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Barclay


BARCLAY, the same name as the English Berkeley, the Scottish Barclays being originally descended from Roger de Berkeley, who is said to have come into England with William the Conqueror, and according to the custom of the time, assumed his surname from Berkeley castle in Gloucestershire, the place of his residence and possessions.

      During the twelfth century a branch of the Berkeley family settled in Scotland, and in 1165 we find Walter de Berkeley chamberlain of the kingdom (Crauford’s Officers of State, page 253). The name is of long standing in Kincardineshire. In the foundation charter of the Abbey of Arbroath from William the Lion in 1178, in conveying to that institution the lands of Mondynes, in the parish of Fordoun, it is said, "Dedi etiam eis unam carucatam terre in Monethyne, super aquath de Bervyne, quam Willus de Munfort et Umfridus de Berkeley, et Walterus Scotus et Alanus, filius Symonis, et allii probi homines, mei per preceptum meum eis mensuravernut."

      The writer of the account of the Barclays of Mathers, afterwards Urie, in Nisbet’s System of Heraldry, doubtless one of that family, desirous of making it even more ancient than the Conquest, expresses his opinion that their early settlement in Scotland was before that event, and that they were not of Norman race at all. He says, (Nisbet, vol. ii. page 245,) whether the ancient surname of Berkeley or Barclay be originally of Caledonian, British, or Saxon extraction, is what cannot now be concluded, but this much is vouched that in the reign of William the Lion there were four great and eminent families of that name settled in Scotland, namely, Walter de Berkeley, William de Berkeley, Humphrey de Berkeley, and Robert de Berkeley—the two first having been great chamberlains of the kingdom. Walter de Berkeley, the first named, was one of the pledges for King William the Lion to Henry the Second of England. He left two daughters, one of whom, Margaret, married Sir Alexander Seton of Seton, ancestor of the earls of Winton. This Walter de Berkeley is supposed to have been the nephew of Theobald de Berkeley, the progenitor of the Barclays of Mathers in Kincardineshire, who lived in the reign of David the First, and had two sons, Humphry and John.

      Humphry the elder, designed of Gairntully, was a liberal benefactor to the abbey of Arbroath, and is undoubtedly the same who is mentioned in the above cited charter of William the Lion. On part of his large possessions in the Mearns, namely Balfeith, Monboddo, Glenfarquhar, &c., in the parish of Fordoun, he granted a donation to the abbot and monks thereof, which was confirmed by William the Lion, and was renewed and augmented by his only child Richenda, and her husband, Robert, ancestor of the earls of Glencairn. This second donation was confirmed by Alexander the Second. After the death of her husband, the monks prevailed on Richenda to dispone these lands to them for the third time, which third donation was confirmed by Alexander the Second at Aberbrothwick, 7th March, 1243. Humphry’s brother, John de Berkeley, who succeeded him, turned the abbot and monks out of all the lands so granted to them, but was obliged to enter into an agreement with them, confirmed by Alexander the Second, whereby, in lieu of what he had thus dispossessed them of, he gave them the mill of Conveth, with the appurtenances thereof, taking them bound, at the same time, to pay to him and his heirs, in all time coming, the sum of thirteen merks of silver yearly.

      John was succeeded by his son Robert de Berkeley, and he by his son Hugh de Berkeley, who obtained a charter from King Robert the Bruce upon Westerton, being lands lying near the above mentioned mill of Conveth. His son, Alexander de Berkeley, born in 1326, was the first designed of Mathers. He obtained these lands, situated in the southern district of Kincardineshire, on his marriage with Katherine, sister of William de Keith, great marischal of Scotland, whose charter conveying them, dated in 1351, is confirmed by King David the Second, at Perth, 18th March the same year. He was succeeded by his son, David de Berkeley, whose grandson, also named David de Berkeley, was that laird of Mathers, who with the lairds of Lauriston, Arbuthnott, Pittarrow and Halkerton, was accessary to the slaughter of John Melville of Glenbervie, sheriff of the Mearns in the reign of James the First, as formerly narrated, and who built the castle called the Kaim of Mathers. (See ante, page 143, article ARBUTHNOTT.) He married Elizabeth, a daughter of Strachan of Thornton in the same county.

      His son Alexander was the first to spell the family name Barclay. He was living in 1483, as appears by a charter dated in that year, granted to him "by his kinsman, William, earl Marischal." He married Katherine, daughter of Wishart of Pittarnow. His son, David Barclay of Mathers, married Janet, a daughter of Irvine of Drum. Their eldest son,  Alexander Barclay of Mathers, was living in 1497. He married Marjory, second daughter of James Auchinleck, laird of Glenbervie, the son of John Auchinleck of that ilk in Forfarshire, and who, by marrying the only daughter of the sheriff, John Melville, killed by the barons of the Mearns, obtained his estate of Glenbervie.

      David Barclay of Mathers, born in 1580, the fifth in descent from this Alexander Barclay, and the twelfth laird of Mathers of the name of Barclay, by his extravagance and living much at court, was obliged to sell the estate first of Mathers, after it had been in possession of the family nearly three hundred years, and then the old patrimonial lands, after being in the family upwards of five hundred years. He married Elizabeth Livingston, daughter of Livingston of Dunnipace, and had a daughter, Anne, first married to Douglas of Tilwhilly, and secondly to Strachan, afterwards bishop of Brechin; and several Sons; of whom John and Alexander died young; David became his heir and representative; Robert was rector of the Scots college at Paris, and James, the youngest, a cornet in a troop of horse, was killed at the battle of Philiphaugh.

      Had the last laird of Mathers of this family, remembered the advice of that laird, his ancestor, who first changed the name from Berkeley to Barclay, as contained in "the Laird of Mathers’ Testament," the estate might still have been in possession of his descendants. The verses which pass under this name are as follows:—

"Giff thou desire thy house lang stand,
And thy successors bruik thy land,
Above all things live God in fear,
Intromit nocht with wrangous gear;
Nor conquess nothing wrangously
With thy neighbour keep charity.
See that thou pass not thy estate;
Obey duly thy magistrate:
Oppress not, but support the puire;
To help the commonweill take cuire.
Use no deceit; mell not with treason;
And to all men do richt and reason.
Both unto word and deed be true;
All kinds of wickedness eschew.
Slay no man, nor thereto consent;
Be nocht cruel, but patient.
Ally ay in some guid place,
With noble, honest, godly, race.
Hate huirdom, and all vices flee;
Be humble; haunt guid companye.
Help thy friend, and do nae wrang,
And God shall cause thy house stand lang.

David, afterwards Colonel David Barclay of Urie, was born in 1610. He entered the army, and served as a volunteer under Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. Having attained the rank of major, he remained abroad till the civil wars broke out in his own country, when he returned home and became colonel of a regiment of horse on the side of the king. On the accession of Cromwell’s party to power, he retired from active military service, and in 1647 purchased the estate of Urie in Kincardineshire, from William earl Marischal. After the Restoration he was committed prisoner to Edinburgh Castle upon some groundless charge of hostility to the government, but was soon liberated, through the interest of the earl of Middleton, with whom he had served in the civil war. During his imprisonment he was converted to Quakerism by the celebrated laird of Swinton, who was confined in the same prison. (See SWINTON, surname of.) He married Catherine, daughter of Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstown, the premier baronet of Nova Scotia, and well known historian of the house of Sutherland, second son of the earl of Sutherland, and second cousin of King James the Sixth. By her he had two daughters, Lucy and Jean, and three sons, Robert, John, and David. Lucy and David died unmarried. Jean married Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel, to whom she bore eight children. Robert, the eldest son, who became celebrated as the apologist for the Quakers, is afterwards noticed. John, the second son, settled in East Jersey in America, where he married and left issue.

      In the Ragman Roll, among those who swore fealty to Edward the First, in 1296, occurs the name of Patricius de Berkeley. This surname was then so numerous in Scotland, that the different families are not easily distinguishable. Besides the Barclays of Mathers, there were the Barclays of Towie, and those of Gartly or Garthie, in Aberdeenshire; of Collairnie, in Fife; of Touch, descended from the latter; of Johnston, descended from the family of Mathers; of Balma— kewan, the first of which family was the second son of David Barclay of Johnston; and other families of the same name.

      In the charters of King William the Lion to the abbey of Dunfermline, amongst the witnesses are Walter de Berkeley and Robert de Berkeley. In the reign of Alexander the Second, Malcolm, earl of Angus, married the daughter of Sir Humphry Berkeley. In the register of Arbroath is a charter granted by Malcolm, earl of Fife (who lived in the reign of Alexander the Third), to Andrew de Swinton, to which Roger de Berkeley is a witness. In 1284 Hugo de Berkeley was Justiciarius Laodonice. His name appears as a witness to a charter of Alexander the Third, to the monks of Melrose, dated at Traquair the 12th December, in the sixteenth year of his reign. He is supposed to be the same Hugo de Berkeley who had half of the barony of Crawfordjohn in Lanarkshire, and was sometimes designed of Crawfordjohn and sometimes of Kilbirnie, which, in 1471, went to the Craufurds by marriage. In the register of Melrose (p. 62) Sir Walter Berkeley, knight, sheriff of Aberdeen, is so designed in a charter of King Robert the Bruce to that town. His seal of arms was the same with those of the lords Berkeley in England.

      In 1315, Sir David Berkeley or Barclay of Cairny-Barclay in Fife, married Margaret de Brechin, daughter of Sir David de Brechin, lord of Brechin. He was one of the chief associates of Robert the Bruce, and was present at most of his battles, particularly Methven, where he was taken prisoner. (Barbour, page 32.) After the successful issue of the struggle he was appointed sheriff of the county of Fife. (Sibbald’s Hist. of Fife, page 288.) On the forfeiture of his brother-in-law, Sir David de Brechin in 1321 (see BRECHIN, lord of), King Robert bestowed upon him the lordship of Brechin, the barony of Rothiemay, the lands of Kinloch and part of Glenesk, which had belonged to his brother-in-law. He had for his paternal estate the barony of old Lindores and the lands of Cairny of Fife. His strong castle stood near the loch of Lindores. He gave to the monks of Balmerino, in pure alms, a right of fishing in the river Tay. This Sir David Barclay, lord of Brechin, is also frequently mentioned in the wars of King David Bruce, to whom he faithfully adhered even when his cause was the most depressed, and in 1341, by that monarch’s command, he seized Sir William Bullock, chamberlain of Scotland, suspected of treason, and committed him to prison. Having slain John Douglas, brother of the knight of Liddesdale, at Forgywood, he was assassinated at Aberdeen on Shrove Tuesday, 1350, by John of St. Michael and his accomplices, at the instigation of William

      Douglas, knight of Liddesdale, then a prisoner in England. (Fordun, b. ii. p. 348.) By Margaret de Brechin, his wife, he had David his heir, and a daughter, Jean, married to Sir David Fleming of Biggar, by whom he had a daughter, Marion, the wife of Sir William Maule of Panmure.

      The son, David, second lord of Brechin of the name of Barclay, granted a charter of the lands of Kyndestleth to Hugh Barclay, his cousin, from whom the Barclays of Collairnie in Fife were descended. (Douglas’s Peerage, vol. i. p. 245.) In 1363 he granted a charter of confirmation of the lands of Dunmure, lying in his barony of Lindores, to Roger Mortimer. On 10th January 1362—3 he is witness to a charter of Sir Thomas Bisset and Isabel de Fife. In 1364 he went to the wars of Prussia, having obtained a safe conduct from King Edward the Third to pass through his dominions, attended by twelve esquires, with their horses and servants. The date of his death is unknown. He left one daughter, Margaret, married to Walter Stewart, earl of Athole and Caithness and earl palatine of Strathern, second son of King Robert the Second, by his second wife, Euphemia Ross, executed in April 1437, for being accessary to the murder of King James the First. Just before going to execution he emitted a judicial declaration that the lordship of Brechin had been held by him in courtesy of his wife, and that the right to that lordship after himself belonged to Sir Thomas Maule of Panmure, nearest heir of his countess, in right of his grandmother, daughter of Sir David Barclay of Brechin. (Nisbet's Heraldry, vol. ii. p. 81.) See ATHOLE, earls of, ante p. 163, and PANMURE, earls of.

      The family of Barclay must have possessed Collairnie, which is in the parish of Dunbog, for nearly five hundred years. In 1457. David Barclay of Collairnie was one of the assessors in a perambulation between Easter and Wester Kinghorn. (Nisbet’s Heraldry, vol. i. p. 126.) They also possessed other large estates in Fifeshire. In 1656 we find Robert Barclay of Collairnie served heir male to his father, Sir David Barclay, knight, among others, in the lands of Kilmaron, Pitblado, Hilton, and Boghall. The Barclays of Collairnie were heritable bailies of the regality of Lindores, an office implying great personal influence or high rank, while it conferred civil authority of the most varied and extensive description. On the abolition of the heritable jurisdictions in 1747, Antonia Barclay of Collairnie and Mr Harry Barclay, her husband, received the sum of two hundred and fifteen pounds sterling, as a compensation for this office. The family is now extinct, the estate having been sold about the beginning of the present century to the late Dr. Francis Balfour of Fernie. In the appendix to Sibbald’s History of Fife there is a list of natives of that county who have risen to eminence in literature or science; among others mention is made of "the famous William Barclay (father of John), professor of law at Angiers, who derived his pedigree from Barclay of Coilairnie." Of this William Barclay a notice is given below. Sir Henry Steuart Barclay, baronet, of Coltness, eldest son of Henry Steuart Barclay, Esq. of Collairnie, who was youngest brother of the said baronet, succeeded his cousin as third baronet in 1839. Died in 1851. Baronetcy extinct.

      The Barclays of Pierston are an ancient family in Ayrshire, of distinction so early as the twelfth century. Sir Robert Barclay of Pierston, knight, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 22d October 1668. Sir Robert Barclay, the eighth baronet, died in 1839. His grandson, Sir Robert Barclay, born in 1819, succeeded as ninth baronet.

      The Barclays of Ardrossan were also an old family of Ayrshire. In 1471 the line of this branch of the Barclays terminated in an heiress, who married Malcolm Craufurd of Greenock, the founder of the family of Craufurd of Kilbirnie.

      The Barclays of Towie or Tolly in Aberdeenshire are said to have been descended from John Berkeley, son of Lord Berkeley of Gloucestershire. He obtained a grant of the estate of Tolly for his son Alexander Berkeley, about 1100. On the front of the old castle of Towie Barclay, in the parish of Turriff, this inscription is cut in stone: "Sir Valter Barclay foundit the Tollie Mills, 1210." This corroborates the common opinion, that corn mills turned by water were introduced into Scotland by the Saxon followers of Malcolm towards the end of the eleventh century; for had corn mills previously existed in the country the founding of a mill would not have been worth recording. (New Stat. Account, vol. xii. p. 287.) Immediately above the door of the old castle of Towie Barclay is the following inscription, "Sir Alexander Barclay, foundator, decessit, 1136." It is believed, however, that the castle was not built before 1593. The Barclays seem to have mingled in the frays of their time, and are frequently mentioned in Pitcairn’s Criminal Trials. The estate remained in the same family till it was sold by the Hon. Charles Maitland Barclay of Tillycoultry, brother of the earl of Lauderdale, who married Isabel Barclay, the last heiress, in 1752, and assumed the name of Barclay. Persons of the name still exist in the district. From this ancient family the celebrated Russian general, Field Marshal Prince Barclay de Tolly, who died in 1818, was lineally descended.

BARCLAY-ALLARDICE, the name of a former proprietor of Urie. The surname of Allardice is derived from the barony of Alrethes, in Kincardineshire, which, during the reign of William the Lion, belonged to a family who assumed its name, in the course of time softened into Allardice. On the 8th October, 1662, Sir John Allardice of Allardice, the then chief of that ancient family, married Lady Mary Graham, eldest sister and co-heir of William Graham, eighth earl of Menteith, and second earl of Airth. He died before November 1690, leaving four daughters and two sons. The elder son, John Allardice of Allardice, married, 26th October, 1690, Elizabeth daughter of William Barclay of Balma— kewan. Leaving no issue, he was succeeded by his brother, Sir George Allardice of Allardice, whose grandson’s only daughter, Sarah-Anne Allardice, born 13th July 1757, was served heiress of line of the earls of Airth and Menteith, and of David, earl palatine of Strathern, son of Robert the Second, king of Scotland. She married in 1777 Robert Barclay of Urie, great-grandson of the famous apologist for the Quakers (being his second wife), and in consequence he assumed the name of Allardice in addition to his own. Their eldest son, Captain Robert Barclay-Allardice, the celebrated pedestrian, designed of Urie and Allardice, became, in right of his mother, heir general and heir of line of the first earl of Airth. He was also sole heir of the body of Prince David, son of Robert the Second, king of Scotland. He was born 25th August, 1779, and succeeded his father in 1797, and his mother, (who had married a second time,) in 1833. In 1842 he published at Edinburgh, in one volume, ‘An Agricultural Tour through the United States and Canada.’ He died 1st May 1854. His only daughter, Margaret, married in 1840 Samuel Ritchie, at one period a private soldier.

BARCLAY, ALEXANDER, an elegant poet of the 16th century, is mentioned by Bishop Bale.

Dr. Bullyn, Hollinshed, and Ritson, as a native of Scotland, although Pitts, Wood, and some other English writers, claim him for England. From his writings it appears that he spent some of his earlier days at Croydon in Surrey. About 1495 he went to Oriel College, Oxford, where, or at Cambridge, he received his education, and took the degree of D.D. Going afterwards to the continent, he acquired a knowledge of the Dutch, German, Italian, and French languages. On his return to England he entered the church, and became chaplain to Bishop Cornish, who, in 1508, appointed him one of the priests or prebendaries of St. Mary, Ottery, Devonshire. Subsequently he became first a Benedictine monk of Ely, and afterwards a Franciscan monk at Canterbury. On the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539, he became a Protestant, and was presented to the living of Great Baddow, in Essex. In 1546 he was vicar of Wokey, in Somersetshire, and in 1552 he became rector of All Hallows, London, but did not possess this living above six weeks. He died at a very advanced age at Croydon, Surrey, in June, 1552. Of his personal character different accounts have been given. Bale, a Protestant, treats his memory with indignity, and charges him with living a scandalous and licentious life; while Pitts, a Roman Catholic, assures us that he directed his studies to the service of religion, and employed his time in reading and writing the lives of the saints. As an improver of English literature he is entitled to grateful commemoration; and his industry in enriching the language with translations, written in a purer style than belonged to that period, is much commended. His chief production is a satire, entitled ‘The Ship of Fools,’ partly a translation and partly an imitation of a German poem by Sebastian Brandt, called Navis Stultifera, printed in 1497. He also translated Sallust’s History of the Jugurthine War, published in 1557. Among his other publications is an English translation of the ‘Mirrour of Good Manners,’ a treatise compiled in Latin by Dominyque Mancyn, for the use of the "juvent of England." His Eclognes are the earliest specimens of pastoral poetry in the English language. (Mackenzie’s Scots Writers.) The following are some of his principal works:

The Castell of Labour, wherein is Rychesse, Vertue, and Honour; an allegorical Poem, in seven line stanzas, trans— lated from the French. Printed by Wynken de Worde, 1506.

Certain Egloges, containing the Miseries of Courts and Courtiers, five in number, in English verse, from AEneas Sylvius’ Miserae Curialium. Lond. 1508, fol. 1509, 1548, 1570, 4to.

Stultifera Nauis, qua Omnium Mortalium narratur Stultitia, &c. The Ship of Fooles, wherein is shewed the folly of all states, with diuers other Workes adioyned to the same, very profitable and fruitful for all men. This edition has the Latin version of James Lodier, pupil of Brandt, the Author who first translated it from the German, and also the English translations of Barclay. To which is annexed, The Mirrour of Good Manners, containing the four cardinal vertues; compiled, in Latin, by Dominike Mansoin, and translated into Englishe, by Alexr. Barclay. English and Latin. Also cer— tayne Egloges of Alex. Barclay. Imprented in the cyte of London, in Fletestre (te), at the signe of Saynte George, by Richard Pynson, to his cost and charge. Ended the year of our Sauior M.D.IX. fol. Lond. 1570, folio, printed by Cawood, J.

The Introductory to Write and to Pronounce Frenche. London, 1521, folio.

The Famous Chronicle of Warre, whyche the Romaynes hadde agaynst Jugurth, vsurper of the kyngedome of Numidie:

whiche Chronicle is compiled in Latin by the renowned Ro— mayne, Salluste; and translated into Englishe by Syr Alexander Barklayo, prieste; nowe perused and corrected by Thomas PavnelL London, 1557, 8vo.

A Right Fruitful Treatise, entituled, the Myrror of Good Manners, contaynynge the iiii vertues called Cardynall, compyled, in Latyn, by Dominike Mancyn, and translated into Englishe. Printed by Pynson, no date. fol.

A. B. his figure of our Mother Holy Churche oppressed by the Frenche king. 4to. Pynson.

BARCLAY, ROBERT, of Urie, the Apologist for the Quakers, was born December 23, 1648, at Gordonstown, shire of Moray, or, according to one authority, at Edinburgh, but this is incorrect. His father, as already stated, was Colonel David Barclay, the son of the last laird of Mathers, and his mother, Catherine Gordon, was the daughter of Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstown, baronet. He was the eldest of three sons. After receiving the rudiments of education in his native country, his father sent him to Paris, to study under the direction of his uncle, the principal of the Scots college there. His deportment and character so endeared him to his uncle that he offered to make him his heir, and to settle a large estate immediately upon him if he would remain in France, an offer which he at once rejected. Having by his uncle’s influence become a Roman Catholic, he was immediately recalled home. In 1666 his father embraced the peculiar principles of the Quakers; and two years afterwards young

      Barclay adopted the same doctrines, and soon distinguished himself by his talents and zeal in their vindication. This change had not been produced without a degree of thought and investigation almost beyond his years, for he was not then nineteen. It also gave a decided bias to his future studies. He learned the Greek and Hebrew languages, being already proficient in Latin and French, and to his other acquirements he added an acquaintance with the writings of the Fathers, and knowledge of ecclesiastical history. Andrew Jaffray, one of the Friends, thus writes of him :—" A little after his coming out of the age of minority, as it is called, he was made willing, in the day of God’s power, to give up his body as a sign and wonder to this generation, and to deny himself and all in him as a man so far as to become a fool, for His sake whom he loved, in going in sackcloth and ashes through the chief streets of the city of Aberdeen, besides some services at several steeple houses, and some sufferings in prison for the truth’s sake."

      His first treatise, written with great vigour, was published at Aberdeen in 1670. It was entitled ‘Truth cleared of Calumnies,’ in answer to a book against the Quakers, by the Rev. William Mitchell. The same year he wrote an appendix entitled ‘Some things of weighty concernment proposed in meekness and love, by way of queries, to the serious consideration of the inhabitants of Aberdeen, which also may be of use to stick as are of the same mind with them elsewhere in the world.’ A reply to the ‘Truth cleared of Calumnies’ was written by Mitchell; to which Barclay rejoined with a treatise under the title of ‘ William Mitchell unmasked, or the staggering instability of the pretended stable Christian discovered, his omissions observed, and weakness unvailed," &c. In 1673 he published ‘A Catechism and Confession of Faith,’ explanatory of the doctrines of the Quakers. The design of this work was to prove that Quakerism was the perfection of the reformed religion, and that protestants as they receded from it were so far inconsistent with themselves, and approached to popery. His next treatise, published in 1674, entitled ‘The Anarchy of the Ranters and other Libertines, the Hierarchy of the Romanists, and other pretended Churches, equally refused and refuted,’ &c., was intended to mark the distinction between the rationalists of his sect, and the enthusiasts ; but some sentiments concerning church discipline which it contained, involved him in disputes with some of his own brethren, and he afterwards published a vindication of this work. His publications, which were numerous, involved him in various contraversies with the students of Aberdeen and others.

      His great work, considered the standard of Quakerism, entitled ‘An Apology for the true Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and preached by the people called in scorn Quakers,’ appeared in 1675. It was written and published in Latin, " for the information of strangers," but the author himself translated it into English, " for the benefit of his countrymen." The ‘Apology’ was preceded by his ‘Theses Theologicae,’ printed in Latin, French, German, Dutch, and English. and addressed to the clergy generally throughout Europe, requesting their examination and judgment. In his principal work he attempts to prove that there is an internal light in man, which is better fitted to guide him aright in religious matters than even the Scriptures themselves, the genuine doctrines of which may be rendered uncertain by various readings in different manuscripts, and the fallibility of translators and interpreters. "Whence," he says, "we may very safely conclude that Jesus Christ, who promised to be always with his children, to lead them into all truth, to guard them against the devices of the enemy, and to establish their faith upon an unmoveable rock, left them not to be principally ruled by that which was subject, in itself, to many uncertainties, and therefore he gave them his Spirit as their principal guide, which neither moths nor time can wear out, nor transcribers nor translators corrupt; which none are so young, none so illiterate, none in so remote a place, but they may come to be reached, and rightly informed by it." In a dedicatory address to Charles the Second, he pleads for toleration to the new sect in the following emphatic terms :—" Thou hast tasted of prosperity and adversity; thou knowest what it is to be banished thy native country, to be overruled as well as to rule, and sit upon the throne; and being oppressed, thou hast reason to know how hateful the oppressor is to God and man. If, after all these warnings and advertisements, thou dost not turn unto the Lord with all thy heart, but forget him who remembered thee in thy distress, and give up thyself to lust and vanity, surely great will be thy condemnation." The Apology was reprinted at Amsterdam, and translated into the German, Dutch, French, and Spanish languages. It received many answers, as it was not conceived difficult to overturn its strange and unusual theories. Barclay’s name as the apostle of the Quakers was now extensively known, and accompanied by the celebrated William Penn and George Fox he travelled into England, Holland, and Germany, disseminating the principles of the Society of Friends, and was everywhere received with great respect. About the end of 1677 he addressed an Epistle and ‘Friendly advice’ on public affairs to the ministers of the different states of Europe then assembled at Nimeguen. At this period a severe persecution raged against the Quakers, and in that year Barclay, his father, and many others of the Society of Friends, were imprisoned at Aberdeen, at the instigation of Archbishop Sharp, with whom he remonstrated by an excellent letter on the occasion. By the interposition of Elizabeth, the princess palatine of the Rhine, who respected the Quakers, and corresponded with both Penn and Barclay, he was soon liberated; and he even acquired the favour of the court.

      In 1679, Charles the Second, who, it is probable, considered him a harmless enthusiast, granted him a charter under the great seal erecting his lands of Urie into a free barony; and in 1682, the proprietors of East Jersey, in North America, appointed him governor of that province, bestowing upon him 5,000 acres of land above his proprietary share; but he never went out, having the power to nominate a deputy. The last of his productions, was a long letter in Latin, addressed to a person of quality in Holland, ‘On the Possibility and Necessity of an Inward and Immediate Revelation,’ written in 1676, but not published till 1686. From that year till his death, excepting on one or two occasions, he may be said to have lived in retirement at Urie, where he died, August 3, 1690, in the forty-second year of his age. His death was occasioned by a violent fever which attacked him immediately after his return from a religious visit to some parts of Scotland.

      Barclay possessed great natural abilities, which were much improved by the superior classical education he had received; these, joined to a strong understanding, with a high degree of enthusiasm, and much activity and energy, admirably fitted him for the extraordinary career which he pursued. He had been several times in prison; but this did not damp his ardour, or hinder him from vindicating his opinions, and making proselytes on all occasions that offered. In his moral character he was free from every reproach, and his temper was so well regulated that he was never seen in anger. Besides the works above-named, he wrote, while imprisoned in Aberdeen, a treatise ‘On Universal Love.’ He had married, in February 1670, Christian Mollison, the daughter of a merchant in Aberdeen, by whom he had three sons and four daughters, all of whom survived him for fifty years. His second son, Mr. David Barclay, a mercer in Cheapside, successively entertained the three first Georges, kings of England, when they visited the city on Lord Mayor’s day. From this gentleman are descended the Barclays of Bury Hill in Surrey.

      Barclay himself had a high opinion of James the Second of England, who, on his accession, had granted toleration to the Quakers. In 1688, shortly before that infatuated monarch’s dethronement, being at court one day, he was standing with his Majesty at a window, when the king observed, that "the wind was then fair for the prince of Orange to come over." Barclay replied, "It was hard that no expedient could be found to satisfy the people." On which the king said, "He would do any thing becoming a gentleman, except parting with liberty of conscience, which he never would do whilst he lived." That liberty of conscience which he claimed for himself, he unrighteously, as well as unwisely, denied to others. An account of the life and writings of Barclay, the Apologist, was published in 1802, in 12mo, by Joseph Gurney Bevan, one of the society of Friends.

      The following is a list of Robert Barclay’s works:

Truth cleared of Calumnies, wherein a book, entitled, A Dialogue between a Quaker and a Stable Christian, (printed at Aberdeen, and, upon good ground, judged to be writ by William Mitchel, a preacher near by it, or at least that he had a chief hand in it,) is examined, and the disingenuity of the Author, in his representing the Quakers, is discovered; here is also their case truly stated, cleared, demonstrated, and the Objections of their opposers answered according to truth, scripture, and right reason; to which are subjoined, Queries to the Inhabitants of Aberdeen, which might also be of use to such as are of the same mind with them elsewhere in the world. Aberd. 1670

William Mitchell unmasked, or the Staggering instability of the pretended Stable Christian discovered; his omissions observed, and weakness unvailed, &c. 1671.

Seasonable warning and serious exhortation to, and expostulation with, the inhabitants of Aberdeen, concerning this present dispensation and day of God’s living visitation towards them. 1672.

A Catechism and Confession of Faith, approved of, and agreed to by the general assembly of the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, Christ himself chief speaker in and among them, which containeth a true and faithful account of the principles and doctrines which are most surely believed by the churches of Christ in Great Britain and Ireland, who are reproachfully called by the name of Quakers, yet are found in the one faith with the primitive church and saints, &c. 1673.

The Anarchy of the Ranters and other Libertines, &c. 1674.

Theses Theologicae. Lond. 1675, 8vo.

Theologiae vere Christianae Apologia. Amst. 1676, 4to. Lond. 1729, 8vo.

An Apology for the true Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and preached by the people called, in scorn, Quakers; being a full Explanation and Vindication of their Principles and Doctrines, by many Arguments deduced from Scripture and right reason, and the testimonies of famous Authors, both ancient and modern, with a full Answer to the strongest Objections usually made against them; presented to the King; written and published, in Latin, for the information of Strangers, by Robert Barclay; and now put into our own Language, for the benefit of his Countrymen. Lond. 1676, 1678, 1701, 8vo., 1736, 8vo. Birm. by Baskerville, 1765, 4to Printed in Latin. Amst. 1676, 4to. Translated into Spanish, by Ant. de Alvarado, 1710, 8vo.

Treatise on Universal Love. 1677.

Apology for the true Christian Divinity Vindicated. Loud. 1679, 4to.

Vindication of his Anarchy of the Ranters. 1679.

The Possibility and Necessity of the Inward and Immediate Revelation of the Spirit of God, towards the foundation and ground of true Faith, proved in a Letter written in Latin to a person of Quality in Holland, and now also put into English. 1686.

A true and Faithful Account of the most material Passages of a Dispute between some Students of Divinity (so called), of the University of Aberdeen, and the People called Quakers, held in Aberdeen, in Scotland, in Alexander Harper his close, (or yard), before some hundred of Witnesses, upon the 14th day of the second month, called April, 1675, there being John Lesley, Alexander Sherreff, and Paul Gellie, Master of Arts, opponents; and defendants, upon the Quakers’ part, Robert Barclay and George Keith: Preses for moderating the meeting, chosen by them, Andrew Thomson, Advocate; and by the Quakers, Alexander Skein, sometime a Magistrate of the City: published for preventing misreports, by Alexander Skein, John Skein Alexander Harper, Thomas Merser, and John Cowie. To which is added, Robert Barclay’s Offer to the Preachers of Aberdeen, renewed and reinforced.

Quakerism Confirmed; being an answer to a pamphlet by the Aberdeen Students, entitled Quakerism Canvassed, written in conjunction with George Keith. Aberdeen. 1676.

An Epistle of Love and Friendly Advice to the Ambassadors of the several Princes of Europe met at Nimeguen, to consult the peace of Christendom so far as they are concerned. Written in Latin, but published also in English for the benefit of his countrymen. 1677.

Works. Lond. 1692, fol.

BARCLAY, WILLIAM, a learned civilian, descended from the family of Barclay of Collairney, in Fife, was born in Aberdeenshire in 1546. He was related to the earl of Huntly, Ogilvy of Findlater, Lesley of Balquhain, and other persons of distinction. He was educated in the university of Aberdeen, and in his youth he frequented the court at Holyrood. His prospects of preferment in Scotland being blighted with the dethronement of Mary queen of Scots, and his adherence to the Romish faith, following the example of many other Scottish youth at that period, he went, in 1573, to France, and resolved to devote himself to the study of jurisprudence. Repairing to the university of Bourges, he attended the lectures of Cujacitis, Donellus, and Contius, three celebrated professors of law. He took the degree of doctor of laws in that university. The duke of Lorraine had recently founded the university of Font-aMousson, and Barclay, on the recommendation of his uncle Edmund Hay, the Jesuit, its first rector, was appointed in 1578 the first professor of civil law in that institution. The duke also made him dean of the law faculty, counsellor of state, and master of requests. In 1581 Barclay married Anne de Malleville, a lady of Lorraine, by whom he had one son, John (the subject of the next article), whom the Jesuits endeavoured to seduce into their society; but this being opposed by his father, they influenced the duke against him, and in 1603, he resigned his chair and quitted Lorraine. Barclay’s first and largest work, written in Latin, as all his works were, was a treatise on regal power, in which he zealously contends for the divine right of kings. It was printed in the year 1600, with a dedication to the French king, Henry the Fourth. The first two books are directed against the famous dialogue of his countryman Buchanan; the third and fourth against the ‘Vindiciae contra Tyrannos,’ written by Hubert Languet under the assumed name of Stephanus Junius Brutus; and the last two against a treatise of Jean Boucher, a doctor of the Sorbonne, who rendered himself notorious for his seditious audacity during the unhappy ascendant of the League. This volume, says Dr. Irving, ought to contain a curious portrait of the author, which, however, is very seldom to be found. On each side of it were displayed the blazonings of eight different families, with which Barclay is supposed to have been connected. Proceeding to London, he was graciously received by James the Sixth, who is said to have offered him a place in the council with a pension, on condition of his renouncing the Romish religion, which he declined to do, and in 1604 he returned to France. The professorship of civil law at the university of Angers being vacant, he was offered that chair, and having accepted it on an engagement for five years, by a decree of the university, of date 7th February 1605, he was confirmed in the rank of dean or first professor. In this university he taught with high reputation. Anxious to support the dignity of his office he carried his taste for external pomp to an unusual extent. When he went to the university — hall to lecture, he was dressed in " a rich robe, lined with ermine," with a massy chain of gold about his neck, having his son on his right hand, preceded by one servant, and followed by two others bearing his train! His elaborate commentary on the titles of the Pandects, ‘De Rebus creditis,’ and ‘De Jurejurando,’ appeared in 1605, dedicated to King James. Towards the close of the same year he died at Angers, before he had completed the age of sixty. A treatise on the power of the pope, which he left in manuscript, was published by his son, four years after his decease. In this work, which excited a strong sensation at the time of its appearance, he proves that the pope has no authority over sovereigns in temporal matters. (Irving’s Lives of Scottish Writers, vol. i.)

The following is a list of William Barclay’s works:

De Regno et Regali Potestate, adversus Buchananum, Brutum, Boucherium, et reliquos Mounarchomachos, libri sex. Parisiis 1600, 4to. Hanov. 1612, 8vo.

Comm. in Titulos Pandectarum de Rebus Creditis et de Jurejurando. Par. 1605, 8vo.

De Potestate Papae, quatenus in Reges et Principes secu— lares Jus et Imperium habeat. Liber posthumus. Francf.

1609. Hanoviae, 1611, 8vo. Franc. 1613, 1621. The

same in English. Lond. 1611, 4to. Item de Regno et

Regali Potestate, adversus Buchananum, Brutum et reliquos

Monarchomachos; libri vi. Hanov. 1617, 12mo.

BARCLAY, JOHN, author of Argenis, son of the preceding, by Anne de Malleville, his wife, was born at Pont-a-Mousson, January 28, 1582; and although not a native of Scotland, is usually included in Scottish Biographies. He was educated in the College of the Jesuits in his native town, and made so rapid a progress in his studies that at the age of nineteen he published Annotations on the Thebais of Statius. The early indications of genius which he displayed induced the Jesuits to solicit him to enter into their order. His rejection of their offers, in which he was countenanced by his father, was the cause of their quitting Lorraine in 1603. He accompanied his father to London, and dedicated to James the Sixth the first part of his ‘ Euphormionis Lusini Satyricon,’ a Latin romance of a half-political, half-satirical nature, printed at London the same year, which is particularly severe upon the Jesuits. He went with his father to Angers, and in the beginning of 1604 he sent his ‘Kalendae Januariae,’ as a poetical offering to King James. He returned to London in 1605, in the hope of obtaining some preferment at court; but after a farther residence of twelve months, being disappointed, he removed to Paris, where he married Louise, daughter of Michael Debonnaire, "Tresorier des vieilles bandes." During his residence at Paris he published there the second part of his ‘Satyricon,’ dedicated to the earl of Salisbury, and at Amsterdam a brief narrative of the Gunpowder plot, in Latin. In 1606 he fixed his abode in London. In 1609 he published his father’s able work, ‘De Potestate Papae,’ to which he prefixed a preface of nine pages, which concluded with an intimation of his purpose to defend his father’s memory against any attack. Cardinal Bellarmin having published a treatise against it, he issued in 1612 a large quarto volume in answer, entitled ‘Pietas,’ being in defence of his father’s work. In 1610 he published at London an apology for his ‘Satyricon,’ which had excited so many censures that he found it necessary to attempt some explanations. In 1614 appeared his ‘Icon Animarum,’ forming the fourth part of his ‘Satyricon.’ The object of this work is to give a delineation of the genius and manners of the different nations of Europe, with remarks on the various tempers of men, and he has not forgotten to extol the genius, and character of the people of Scotland, the land of his fathers.

      About the end of 1615, Barclay quitted London, with his family, and proceeded to Paris, but having been invited to Rome by Pope Paul the Fifth, he there fixed his residence in the beginning of 1616. With the view of recommending himself to the heads of the church, he published in 1617, his next work, ‘Paraenesis,’ or an exhortation to Sectarians. He received much civility at Rome, and in particular was kindly treated by Cardinal Bellarmin.

      It was at Rome that he wrote his celebrated Latin romance, entitled ‘Argenis,’ and while the printing of the first edition was going on at Paris, the author died at Rome, of the stone, August 21, 1621, aged 39. His Argenis was published at Paris soon after his death. It is a political allegory, containing allusions to the state of Europe at the time, and especially France during the civil wars of the seventeenth century. The style has received the commendations of the greatest scholars, and the work has been translated into the English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and even into the Polish, Swedish, Icelandic, and other languages. The first English version was published by Sir Robert Le Grys and Thomas May, Esq., London, 1628, 4to. Another by Kingsmill Long, Esq., appeared at London in 1636. A third, under the title of ‘The Phoenix, or the History of Polyarchus and Argenis,’ by Clara Reeves, authoress of the ‘Old English Baron,’ appeared in 1772, in 4 volumes 12mo, being that lady’s first work. Argenis was a special favourite with Cardinal de Richelieu and with Liebnitz. Cowper styles it "the best romance that ever was written." In the notes to Marmion Sir Walter Scott has quoted a singular story of romantic chivalry from the Satyricon of Barclay.

      The following is a woodcut of John Barclay, from a portrait prefixed to a French edition of his ‘Argenis,’ of date 1625:

      The disposition of Barclay was of a melancholy cast, his mornings were uninterruptedly devoted to study, and his afternoons were occupied in cultivating a small garden. He was afflicted with that passion for tulips which at that time overspread Europe, and which is known under the name of the Tulipo-mania. He "had it to that excess," says Lord Hailes, who wrote a sketch of his life, "that he placed two mastiffs as sentinels in his garden; and rather than abandon his favourite flowers, chose to continue his residence in an ill-aired and unwholesome habitation." Besides the works above mentioned, Barclay left an unpublished History of the Conquest of Jerusalem by the Franks, and some fragments of a General History of Europe. He had four children in all, a son and two daughters born in London, and a son born in Rome. His elder son is said to have obtained a rich benefice from Pope Urban the Eighth. One of his sons, like his father, was a writer of Latin verses, and in 1652 he printed an elegy at Paris. Barclay’s wife, from excess of affection, sometimes annoyed him with her jealousy. There was something romantic in her feelings regarding him. After his death she erected a monument, with his bust in marble, at the church of St. Lorenzo, on the road to Tivoli; but on learning that Cardinal Barberini had there put up a similar monument in honour of his preceptor, she said, "My husband was a man of family, and famous in the literary world; I will not suffer him to remain on a level with a base and obscure pedagogue !" and indignantly caused her husband’s bust to be removed. (Irving’s Lives of Scottish Writers, vol. i.)

The following is a list of John Barclay’s works:

Notae in Statii Thebaidem. Mussiponti, 1601, 8vo.

Series Patefacti Divinitus Paricidli, contra Maximum Regem regnumque Brittaniae cogitati et unstructl. 1606.

Apologia pro se. Par. 1610, 12mo.

Pietas, sive Publicae pro regibus ac principibus, et privatae pro Gui. Barclaio parente Vundiciae, adversus Bellarminum. Paris, 1612, 4to.

Icon Animorum, quae est quarta Pars Satyrici. Loud. 1614, 8vo. 1625, l2mo. cum NotisA. Buchneri. Dresd. 1680, Svo. Satyricon cum clave. Leyd. 1623, 12mo. In Partibns v. cum clave. Amst. 1629, 12mo. Oxon. 1634, l2mo. Amst. 1658, 12mo. idem, cum Notis, in quatuer partes priores et sexta parte auctum cui titulus; alithophilus castigatus. Lugd. Bat. 1674, 8vo.

Poematum libri duo. London, 1615, 4to. His Latin poems are also inserted in the Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum.

Pananesis ad Sectarios de vera Ecclesia Fide ac Religione. Rome, 1617, 8vo. Col. 1625, 12mo.

Satyricon cum clave et couspiratio Anglicanae. Oxf. 1634, 12mo.

Argenis. Par. 1621, 8vo. In French, 1622, 8vo. In English. Lond. 1625, 4to. In Latin. Lugd. Bat. Elzev. 1627, 1050, 12mo. Amst. 1658, 12mo. By Sir Robert le Grys and Tho. May. With cuts. 1628, 4to. Oxf. 1634, 8vo. In English, by K. Long. Lond. 1636, 4to. Amst. Elzev. 1655, 12mo. New English Translation, entit. The Phoenix; or the History of Polyarchus and Argenis. Translated from the Latin by a Lady. 1772, 4 vols. l2mo. La suite et continuation de l’Argenis en ix. livres; sc. Argenidis pars altera. Par. 1625, 8vo. Idem, Latine. Franc. 1626, 8vo.

Argenis et Satyricon, cum clave et Alithophili veritatis Lacrymae. Lugd. Bat. 1627, 12mo. Elzev. 1630, 2 vols. Eadem, cum notis et continuatione, Th. Bugnatii. Lugd. Bat. 1664, 2 vols. 8vo. Camb. 1673, 8vo. Cum figuris. Amst. 1703.

BARCLAY, WILLIAM, M.D., often confounded with the eminent civilian of the same name, to whom he was related, was the brother of Sir Patrick Barclay of Tolly, and was born about 1570. He studied at the university of Louvain, under the celebrated scholar, Justus Lipsius, to whom he addressed several letters, which have been printed. Lipsius had such a high opinion of him that he is recorded to have said, that if" he were dying, he knew no person on earth he would leave his pen to but the doctor." (Callirhoe, or the Nymph of Aberdene, edition Aberdeen, 1670.) Barclay describes himself as A.M. and M.D., but where he took those degrees we are not informed. Having been appointed a professor in the university of Paris, he taught humanity there for several years, and acquired considerable reputation by his talents and learning. He afterwards returned to Scotland, where he appears for a time to have followed the medical profession, but soon went back to France, and resumed his former occupation at Nantes in Bretagne. Dr. Irving says that it may be inferred from Dempster’s brief notice that Barclay’s reason for again leaving his native country was that his situation was rendered uncomfortable in consequence of his adherence to popery. (Irving’s Lives of Scottish Writers, vol. i. p. 231.) According to Dempster, at the time of his writing, Barclay was residing in Scotland, and pursuing the practice of physic. He is conjectured to have died about 1630. His principal tract, called ‘Nepenthes, or the Vertves of Tabacco,’ was published at Edinburgh, in 1614, in 8vo. It is now exceedingly rare, and has been reprinted in the first volume of the Miscellany of the Spalding Club from the copy in the Advocates’ Library. Added to this treatise are six little poems addressed to some of his friends and kinsmen, all in praise of tobacco. He also wrote ‘Callirhoe, commonly called the well of Spa, or the Nymph of Aberdene resuscitated;’ Apobaturum, or last farewell to Aberdeen, of which no copy is now known to exist; some Latin poems in the ‘Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum,’ besides a Commentary on the Life of Agricola by Tacitus, and other Latin works.

The following is a list of his works, from Dr. Irving’s ‘Lives of Scottish Writers,’ vol. i. p. 232:

Oratio pro Eloquentia. Ad v. cl. Ludovicum Servinum, Sacri Consistorii Regli Consiluarium, et in amplissimo Senatu Parisiensi Regis Advocatum. Paris, 1598, 8vo.

C. Cornelii Taciti Opera quae exstant, ad exemplar quod J. Lipsius quintum recensuit. Seorsim excusi commentarii ejusdem Lipsil, meiores plenioresque, cum curia secundis, et auctariolo non ante adjecto. Guil. Barclayus Praemetia quaedam ex Vita Agricolae libavit. Adjecti sunt indices aliquanto ditiores. Paris, 1599, 8vo.—Menage and Bayle have ascribed these Praemetia to the civilian, and the same error has been committed by other writers.

Nepenthes, or the Vertves of Tabacco. By William Barclay, Mr. of Art, and Doctor of Physicke. Edinb. 1614, 8vo.—This tract is dedicated to the author’s nephew, Patrick, the  ADVANCE \d 5

son and heir of Sir Patrick Barclay of Tolly; and the dedication is preceded by "A merie Epistle of the Author to the Printer," who is no other than "good Master Hart."

Callirhoe, commonly called the Well of Spa, or the Nymph of Aberdene, resuscitat by William Barclay, Mr. of Art, and Doctor of Physick. What Diseases may be cured by drinking of the Well of Spa at Aberdene, and what is the true use thereof. As it was printed by Andro Hart Anno Domini 1615, and now reprinted at Aberdene by John Forbes, younger, Printer to the Town and Universitie, Anno Domini M. DC. LXX., 8vo.

Guil. Barclayi, Amoenioruin Artiurn, et Medicinae Doctoris, Judiciurn de Certamine G. Eglisemmii cum G. Buchanano, pro Digaitate Paraphraseos Psalmi ciiii. Non violandi Manes. Adjecta sunt, Eglisemmii ipsurn Judicium, ut editum fuit Londini, typis Eduardi Aldaei, an. Dorn. 1619; et, in gratiam studiosae juventutis, ejusdern Psalmi elegans Paraphrasis Thomae Rhaedi. Lond. 1620, 8vo.—Dr. Eglisham, like a fair as well as a bold critic, exhibited his own verses in competition with those of Buchanan, and had no reason to congratulate himself on the issue.

Gull. Barclayii, M. D. Poemata. Delitiae Poetarum Sco torum,, tom. i. p. 137.—These poems only occupy four pages and a half.

BARCLAY, JOHN, founder of a religious sect named Bereans, born in 1734, was the son of Mr. Ludovic Barclay, farmer, parish of Muthill, Perth-shire. Being designed for the church he was sent to St. Andrews, where he took the degree of A.M. He attended the divinity class in St. Mary’s College; and while there espoused and advocated some of the peculiar doctrines then broached by Dr. Archibald Campbell, professor of church history in that university ; the chief of which was, that the knowledge of the existence of God is derived from revelation, and not from nature. On the 27th September 1759 he was, by the presbytery of Auchterarder, licensed to preach the gospel; and was for some time assistant to the Rev. Mr. Jobson, Errol. Having imbibed some of the sentiments of Mr. Jolm Glas, minister of Tealing, the founder of the Glasites, he was obliged to quit Errol. In June 1763 he became assistant to Mr. Anthony Dow, minister of Fettercairn, where he remained for nine years, and where he was very popular as a preacher. In 1766 he published part of a Paraphrase of the whole Book of Psalms, which he had composed, accompanied with ‘A Dissertation on the best means of interpreting that portion of the Canon of Scripture.’ From his peculiar views, the presbytery of Fordoun, in consequence of this publication, cited him to appear at their bar, where he defended himself with ability and success. He afterwards published a small work, entitled ‘Rejoice Evermore, or Christ All in All;’ in which he repeated those doctrines which were deemed heretical. In consequence of this, the presbytery appointed one of their own body to read publicly, in the church of Fettercairn, a warning against the dangerous doctrines that he preached ; but without injuring his popularity or usefulness. In 1769 he published one of the largest of his treatises, under the title of Without Faith, Without God, or an appeal to God concerning his own Existence.’ In summer 1769, he addressed a letter on the ‘Eternal Generation of the Son of God,’ to Messrs. Smith and Ferrier, two clergymen of the Church of Scotland who had separated from it and become Glassites. In 1771 he published a Letter ‘ On the Assurance of Faith;’ and also a ‘Letter on Prayer,’ the latter addressed to an Independent congregation in Scotland. On the death of Mr. Dow in 1772, the presbytery of Fettercairn prohibited Mr. Barclay from preaching in the kirk of Fettercairn; and they refused him the usual certificate of character on quitting their bounds. Having in consequence left the Church of Scotland, he went to Newcastle, and was ordained there Oct. 12, 1773. He afterwards proceeded to Edinburgh, where a congregation holding his peculiar sentiments had been formed, and he was their pastor for about three years. Subsequently, in order to disseminate his principles, he repaired to London, where he preached for nearly two years. He also preached at Bristol, and other places in England. The name of Bereans was voluntarily assumed by his followers, to distinguish them from other Christian sects, and took its origin from the Jews of Berea, mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, chap. xvii. verse II, as being "more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, whether these things were so." At Edinburgh Mr. Barclay published an edition of his works in three vols. In 1783 he brought out a small work for the use of the Berean churches, entitled ‘The Epistle to the Hebrews Paraphrased,’ with a collection of Psalms and Songs from his other works. He died of apoplexy, on the 29th of July, 1798.—Scots Magazine.

BARCLAY, JOHN, M.D., a distinguished anatomist, the nephew of John Barclay the Berean, was born in 1760. He was a native of Cairn in Perthshire, where his father was a farmer. He first studied divinity at St. Andrews, and was by the presbytery of Dunkeld licensed as a preacher. In 1789 he repaired to Edinburgh in the capacity of tutor to the family of Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, baronet, and abandoning the clerical profession began to study medicine at the university of Edinburgh, particularly turning his attention to anatomy, both human and comparative. lie became assistant to Mr. John Bell, and in 1796 took the degree of M.D. He afterwards studied for some time under the late Dr. Marshall of London, an eminent teacher of anatomy in Thavies Inn. In November 1797 he began his career as an anatomical lecturer in Edinburgh. In 1803 he published a Nomenclature, with the view of rendering the language of anatomy more accurate and precise; but although this work displayed much talent and learning, it was not genes’— ally adopted. In the following year, the Royal College of Surgeons passed a resolution declaring that attendance on his lectures should qualify for passing at Surgeon’s Hall, and in 1815 lie was admitted a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, and a resident fellow the following year. In 1808 lie published a ‘Treatise on the Muscular Motions of the Human Body.’ In 1812 appeared his ‘Description of the Arteries of the Human Body.’ His last publication was an ‘ Enquiry into the Opinions, Ancient and Modern, concerning Life and Organization.’ In consequence of the declining state of his health, in 1825 he entered into partnership with Dr. Robert Knox, at the time Conservator of the Royal College of Surgeons. He died at Edinburgh, August 21,- 1826. He had married in 1811 Eleommora, daughter of his former patron, Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, baronet, by whom he had no issue. This lady afterwards married Mr. Charles Oliphant, writer to the signet. Dr. Barclay’s introductory lectures, revised by himself before his death, containing a valuable abridgment of the history of anatomy, were published by Sir George Ballingall, M.D., after his decease. The article Physiology, in the third edition of the Encyelopaedia Britannica, was written by Dr. Barclay. It was principally on his recommendation that the Highland Society of Scotland established a veterinary school in Edinburgh. His anatomical collection, now known as the Barclayan Museum, was bequeathed to the Royal College of Surgeons of that city, in which a bust of him, by Joseph, has been placed.

Subjoined is a list of his works:

A New Anatomical Nomenclature, relating to the terms which are expressive of Position and Aspect in the Animal System. Edin. 1803, 8vo.

The Muscular Motion of the Human Body. Edinburgh, 1808, 8vo.

Description of the Arteries of the Human Body. Edin. 1812, 12mo.

An Enquiry into the Opinions, ancient and modern, concerning Life and Organization. Edinburgh, 1822, 8vo.

Introductory Lectures to a course of Anatomy, with a Memoir of the Author, by George Ballingall, M. D. Edinburgh, 1827, 8vo.


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