the name of a famous border family, which, with its various
branches, chiefly inhabited Liddesdale. According to
tradition, the original surname was Fairbairn, and belonged to
the armour-bearer of an ancient king of Scotland, who, having
his horse killed under him in battle, was straight-way
remounted by Fairbairn on his own horse. For this timely
assistance, the king amply rewarded him with lands on the
borders, and in allusion to the manner in which so important a
service was performed, Fairbairn having taken the king by the
thigh, and set him at once on the saddle, his royal master
gave him the name of ARMSTRONG, and assigned him for crest,
"an armed hand and arm, in the hand a leg and foot in armour,
couped at the thigh, all proper." Amongst the clans on the
Scottish side of the border, the Armstrongs were formerly one
of the most numerous. They possessed the greater part of
Liddesdale, which forms the southern district of Roxburghshire
and of the debateable land. All along the banks of the Liddel,
the ruins of their ancient fortresses may still be traced. The
habitual depredations of this border-race had rendered them so
active and daring, and at the same time so cautious and
circumspect, that they seldom failed either in their attacks
or in securing their prey. Even when assailed by superior
numbers, they baffled every assault by abandoning their
dwellings, and retiring with their families into thick woods
and deep morasses, accessible by paths only known to
themselves. One of their most noted places of refuge was the
Tarras-moss, a frightful and desolate marsh, so deep that two
spears tied together could not reach the bottom. Although
several of the Scottish monarchs had attempted to break the
chain which united these powerful and turbulent chieftains,
none ever had greater occasion to lower their power, and
lessen their influence, than James the Fifth. The hostile and
turbulent spirit of the Armstrongs, however, was never
entirely broken or suppressed, until the reign of James the
Sixth, when their leaders were brought to the scaffold, their
strongholds razed to the ground, and their estates forfeited
and transferred to strangers; so that throughout the extensive
districts formerly possessed by this once powerful and ancient
clan, there is scarcely left, at this day, a single landholder
of the name. Their descendants have been long scattered, some
of them having settled in England, and others in Ireland. The
most celebrated of these border chiefs was 'Johnie Armstrang’
of Gilnookie, who lived in the early part of the sixteenth
century, and is the hero of one of our best historical
ballads. A notice of him follows. Jock o’ the Syde,’ the hero
of another ballad, was also an Arm— strong, and a noted
moss-trooper in the reign of Mary, queen of Scots. The site of
his residence, the Syde, is pointed out on a heathy upland,
about two miles to the west of New Castletown, in Liddesdale,
while the ruins of Mangerton Tower, the seat of his maternal
uncle, are still visible, on the haugh below. Sir Richard
Maitland of Lethington, in a poetical complaint which he wrote
"agains the Thievis of Liddisdaill," thus speaks of this
famous border reaver:
weel kenned, Johne of the Syde;
A greater thief did never ryde; He never tyres,
For to break byres; Ower muirs and myres
Ower gude ane guyde."
descendant of Johnie Armstrong, in the reign of Charles the
First, kidnapped the person of Lord Durie, the president of
the Court of Session, and kept him upwards of three months in
secret confinement in an old castle in Annandale, called
Grahams tower. The motive for this extraordinary and daring
stratagem was to promote the interests of Lord Traquair, who
had a lawsuit of importance before the court, in which
there was reason to believe that the judgment would be
unfavourable and decided by the casting vote of the president.
(See GIBSON, Sir Alexander, Lord Durie.) Near Penton Linns, a
romantic spot on the Liddel, was another border stronghold,
called Harelaw tower, once the residence of Hector Armstrong,
who betrayed his guest, the earl of Northumberland, to the
a celebrated border chief of the early part of the sixteenth
century, was a native of the parish of Canonbie, in the county
of Dumfries, and the brother of Christopher Armstrong, laird
of Mangerton, chief of the clan or sept of the Armstrongs. His
stronghold was Gilnockie Tower, now a roofless ruin, situated
a few miles from Langholm, at a place called the Hollows, on
the banks of the river Esk. The terror of his name was spread
far and wide, and at the head of a band of brave and faithful
followers, he levied black mail, or protection money,
for many miles within the English border. All who refused were
sure of being plundered and harassed to the utmost. The
marauding system on the borders had, during the long minority
of King James V., been carried to a formidable extent,
especially under the connivance of the earl of Angus, the
warden of the marches, who had bound the border chiefs to his
interests by those feudal confederacies, named ‘bands of
manrent,’ which compelled the parties to defend each other
against the authority of the law. Having resolved to suppress
the foraying chieftains, the king raised a powerful army,
chiefly composed of horsemen, "to danton the thieves" of
Teviotdale, Annandale, Liddesdale, and other parts of the
country, and about the beginning of June 1529, he set out, at
the head of eight thousand men, on an expedition through the
border districts. To prevent the mosstroopers and their chiefs
from taking alarm, he ordered all the gentlemen of the borders
to bring with them their best dogs, as if his only purpose was
to hunt the deer.
leaders thus thrown off their guard, were not apprehensive of
any danger, and to insure their destruction the more readily,
the principal border nobles who were known to be their
protectors and secret encouragers, namely the earl of Bothwell,
lord of Teviotdale, Lords Home and Maxwell, Scott of Buccleuch,
Ker of Fairniehurst, with the lairds of Johnstone, Polwarth,
Dolphington, and other powerful chiefs, were seized and
imprisoned in separate fortresses in different parts of the
kingdom. This being done, the king, accompanied by some
of the borderers who had secured their pardon, marched rapidly
through Ettrick Forest and Ewesdale, and seized Piers Cockburn
of Henderland and Adam Scott of Tushielaw, commonly called the
king of the border, and ordered both to be hanged before the
gates of their own castles. So little did they expect the fate
that awaited them that, it is recorded, when James approached
the castle of Cockburn of Henderland, the latter was in the
act of providing a great entertainment to welcome him.
Armstrong, on his part, came to meet the king at a place about
ten miles from Hawick called Carlinrigg chapel, at the head of
thirty-six attendants, his usual retinue, he and his followers
arrayed in all the pomp of border chivalry. As the ballad
and Armstrongs did convener
They were a gallant companie
"We’ll ride and meet our lawful king,
And bring him safe to Gilnockie.
and capon ready then,
And venison in great plentie;
We’ll welcome here our noble king;
I hope he’ll dine at Gilnockie !"
ran their horse on the Langholm holm,
And brak their spears wi’ mickle main;
The ladies lookit frae their loft windows:—
"God bring our men weel hame again !"
told by Pitscottie that Armstrong was the most redoubted
chieftain that had been for a long time on the borders of
Scotland or England. He always rode with twenty-four able
gentlemen, well horsed, and from the borders to Newcastle
every Englishman, of whatever state, paid him tribute.
Armstrong is said to have incautiously made this display, by
the crafty advice of some of the courtiers, who knew that it
would only the more exasperate the king against him; and the
effect was precisely so, for James, seeing this bold border
chief so gallantly equipped, on his approach, fiercely ordered
the tyrant, as he styled Armstrong, to be removed out of his
sight and instantly executed, exclaiming, "What wants that
knave that a king should have?"
nine targats at Johnie’s hat,
And ilk ane worth three hundred pound,—
"What wants that knave that a king should have,
But the sword of honour and the croun?"
saw at once the snare into which he had fallen, and made every
effort to preserve his life. He offered, if James would pardon
him, to maintain at his own expense, forty men, ready at a
moment’s notice, to serve the king, and engaged never to
injure any Scottish subject.
my life, my liege, my king,
And a bonnie gift I’ll gie to thee,—
Full four-and-twenty milk
Were a’ foaled in ae year to me.
thee a’ thae milk white steeds,
That prance and nicher at a speir,
And as muckle gude English gold
As four o’ their braid backs can bear."
undertook to produce to his majesty, within a certain day, any
man in England, of whatever degree, duke, earl, or baron,
either alive or dead. But James was inexorable.
away, thou traitor strang!
Out o’ my sight sune may’st thou be!
I grantit never a traitor’s life,
And now I’ll not begin wi’ thee!"
death resolved upon, Armstrong haughtily exclaimed, "It is
folly to ask grace at a graceless face, but had I guessed you
would have used me thus, I would have kept the Border-side, in
despite of the king of England and you both; for I well know
that King Henry would give the weight of my best horse in gold
to know that I am sentenced to die this day."
het water aneath cauld ice,
Surely it is a great follie !—
I have asked grace at a graceless face,
But there is nane for my men and me.
But had I
kenn’d ere I cam frae hame
How thou unkind wadst been to me!
I wad hae keepid the border syde
In spite of all thy force and thee.
England’s king that I was ta’en,
O then a blythe man he wad be!
For anes I slew his sister’s son,
And on his breast bane brak a tree."
He and all
his followers, some accounts make them forty—eight, were
hanged on the trees of a little grove at Carlinrigg chapel,
two miles north of Moss Paul, on the road between Hawick and
Langholm, and tradition still points out their graves in the
solitary churchyard of the place. He left a son Christopher
who succeeded as laird of Gilnockie. On the borders Armstrong
was long missed and mourned as a brave warrior, and a stout
defender of his country against England. It is said by
Buchanan that James executed Armstrong and his retinue, in
direct violation of his solemn promise of safety. We are told
that this bold chief never molested any of his own countrymen,
and it appears from his own statement that his plunderings
were chiefly committed on the English; yet the Armstrongs are
accused of having, in the course of a few years, destroyed not
less than fifty-two parish churches in Scotland, and they
openly boasted that their chieftain, Johnny Armstrong, would
be subject neither to James nor to Henry, but would continue
his excesses in defiance of both. The fate of this renowned
border leader has been commemorated in many of the rude
ballads of the border districts. The celebrated ballad of
‘Johnie Armstrang,’ some of the verses of which have been
quoted, was first published by Allan Ramsay, in his
‘Evergreen,’ in 1724, having been copied, as he tells us, by
himself from the mouth of a gentleman of the name of
Armstrong, who was the sixth generation from the renowned
borderer. The tower of the Hollows, or Holehouse, once the
residence of this famous border chieftain, was a place of
considerable strength in its day; its ruins are now used as a
cowhouse to a neighbouring farmer. The younger son of
Christopher Armstrong of Mangerton, the brother of this
Armstrong of Gilnockie, went to Ireland, some years after the
death of Queen Elizabeth, and settling in county Fermanagh,
became the founder of a numerous family, whose descendants now
possess extensive estates in Fermanagh, King’s county and
Wicklow; and one of whom was created a baronet of Great
Britain in 1841.
ARMSTRONG, JOHN, M.D.,
poet and miscellaneous writer, was born about 1709 at
Castleton, a parish forming the southern extremity of
Roxburghshire, of which his father and afterwards his brother
were ministers. In history and poetry, and very frequently
still in conversation, its name is Liddesdale, from the river
Liddel which runs through it from east to west. Dr. Armstrong
has sung the beauties of his native vale, in his
highly-finished poem on ‘The Art of Preserving Health,’ Book
On whose Arcadian banks I first drew air.
Liddal, till now—except in Doric lays,
Tuned to her murmurs by her love-sick swains—
Unknown in song; though not a purer stream
Through meads more flowery,
—more romantic groves,
Rolls toward the westward main. Hail, sacred flood!
May still thy hospitable swains be blest
In rural innocence; thy mountains still
Teem with the fleecy race; thy tuneful woods
For ever flourish, and thy vales look gay,
With painted meadows, and the golden grain!"
receiving the rudiments of his education at home, he was sent
to the university of Edinburgh, where he distinguished himself
before his twentieth year, by gaining a prize medal for a
prose composition, prescribed by a literary society in that
city, and by other promising marks of genius during his
studies. Having chosen the medical profession, he took his
degree as physician February 4, 1732.
inaugural dissertation, De Tabe Purulenta, gained him
some reputation, as being superior to the general run of such
essays. Soon after he went to London, where he commenced
practice as a physician. In 1735 he published anonymously ‘An
Essay for abridging the study of Physic,’ being a humorous
attack on quacks and quackery, in the style of Lucian. This
work gained him credit as a wit, but did not advance his
practice as a physician. In 1737he published a work on
the venereal disease. This was followed by ‘The Economy of
Love;’ for which poem he received fifty pounds from Andrew
Millar, the bookseller, but which greatly injured his
reputation. In a subsequent edition, published in 1768, he
carefully expunged many of the youthful luxuriances with which
the first abounded. In 1744 appeared his principal work,
entitled ‘The Art of Preserving Health,’ in blank verse, one
of the best didactic poems in the language. This valuable work
established at once his reputation both as a physician and a
poet. In 1746 he was appointed one of the physicians to the
hospital for sick and lame soldiers. In 1751 he published his
poem on Benevolence, and in 1753 his Epistle on Taste,
addressed to a Young Critic. In 1758 he produced his prose
‘Sketches or Essays on various subjects, by Lancelot Temple,
Esq.,’ in two parts, which evinced considerable humour and
knowledge of the world, and in which he is said to have been
assisted by Mr. Wilkes, whose acquaintance he had made soon
after his first arrival in London. In 1760 he received the
appointment of physician to the army, then in Germany, where,
in 1761, he wrote ‘Day, a Poem, an Epistle to John Wilkes,
Esq.;’ his friendship with whom was not of long continuance,
the subject of politics having divided them; Wilkes’s
continued attacks upon Scotland being the cause of their
quarrel. Having in that epistle hazarded a reflection on
Churchill, the satirist retorted severely in his poem of ‘The
peace of Paris in 1763 Armstrong returned to London, and
resigning his connection with the army, resumed his practice,
but not with his former success. In 1770 he published a
Collection of his Miscellanies, containing amongst others, the
Universal Almanack, a new prose piece, and the Forced
Marriage, a tragedy, which had been refused by Garrick. In
1771 he made the tour of France and Italy, in company with the
celebrated artist Fusell, who survived him for half a century.
In his journey he met his friend Dr. Smollett, to whom he was
much attached. On his return he published an account of it
under the name of ‘A short Ramble, by Lancelot Temple.’
his former friend, joined Churchill in assailing Dr.
Armstrong, having published a scurrilous attack upon him in
the Public Advertiser, contained in a series of three letters,
commencing with one signed Dies, in which, to cloak his
purpose, Wilkes reflected on himself. That letter appeared
March 23, 1773, and was followed by one signed Truth, March
24, and by another signed Nox, April 1. In the Gentleman’s
Magazine for January 1792, the following substance of a
conversation which took place between Armstrong and Wilkes on
the appearance of these letters, is inserted. It was taken
down at the time by Mr. Wilkes, and is quite characteristic of
Wednesday, April 7, 1773, Dr. Armstrong called on Mr. Wilkes
in Prince’s Court, about two in the afternoon, and without the
least ceremony or compliment, began— Dr. Armstrong. Did you,
Sir, write the letters in the Public Advertiser?
Wilkes. What letters do you mean, Doctor? There are many
letters almost every day in the Public Advertiser.
Sir, I mean the three letters about me, and Day, Day, Sir.
Mr. W. You
may ask the printer, Mr. Woodfall. He has my orders to name
me, whenever he thinks it proper, as the author of every thing
I write in his paper.
Dr. A. I
believe you wrote all those letters. Mr. W. What all three,
Doctor? I am very roughly treated in one of them, in the first
Dr. A. I
believe you wrote that on purpose to begin the controversy. I
am almost sure of it.
Mr. W. I
hope you are more truly informed in other things. I know
better than to abuse myself in that manner, add I pity the
author of such wretched stuff.
Dr. A. Did
you write the other letters, Sir? Mr. W. The proper person to
inquire of, is Mr. Woodfall. I will not answer
interrogatories. My time would pass in a strange manner, if I
was to answer every question which any gentleman chose to put
to me about anonymous letters.
Whoever has abused me, Sir, is a villain; and your endeavours,
Sir, to set Scotland and England together are very bad.
Mr. W. The
Scots have done that thoroughly, Doctor, by their conduct
here, particularly by their own nationality, and the outrages
of Lord Bute to so many English families. Whenever you think
proper to call upon me in particular as a gentleman, you will
find me most ready to answer the call.
Dr. A. D—n
Lord Bute! It bad been better for Scotland he had never been
born. He has done us infinite mischief.
Mr. W. And
us, too; but I suppose we are not met for a dish of politics?
Dr. A. No;
but I wish there had been no Union. I am sure England is the
gainer by it.
Mr. W. I
will not make an essay on the advantages and disadvantages of
Dr. A. I
hate politics; but I have been ill used by you, Mr. Wilkes, on
Mr. W. On
the contrary, Doctor, I was the injured friend.
Dr. A. I
thought you for many years the most amiable friend in the
world, and loved your company the most; but you distinguished
yourself by grossly abusing my countrymen in the North
Briton—although I never read much of that paper.
Mr. W. You
passed your time, I am satisfied, much better. Who told you,
Doctor, what particular numbers I wrote? It is droll, but the
bitterest of those papers, which was attributed to me, was a
description of Scotland, first printed in the last century, on
Charles I.’s return from thence in 1633. Were you ever,
Doctor, personally attacked by me? Were you not, although a
Scotsman, at the very time of the North Britons, complimented
by me, in conjunction with Churchill, in the best thing I
wrote, the mock ‘Dedication to Mortimer.’
Dr. A. To
be praised along with such a writer, I think an abuse.
Mr. W. The
world thinks far otherwise of that wonderful genius,
Churchill; but you, Doctor, have sacrificed private friendship
at the altar of politics. After many years’ mutual intercourse
of good offices, you broke every tie of friendship with me on
no pretence but a suspicion, for you did not ask for proof, of
my having abused your country, that country I have for years
together heard you inveigh against, in the bitterest terms,
for nastiness and nationality.
Dr. A. I
only did it in joke, Sir; you did it with bitterness; but it
was my country.
Mr. W. No
man has abused England so much as Shakspeare, or France so
much as Voltaire; yet they remain the favourites of two great
nations, conscious of their own superiority. Were you, Doctor,
attacked by me in any one instance? Was not the most friendly
correspondence carried on with you the whole time, till you
broke it off by a letter, in 1763, in which you declared to
me, that you could not ‘with honour associate with one who had
distinguished himself by abusing your country, and that you
remained with all due sincerity? I remember that
was the strange phrase.
answered that letter, Sir.
answer could I give, Doctor? You had put a period to the
intercourse between us. I still continued to our common
friends to speak of you in terms of respect, while you were
grossly abusing me. You said to Boswell, Miller, and others,
"I hope there is a hell, that Wilkes may lie in it."
passion I might say so. People do not often speak their minds
in a passion.
they generally did, Doctor.
thoroughly provoked, although I still acknowledge my great
pecuniary obligations to you— although, I dare say, I could
have got the money elsewhere.
always happy to render you every service in my power; and I
little imagined a liberal mind, like yours, could have been
worked up by designing men to write me such a letter in answer
to an affectionate one I sent you, on the prospect of your
happier with you than any man in the world for a great many
years, and complimented you not a little in the Day,
and you did not write to me for a year and a half after that.
memory does not serve you faithfully, Doctor. In three or four
months at farthest, you had two or three letters from me
together, on your return to the head-quarters of the army. I
am abused in Dies for that publication, and the manner,
both of which you approved.
I did so.
abused at first, I am told, in the manuscript of Dies
for having sold the copy, and put the money in my pocket; but
that charge was suppressed in the printed letter.
I know nothing of that, and will do you justice..
call upon Mr. D—, our common friend, your countryman, and ask
him what he thinks of your conduct to me, if it has not been
your leave to ask Mr. Woodfall in your name about the letters?
already told you, Doctor, what directions he has from me. Take
four-and-twenty hours to consider what you have to do, and let
me know the result.
I am sorry
to have taken up so much of your time, Sir.
in no need of an apology, Doctor. I am glad to see you. Good
minutes were taken down the same afternoon, and sent to a
Armstrong’s last publication was his ‘Medical Essays,’ which
appeared in 1773. In this he complains of the little attention
that had been paid to him, while so many other physicians of
inferior abilities had risen to fame and fortune, forgetting
that his own indolence and levity, and not the fickleness or
want of discernment of the public, occasioned the neglect. A
large portion of his time was spent at Slaughter’s
coffee-house, in St. Martin’s lane, where he took his meals,
and where messages for him were ordinarily directed to be
addressed. He died on 7th September, 1779, and left, it is
said, three thousand pounds, which his prudence and good
management had enabled him to collect. He left his fortune by
his will to his three nieces, the daughters of his brother Dr.
George Armstrong; who, after having been an apothecary for
several years at Hampstead, at length obtained a diploma
constituting him doctor in medicine. Settling in London, he
was appointed physician to a dispensary for the benefit of
poor infants, opened at a house taken for him by the
subscribers in Soho square. To aid the design, he published a
small treatise on the diseases of children, in which he was
supposed to have been assisted by his brother John. The
dispensary, however, did not succeed, and the doctor died some
years after in obscurity. Armstrong possessed a glowing
imagination and a lively fancy, chastened, at times, by the
guidance of a sound judgment, and a well regulated taste. Of
his 'Art of Preserving Health,’ Dr. Aikin, in his Critical
Essay prefixed to Cadell and Davis’ edition of his works
published in 1796, says, "The manner of Armstrong is
distinguished by its simplicity, by a free use of words which
owe their strength to their plainness, by the rejection of
ambitious ornaments, and a near approach to common
phraseology. His sentences are generally short and easy, his
sense clear and obvious. The full extent of his conceptions is
taken in at the first glance, and there are no lofty mysteries
to be unravelled by repeated perusal. What keeps his language
from being altogether prosaic, is the vigour of his
sentiments. He thinks boldly, feels strongly, and therefore
expresses himself poetically. Where the subject sinks, his
style sinks with it; but he has for the most part excluded
topics incapable either of vivid description or of the oratory
of sentiment. He had from nature a musical ear, whence his
lines are never harsh, and are usually melodious, though
apparently without much study to render them smooth. Perhaps
he has not been careful enough to avoid the monotony of making
several successive lines close with a rest or pause in the
sense. On the whole, it may not be too much to assert, that no
writer in blank verse can be found more free from stiffness
and affectation, more energetic without harshness, and more
dignified without formality." In Thomson’s ‘Castle of
Indolence,’ to which he contributed four stanzas, at the
conclusion of the first part, describing the diseases
incidental to sloth, he is depicted as the shy and splenetic
personage who "quite detested talk." The following is the
sometimes joined in silent walk,
(Profoundly silent, for they never spoke)
One shyer still, who quite detested talk;
Oft stung by spleen, at once away he broke,
To groves of pine and broad o’ershadowing oak,
There, inly thrilled, he wandered all alone,
And on himself his pensive fury wroke:
Nor never uttered word, save, when first shone
The glittering star of eve—’ Thank heaven! the day is done!’"
is a portrait of Dr. Armstrong taken from an engraving by
of Dr. Armstrong]
Fisher from a painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
An Essay for abridging the study of Medicine; to which is
added, A Dialogue between Hygeia, Mercury, and Pluto; relating
to the Practice of Physic, as it is managed by a certain
illustrious Society, as also n Epistle from Usbech, the
Persian, to Joshua Ward, Esq. Lond. 1735, 8vo, (anon).
Synopsis of the history and cure of the Venereal Disease. Lond.
The Economy of Love. Lond. 1737, 8vo.
Art of preserving Health, a poem. Lond. 1744, 4to, 1745, 8vo.,
numerous editions, with a critical essay, by Dr. Aikin, 12mo.
Benevolence, a poem. 1751, fol. An excellent production.
Taste, an epistle to a young Critic. 1753. A pretty successful
imitation of Pope.
Sketches, or Essays on various subjects. 1758.
Day, a poem. 1761.
Miscellanies, containing the art of preserving Health. Lond.
1770, 2 vols. 12mo.
A short ramble through some parts of France and Italy, by
Lancelot Temple. Lond. 1771, 8vo.
Medical Essays. Lond. 1773. 4to. These treat of Theory,
Medicine, Instruments of Physic, Fevers, Blisterings,
Cordials, Ventilation, Bathing, Lodging, &c.. and, lastly,
Gout and Rheumatism.
An Essay on Topic Medicines. Ed. Med. Ess. ii. p. 36. 1733.
a miscellaneous writer, was born at Leith in 1771, and
educated at the college of Edinburgh, where he took the degree
of M.A. During his attendance at the university he published a
volume of ‘Juvenile Poems,’ some of which possessed
considerable merit. The same volume contained an ‘Essay on the
Means of Punishing and Preventing Crimes.’ For this essay he
had, in January 1789, a few months before, received the gold
prize medal, given by the Edinburgh Pantheon Society for the
best specimen of prose composition. Some time previous to this
he had entered himself at the divinity hall, and had gone
through the greater part of the exercises necessary to qualify
him to become a preacher in the Church of Scotland. In 1790 he
repaired to London, and supported himself by writing for the
daily papers. In 1791 ho published a collection of ‘Sonnets
from Shakspeare.’ He also preached occasionally, and was
rising in reputation, when he was cut off, in 1797, in the
26th year of his age.
The following is a list of his works:
Juvenile Poems; with remarks on Poetry, and a dissertation on
the best method of Punishing and Preventing Crimes. Lond.
Confidential Letters from the Sorrows of Werter. Lend. 1799,
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