild geese arrive among the domestic geese,
and quietly live with them for weeks. When they gradually left,
however, as leave they did, they withdrew several of the tamer ones
from their allegiance, and carried them off with them, as a band of
gipsies might some infatuated school-boys.
The Brent goose (Anser Bernicla) is also found,
sometimes in immense numbers, and is still the object of popular
superstition as in days of old. Thus an authority writes in 1700:
The Barnacles, or Cluk-Geese, bred in logs of wood floating on the
sea, according to the common opinion, though some authors think they
are bred of eggs like other fowls, but that the eggs are fastened to
the logs by some glutinous matter which comes from the goose. Those
who eat of them say they taste perfectly of fir, and are certainly
bred in that sort of wood. They are certainly not very delicate
eating. Hudibras confounds them with the Solan goose.
Wild duck, teal, and widgeon, besides many others of
the same family, frequent the inland lochs, and we have seen several
hundred of them together on a favourite loch near Dalebeg.
The wild swan (Cygnus ferus) may occasionally be seen
sailing majestically on some quiet inland water, singly or in pairs.
They cannot be said to be frequent, as a general rule, and being far
less cautious and wary than the wild goose, have not the same chance
to escape either observation or destruction. We once stalked a wild
swan, on a quiet loch, with the dexterity of an Indian, and, after
having reached a point of vantage behind a little rising knoll, over
two miles of slippery, wet, splashy, mushy moorland, raised slowly,
calmly, and steadily our head and fowling-piece. There, on the calm
bosom of the loch, was reflected the graceful form and pure white
swelling sail of a boy's boat. This was the only time we ever saw
such a thing in the country. We reserved our fire for another
occasion, which has not yet turned up, retiring from the field of
action with all the dignity of the fox that lost its tail.
The eider duck frequents the Flannan Isles, where it
also breeds, coming occasionally to the western lochs of the
Hebrides. On occasion of such visits it is often shot.
Goosanders (Mergus Merganser) are by no means
uncommon, more especially in the Uige lochs. Their breasts are
greatly sought after for ladies bonnets, and most deservedly so.
The great northern diver (Colymbus glacialis) is
everywhere common on the Atlantic coast of the Lews. Buchanan says
of it, The Bishop Carara, or Bunubhuachil, is larger than a goose.
The ordinary name for it is the bishop, and the natives aver that
it retires when old to the freshwater lochs, where it can sustain
itself more easily during the decay of its powers. Both its
relations, the black and red-throated divers, are companions of its
The common guillemots (Uria troile) are
very-plentiful, and quite as stupid here as elsewhere; we have shot
them dozing on the waves at our door. But for interest and beauty
their congenors (Uria gryHe) the black guillemots or sea-pigeons, as
they are here called, far surpass them. Of the strong elegant shape
of the pigeons, their glossy black plumage, patched with white on
the wings, and red legs, show them off to advantage. Alike strong on
the wing and in the water, while displaying but a small surface to
the action of the shot, and their close plumage throwing it readily
off, they are more wary, more difficult to shoot, and more difficult
to kill. These birds must cause terrible destruction amongst the fry
of all kinds of fish. A common guillemot we shot in December had
several hundred young sand-eels in its crop.
The razor-bill (Utamania torda) at certain seasons
seems to supersede the black guillemot as the common object of the
sea-waves, the former being more common in summer, the latter in
The puffin (Fratercula Ardica) breeds in immense
numbers in the Flannan Islesthat feathered sailors home; but we
never met a specimen straying to the mainland. Gulls are innumerable
around the fishing-stations, and act as the scavengers of the
sea-shore; many interesting species make night hideous with their
cries during a storm.
The terns (Sterna hirundo) arrive about the latter
end of May, when their graceful figures ever flit around the coast.
Like the gulls they breed in great numbers on the small islands
among the inland lochs.
The gannet or Solan goose (Sula Bassana) is a
constant visitor, and may any day be seen turning its heels up and
dropping with a splash into the sea. Or, after the general discovery
of a shoal of fish, you may see these birds hurrying away with heavy
wing, gorged to the beak with the successful guzzle their weight
and size had gained them in the struggle for existence. They were
formerly mentioned as one of the wonders of Scotland, from hatching
their young with one foot, but they seem to have given over those
careless habits today.
The cormorant, scaraf, or scarf (Phala-crocorax Carbo) is
another characteristic bird in Loch Roag. Their numbers are
particularly great along this rocky, cave-haunted coast, standing on
the black sea-girt rocks like sailors manning the yards. Numbers
fell to our gun, and were eaten by the fishermen with relish. Their
nests were made in the sea-caves and on the ledges of the high
The green shag (P. Graculus), a smaller and more
elegant cormorant, is also numerous, and a score of them may be seen
any day taking headers into the waves as you approach some
spray-girt rock. Equally at home on sea or shore, it seeks its prey
at great depths in the water, and, unless shot dead, generally
escapes by skill and address in diving.
In such a land the marine products, whether fish or
fowl, are naturally the most liberally bestowed; and, as the Lews is
primarily a huge, unwieldly, tempest-ridden fishing-station, where
the shoals are, there the seafowl follow.