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The Scottish Nation
Callander


CALLANDER, a surname derived from the lands of Callendar in Stirlingshire, (supposed to be a corruption of choille-tor, wood-hill), which were bestowed by Alexander the Second in 1246, on one Malcolm the son of Duncan, who had received, in 1217, from Malduin earl of Lennox, the lands of Glasswell, Kilsyth, &c., in the same county. It is probable, however, that it was the British name for the district extending over the middle portion of the Forth. A Roman station was at Calentarra, supposed to be the camp at Ardoch, near the village of Callander in Perthshire, and the army of William the Conqueror passed through Callantrae on their way to Abernethy on the Tay, against Malcolm Canmore. One of the portions of the Scottish army under David the First, at the battle of the Standard (1138), were the men of Callantrae. Malcolm was succeeded by Aluin de Callenter his son, who took his name, as was usual in those days, from his estate. In the Ragman Roll, among those who swore fealty to Edward the First in 1292 and 1296, occur the names of ‘Joannes de Callentar, miles,’ and ‘Johannes de Callentyr,’ the former being the head of the ancient family of the Callendars of that ilk, and the latter, it is likely, a son or nephew. Patrick de Callendar of that ilk was forfeited by David the Second, for adhering to the party of Edward Baliol, upon which Sir William Livingston, ancestor of the earls of Linlithgow and Callendar, [see LIVINGSTON, surname of], obtained the estate of Callendar, by a charter, dated 10th July 1347, and to prevent his title to the lands from being afterwards called in question, he married Christian Callendar, the daughter and heiress of the said Patrick. [See CALLENDAR, earl of.]

CALLANDER, JOHN, of Craigforth, Stirlingshire, a distinguished antiquary, was born about the beginning of the eighteenth century. Being educated for the bar, he was admitted advocate; but he devoted the greater part of his time in early life to classical studies, and was the author of various works, which display great scholarship. His first publication was a translation from the French of M. de Brosses, entitled ‘Terra Australis Cognita, or Voyages to the Southern Hemisphere, during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries,’ which appeared at Edinburgh in 1766, in 3 vols. 8vo. In 1779 appeared at Glasgow his ‘Essay towards a literal English Version of the New Testament, in the Epistle to the Ephesians.’ The work by which he is best known was published at Edinburgh in 1782, in 8vo, entitled ‘Two ancient Scottish Poems; the Gaberlunzie Man, and Christ’s Kirk on the Green, with Notes and Observations.’ In editing these he does not appear to have consulted the most correct editions; but, as regards the latter especially, gave “such readings as appeared to him most consonant to the phraseology of the sixteenth century.” In April 1781 he was elected a fellow of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, founded in the preceding November by the late earl of Buchan, and appointed secretary for foreign correspondence. In August of the same year, he presented the society with five folio volumes of manuscripts, entitled ‘Spicelegia Antiquitatis Graecae, sive ex Veteribus Poetis, Deperdita Fragmenta;’ and also with nine folio volumes of manuscript annotations on Milton’s Paradise Lost. Of the latter, a specimen, containing his notes on the first book, was printed at Glasgow, by Messrs. Foulis, in 1750. An admirable paper in Blackwood’s Magazine on these annotations, in which Mr. Callander was accused of having taken, without acknowledgment, the greater part of his materials from a folio work on the same subject, published by Mr. Patrick Hume, at London, in 1695, led, on the suggestion of Mr. David Laing, librarian to the signet library, to the appointment, in 1826, of a committee of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries for the purpose of examining the manuscripts. Their report, published in the third volume of the Transactions of that Society, vindicated Mr. Callander from the charge of plagiarising the general plan, on the largest portion of his materials, from Mr. Hume’s work, but stated that there are some passages where the similarity is so striking, that there can be no doubt of his having availed himself of the labours of his predecessor, and of these he has made no acknowledgment.

      In 1778, Mr. Callander printed in folio a specimen of a ‘Bibliotheca Septentrionalis.’ In 1781 appeared ‘Proposals for a History of the Ancient Music of Scotland, from the age of the Venerable Ossian to the beginning of the Sixteenth Century;[ and the same year, a specimen of a Scoto-Gothic Glossary is mentioned in a letter to the earl of Buchan. But none of these projected works appear ever to have been completed. Mr. Callander died September 14, 1789. By his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir James Livingstone of Westquarter, Bart., he had seventeen children. From a little work, entitled ‘Letters from Thomas Percy, D.D., afterwards bishop of Dromore, John Callander of Craigforth, Esq., David Herd, and others, to George Paton, which appeared at Edinburgh in 1830, we learn that Mr. Callander had a taste for music, and was an excellent performer on the violin, and that in his latter years he became very retired in his habits, and saw little company, his mind being deeply affected by a religious melancholy, which entirely unfitted him for society. The estate of Craigforth originally belonged to Lord Elphinstone, but in the year 1684, it was acquired by Mr. Alexander Higgins, advocate. That gentleman, shortly after his purchase, became much embarrassed, and in consequence of large sums of money advanced by John Callander, the king’s master smith in Scotland, Mr. Higgins conveyed the estate to him. Craigforth has since remained in the possession of his descendants, notwithstanding a strenuous effort which was made by Mr. Higgins to regain it. Mr. Callander, the smith, is traditionally said to have made the greater part of his money by a mistake of some English government officials, who paid him a large sum in pounds sterling, instead of pounds Scots.

      James Callander, born in 1745, the eldest son of the antiquary, was a person of some notoriety in his day. He left Scotland when very young, and remained upwards of twenty years on the continent. In 1810, on the death of his cousin, Sir Alexander Campbell of Ardkinglass, bart., he succeeded, as heir of entail, to that estate, on which he dropped the name of Callander, and assumed the name and title of Sir James Campbell, baronet. When the succession opened to him, he was resident in France, and being one of those who were detained by Napoleon, he sent a French lady, whose acquaintance he had formed, named Madame Lina Talina Sassen, as his commissioner to Scotland. In the power of attorney with which he furnished her on the occasion, she was designed his “beloved wife;” but when he arrived in Scotland himself he disclaimed the marriage, in consequence of which, Madame Sassen raised an action against him. Although the judges of the court of session found the marriage not proven, they awarded her a sum of three hundred pounds sterling per annum. On appeal to the house of lords, however, the judgment was reversed. The lady afterwards brought various actions against Sir James, in the court of session, having been admitted to sue in forma pauperis, and the superintendence of these suits formed the occupation of her life; they were only terminated by the death of the parties, within a fortnight of each other. It is said that latterly Sir James offered her a very liberal compromise, which she rejected, as she would accept nothing short of a complete recognition of all her claims. She was a constant attendant in the parliament house during the sittings of the court of session. She was little in stature, and in her youth had been a pretty woman. Sir James died in 1832. He published Memoirs of his own life in 2 vols. 8vo., a work not remarkable for the accuracy of its facts.

CALLENDAR, earl of, a title in the peerage of Scotland (attained in 1716), conferred in 1641 on the Hon. Sir James Livingstone, third son of Alexander, first earl of Linlithgow [See LINLITHGOW, earl of.] Sir James, in his youth, distinguished himself greatly in the wars in Bohemia, Germany, Holland, and Sweden, and on his return to Scotland he was appointed one of the gentlemen of the bedchamber to King Charles the First, and created Lord Livingstone of Almond, by patent dated at Holyroodhouse 19th June 1633, to him and his heirs male for ever. On 12th June 1634 he had the lordship of Callendar and several other lands near Falkirk erected into a free barony. In 1640, when the Scots covenanters raised an army to oppose the attempt of King Charles the First to coerce them into his measures, he was appointed by the war-committee lieutenant-general or second in command under General Alexander Leslie, afterwards created earl of Leven. On the 20th August the Scots army crossed the Tweed, the van being led on foot by the earl of Montrose, who had not then declared himself for the king. After defeating, on the 28th, a large body of the king’s troops sent to defend the fords at Newburn on the Tyne, they took possession of Newcastle and other towns, and eight commissioners being soon after sent to treat with commissioners on the part of the king, the treaty of Ripon, concluded the last day of October, which put an end to hostilities for the time, was the consequence. On his return to Scotland Montrose secretly formed an association in favour of the king, and Lord Almond was one of the first who subscribed the bond, at Cumbernauld, in July 1641. He afterwards revealed the matter to the earl of Argyle, who reported it to the committee of parliament, and the bond was in consequence delivered up and burned. When Charles visited Scotland in August of that year, he was pleased to create him earl of Callendar, Lord Livingstone and Almond, by patent dated at Holyroodhouse, 6th October 1641, to him and the heirs male of his body. In 1643, when the Scots army were about to enter England, Lord Callendar was offered his former post of lieutenant-general, but he declined it. In the following year, however, he accepted the command of five thousand covenanters raised to oppose Montrose, who had erected the royal standard at Dumfries. Montrose, however, did not wait for them, but in two days made a precipitate retreat to Carlisle. Advancing into England, the earl of Callendar joined the Scots army under the earl of Leven, employed in the siege of Newcastle, which was taken by storm in October 1644. After the king had taken refuge in the Scots camp at Newark in May 1646, the earl of Callendar waited on his majesty, by whom he was graciously received. He obtained a patent, dated at Newark 22d July 1646, granting to him, in the event of failure of heirs male of his body, the power of nominating the person who should succeed him in his titles and estates, and in default of such nomination then to devolve on Alexander Livingstone, the son of his brother, and his heirs of entail. His lordship was sent back to Edinburgh, with a letter to the committee of estates, expressive of his majesty’s resolution to comply with the wishes of his Scots parliament, but all was rendered abortive by his majesty’s declining to afford them full satisfaction in matters of religion. In 1647 he waited on the king at London, and obtained from his majesty a grant of the office of sheriff of the county of Stirling. In the following year, when the “engagement” for the rescue of the king, then a prisoner in the Isle of Wight, was entered into, the earl was, 11th May 1648, appointed lieutenant-general of the army raised for the purpose, being second in command under the duke of Hamilton. On this occasion, he was attended by a body of his Falkirk retainers, This army, amounting to about ten thousand foot and four thousand cavalry, marched into England, and on 12th July took Carlisle, of which place the earl of Callendar was appointed governor. The Scots, however, were totally routed at Preston in Lancashire, by Cromwell, on the 17th of August, when his lordship escaped in disguise to Holland. His Falkirk troop valiantly forced their way th rough the victorious army, and on their return home they were summoned before the congregation, at the instance of the kirk session, and were publicly “admonished” for being in what was called “the late unlawful engagement.” The session record contains the names of seventy-seven of the persons so dealt with, and among these the names of Sir William Livingstone of Westquarter, and of other gentlemen appear. [New Statistical Account of Scotland, art. Falkirk, p. 6.] Lord Callendar was one of the persons excepted in Cromwell’s act of grace and pardon. At the restoration, having no issue of his own, the earl obtained a new patent, of date 21st November 1660, of his titles and estates in favour of his nephew, Alexander Livingstone, second son of Alexander second earl of Linlithgow, and the heirs make of his body, which failing to the second son of George, third earl of Linlithgow. Lord Callendar married, in 1633, Margaret, only daughter of James seventh Lord Yester, sister of John first earl of Tweeddale, and widow of Alexander first earl of Dunfermline, high-chancellor of Scotland, but her ladyship had no children to him. He died in 1672, and was succeeded by his nephew Alexander.

      The second earl of Callendar was a zealous covenanter, and a copy of the Solemn League and Covenant is still preserved in Falkirk, bearing his signature with that of many others. On two different occasions the troops of government took possession of Callendar house, near Falkirk, but on the last of these in 1678, a mob from that town put the intruders to flight. He married, in 1663, Lady Mary Hamilton, third daughter of the second duke of Hamilton, but by her had no issue. He had, however, a natural son, Sir Alexander Livingstone of Glentirran. The earl died in 1685, when the titles and estates devolved on Alexander Livingstone, the second son of George third earl of Linlithgow.

      The third earl of Callendar died in December 1692, leaving, by his wife, Lady Ann Graham, eldest daughter of James second marquis of Montrose, a son, James, the fourth earl, and two daughters.

      The fourth earl of Callendar, on the death of his uncle George fourth earl of Linlithgow, in August 1695, succeeded to that title. [See LINLITHGOW, earl of.] His titles and estates were forfeited in consequence of his engaging in the rebellion of 1715. The last earl of Callendar and Linlithgow died in exile on the continent. His estate of Callendar was sold about 1720 to the York Buildings Company, whose affairs having become disordered, it was brought to sale in 1783, under the authority of the court of session, and purchased by William Forbes, Esq., merchant in London. The titles both of Callendar and Linlithgow are claimed by the baronetted family of Livingstone of that ilk and Westquarter.


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