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Memoir of Norman MacLeod, D.D
Evangelical Alliance, and Tour in Prussia Poland and Silesia


THE excitement caused by the Disruption had not yet calmed down, for the animosity of party spirit still burned with a heat almost unparalleled even in the ecclesiastical history of Scotland. Those who had once been intimate friends passed one another without sign of recognition, and family life was embittered by parents and children, brothers and sisters, taking adverse sides on the Strathbogie case, or on the powers of the Civil Magistrate.

This reigning spirit of intolerance stirred the keener feelings of Norman Macleod far more than the questions which divided the rival Churches. However decided his views may have been as to the merits of the controversy, he cared infinitely more for the maintenance of just and kindly feelings between Christians, than for anything in dispute between ecclesiastical parties. He did not grudge the success of the Free Church, and he lamented the conduct of those who refused sites for her churches. But he protested with utmost vigour against the spirit of intolerance which was too often displayed by the Church of the Disruption, and on some occasions he spoke and wrote in strong terms against its bigotry. " I am not conscious of entertaining any angry or hostile feeling towards the Free Church as ' a branch of Christ's Catholic Church.' I desire that God may help all its labours, both at home and abroad, for advancing that ' kingdom which is righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.' I respect many of its ministers and I enjoy the friendship of many of its members. I admire its zeal and energy. I have no sympathy with the alleged attempts to embarrass any of its ministers—or the ministers of any Church on earth—when seeking accommodation for themselves or their adherents.. My remarks are directed solely against that proud and intolerant spirit which says to the Church of Scotland, 'Stand back, I am holier than thou,' and which has corroded so many hearts formerly kind and loving. I detest Church controversy; it is rarely profitable to writer or reader; it is apt to darken our minds and injure our best affections. Let these men, in one word, love Christians more than Churches, and the body of Christ more than their own, and they will soon discover that separation from a Church, and protesting against a Church, are quite compatible with union with that very Church, on the ground of a common faith, and co-operation with it for the advancement of a common Christianity."

He was, in truth, utterly weary of ecclesiastical strife, and when, during his visit to America, he heard of the proposed formation of the Evangelical Alliance, he hailed with delight a project which not only harmonized with his own deepest feelings, but promised to have a specially beneficial effect in healing the divisions of Scotland.

The Alliance was then in the freshness of its youth, and when he came home he threw himself with his whole heart into the movement. The narrowness of spirit, which afterwards repelled him from its ranks, had not, as yet, displayed its presence [See Chapter XVI, May 25th, 1863.] He was profoundly touched by the atmosphere of Christian brotherhood which prevailed at the preliminary conference held in Birmingham, and he was still more impressed by the imposing assembly of delegates from all parts of the world which met afterwards in London. He had already seen much of the world, but he had now the privilege of becoming acquainted with some of the most eminent representatives of home and foreign Churches, and gained such an insight into the vital principles and character of these Churches as only contact with living men could give. By means also of the Evangelical Alliance he established a friendly relation with many of the great missionary bodies of England, and, on their invitation, went for several years to London to attend the May meetings, or to preach the annual sermon in connection with some of their societies. His influence increased as his power became known, and his own faith and courage were mightily strengthened by the enlarged sympathies he gained from co-operation with other Christians.

To his Mother:—

"Dalkeith, 6th March, 1845.

"I am not lazy or careless—far less indifferent; but writing letters is uncongenial to me. I fancy that when I say, 'we are all well, and love you, and are always thinking of you and speaking of you,' that I have said all that is required; and that the state of the weather, the health of dogs and cats, and the jog-trot adventures of every day, cannot merit a record on paper. There are a thousand things I would like to say—not to write—that abominable scratch, scratch, scratch ! that heavy, lumbering bread-and-butter style of conveying stories and facts which need the eye, the voice, the grace, notes and touches which give them life! It is after all but another edition of Laura Bridgman, a speaking from the tip of the fingers, and giving glimpses of thought.

"Now here I am with yards of paper before me and 6,000 people round me—a romance in every close, a tale in every family requiring volumes and lot pages. Jane will tell you what a coach-horse life I lead, and how difficult it is for me to get time to pour out my heart, though full to the brim, into yours, which I verily believe would never be so full as to make you call 'stop,' though all your children were to write to you by the steam press.

"But what news can I give you?' 'Can I not tell what is doing in the house?' Yes; but are you serious in saying you wish to hear? 'Yes, quite serious.' Then, if so, you have little to think about. But, as far as I know, the following is the state of the house:—

"As to the attics, one is locked up, and in the other your youngest son slept last night under the influence of a lesson in Latin and a plate of porridge. In the next floor, one bedroom is cold and empty. Another room was occupied last night by your firstborn. As you may like to know how he passed the night, I'll tell you. Having resolved to be abstemious in his eating—'Why now are you that?' My dear mother, a man's liver is the better of it. It keeps him cool, makes him sleep well, and wake light and hearty. Well, having resolved to be abstemious, I took one and a half Welsh rabbits to my supper—the cheese (being next to milk) was laid on thick. I was soon asleep. 'Did you dream?' No. 'No nightmare]' No. 'What did you do?' Sleep, according to an old habit.

"Lower floor—study occupied by your son, one pipe, a dog and cat, books, &c. Other rooms empty. Cellars—rubbish, broken glass and starved rats.

"Are you wiser now] 'And what is doing outside]' My dear, that outside is a big word. The sky is blue; the birds are singing; carts are passing on the road; men and women are drinking; some crying; some starving; some dying. The word has tolled me back to being! I can be merry no longer. I was laughing beside you, but now I am in real life. I see sad scenes, and hear sad things, and my heart is not light. So I shall not write anything more to-day—but my sermon."

To his Mother:—

"Dalkeith, June 3rd, 1846.

"I cannot let my birthday pass without saying God bless thee—for my birth and up-bringing—and the unceasing love and goodness which has beamed upon me from your heart and which has gladdened my life on earth, and next to the grace of God has helped to prepare me for the life in Heaven which I hope, through the mercy of God in Christ, to share with yourself, and perhaps with all who have shared our domestic joys."

To his Sister Jane:—

"Evangelical Alliance Conference at Birmingham, 4 o'clock, Wednesday, April.

"I have been in two 'Sessions' of the Conference, and take half an hour's breathing time to write to you my first impressions. You ask how I liked it ] I reply that it was one of the happiest evenings I ever spent on earth. Never in any company had I the same deep peace and joy, and the same broken-heartedness for sin. Oh! what a prayer was that of Octavius Wins-low's ! It stirred my deepest feelings, and made the tears pour down my cheeks. How I wished that you could have been there! And to see so many on their knees—and to hear the 'Amens' of acquiescing, sympathising, and feeling spirits! I would have gone ten times the distance to have enjoyed all I did.

"About 120 are present to day. Candlish, Guthrie, Hamilton, are there, but I have not yet spoken to any. I am more afraid to-day. I fear that they are growing too fast outwards. As long as we deal with God, we seem omnipotent in Him and through Him, but our attempts at work professedly for Him seem to me highly dangerous as yet. I pray God that all may go on well. The prayer and praise are glorious. It has developed in me an affection which hitherto I have only manifested but partially—very partially - and that only in words—because of a lack of opportunity,—I mean, love to ministerial brethren. I feel like a man who had brothers—but they had been abroad—and he had never seen them before. I feel too, how much knowing the brethren comes from seeing them; 'the brother whom he hath seen' increases love to Him who is unseen."

To his Sister Jane:—

"Conference at London, Wednesday, May 25th.

'Everything goes on pleasantly and well. The Frees, honest fellows, are not here. They are a loss, for they have good heads for business.

"Bickersteth, dear man, is in the chair, and Bunting, noble man, is now speaking. Angel James is about to follow, and Dr. Baffles has finished. It is mere chat, like a nice family circle, and I hope that our Elder Brother is in the midst of it."

To Elizabeth Patterson.

[Among the many members of his flock in Dalkeith who encouraged him in his work, there was one who, unable herself to take an active share of duty, yet perhaps really strengthened him more than any other. Elizabeth Patterson had been an invalid and a sufferer for several years before he came to the parish, and during the eight years of his ministry there, she was only once or twice out of bed. She required the constant care of her widowed mother and her loving sisters. She was frequently so weak when he visited her, that she could not speak but in a whisper ; yet that always expressed kindness towards others, or meek resignation to the will of God. She seemed to forget herself in the interest she took in Christ's kingdom, caring for the good of the poorest child in Dalkeith as well as for the advance of religion over the earth. It was no wonder that such a character drew forth his sympathies. He often spoke of the comfort and strength he got from witnessing her faith and courage, and from knowing that she and her family, and her good friend Mrs. Porteous, were "instant in prayer" on his behalf. Often, after a weary day's work in filthy closes, he would find refreshment and gain new hope-fulness at the bedside of this holy sufferer. She and her family afterwards went to St. Andrew's, but until the time of her death in 1863. he kept up his friendship with her, and sometimes went from Glasgow to visit her on her weary sick-bed.]

"At Sea, on his way to London, 6 p.m., Wednesday, August.

"How rich is that grace which can not only give peace to ourselves, but also make us share His own joy in giving good and happiness to others ! None but He could make you, a weak creature, without hands or feet or tongue, stretched on a bed of pain—able not only to be an example to us of faith and patience, but an inexpressible strength to us, as you have many a day been to me. Well, dear, His own work, whatever it be, will be perfected in you, and by you; and then, but not till then, He will perfect you in Himself. But as long as you can please and glorify Him more on earth than in Heaven, you will, I am sure, be content to stay; and I hope we shall all be taught by your meek compliance with His will to comply with it too, when He takes you hence or takes us. He Who has hitherto so wonderfully helped you, is able surely to help you to the end. The Hand which holds all the ocean I sec around me, which sustains this blue sky over my head, can uphold and sustain your weak body, for it is more precious than all this big world. It is a redeemed body. The mountains may depart; His love never ! Every drop of the ocean will be exhausted; His love never! The Heavens will depart like a scroll, but they who do His will shall abide for ever ! Let us praise Him! May He be with you day and night! "

To his Sister Jane:—

"London, August.

"The Alliance has been formed. Such a scene of prayer, shaking of hands, and many weeping!

"I met a man this morning with a towering forehead, having ' the harvest of a quiet eye,' and 'a most noble carriage.' I was introduced to him, and he said, 'I know your name, and I am glad to have seen your face.' I replied, 'Sir, I have long revered you, and now rejoice to grasp your hand.' Then we for a short time discoursed about our Church, and when, in explanation of our position, I said, 'I fear I must call the Free Church the party of Presbyterian Puseyism,' he seized my arm, and said, 'You have taken the words out of my mouth. I wrote to the King stating the same thing. I think they are making the Church an idol.' Who was this?—Bunsen."

"London, August 4th, 1815.

"I have just time to say that our Alliance goes on nobly. There are 1,000 members met from all the world, and the prayers and praises would melt your heart. Wardlaw, Bickersteth, Tholuck, say that in their whole experience they never beheld anything like it. I assure you many a tear of joy is shed. It is more like Heaven than anything I ever experienced on earth. The work is done, a work in our spirits which can never be undone. The Americans have behaved nobly. I am appointed chairman of one of the future meetings for devotion, an honour to which I am not entitled except as representing my Church. I would the whole world were with us! No report can give you any idea of it. I am half asleep, as it is past midnight. I have to meet Czersky at breakfast at eight."

To his Mother:—

"My mind and heart are almost wearied with the excitement of this time. Meetings every day—conversing, smoking with Germans, French, Americans, &c.—all in love and harmony. Tholuck, Rheinthaler, Barth, Cramer, from Germany; Monod, Fisch, Vernet, from France; Cox, Kirk, Skinner, Paton, Emery, De Witt, Baird, from America. It would take hours to tell you my news."

From his Journal:—

"September, 1846.

"What an eventful year this has been to me ! In June, 1845, I crossed the great Atlantic, and returned home in safety in November. Since then I have had much to do with colonial matters. I have received, with my colleagues, the thanks of the Assembly. I have visited Birmingham as a member of the Evangelical Alliance. I have been thrice in London—once address five meetings on our Missions, and once as a Member of the Select Committee of the Alliance, and the third time attending the Alliance itself. I have, besides, written four articles for a Magazine, spoken at four public meetings in Scotland, and I have not neglected my own parish. I trust I may now have some time to devote my whole energies to this home work, and to publishing religious tracts. I have gained more than I can express by intercourse with the world. In America, and at the Alliance, I have mingled more with other minds—got hold of more—than during my whole lifetime.

"What has been done by the Alliance?

"1. Brethren have met and prayed together; they have become acquainted and learned to love one another. Is this not much? If the tree must grow from within—if Love is to be the fountain of all good to the Church and the world—is this not much 1 Is it not almost all ? Was not every one at the Alliance melted by the harmony and love that prevailed? What holy and happy hours were these ! Often was that room in Birmingham and London felt to be the house of God, the gate of Heaven!,

"2. Was it not much to have agreed upon a basis, and to have presented to the Papist so much harmony upon cardinal doctrines? All who had any dealings with the Popish Church felt this.

" 3. May not a louder voice now speak to the world than has spoken for a time?

"The happiest and proudest day I ever spent was the day I presided in London over the Evangelical Alliance."

To Principal Campbell, of Aberdeen:—

"Dalkeith, September, 1846.

"I received your brochure yesterday. I do not quite agree with you in some points. I think there may be all the one-ness which Christ ever intended to exist in the Church, without that kind of visible unity which you seem to contend for. The grand problem is how to obtain the greatest amount of one-ness in essential doctrine—in affection—in work—with the greatest amount of personal and congregational freedom as to government and worship. We may begin by assuming that denominations must exist. Let us try to give the disjecta membra unity. Find the unknown quantity x, which is to be the bond of union. Here they are:—legs, arms, heads, eyes, ears, scattered about. What form of body will unite them, leaving to each his individuality? Heaven alone knows; I don't. In the meantime we must do what we can.

"I preached the anniversary sermon for the Wesleyans in their large chapel in Edinburgh. Such a crowd! Long before the hour every crevice was choked. Up the pulpit stairs, and filling all the passages. As Southey says of the rats,

"And in at the windows, and in at the door,
And through the walls in hundreds they pour,
From within and without, from above and below,
And all at once to the Bishop they go."

"I am the first established minister who has preached in their church." The death of his old teacher, Dr. Chalmers, deeply moved him, and, when addressing the Lay Association of the Church of Scotland, he took the opportunity of paying a tribute to the memory of this great and good man—"whose noble character, lofty enthusiasm, and patriotic views will rear themselves before the eyes of posterity like Alpine peaks, long after the narrow valleys which for a brief period divided us are lost in the far distance of past history."

To his Mother:—

"June, 1847.

"Another third of June! and another, and another—it may be—until there is no son to write and no mother to write to, and the passing birthdays of time are lost in the new birth of an endless day.

"You would be grieved for dear old Chalmers. I am sure you will sympathize with what I said about him at our public meeting on Tuesday. I was grieved that later differences prevented, I think foolishly, any notice being taken of his death in our Assembly. The motives for our doing so might have been, perhaps, misunderstood. There is a great power at work, called Dignity, which sometimes appears to me to be like General Tom Thumb, the dwarf, acting Napoleon. I may be misinterpreted, too—I don't care. A man's head—at least mine—may deceive a hundred times a day—a man's heart never! I never felt the lightness or the wrongness of any thing strongly, without its really turning out to be the right or the wrong I thought it was. Dear old man ! He is among congenial minds for the first time—he never breathed his own native air till now—never felt at home till now. I intend going to his funeral. I hope the Free Church will have the taste not to attempt to make it sectarian—Chalmers belonged to Scotland. I am just going to write a funeral sermon on him. I feel he is a father and brother a thousand times more than men whom I address as 'Fathers and Brethren.'

"This is a glorious day. The hawthorn is bursting into wreaths of snow; 'the birds are busy in the woods;' the butterflies are glinting among the bushes; and everything is lovely.

"Is my father with you? I need not say that he is inseparably connected with you in my thoughts to-day, for I am sure a kinder father no children ever had. I am thankful that he fixed upon the Ministry for me. I declare I do not remember a day when I thought it possible that I could be anything else than a Minister—nor do I remember any other profession which for a moment I ever wished to adopt—unless in school, when I once desired to be a bandmaster; at another time, a Ducrow galloper on horses; and, lastly, and more especially, a Captain of a man-of-war!

"My dear, I remember long ago, when there was a minister of the name of Macleod in Dalkeith."

To Mr. James M'Pherson, Loudoun:—

"Dalkeith, June 30th, 1847.

"I do not feel that I am separated from my beloved, tenderly, deeply beloved flock, who have either left Loudoun for Heaven, or left the Establishment for another branch of Christ's visible Church. I feel we are united by bonds far closer than we understand ; bonds which Christ has cast around us, which He will lovingly keep around us, and which He will not let the world or ourselves sever. And oh ! how I long for His coming ; when we shall be together again; when we shall know even as we are known, and be for ever with Himself!"

From his Journal:—

"July 4, '47.—I never felt more overwhelmed by work than during the five weeks which preceded my Communion. I was concerned for the Assembly, that it should do God's will. I was convener of the committee appointed to select and send off a deputation to the Colonies, which are ever present to me. I had public sermons to preach in Glasgow and Edinburgh. I had to speak the truth, and fitting truth, at the Lay Association and Female Education Meetings. The Evangelical Alliance was coming. I was to speak there. Then there were preparations for the Communion, and a great deal of sickness in the parish. At home, my own dear brother, George, was ill, and my mother and I going, in thought, to the graves at Campsie. In short, I never had such a pressure upon me, I could have wished to bury my head in the grave.

"To add to this, on the Wednesday before my Communion, ten minutes after leaving our Session meeting, good Mr. Bertram, my elder, fell down dead ! It was, indeed, a very trying time; yet I had much inward peace. I felt as if outside of the house there were wind and storm, which beat into the ante-chambers; but that there was within a sanctuary which they did not and could not reach. I experienced a strange combination of great trouble and perfect peace. And how graciously has God brought me through all! The Assembly was very good; its debates calm and truthful, its decisions, as far as I can see, just and righteous. The deputation to America was selected after much correspondence. I am since vindicated for having proposed and carried their appointment. They have received an enthusiastic welcome, and they themselves acknowledge that their mission was needed. My public sermons were well received, and I hope did good. I spoke as I wished, i.e. the truth which I desired to communicate to the Lay Association, and at the meetings for Female Education in India, and of the Evangelical Alliance. I was, at home, able to strengthen and comfort dear Mrs. Bertram. I never had a more peaceful and delightful Communion. My dear George is recovering. Oh, how my prayers have been answered Thou, God, knowest! I have passed through all this in peace. I thank God. For I do feel that His supporting grace can alone enable one to meet the sorrowing burden of humanity. The flesh would say, fly, hide thyself, partake not of those cares and troubles. But this is not the voice of the Spirit. The Spirit of Jesus would have us carry the care, and the anxiety, and the sorrow of the world, all the while giving us His peace— that peace which He had even when He wept at Bethany and over Jerusalem, and went about doing good, and mourned for unbelief.

"Faith in an eternal life with God, must, I think, arise necessarily out of love to Him here. Did I only know that David loved God, I would, without further evidence, believe that he had full assurance of life beyond the grave.

"To me the greatest mystery next to the mystery of God's will is my own! It is of all truths the most solemn to recognize the possession of a responsible will—which because it is a will can choose, and because of sin does choose, what is opposed to the will of God.

"The existence and influence of Satan are not more mysterious than the existence and influence of bad men. Evil is the mystery—not evil agents and evil influence. Considering all things, perhaps, a Demoniac in the synagogue, a wicked Judas in the Church, is a greater mystery than Satan.

"The great difference between the law and the gospel is, that the latter brings a power into operation for producing that right state of mind—love to God—which the law commands but cannot effect.

"Christ is the living way, the eternal life, as He gives to us His own life and Spirit. To be as He was is the only way to the Father.

"God is surely revealing Himself to all His creatures. I cannot think that there is even a Bushman in Africa with whose spirit the living God is not dealing. The voice of God is speaking though they may not hear it; yet they may hear it, and so hear it as to know the living and true God.

"St. Paul said that God had appointed the bounds of men's habitations that they might seek after Him. This implies that to find Him was possible.

"I will never agree to the sensuous philosophy which insists on all teaching coming through materialism. Education is to lead out, to draw out, what I may already possess.

"God has made us for joy! Joy is the normal state of the universe. This only makes Christ's sorrow more terrible. Man's joy and God's joy must be one. 'Ye shall be as gods.' Yes; but not by the Devil's teaching.

"What dreadful suffering must Christ have endured from want of human sympathy! How alienated is man from God, when Peter and the apostles were so alienated from Christ. 'I am not alone, for the Father is with me,' but none else!"

The movement in favour of a reformed Church, inaugurated in Poland by Ronge and Czersky, was at this time awakening much interest among Protestants. Both Ronge and Czersky had been present at a meeting of the Alliance, and as some members of that body were anxious to obtain reliable information on the subject, Norman Mac-leod was asked to accompany the late Dr. Herschell of London on a visit to the principal congregations of the new communion.

To his Father:—

"During my short stay abroad I intend to address all my letters to you, in the hope that they may contain something interesting, which may, perhaps, induce you to bear with that peculiar hieroglyphical character which I generally use in writing, and which, through your excellent example, I have studied from my earliest infancy. I must begin at the beginning— whether or not I shall continue to the end is another question.

"At York we visited the Castle and all its horrors—saw old and young confined in stone courts, hard stone under foot, hard stone on every side, stone and iron surrounding them during day and night, and we in sunshine and breeze, with joy above and around us. Saw the condemned cell, with its iron bed and cold walls, the only view being through thick bars, upon a small green spot with rank grass, surrounded by walls, where the wretched occupant must be laid on the day of his execution, along with those who have gone before him to the same sad spot. A burying-place which contains the bodies of those only who have been executed is a sad and solemn sight.

"From this we passed to the Minster once more. And what a change from the cell and the graveyard, and the cut-throat Museum, to that gorgeous pile of pinnacle and tower, with its long-drawn aisles and stained windows, 'red with the blood of kings and queens,' and quaint device and carved imagery, and full of glorious anthems and chanted prayers ! A very shadow, I thought, of that state of grandeur and glory into which the gospel brings us - out of the horrid prison and condemned cell, and graveyard without hope."

*  *  *  *  *

"I pass over the many interesting conversations held in Berlin with Neander, Uhden, Kautze.

"We obtained, however, little information from them regarding the present state of the Reform movement. All parties seemed indifferent to it. All parties rejected Ronge. Sydow called him 'ein ausgeblasener Narr' and despised both the man and his opinions, and considered them only a little better than Popery.

"Saturday morning we posted sixty-two miles, to Schneidemuhl, where we arrived the same evening about eight o'clock. We found Czersky waiting for us.

"Upon Sabbath morning, at ten, we went to his church. As we entered the people were singing one of Luther's hymns, with—as is usual in German churches—loud and harmonious voices, led by an organ and a tolerably good choir. About 120 were present. The passages and all round the altar, were strewed with flowers, which we learned afterwards, was a token of gladness at seeing us amongst them.

"When the psalm was nearly concluded Czersky entered. He was dressed in priest's garments; in a long black cloth gown, which came down to his toes and was buttoned in front, and over this a jacket of white muslin beautifully worked, with wide sleeves, and coming down to his waist. He knelt and prayed in silence before the crucifix, and then preached.

"We held a conference with the elders at Czersky's house, in the morning. About twelve were present. The chief objects of the meeting were to ascertain their state of mind towards Czersky, and above all to exhort them upon certain points which, we believed, required the advice of neutral parties in whose good-will perfect confidence could be placed. Mr. Herschell and I spoke our minds fully.

"Though our conference lasted nearly two hours, we were listened to throughout with the utmost patience. Not a word was spoken unless we asked a reply. When these replies were given, Czersky seemed anxious that we should hear the opinions of his elders as well as his own. These opinions were most satisfactory. From this meeting, and from a private conversation which I had with Czersky during a short walk in the fields on Sabbath, as well as from familiar intercourse with him on the following days, I am convinced that there is perfect confidence placed in him by his people, and that he is a most simple-hearted, sincere man. Though he will never be a great leader, he will prove a true witness; and if he cannot attack, he certainly will resist error. After the meeting we remained and took tea with himself and his wife. We were much struck with the humble and poor house in which ha lives. Everything indicated a man who had not at least made money by his change.

"Our Sabbath evening's work was closed by a call upon the old Lutheran minister, who was just retiring to rest. He received us very kindly, was frank and full of good humour; and while he deplored the number of churches in the town instead of one (his own), he bore the strongest testi-mony to Czersky, declaring him to be, in his opinion, a simple, honourable, upright, pious man. This was most satisfactory.

"Having determined to take Czersky with us to Posen, we all met next morning in the hotel, and were early on our way, by courier post with four horses. We had a journey of sixty miles before us. The day was scorching. Our road lay along flat plains or through forests, and poor Polish villages. It was so sandy and rough that we could not make sometimes more than six miles an hour. The whole of this day's journey reminded me of America, more especially when our road lay through the forest.

"Post is, in many respects, an abler man than Czersky. He is an able speaker, has read and thought much, and is as firm a believer in positive Christianity as Czersky. Family worship is common among his people. His congregation numbers about 740, old and young.

"The results of our inquiries into this movement in Poland may thus be summed up:—

"1. Numbers: There are fifteen Christian Catholic congregations in Poland, each numbering upon an average 300 souls, old and young. The numbers in four principal stations are, respectively, Posen 745, Schneidemuhl 400, Bromberg 600, Thorn 400. Post has sometimes 1,000 in summer.

"2. All the clergy in Poland are for positive Christianity, and will have nothing to do with Ronge.

"3. They are not yet united, but wish to form a Presbytery.

"4. This movement should be helped and strengthened. The people and ministers are poor. They could get on better by joining the Established Church; but they desire church freedom, and they think that they are in a better position to act as a Mission, having reference to the Church of Rome, than if they were to become absorbed in the State Church.

"We left Posen on Thursday morning, and slept that night at Lissa, half way to Breslau. We reached Breslau in the evening of Friday.

"We determined to drive out next day to Hunen, to see Dr. Theiner, whom all parties acknowledge to be the most learned and able man connected with this movement. He was out walking when we arrived. His old servant, however, went for him, while we sat beneath the shade of some orange-trees in the little flower-garden.

"By-and-by we saw approaching, with quick steps, a man of the ordinary size, upwards of fifty, with a long German surtout, a cap with large scoop, spectacles, and his long hair, sprinkled with grey, flowing behind. He ushered us into a large room, which, in its thorough confusion, reminded us of Neander's—chairs and tables, covered with books, and the whole room as if it was the temporary receptacle for a library hastily carried into it, along with some furniture, during a fire. The first look of Theiner filled me with confidence and affection; the large manly brow, the twinkling black eyes and gentle smile, every feature expressive of eagerness, thought, tenderness, and simplicity. He gave us his opinion fully and frankly. He spoke of Ronge with unmeasured terms of contempt as 'ein nichlwurdiges, elendes Geschopf.' He spoke of Czersky and Post with the greatest respect, declaring his conviction that they were honest men. His own position now was one of literary activity.

"'In the evening of Sabbath I heard Ronge. After reading a few cold, formal prayers, he commenced his sermon. His delivery is lifeless, without fire in eye or action; hesitating, uninteresting. One was puzzled more and more to discover what the elements were in this man which could rouse the populace.

"I expected to have met Ronge according to appointment in the evening, but he sent an apology by his Mend, Dr. Beusch, with whom we had a very long conversation and dispute. His opinions, like those of Ronge, are ultra-rationalistic—or rather, pantheistic; and it was hardly possible to get a common standing ground. The whole system seemed to be a mixture of socialism and Deism gilded with the morality of the Bible, and having a strong political tendency towards communism.

"Such is Ronge-ism. It is bad, but who is to blame? Popery first. It is evident that the whole of this false system is a reaction from Popery; that it has been moulded into its present form in the conscious presence of Popery. The materialism of the one has given birth to the anti-symbolical and attempted spiritualism of the other. What the result is to be, no one can tell. It cannot stand as it is. It must advance to Quakerism and Spiritual Pietism, and end in Socialism, or its serious people be absorbed in a deeper and more evangelical movement. There does not appear to bo connected with this part of the movement one man capable of giving it a good direction. One has only to hope that the Bible and hymn-book may help to save some of the poor people, who, I doubt not, are better than their ministers.

"I have now, within two years, seen the practical working of various Churches, and come into contact with the clergy of various denominations. I have seen the war of weak sects in the backwoods and lonely settlements of the Colonies, and Voluntaryism in its poverty and in its grandeur in the United States. I have watched well the temper and the tendency of the Free Church in Scotland, especially in the Highlands. I have met in the freest and most friendly communion, for days together, the Dissenters of England at the Evangelical Alliance. I have examined the workings of Episcopacy during a year's residence in England. I have seen Popery in every part of Germany from Vienna to Berlin, in France and Belgium, Ireland and America. I have examined into the German Church, and the result of all has been to deepen my attachment to my own Church—to fill me with unfeigned gratitude to God for the Protestant Evangelical Presbyterian Established Church of Scotland. It is Protestant, without any toleration of Popish error within its bosom. It is Evangelical, and equally removed from formal orthodoxy, or canting methodism, or icy rationalism. It is Presbyterian, and in possession of a free and vigorous government which occupies a middle point between the power of one bishop or of one congregation. It is Established, and so not dependent for its support on the people, while, for the discharge of all the functions of a Christian Church, independent of civil government by virtue of her constitution. What want we then? Nothing but the power of the living Spirit of God to enable ministers, elders, and people to use the high talents God has given us for the good of Scotland, of the Christian Church, and all to the glory of God. ' If I forget thee, Oh Jerusalem, may my right hand forget her cunning!'"


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