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The Scottish Nation
Campbell


CAMPBELL, a surname of great antiquity in Scotland, and of frequent occurrence in Scottish history. It is stated by Pinkerton to have been derived from a Norman knight, named de Campo Bello, who came to England with William the Conqueror. As respects the latter part of the statement, it is to be observed that in the list of all the knights who composed the army of the Conqueror on the occasion of his invasion of England, and which is known by the name of the Roll of Battle-Abbey, the name of Campo Bello is not to be found. But it does not follow, as recent writers have assumed, that a knight of that name may not have come over to England at a later period, either of his reign or of that his successors. Mr. Pinkerton has associated with this account of the origin of the name a theory that the Campbells were not only not Celts but Goths, in which, however, he is assuredly mistaken.

      It has been alleged in opposition to this account that in the oldest form of writing the name, it is spelled Cambel or Kambel, and it is so found in many ancient documents; but these were written by parties not acquainted with the individuals whose name they record, as in the manuscript account of the battle of Halidon Hill, by an unknown English writer, preserved in the British museum; in the Ragman Roll, which was compiled by an English clerk, and in Wyntoun’s Chronicle. There is no evidence, however, that at any period it was written by any of the family otherwise than as Campbell, notwithstanding the extraordinary diversity that occurs in the spelling of other names by their holders, as shown by Lord Lindsay in the account of his clan, and the invariable employment of the letter p by the Campbells themselves would be of itself a strong argument for the southern origin of the name, did there not exist, in the record of the parliament of Robert Bruce held in 1320, the name of the then head of the family, entered as Sir Nigel de Campo Bello.

      The writers, however, who attempt to sustain the fabulous tales of the sennachies, assign a very different origin to the name. It is personal, say they, “like that of some others of the Highland clans, being composed of the words cam, bent or arched, and beul, mouth; this having been the most prominent feature o the great ancestor of the clan, Diarmid O’Dwbin, or O’Dwin, a brave warrior celebrated in traditional story, who was contemporary with the heroes of Ossian. In the Gaelic language his descendants are called Siol Diarmid, the offspring or race of Diarmid.”

      Besides the manifest improbability of this origin on other grounds, two considerations may be adverted to, each of them conclusive.

      First, it is known to all who have examined ancient genealogies, that among the Celtic races personal distinctives never have become hereditary. Malcolm Canmore, Donald Bane, Rob Roy, or Even Dhu, were, with many other names, distinctive of personal qualities, but none of them descended, or could do so, to the children of those who acquired them.

      Secondly, it is no less clear that, until after what is called the Saxon Conquest had been completely effected, no hereditary surnames were in use among the Celts of Scotland, nor by the chiefs of Norwegian descent who governed in Argyle and the Isles. This circumstance is pointed out by Tytler in his remarks upon the early population of Scotland, in the chapter in his second volume of the History of Scotland. The domestic slaves attached to the possessions of the church and of the barons have their genealogies engrossed in ancient charters of conveyances and confirmation copied by him. The names are all Celtic, but in no one instance does the son, even when bearing a second or distinctive name, follow that of his father.

      According to the genealogists of the family of Argyle, their predecessors, on the female side, were possessors of Lochow, in Argyleshire, as early as 404. In the eleventh century, Gillespic (or Archibald) Campbell, a gentleman of Anglo-Norman lineage, acquired the lordship of Lochow, by marriage with Eva, daughter and heiress of Paul O’Dwin, lord of Lochow, denominated Paul Insporran, from his being the king’s treasurer.

      Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, sixth in descent from this personage, distinguished himself by his warlike actions, and was knighted by King Alexander the Third in 1280. In 1291 he was one of the nominees on the part of Robert Bruce in the contest for the Scottish crown. He added largely to his estates, and on account of his great prowess he obtained the surname of More or great; from him the chief of the Argyle family is in Gaelic styled Mac Chaillan More.

      According to the universally received opinion for several centuries, the distinctive Mac is understood to imply son, or the son of, and Mac Chaillan would accordingly imply the son of Chaillan. But it is not anywhere said or supposed that Sir Colin’s father or any of his immediate ancestors bore the name of Chaillan. He is described as Dominus Colinus Campbell Miles, filius Dominus Gileaspec Camp-bel, in an acquisition referred to in a charter of the monks of Newbattle abbey of the lands of Symontoun in Ayrshire, the reddendo of which Sir Colin made over to that abbey in 1293. The father of this Gillespic is said to have been Duncan Campbell, married to a lady of the name of Sommerville, of the house of Carnwath, and the father of Duncan, an Archibald Campbell, but there is no authentic instance of their being styled of Lochow. Other instances occur where the prefix Mac is used without signifying son, as, for example, in Macbeth, who is not known to have been the son of Beth, and whose son Madoch did not bear that name; and also in the genealogies of the Celtic slaves already referred to quoted by Tytler in his history, where the word Mac occurs in the name of a son which is not the same as that of his father. It is also found in compound words, as Macpherson, Macfarquharson, &c., where the English word son is also incorporated. We are therefore led to look for another explanation of this frequent prefix. It is not found in Welsh names. In the few Irish names in which it appears, a Scotch origin can frequently be traced, and it is often used in the form of Mag, as Maguire, Maginnes, as it is also along with the C in the Scotch names MacGlashan, MacGillivray, &c. In the oldest Irish records the word Mic occurs, and is translated son, and this mic is frequently found combined with Mac, as Mic Mac. There is a curious instance in Irish history of the prefix Mac being employed to signify great or big, as in a chief in the reign of Elizabeth, who is said to have been called Mac Manus, great hand, from the length of his arms. It is not therefore improbable that the word mac or mag may have originally been a contraction of Magnus, great or big, employed in the first instance by the priests, the only chroniclers and namegivers in the corrupted Latin of those ages, either as an independent personal distinctive, or to designate, among several of the same name, the individual of greatest size and strength, and which in later ages, when surnames came into use, might be continued by their descendants to distinguish them from the children of others of the same name, on whom such a personal distinctive had not been bestowed. It may be remarked, that in this sense it sometimes occurs in British or Welsh, as well as in Celtic or Irish, topography, as Mackinleith, the great place on the Leath, a hundred and town of great antiquity in Montgomeryshire; Maginnis, the great island, the ancient name of the peninsula between Lough Strangford and Dundrum; also, corrupted into Muck or Mug, as Mucross, the great cross; and in composition as Carrickmacross, the rock of the great cross. It is probable that it has been used in other countries in composition of names, as Magellan, or Magalhaen, the great stranger, the name of the discoverer of Capt Horn.

      On this supposition also the word Mac Chaillan appears to be the Celtic orthography, according to their pronunciation of Mag Allan, or Alaine, the latter a word which is not only a frequent name in the Romance language (with which the Norman-French, as spoken in Scotland in the twelfth century is nearly identified), but was also used in that language to signify what that word actually meant, viz., aleanus, stranger, or alien, and Mac Caillane would thus imply the tall or large-bodied stranger. The appellative mor or more, although frequently used in modern Celtic, in a physical sense, as great, was in earlier times more properly a distinctive of superior rank, as maormor, the ancient name for the Pictish chiefs, viz., chief of the heads (maors, or mayors, a corrupted Gotho-Latin term,) of the tribes. This term mor is still preserved in the Spanish and Portuguese languages, which are descended from the Romance, to express such a distinction of rank or order, as alcayde mor, the head alcade; captain mor, head captain, an officer equivalent to commander-in-chief of the military force in Portuguese colonies; thesaureiro mor, head treasurer, &c. The identity of many of the Romanceiro terms preserved in peninsular languages, with those occurring in the earliest forms of Celtic words, presents matter of speculation to the philologist and antiquary, but may perhaps be accounted for by the earlier prevalence of that tongue and its larger use also in the north of Scotland than even the Saxon itself, as the conquerors under Canmore and his descendants were chiefly of that race, and in mixing with the natives, they may have retained a number of these Gotho-Latin terms whilst adopting along with them in the course of that amalgamation, the general idiom of the conquered people.

      It is therefore suggested that the Celtic name Mac Ghaillan Mor, is in reality a compound of corrupted Latin and Romance words implying the great or tall stranger chief, a suggestion which singularly aids the opinion which, after considerable attention to the matter, we have formed, viz. that the first of the Campbells or Campobellos was a military knight, one of whose ancestors may have assisted Alexander the Second in his conquest of Argyle, and received, along with the Steward of Scotland, who obtained all Bute and Cowal on the same occasion, the adjacent lands of Lochow as his fee or reward, when these were forfeited by the rebellion or death of the original possessor, probably receiving the hand of the daughter of the latter as a further security for his acquisition. Whether this latter circumstance occurred or not, it was not until a later age, when the fourth earl of Argyle had acquired the jurisdiction over that region, that the Norman bearing gyronny of eight for Campbell, came to be quartered in the armorial bearings of the family, with the galley having furled sails, oars in action, and flag and pendants flying for the lordship of the Isles. The surrounding people, compelled to acquiesce in this arrangement, would naturally describe a knight, or the son of a knight, so injected into their midst, by the appellation of the great stranger chief. In the account given of the origin of the name Campbell, by Jacob in his English peerage, under their English title of Sundridge, vol. ii. p. 698, London, 1767, there is a statement apparently contradictory of the foregoing theory, viz., that the name Mac Chaillan, or as rendered by him Mac Callan, is that of Sir Colin himself, “so called by the Irish.” Admitting this to be the case, although its similarity is not apparent, its only effect would be that instead of the great stranger chief, the distinctive Mac Caillan More would mean Colin the great or tall chief.

      Sir Colin Campbell had a quarrel with a powerful neighbour of his, the Lord of Lorn, and after he had defeated him, pursuing the victory too eagerly, he was slain (in 1294, according to Jacob in the account referred to) at a place called the String of Cowal, where a great obelisk was erected over his grave. This is said to have occasioned bitter feuds betwixt the houses of Lochow and Lorn for a long period of years, which were put an end to by the marriage of the daughter of Ergadia, the Celtic proprietor of Lorn, with John Stewart of Innermeath about 1386. Sir Colin married a lady of the name of Sinclair, by whom he had five sons.

      Sir Niel Campbell of Lochow, his eldest son, swore fealty to Edward the First, but afterwards joined Robert the Bruce, and fought by his side in almost every encounter, from the defeat at Methven to the victory at Bannockburn. King Robert rewarded his services by giving him his sister, the Lady Mary Bruce, in marriage, and conferring on him the lands forfeited by the earl of Athol. Sir Niel, who was also styled Mac chaillan More, was one of the commissioners sent to York in 1314, to negotiate a peace with the English. His next brother Donald was the progenitor of the Campbells of Loudon. [See LOUDON, earl of.] His three younger brothers, Dugal, Arthur, and Duncan, all swore fealty to King Edward in 1296, but also became devoted adherents of Robert the Bruce, and shared his favours. By his wife, the Lady Mary Bruce, Sir Niel had three sons, Sir Colin; John, created earl of Athol, upon the forfeiture of David de Strathbogie, the eleventh earl, [see ATHOL, earl of,] and Dugal.

      Sir Colin, the eldest son, obtained a charter from his uncle, King Robert Bruce, of the lands of Lochow and Ardscodniche, dated at Arbroath, 10th February, 1316, in which he is designated Colinus filius Nigelli Cambel, militis. In 1316, he accompanied King Robert to Ireland to assist in placing his brother, Edward Bruce, on the throne of that kingdom. Sir Colin assisted the steward of Scotland in 1334, in the surprise and recovery of the castle of Dunoon, in Cowall, belonging to the Steward, but held by the English and the adherents of Edward Baliol, and put all within it to the sword, a feat which gave the first turn of fortune in favour of King David Bruce. As a reward Sir Colin was made hereditary governor of the castle of Dunoon, and had the grant of certain lands for the support of his dignity. Syntoun states that it was his brother Dugal who did this service, but Crawford has shown that this is wrong. Sir Colin died about 1340. By his wife, a daughter of the house of Lennox, he had three sons and a daughter; namely, Sir Gillespic or Archibald; John, from whom the Campbells of Barbreck and Succoth, and other families of the name, are said to be descended; Dugal, who joined Edward Baliol, and in consequence his estates in Cowal were forfeited by King David the Second, and given to his eldest brother; and Alicia, married to Alan Lauder of Hatton.

      The eldest son, Sir Gillespic or Archibald, who added largely to the family possessions, was twice married, first to a lady of the family of Menteith, and secondly, to Mary, daughter of Sir John Lamont, and had a son, Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, who married Margaret second daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall, sister of Annabella, queen of Robert the Third. He had three sons, Duncan, Colin, and David, and a daughter, married to Duncan Macfarlane of Arrochar. Colin, the second son, was designed of Ardkinglass, and of his family the Campbells of Ardentinny, Dunoon, Carrick, Skipnish, Blythswood, Shawfield, Rachan, Auchwillan, and Dergachie, are branches.

      Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, the eldest son, was one of the hostages in 1424, under the name of Duncan lord of Argyle, for the payment of the sum of forth thousand pounds (equivalent to four hundred thousand pounds of our money) for the expense of King James the First’s maintenance during his long imprisonment in England, when Sir Duncan was found to be worth fifteen hundred merks a-year. He was the first of the family to assume the designation of Argyle. By King James he was appointed one of his privy council, and constituted his justiciary and lieutenant within the shire of Argyle. He became a lord of parliament in 1445, under the title of Lord Campbell. He died in 1453, and was buried at Kilmun. He married, first, Marjory or Mariota Stewart, daughter of Robert duke of Albany, governor of Scotland. In Pinkerton’s Scottish Gallery, there are portraits of both the first Lord Campbell and his wife, of which the following are woodcuts:


[portraits of Lord Campbell and his wife]

      By the first wife he had three sons, Celestine, who died before him; Archibald, who also predeceased him, but left a son; and Colin, who was the first of Glenorchy, and ancestor of the Breadalbane family, [see BREADALBANE, earl and marquis of.] sir Duncan married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Sir John Stewart of Blackhall and Auchingown, natural son of Robert the Third, by whom, also, he had three sons, namely, Duncan, who according to Crawford, was the ancestor of the house of Auchinbreck, of whom are the Campbells of Glencardel, Glensaddel, Kildurkland, Kilmorie, Wester Keams, Kilberry, and Dana; Niel, progenitor, according to Crawford, of the Campbells of Ellengreig and Ormadale; and Arthur or Archibald, ancestor of the Campbells of Ottar, now extinct. It is said that the Campbells of Auchinbreck and their cadets, also Ellengreig and Ormadale, descend from this the youngest son, and not from his brother.

      The first Lord Campbell was succeeded by his grandson Colin, the son of his second son Archibald. He acquired part of the lordship of Campbell in the parish of Dollar, by marrying the eldest of the three daughters of John Stewart, third lord of Lorn and Innermeath. He did not, as is generally stated, acquire by this marriage any part of the lordship of Lorn (which passed to Walter, brother of John, the fourth Lord Innermeath, and heir of entail), but obtained that lordship by exchange of the lands of Baldoning and Innerdoning, &c. in Perthshire, with the said Walter. In 1457 he was created earl of Argyle. He was one of the commissioners for negotiating a truce with King Edward the Fourth of England, in 1463, and in 1465 was appointed, with Lord Boyd, justiciary of Scotland, which office he filled for many years by himself after the fall of his colleague. In 1470 he was created baron of Lorn, and in the following year he was appointed one of the commissioners for settling the treaty of alliance with King Edward the Fourth of England, by which James, prince of Scotland, was affianced to Cecilia, Edward’s youngest daughter. He was also one of the commissioners sent to France to renew the treaty with that crown in 1484, and he eventually became lord-high-chancellor of Scotland. In 1475 this nobleman was appointed to prosecute a decree of forfeiture against John, earl of Ross and lord of the Isles, and in 1481 he received a grant of many lands in Knapdale, along with the keeping of Castle Sweyn, which had previously been held by the lord of the Isles. He died in 1493.

      The manner in which the lordship of Campbell and Castle Campbell in the parish of Dollar came into the possession of the family of Argyle, is detailed in the New Statistical Account of Scotland with considerable research, Isabella Stewart, supposed to be the eldest daughter of John third Lord Innermeath, and first countess of Argyle, inherited about 1460 one-third of the lands of Dollar and Gloom, supposed to be the unentailed portion of the estate of Innermeath, as heir-portioner with her two sisters, – Margaret, married to Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchie, ancestor of the marquis of Breadalbane; and Marion, married to Arthur Campbell of Ottar. The third belonging to Lady Campbell of Glenorchie, was ceded to the Argyle family by her son Duncan in a deed of renunciation still extant. How the third portion passed into the Argyle house does not appear; but it is all included in a charter of confirmation by James the Fourth of a charter by the bishop of Dunkeld, dated 11th May 1497. Muckartshill, a barony to the east of Dollar, appears about the same period (1491) to have been feued by Shivaz bishop of St. Andrews to the earl of Argyle. In 1489, by an act of the Scottish parliament the name of Castle Gloom, its former designation, was changed to Castle Campbell. It continued to be the frequent and favourite residence of the family till 1644, when it was burnt down by the Macleans in the army of the marquis of Montrose, along with every house in Dollar and Muckart, – two houses only, and these by mistake, escaping their savage fury. It was at Castle Campbell that Knox tells us in his history he visited Archibald the fourth earl of Argyle, and preached during successive days, to him and his noble relatives and friends. Although never repaired, the castle and lordship of Castle Campbell remained in the possession of the Argyle family till 1808, when it was sold.


[woodcut of Castle Campbell]

By Isabel Stewart, his wife, eldest daughter of John, lord of lorn, the first earl of Argyle had two sons and seven daughters. Archibald, his elder son, became second earl, and Thomas, the younger, was the ancestor of the Campbells of Lundie in Forfarshire. One of his daughters was married to Angus the young lord of the Isles, and was believed by the islanders to have been the mother of Angus’ son, Donald Dubh, who was imprisoned in the castle of Inchconnell from his infancy. Another daughter was married to Torquil Macleod of the Lewis. Having acquired the principal part of the landed property of the two sisters of his wife, the first earl of Argyle entered into a transaction with Walter Stewart, Lord Lorn, their uncle, on whom the lordship of Lorn and barony of Innermeath, which stood limited to heirs-male, had devolved, in consequence of which Walter resigned the lordship of Lorn in favour of the earl of Argyle, who thereupon added the style and designation of Lord to his other titles, Walter retaining the barony of Innermeath, had the title of Lord Innermeath. [See ATHOL, earl of.]

Archibald, second earl of Argyle, succeeded his father in 1493, and is designed lord-high-chancellor of Scotland, in a charter to him by Elizabeth Menteith, Lady Rusky, and Archibald Napier of Merchiston, her son, of half of the lands of Inchirna, Rusky, &c., in the county of Argyle, 28th June, 1494. The same year he had the office of master of the household. Crawford, in his Peerage, page 17, says he was lord-chamberlain in 1495, but his name does not occur as such in Crawford’s Officers of State, and he is not designed lord-chamberlain in any of the charters granted to him, which were numerous, under the great seal, from 1494 to 1512. In 1499 he and others received a commission from the king to let on lease, for the term of three years, the entire lordship of the Isles as possessed by the last lord, both in the Isles and on the mainland, excepting only the island of Isla, and the lands of North and South Kintyre. He also received a commission of lieutenandry, with the fullest powers, over the lordship of the Isles; and, some months later, was appointed keeper of the castle of Tarbert, and bailie and governor of the king’s lands in Knapdale. In 1504, when the insurrection of the islanders under Donald Dubh, who had escaped from prison, broke out, Argyle, with Huntly, Crawford and Marischal, the Lord Lovat, and other powerful barons, were charged to lead the royal forces against the rebels; but the insurrection was not finally suppressed till 1506. From this period the great power formerly enjoyed by the earls of Ross, lords of the Isles, was transferred to the earls of Argyle and Huntly; the former having the chief rule in the south isles and adjacent coasts [Gregory’s Highlands and Isles of Scotland.] At the fatal battle of Flodden, 9th September 1513, his lordship and his brother-in-law, the earl of Lennox, commanded the right wing of the royal army, and with King James the Fourth, were both killed in that sanguinary engagement, so disastrous to Scotland. By his wife, Lady Elizabeth Stewart, eldest daughter of John, first earl of Lennox, he had four sons and five daughters. His eldest, Colin, was the third earl of Argyle. Archibald, his second son, had a charter of the lands of Skipnish, and the keeping of the castle thereof, &c., 13th August 1511. His family ended in an heir-female in the reign of Mary. Sir John Campbell, the third son, at first styled of Lorn, and afterwards of Calder, married Muriella, daughter and heiress of Sir John Calder of Calder, now Cawdor, near Nairn, as previously mentioned. [See CALDER, surname of.]

According to tradition, she was captured in childhood by Sir John Campbell and a party of the Campbells, while out with her nurse near Calder castle. Her uncles pursued and overtook the division of the Campbells to whose care she had been intrusted, and would have rescued her but for the presence of mind of Campbell of Inverliver who, seeing their approach, inverted a large camp kettle as if to conceal her, and commanding his seven sons to defend it to the death, hurried on with his prize. The young men were all slain, and when the Calders lifted up the kettle, no Muriella was there. Meanwhile so much time had been gained that farther pursuit was useless. The nurse, at the moment the child was seized, bit off a joint of her little finger, in order to mark her identity – a precaution which seems to have been necessary, from Campbell of Auchinbreck’s reply to one who, in the midst of their congratulations on arriving safely in Argyle with their charge, asked what was to be done should the child die before she was marriageable? “She can never die,” said he, “as long as a red-haired lassie can be found on either side of Lochawe!” From this it would appear that the heiress of the Calders had red hair. The earl of Cawdor is the representative of Sir John Campbell and his wife Muriella, (see CAWDOR, earl of,) and the Campbells of Ardchattan, Airds, and Cluny are their collateral descendants. Donald, the fourth son of the second earl of Argyle, was abbot of Cupar, and ancestor of the Campbells of Keithock in Forfarshire.

Colin Campbell, the third earl of Argyle, was, immediately after his accession to the earldom, appointed by the council to assemble an army and proceed against Lauchlan Maclean of Dowart, and other Highland chieftains, who had broken out into insurrection and proclaimed Sir Donald of Lochalsh lord of the Isles. This he was enabled to do the more effectually, as in anticipation of disturbances among the islanders, he had taken bonds of fidelity from the vassals and others who had attached themselves to the late earl his father. Owing to the powerful influence of Argyle, the insurgents submitted to the regent, after strong measures had been adopted against them; and, upon assurance of protection, he prevailed upon them to appear at court, and arrange in person the terms of pardon and restoration to favour; in consequence of which considerable progress seems to have been made in the pacification of the Isles. Argyle and his followers took out a remission for ravages committed by them in the isle of Bute in the course of the insurrection, and rendered necessary, it may be supposed, from some of the rebels having there found shelter and protection. In 1517 Sir Donald of Lochalsh again appeared in arms, but being deserted by his principal leaders, he effected his escape. His two brothers, however, were made prisoners by Maclean of Dowart and Macleod of Dunvegan, who had submitted to the government. The services of the earl of Argyle had mainly contributed to this state of matters in the Isles. He had, early in that year, presented to the regent and council a petition, requesting “for the honour of the realm and the commonweal in time coming,” that he should receive a commission of lieutenandry over all the Isles and adjacent mainland, on the grounds of the vast expense he had previously incurred, of his ability to do good service in future, and of his having broken up the confederacy of the islanders; which commission he obtained with certain exceptions. He also claimed and obtained authority to receive into the king’s favour, all the men of the Isles who should make their submission to him and become bound for future good behaviour, by the delivery of hostages and otherwise; the last condition being made imperative, “because the men of the Isles are fickle of mind, and set but little value upon their oaths and written obligations.” Sir Donald of the Isles, his brothers, and the Clandonald were, however, specially excepted from the benefit of this article. The earl likewise demand and received express power to pursue and follow the rebels with fire and sword, to expel them from the Isles, and to use his best endeavours to possess himself of Sir Donald’s castle of Strone in Lochcarron [Gregory’s Highlands and Isles of Scotland, pages 119, 120.] It would appear, however, that Argyle’s services were not treated with that consideration at the capital which he thought they were entitled to receive, as in 1519, on his advice to the council that Sir Donald should be forfeited for high treason, meeting with some opposition, he took a solemn protest before parliament that neither he nor his heirs should be liable for any mischiefs that might in future arise from rebellions in the Isles; as, although he held the office of lieutenant, his advice was not taken as to the management of the districts committed to his charge, neither had he received certain supplies of men and money, formerly promised him by the regent for carrying on the king’s service in the Isles.

In the parliament which met at Edinburgh 25th February 1525, Argyle was appointed one of the four governors of the kingdom, the duke of Albany’s regency, from his continued absence in France, having been declared at an end. In January 1526, he accompanied the young king, James the Fifth, against the queen-mother and the rebel lords, and was a member of the new secret council appointed in that year. For some years the Isles had continued at peace, and Argyle employed this interval in extending his influence among the chiefs, and in promoting the aggrandisement of his family and clan, being assisted thereto by his brothers, Sir John Campbell of Calder, so designed after his marriage with the heiress, and Archibald Campbell of Skipnish. The former was particularly active. In 1527 an event occurred which forms the groundwork of Joanna Baillie’s celebrated tragedy of ‘The Family Legend,’ acted at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, with great success in 1810. It is thus related by Gregory: “Lauchlan Cattanach Maclean of Dowart had married Lady Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Archibald, second earl of Argyle, and either from the circumstance of their union being unfruitful or more probably owing to some domestic quarrels, he determined to get rid of his wife. Some accounts say that she had twice attempted her husband’s life; but, whatever the cause may have been, Maclean, following the advice of two of his vassals, who exercised a considerable influence over him from the tie of fosterage, caused his lady to be exposed on a rock, which was only visible at low water, intending that she should be swept away by the return of the tide. This rock lies between the island of Lismore and the coast of Mull, and is still known by the name of the ‘Lady’s Rock.’ From this perilous situation, the intended victim was rescued by a boat accidentally passing, and conveyed to her brother’s house. Her relations, although much exasperated against Maclean, smothered their resentment for a time, but only to break out afterwards with greater violence; for the laird of Dowart being in Edinburgh, was surprised when in bed, and assassinated by Sir John Campbell of Calder, the lady’s brother. The Macleans instantly took arms to revenge the death of their chief, and the Campbells were not slow in preparing to follow up the feud; but the government interfered, and, for the present, an appeal to arms was avoided.” [Highlands and Isles of Scotland, p 128.]

On the escape of the king, then in his seventeenth year, from the power of the Douglases, in May 1528, Argyle was one of the first to join his majesty at Stirling. He accompanied the king to Edinburgh on the 6th of the following July, and on the confiscation of the vast estates of the Douglas family, he obtained, 6th December 1528, a charter of the barony of Abernethy, in Perthshire, forfeited by Archibald, earl of Angus. The same year he was appointed lieutenant of the borders and warden of the marches. On the refusal of the earl of Bothwell to lead the royal army against the earl of Angus, who had appeared in arms, and repeatedly defeated the king’s forces, the task of the expulsion of this formidable rebel from Coldingham, where he had taken up his quarters, was committed to the earl of Argyle, who, with the assistance of the Homes, compelled him to fly into England, whence he did not return till after the death of James. Argyle afterwards received an ample confirmation of the hereditary sheriffship of Argyleshire and of the offices of justiciary of Scotland and master of the household, by which these offices became hereditary in his family. He had the commission of justice-general of Scotland renewed 25th October 1529. He died in 1530. In his last years he was engaged in endeavouring to suppress a formidable insurrection in the South Isles, headed by Alexander of Isla and the Macleans, who readily seized the opportunity to revenge the death of their late chief. The combined clans made descents upon Roseneath, Craignish, and other lands belonging to the Campbells, which they ravaged with fire and sword, killing at the same time many of the inhabitants.. The clan Campbell retaliated, by laying waste great part of the aisles of Mull and Tiree and the lands of Morvern. He had demanded extraordinary powers from the king to enable him to reduce the Isles once more under the dominion of the law, but James suspecting his motives, resolved upon trying conciliatory measures, and offered pardon to any of the island chiefs who would submit to the government, in which he was successful.

By his countess, Lady Janet Gordon, eldest daughter of Alexander, third earl of Huntly, the third earl of Argyle had three sons and a daughter, the latter married, first, to James earl of Moray, natural son of King James the fourth, and had a daughter; and, secondly, to John, tenth earl of Sutherland, without issue. His sons were, Archibald, fourth earl of Argyle; John, ancestor of the Campbells of Lochnell, of which house the Campbells of Balerno and Stonefield are cadets; and Alexander, dean of Moray.

Archibald, the fourth earl of Argyle, was, on his accession to the title in 1530 (not 1533, as stated by Douglas in his Peerage as the date of his father’s death) appointed to all the offices held by the two preceding earls. In 1531 he commanded an expedition against the South Isles, while the earl of Moray, natural brother of the king, proceeded against the North Isles; but in both districts order was soon restored by the voluntary submission of the insurgent chiefs. A suspicion had begun to be entertained by some of the members of the privy council, which is said to have been shared in by the king himself, that many of the disturbances in the Isles were secretly fomented by the Argyle family, that they might obtain possession of the estates forfeited by the chiefs thus driven into rebellion, and an opportunity soon presented itself, which the king eagerly availed himself of, to curb the increasing power of the earl of Argyle in that remote portion of the kingdom. Finding that the timely submission of Alexander of Isla, Maclean of Dowart, and the lesser chiefs, placed them beyond his interference, the earl presented a complaint to the council against the first of those named, charging him with various crimes. Alexander being summoned to answer the charges made his appearance at once; but Argyle absenting himself, the island chief gave in to the council a written statement, denying the crimes laid to his charge, and offering, if commission were given to himself or any other chief, for calling out the array of the Isles, in the event of war with England, or any part of the realm of Scotland, to bring more fighting men into the field than Argyle, with all his influence, could levy in the Isles; also, in case Argyle should be disposed at any time to resist the royal authority, to cause the earl to quit his own country of Argyle, if he had the king’s commands to that effect, and compel him to dwell in another part of Scotland where “the king’s grace might get reason of him,” and concluding by stating that the disturbed state of the Isles was mainly caused by the late earl of Argyle and his brothers, Sir John Campbell of Calder, and Archibald Campbell of Skipnish. In consequence of this appeal of Alexander of Isla the king made such an examination into the complaints of the islanders as satisfied him that the family of Argyle had been acting more for their own benefit than for the welfare of the country, and the earl was summoned before his sovereign to give an account of the duties and rental of the Isles received by him, the result of which was that James committed him to prison soon after his arrival at court. He was soon liberated, but James was so much displeased with his conduct that he deprived him of the offices he still held in the Isles, some of which were bestowed on Alexander of Isla, whom he had accused. [Gregory’s Highlands and Isles, page 141.] On Marcy 17, 1532, a remission was granted to the earl and eighty-two others for their treasonable fire-raising, with his standard unfurled, in the islands of Mull, Tiree, and Morvern, as already stated in the end of the notice of his father. In August 1541, five thousand pounds were given to him out of the king’s treasury, on his resignation of Makane’s lands in the isles to the crown. In a charter to him of the king’s lands of Cardross in Dumbartonshire, dated 28th April 1542, he is designed master of the king’s wine-cellar, “cellae regis vinariae magister.” After the death of James the Fifth he appears to have regained his authority over the Isles, having appeared in arms there, at the head of several of the clans, the earl prepared to defend his insular acquisitions; but in 1543 Donald, with a force of fifteen hundred men, invaded Argyle’s territories, slew many of his vassals, and carried off a great quantity of plunder. Argyle was one of the peers who, in July of that year, entered into an association to oppose the marriage of the young queen Mary and the youthful prince Edward, afterwards King Edward the Sixth of England, and the consequent union of the two crowns, “as tending to the high dishonour, perpetual skaith, damage and ruin of the liberty and nobleness of the realm.” In 1544 an expedition was sent by Henry the Eighth to aid the earl of Lennox in his claim to the regency, to harass the coasts of Scotland, and thus put down the opposition to the proposed royal marriage. An attempt on the part of the earl of Lennox, who was in the command of the English forces, with eighteen vessels of war and eight hundred men, to seize the castle of Dumbarton failed, and on his ships passing down the Clyde they were fired at by the earl of Argyle, who, with a large body of his vassals, and some pieces of artillery, had taken post at the castle of Dunoon. On his arrival at Bute, Lennox determined to attack Argyle in turn. the latter, with seven hundred men, attempted to oppose the landing of Lennox’s troops at Dunoon, but was unable to withstand the superior artillery of the English vessels. After a skirmish in which Argyle lost eighty men, many of them gentlemen, the village of Dunoon was burnt and plundered by the invaders, Argyle sustaining further loss in attempting to harass their retreat. Four or five days thereafter Lennox, with five hundred men, landed in another part of Argyle, and laid waste the surrounding country. At the disastrous battle of Pinkie, 10th Sept. 1547, the earl of Argyle had the command of a large body of Highlanders and Islanders, and he also distinguished himself at the siege of Haddington in the following year. In June 1555 a commission was given to the earls of Argyle and Athole over the Isles, and on the queen regent (Mary of Guise) proceeding to the north, in July 1556, to hold justice-courts for the punishment of great offenders, the earl of Argyle was one of those who accompanied her. He was the first of the Scots nobles who embraced the principles of the Reformation, and employed as his domestic chaplain, Mr. John Douglas, a converted Carmelite friar, who preached publicly in his house. the archbishop of St. Andrews in a letter to the earl, endeavoured to induce him to dismiss Douglas, and return to the Romish church, but in vain, and on his death-bed he recommended the support of the new doctrines and the suppression of Popish superstitions to his son. He died in August 1558. He was twice married. By his first wife, Lady Helen Hamilton, eldest daughter of James first earl of Arran, he had a son, Archibald, fifth earl of Argyle. His second wife was Lady Mary Graham, only daughter of William, third earl of Menteith, by whom he had Colin, sixth earl, and two daughters. Lady Margaret Campbell, the elder daughter married James Lord Down, ancestor of the earls of Moray. Lady Janet, the younger, became the wife of Hector Maclean of Dowart; Gregory says of James Macdonald of Isla, the great rival of the Argyle family in the Isles.

 Archibald, fifth earl of Argyle, was educated under the direction of Mr. John Douglas, his father’s domestic chaplain and the first protestant archbishop of St. Andrews, and distinguished himself as one of the most able among the Lords of the Congregation. In December 1557, when styled lord of Lorn, with his father and the earls of Glencairn and Morton, Erskine of Dun, and other leading reformers, he had subscribed at Edinburgh the first bond entered into in Scotland for the support of the gospel and the maintenance of faithful ministers, but for some time he adhered to the party of the queen-mother. In November 1558, soon after his accession to the title, he and Lord James Stuart, prior of St. Andrews, afterwards the regent Moray, – the one, as Douglas remarks, the most powerful, and the other the most popular leader of the protestant party, – were appointed to go to Paris, with the crown and other ensigns of royalty, to crown Francis, dauphin of France, as king of Scotland, on his marriage with the young Queen Mary; “that they, being employed abroad, matters of greater importance, namely anent religion, might be overturned at home in their absence. The consideration of the death of Mary, queen of England, who ended her life the seventeenth day of this same month of November, stayed them altogether; for it was thought that the queen and her husband the king, would assume to themselves greater titles.” [Calderwood, vol. i. page 422.] And indeed Francis and Mary did soon after assume the title of king and queen of England, as well as of Scotland and France.

On the occurrence of the memorable riot at Perth, in May 1559, when the “rascal multitude,” as Knox called them, after destroying the popish altars and images, proceeded to level with the ground several of the monasteries and other religious houses, the queen regent, then at Stirling, enraged at the tumult, hastened to Perth, at the head of seven thousand men, chiefly French auxiliaries commanded by D’Oysel, with the purpose of inflicting signal vengeance on the inhabitants. By deceitful promises she had induced the protestant leaders to dismiss their armed followers, and she hoped to surprise the town before any new or effective force could be collected to oppose her; but, on reaching the neighbourhood of Perth, she found that the Reformers had assembled from all parts to the assistance of their friends. The gentlemen of Fife, Angus, and Mearns, with their followers, had formed a camp near Perth, where they were speedily joined by the earl of Glencairn, with two thousand five hundred men from the west country. Instead, therefore, of attacking the town, the regent sent the earl of Argyle and the Lord James Stuart, to enter into a negotiation with the protestant leaders, having, with her usual duplicity, persuaded these two noblemen, reformers themselves, that the reformation of religion was a mere pretence with those who opposed her authority, and that they meant nothing but rebellion. Ultimately, on the 28th of May, a treaty was concluded, principally through the means of the earl and the Lord James Stuart, whereby it was agreed that the two armies should return peaceably to their homes, that the town of Perth should be evacuated by the protestant party and the queen regent allowed to enter it; that no molestation should be given to those in arms, nor to the protestants generally, that no French garrison should be stationed in Perth, that no Frenchman should come nearer that city than three miles, and that in the approaching assembly of the three estates, the work of the reformation should be finally established. The leaders of the Congregation subscribed this agreement, but under strong apprehensions that it would not be adhered to, and before they separated, a new bond was entered into for the defence of each other and the maintenance of the true religion, which was signed by Argyle, the Lord James Stuart, the earl of Glencairn, Lords Boyd and Ochiltree, and Mathew Campbell of Taringhame. As they feared, the regent very soon violated the treaty. She entered Perth on the 29th, attended by French soldiers, some of whom, firing their hackbuts on the stair of Patrick Murray, who was known to be a reformer, killed his son, a boy about twelve years of age. This being told to the regent, she said in mockery, “It is pity it chanced on the son, and not on the father; but seeing it hath so chanced, me cannot be against fortune.” the inhabitants generally were harassed with every kind of outrage, and not only were the magistrates dismissed and creatures of her own put in their place, but the popish service was restored, with all its rites and ceremonies. On being remonstrated with on this infraction of the treaty, she answered that she was not bound to keep faith with heretics, and that “princes were not to be strictly held to their promises;” adding, “I myself would make little conscience to take from all that sort their lives and inheritances, if I might do it with as honest an excuse.” Disgusted at her perfidy, and having no further confidence in her word, the earl of Argyle and the Lord James Stuart deserted the queen regent, and at once went over to the Congregation, as the great body of the reformers were called, with whom their sympathies had been all along. The queen sent a charge to them, under the pain of her highest displeasure to return, but they answered that with safe consciences they could not. When she departed from Perth she left in it a garrison of four hundred soldiers.

In the meantime the earl of Argyle and the lord James Stuart proceeded to St. Andrews, and on the way sent missives to Erskine of Dun, the laird of Pittarrow, Halyburton, provost of Dundee, and other leading reformers, to meet them in that city, on the 4th of June, to take measures for the promotion of the Reformation. John Knox, after preaching at Cupar in Fife, at Crail, and at Anstruther, in all which places, as at Perth, the people had demolished the altars, the images, and all other monuments of idolatry, proceeded to St. Andrews, where he had agreed to meet the earl of Argyle and Lord James Stuart. the popish archbishop came to the town, accompanied with a hundred soldiers, and sent a message that if Knox offered to preach in his cathedral church, he would have him shot with a dozen hackbuts; his friends, anxious for his safety, endeavoured to dissuade him from preaching, but he would not be prevented. The subject of his discourse was the ejection of the buyers and sellers from the temple, which “the provost and bailies with the commonality” of the town applied to the circumstances of the times, and straightway proceeded to pull down and destroy their splendid cathedral, with the other churches, razing the monasteries of the Black and Grey friars to the ground, and destroying all the monuments of antiquity within the city. The archbishop hastened to Falkland, where the regent was, with her French troops, and gave her the first intimation of the outrages that had been committed. The regent immediately issued a proclamation summoning her troops and adherents to assemble at Cupar next day. The lords of the Congregation, on their part, despatched earnest representations to their friends for assistance, and though only attended by a hundred cavalry and the same number of infantry, instantly marched for Cupar. Their adherents hastened to their aid, and by the following morning they were joined by an army of three thousand men. Lord Ruthven brought some horsemen to them from Perth; the earl of Rothes, hereditary sheriff of Fife, also came with a goodly company; the towns of St. Andrews and Dundee sent their most effective men, and Cupar poured forth its population, to defend itself and aid the general cause. The army of the regent, on the morning of the 13th June, encamped upon an eminence in the neighbourhood of Cupar, called the Garliebank. It consisted of two thousand Frenchmen under General D’Oysel, and about one thousand Scots under the duke of Chatelherault, (Lord Hamilton, second earl of Arran.) The troops of the Congregation, the command of which had been assigned to Halyburton, provost of Dundee, were stationed on the high ground called Cupar muir, to the west of the town, and their ordnance was so posted as to command the surrounding country. Astonished both at the strength of their opponents and the skilfully-selected position which they occupied, and from which, by twice feigning a retreat, they endeavoured in vain to draw them, and knowing that they could not depend on the Scots in their own ranks, should a battle take place, the commanders of the royal forces recommended to the regent, who had remained at Falkland, to enter into a negotiation with the lords of the Congregation. Yielding to necessity, she consented, and a truce for eight days was, after considerable discussion, agreed upon between the duke of Chatelherault and D’Oysel, for the regent, and the earl of Argyle and the Lord James Stuart for the Congregation, on condition that the French troops should immediately be transported to Lothian, and that the regent should send certain noblemen to St. Andrews, to adjust finally the articles of an effectual peace. The lords of the Congregation then dismissed their troops, and retired to St. Andrews; but though the regent so far kept her word as to send her French troops and artillery across the Forth, the reformers waited in vain for the appearance of her commissioners. At this time, in a letter form the earl of Argyle and the Lord James Stuart, the regent was respectfully but earnestly entreated to withdraw the garrison which she had left at Perth, but no attention was paid to their request. It was, therefore, resolved to expel the garrison by force. The lords of the Congregation again appeared in arms at the head of their followers, and on the 24th of June marched upon Perth. The earl of Huntly, chancellor of the kingdom, with the Lord Erskine, and Mr. John Bannatyne, justice-clerk, hastened to entreat the lords to delay besieging the town for a few days. They were told that it would not be delayed even for an hour, and that if one single protestant should be killed in the assault, the garrison should be put indiscriminately to the sword. The garrison were twice summoned to surrender, but as they refused to do so, the batteries of the Congregation were opened upon the town; and on the 26th of June, the garrison capitulated. The burning of the royal palace and abbey of Scoon followed. The earl of Argyle and Lord James Stuart, with Knox and the provost of Dundee, exerted themselves to save them, but in vain. Being apprized that the regent intended to seize and garrison Stirling castle, and to fortify the bridge over the Forth, so as to prevent their passage, the earl and the lord James Stuart left Perth at midnight, and appeared at Stirling, with their forces, in the morning. On this occasion they were accompanied by three hundred inhabitants of Perth, who had joined the standard of the Congregation, and to indicate their zeal and resolution they wore ropes about their necks, that they might be ignominiously hung with them if they deserted their colours. A picture of the march of this resolute body is still preserved in Perth, and the circumstance of their substituting ropes for neckerchiefs or ribbons is the subject of the popular allusion to “St. Johnstone tippets.”

The two convents of the Black and Grey friars of Stirling and the venerable abbey at Cambuskenneth in its neighbourhood, were laid in ruins, and after remaining three days at Stirling, the army of the Congregation on the fourth proceeded to Linlithgow, where they destroyed the churches and monastic houses. The earl of Argyle and the lord James Stuart then directed their march upon Edinburgh, which they entered on the 29th of June, on which the regent retreated to Dunbar. the force which the confederates had with them was not very great, but wherever they went they were joined by the populace, and the popish party were so effectually daunted that they could make no head against them. The efforts of the magistrates to preserve the churches and religious houses of the capital were energetic, but they were in vain. Upon the first rumour of the approach of the earl of Argyle, the mob attacked both the monasteries of the Black and Grey friars, and left nothing but the bare walls standing. when the earl entered the capital they proceeded to still further “purification.” Trinity college church and its prebendal buildings were assailed and some parts of them pulled down. The altars in St. Giles’ church and St. Mary’s or the Kirk of Field, were removed, and the images destroyed or burnt. At Holyrood abbey also the altars were overthrown, and the church otherwise defaced. Preachers were, at the same time, appointed to expound to the people the pure gospel. The mint, with the instruments for coining, was seized, as the stamping of base money had raised the price of the necessaries of life; but though it was alleged against them that they had possessed themselves of large sums of money, this does not appear to have been the case.

During these proceedings, the regent issued a proclamation against the Congregation, declaring that under the pretence of religion they sought to overturn the government, commanding them to leave Edinburgh in six hours, and enjoining all good subjects to avoid their society under the pain of treason. This proclamation had its effect to a certain extent, as many of the Congregation retired to their homes. The lords, in a letter to the queen regent, dated 2d July (1559) were careful to exculpate themselves from the charges brought against them, and offered to explain all their views and wishes in presence of the regent, if they were permitted free access to her. After several communings, the regent requested that the earl of Argyle and the Lord James Stuart might be sent to her; but as some treachery was suspected, it was deemed expedient that they should not go near her. The duke of Chatelherault had been persuaded that the object of the Congregation was to deprive Mary of her crown, and also the duke and his heirs of their right of succession; but in a proclamation thy showed, as the preachers did in their sermons, that their real motive was the reformation of religion and complete liberty of conscience. Recourse was then had to negotiations, and after a conference at Preston, which led to no result, the queen dowager left Dunbar, and with her troops took possession of Leith, and approached within two miles of Edinburgh. On being informed by the governor of the castle (Lord Erskine) that he would fire if her entrance was opposed, a treaty was entered into, on the 25th July, by which the Congregation agreed that the town of Edinburgh should be open to the regent; that Holyroodhouse, the mint, and the instruments of coinage should be delivered up to her; and that they should be obedient to her authority and the laws, and should abstain from injuring the papists, or employing violence against the churches or religious houses, till the 10th of the ensuing January, when a parliament was to meet. The regent, on her part, agreed that the inhabitants of Edinburgh should adopt what religion they thought proper; that their preachers would not be molested, nor themselves troubled in their persons or their goods; that no French garrison or Scottish mercenaries should be stationed within the city; and that, in other places of the kingdom, similar toleration should be given to the protestants and their preachers. These conditions Chatelherault and Huntly, at a subsequent private interview with the lords of the Congregation, held at the Quarry Holes near Calton Hill, declared their resolution to see observed, or else to leave the queen dowager’s party. On the following day the lords of the Congregation left Edinburgh and proceeded to Stirling, where they held a council, and on the first of August entered into a third league or bond for mutual defence.

When at Glasgow, on his return to his own district, Argyle and Stuart received an invitation from the duke of Chatelherault, to visit him at Hamilton, where they remained a night, and met the duke’s eldest son, the earl of Arran, newly arrived from Paris, having escaped death or imprisonment from the Guises on account of his protestant principles [See HAMILTON, duke of.] The duke had become dissatisfied with the violent and arbitrary measures of the queen regent, and convinced of her perfidy, he and Arran, his son, had now resolved upon joining the lords of the Congregation. Arran accordingly, on the 10th of September, accompanied Argyle and Lord James Stuart to a convention of the lords of the Congregation held at Stirling, which resulted in the principal chiefs accompanying these two lords in a second visit to the residence of the duke, there to mature their further proceedings, of which the convention entered into shortly thereafter, for the entrance of English troops into Scotland, was the most important.

In the subsequent transactions the earl of Argyle acted a principal part. When, at the commencement of the siege of Leith, on the last day of October 1559, the French soldiers, in a sally from the fort, drove the troops of the Congregation back to Edinburgh, after capturing their ordnance, and pursued them to the middle of the Canongate and up Leith Wynd, Argyle, with his Highlanders, was the first to stop the flight, and give a check to the pursuers. His name appears the fifth of the noblemen who signed the Contract of Berwick, which led to the introduction of the English army, under the Lord Grey, to the assistance of the Congregation, and the expulsion of the French from Scotland. In this Contract occurs the following clause personal to the earl: “And also, the erle of Argile, lord justice of Scotland, being presentilie joyned with the said duke (of Chatelherault) sall imploy his force and good will where he sall be required by the queen’s majestie (Elizabeth) to reduce the north parts of Ireland to the perfyte obedience of England, conforme to a mutuall and reciprock contract to be made betwixt her majestie’s lieutenant or deputie of Ireland, being for the time, and the said erle, wherin sall be conteaned what he sall doe for his part, and what the said lieutenant and deputie sall doe for his support, iom case he sall have to doe with James Makconneill, or anie other of the iles of Scotland, or realme of Ireland.” The Makconnel here referred to is supposed to be a miswriting for James Macdonald of Isla, who had been stirred up by the queen regent to attack the lands of Argyle. For performance of his part of this contract Argyle gave as a hostage his cousin Colin Campbell. On the 27th of April, the lords of the Congregation entered into a fourth bond, for their mutual protection and assistance, and in this they were joined by the earl of Huntly, who had hitherto opposed their proceedings.

On the 10th of June 1560, the queen regent died in the castle of Edinburgh, which put an end to hostilities for the time. Before her death she expressed to Argyle and other lords, in an interview she asked with them, her deep regret for her conduct, which she attributed to the counsels of her relatives on the continent. The earl of Argyle’s name appears the third of the nobility who subscribed the First Book of Discipline; and soon after, when the lords passed an act that all remaining monuments of idolatry should be destroyed, he was ordered with the earl of Glencairn to assist the earl of Arran in the west in seeing this done in that district.

The earl of Argyle was of the cortege that received Queen Mary on her landing at Leith 19th August 1561. He was immediately thereafter sworn a privy councillor.  Early in 1562 he was one of the lords engaged in making provision for the ministers, against the inadequacy of which Knox appealed. On the 13th of September, the queen went to Stirling, and on the Sabbath a riot took place in that town, in consequence of an attempt being made to perform mass. “The earl of Argyle,” says Randolph, the English ambassador, in a letter to Cecil, “and the lord James Stuart so disturbed the quire that some, both priests and clerks, left their places with broken heads and bloody ears.” On the 26th May 1563, the queen opened parliament with extraordinary splendour. On this occasion the duke of Chatelherault carried the crown, Argyle the sceptre, and Moray the sword.

The earl had married Jean, natural daughter of King James the Fifth by Elizabeth daughter of John Lord Carmichael, but he does not seem to have lived on very happy terms with her, as we find that John Knox had been employed, on more occasions than one, to reconcile them after some domestic quarrels. In 1563, at the third conference between Queen Mary and Knox, her majesty requested him again to use his good offices on behalf of her sister, the Lady Argyle, who, she confessed, was not so circumspect in everything as she could wish; “yet,” she added, “her husband faileth in many things.” “I brought them to concord,” said Knox, “that her friends were fully content; and she promised before them she should never complain to any creature, till I should first be made acquainted with the quarrel, either out of her own mouth, or by an assured messenger.” “Well,” said the queen, “it is worse than your believe. Do this much for my sake, as once again to reconcile them, and if she behave not herself as becometh, she shall find no favour of me; but in no case let my lord know that I employed you.” Knox, in consequence, wrote to the earl on the countess’s behalf, exhorting him “to bear with the imperfections of his wife, seeing that he was not able to convince her of any crime since the last reconciliation, but his letter was not well received.” [Calderwood, vol. ii. p. 215.] Her majesty passed the summer of the same year at the earl’s house in Argyleshire, in the amusement of deer-hunting.

His lordship was against the marriage of the queen with Lord Darnley, and in the midst of the preparations for that ill-fated union, he and the earl of Moray appeared at Edinburgh with a body of five thousand horsemen, ostensibly for the purpose of attending a court to which the earl of Bothwell had been cited, but really, as the queen considered, more to overawe herself than to frighten that nobleman. She, therefore, ordered the justice-clerk to adjourn the court. Two months previous to the marriage, she created Darnley earl of Ross, when the duke of Chatelherault, and the earls of Argyle, Moray, and Glencairn, immediately retired from the court, and began to concert measures for opposing the match by force of arms. After the marriage, when the discontented lords took refuge in England, the earl retired to Argyle, but after the murder of Rizzio, on the 9th of March 1566 (the countess of Argyle being then with the queen at supper), the banished lords were received into favour, and the processes of treason against them discharged. In the ensuing April the queen sent for the earls of Argyle and Moray, and reconciled them to the earls of Huntly, Bothwell, and Athole; and in June, when her majesty went to the castle of Edinburgh to be confined of James the Sixth, she ordered lodgings to be provided for the earl next her own, probably that her sister the countess might be near her. His lordship, however, was not present at the baptism of the young prince in Stirling castle, on account of the popish ceremonies, but his countess stood sponsor for Queen Elizabeth, and held the child at the font.

The earl of Argyle’s name appears second on the famous bond subscribed by some of the nobility in favour of the queen’s marriage with Bothwell, and the ratification of it afterwards signed by the queen was committed to his care, in case her majesty should repent of the match. At this time he seems to have played a double part. On the marriage taking place, he was one of the noblemen who entered into the bond of association for the defence of the young prince, but the day after he revealed all their designs to the queen. He carried the sword of state at the coronation of James the Sixth, 29th July 1567, and attended the convention at Edinburgh the 15th August, at which the regency of the earl of Moray was confirmed. In the General Assembly which met in the following December the earl and his countess were censured, he for separation from his wife, although he alleged that the blame was not in him, and she for assisting at the baptism of the king “in papistical manner.” Afterwards, deeming the queen very ill used in being kept a prisoner, he entered into the association for procuring her liberty on reasonable conditions, and signed the bond to that effect 8th May 1568. He was created her lieutenant, and was chief commander of her forces at Langside on the 13th of the same month; but just as the hostile armies were about to take their ground, he was seized with an apoplectic fit, which delayed the advance of Mary’s troops and contributed not a little to her defeat. After this he retired to Dunoon, and refused to submit to the regency of his old friend and confederate the earl of Moray, but twice appeared in arms at Glasgow, to concert measures with the Hamiltons for the restoration of Mary. He was in consequence summoned to St. Andrews in the following April, when he took an oath to remain quiet, and made his peace on easy terms.

On the assassination of the regent Moray, Argyle and other noblemen of the queen’s party assembled at Linlithgow, 10th April 1570, and with the duke of Chatelherault and the earl of Huntly, was constituted her majesty’s lieutenant in Scotland. In 1571 he was prevailed on by the regent Lennox to submit to the king’s authority, and to appear in the parliament at Stirling in September of that year. Lennox being murdered on the 4th of that month, Argyle was a candidate for the regency, but the choice fell on the earl of Mar, and Argyle was sworn a privy councillor. On Morton becoming regent in November 1572, Argyle was appointed lord-high-chancellor, and on the 17th January 1573 he obtained a charter under the great seal of that office for life. That same day he carried the sceptre, on the regent going in state to the low council house of Edinburgh, to choose the Lords of the Articles. He died of the stone, 12th September 1575, aged about 43, and is celebrated by Johnston in his Heroes. His countess, Queen Mary’s half sister, having died without issue, was buried in the royal vault in the abbey of Holyroodhouse; and he married, a second time, Lady Johanna or Joneta Cunningham, second daughter of Alexander fifth earl of Glencairn, but as she also had no children, he was succeeded in his estates and titles by his brother.

Colin, sixth earl of Argyle, previous to succeeding to the earldom was styled Sir Colin Campbell of Boquhan. He early engaged in the quarrel against the regent Morton, arising out of the following circumstances: In 1576, as hereditary justice-general of Scotland he claimed that a commission of justiciary, formerly given by Queen Mary to the earl of Athole over the territory of the latter, should be annulled. This Athole resisted, and not only refused to surrender for trial two of the Athole Stewarts against whom Argyle alleged various crimes, but seized two of the Camerons charged with the murder of the late chief of that clan, whom he detained in prison, although claimed by Argyle as his vassals. The two earls collected their retainers in arms, to settle the dispute between them in the field, when the regent interposed, and obliged them to disband their forces. Having obtained secret information that Morton intended to prosecute them for treason, they agreed to forget their private quarrels, and unite for mutual defence. They disregarded the citation of the regent to appear before a court of justice, and as he dreaded their joint power, he was forced unwillingly to abandon his project. In the end of the following year the earl of Argyle was still farther incensed against Morton, by his sending for the jewel called the H, because the precious stones were set in the form of that letter, signifying Henrie, and which it was supposed had been given by Queen Mary to her sister the late countess of Argyle. He was not inclined to comply with the request, but on being charged by an officer to deliver it up, as it belonged to the king, he at once resigned it. About this time the laird of Glengarry presented a petition to the privy council, complaining that the earl of Argyle, who, since his rupture with Morton, had been living in his own country, was collecting a large force, ostensibly with the view of punishing some disturbers of the public peace, but really, as he alleged, to attack and harass him, the said laird, on which proclamation was made, prohibiting the earl from assembling any of the lieges in arms, and from troubling Glengarry, under the pain of treason. Various other complaints were made against Argyle for oppressive and illegal conduct; particularly by John, the son and heir of James Macdonald of Castle Camus in Skye, and John Maclean, the uncle of Lauchlan Maclean of Dowart, who were both kept prisoners in Argyle’s castle of Inchconnell in Lochow, without warrant; and by Lauchlan Maclean, the young chief of Dowart, whose isle of Loyng was invaded and plundered by a party of Campbells sent by Argyle. [Gregory’s Highlands and Isles of Scotland, p. 216.]

On 4th March 1578, the earls of Argyle and Athole, with other noblemen, assembled at Stirling, and advised the king to deprive Morton of the regency, and to take the government into his own hands, which was accordingly done. On this occasion Argyle was made a member of the new council chosen to direct the king, who was then only twelve years of age. A few weeks thereafter, however, Morton again got possession of the king’s person, when Argyle and Athole took up arms to rescue his majesty, and issued a proclamation against the late regent. The forces on both sides gathered at Stirling, the earl of Argyle alone bringing two thousand five hundred Highlanders to the assistance of those who opposed Morton’s return to power. By the mediation, chiefly, of Bowes, the English ambassador, an accommodation was brought about between the hostile factions, and on the 10th August 1579, Argyle was appointed lord-high-chancellor of the kingdom. After this he was apparently reconciled to Morton’s administration. On the 28th of January 1581, with the king and many of the nobility, he subscribed the second Confession of Faith. He was one of the jury on the trial of Morton, 1st June of that year. At the opening of the parliament held the following October, he bore the sword, and on the last day of November, when the king went again in state to the Tolbooth, he carried the sceptre. He died in October 1584, after a long illness. He married, first, Janet, eldest daughter of Henry, first Lord Methven, without issue; secondly, Lady Agnes Keith, eldest daughter of William, fourth earl Marischal, widow of the regent Moray, by whom he had two sons, Archibald, seventh earl of Argyle, and the Hon. Sir Colin Campbell of Lundie, created a baronet in 1627.

Archibald, seventh earl of Argyle, was under age when he succeeded his father. The dissensions among his guardians, and the assassination of Campbell of Calder, one of them, have been already related [ante, ART. BREADALBANE, earl and marquis of.] The conspiracy among the chiefs of the western Highlands, having for its object the death of the young earl of Argyle, as well as that of the “bonnie earl of Murray,” is likewise there alluded to. The principal person interested in his death was his kinsman Archibald Campbell of Lochnell, one of his guardians, and the next heir to the earldom; a dark and ambitious spirit, who never relinquished his designs against the lives of the earl and his brother, that he might succeed to the title and estates. In 1592, when little more than sixteen years of age, the earl married Lady Anne Douglas, fifth daughter of William first earl of Morton of the house of Lochleven. “There is reason to believe,” says Gregory, “that the conspirators, notwithstanding the refusal of Ardkinglass (Sir James Campbell, another of the young earl’s guardians) to join them, continued for some time their machinations for the murder of the earl; and that, during a severe illness with which he was attacked at Stirling, soon after his marriage, in the year 1594, some of his household were bribed to poison him; if indeed, the disease itself was not caused in the first instance by poison. Argyle, however, escaped all the attempts of his enemies, and lived to exercise, for many years, an overpowering influence in the affairs of the Highlands and Isles.” [Gregory’s Highlands and Isles of Scotland, p. 251.] At the ‘riding of the parliament,’ 29th May 1592, he bore the sword. In the same year he and the earl of Athole, and the laird of Grant, plundered and laid waste the earl of Huntly’s lands, for the slaughter of the earl of Murray, till the earl of Angus was sent by the king, as lieutenant to the north, for the purpose of preventing farther spoliation. At the ‘riding of the parliament,’ 16th July 1593, he carried the sceptre.

      In 1594, although then only eighteen, Argyle was appointed king’s lieutenant against the popish earls of Huntly and Errol, who had raised a rebellion. With Argyle were associated the earl of Athole and Lord Forbes. Having raised an army of six thousand men – some accounts say twelve thousand – partly among his own vassals, and partly among other clans, particularly the Macleans, Macneills, Macgregors, Macintoshes, and Grants, Argyle marched into Badenoch, and thence towards Strathbogie, after having in vain attempted, in his way, to reduce the castle of Ruthven, which was gallantly held out for Huntly by the Macphersons. On his arrival near Glenlivet, he found that Huntly and Errol were in the vicinity, with about fifteen hundred men, principally cavalry; and, in consequence, he took up a strong position on the declivity of a hill, betwixt Glenlivet and Glenrinnes, in two parallel divisions, until he could be joined by Lord Forbes, who was at no great distance with eleven hundred men. His opponents, however, had in their ranks a number of brave gentlemen, well mounted and armed, who were anxious to be led to the attack, and a communication from a traitor in Argyle’s camp, Archibald Campbell of Lochnell, already mentioned, commander of one of the divisions of his army, encouraged them to attempt it. By a private message which he sent to Huntly he promised to go over to him, with his division, as soon as the battle commenced, and suggested that some pieces of artillery possessed by Huntly, should be fired at Argyle’s banner, hoping thus both to get rid of that nobleman by an apparent chance shot, and to discourage the Highlanders, who were unacquainted with the use of artillery. The advice of Lochnell was followed. The assault was made on Argyle’s forces while they were at prayers, but, – just reward of treachery, – with fatal effect on Lochnell himself. As Huntly approached, the guns were fired at the yellow standard of Argyle, who escaped unhurt, whilst his treacherous kinsman Lochnell, a brother of the latter, and the son of Macneill of Barra, were slain on the spot. After a severe conflict, both parties fighting with great bravery, the one, says Sir Robert Gordon, “for glorie, the other for necessitie,” Huntly succeeded in routing Argyle’s forces, who, from the mountainous nature of the country, which impeded pursuit, escaped with a loss comparatively trifling. The success of Huntly was mainly owing to the treachery of Lochnell, and of John Grant of Gartinbeg, one of Huntly’s vassals, who retreated with his men as soon as the action began, by which act the centre and the left wing of Argyle’s army were completely broken. Among the trophies found on the field was the ensign belonging to Argyle, which was carried with other spoils to Strathbogie, and placed on the top of the great tower. The conduct of Lachlan Maclean of Dowart, one of Argyle’s officers, was worthy of all praise. It was his division which inflicted the principal loss on the rebels, and, at the close of the battle, he retired in good order with them. It is said that after the battle, he offered, if Argyle would give him five hundred men in addition to his own followers, to bring the earl of Huntly prisoner into Argyle’s camp. The proposal was rejected, but having come to the ears of Huntly, incensed him greatly against Maclean, whose son afterwards, according to tradition, lost a large estate in Lochaber, through the animosity of that powerful nobleman. [Gregory’s Highlands and Isles, p. 259.[

      This battle was fought, 3d October 1594. Weeping with indignation at his defeat, the young but high-spirited earl of Argyle was carried out of the field by his friends, and hastened to inform the king at Dundee of his discomfiture. His majesty immediately marched against the rebels, who dispersed at his approach. In the Scottish poems of the sixteenth century, edited by Dalzel, Edinburgh 1801, there is, at page 136 of vol. i. ‘A faithful narrative of the great and miraculous victory obtained by George Gordon, earl of Huntly, and Francis Hay, earl of Errol, catholic noblemen, over Archibald Campbell, earl of Argyll, lieutenant, at Strathaven, 3d Oct. 1594.’ – the battle being sometimes called the battle of Glenrinnes, Strathaven, or Altconlachan, as well as of Glenlivet. Early in the following year, for oppression alleged to be committed by his clan, the earl was put in ward in the castle of Edinburgh. “This,” says Calderwood, “was the rewaird he gott for his good service in the North.” [Church History, vol. v. page 361.] He was soon, however, liberated, and in the summer of the same year he and the duke of Lennox were employed to reduce Huntly’s vassals to obedience. After “killing and burning in the north,” as Calderwood phrases it, Argyle sent deputies to Huntly’s lands to obtain their submission. On November 14, 1598, Argyle with some others was charged to produce certain persons of the name of Campbell and Macgregor, for whom he was responsible, as the king’s lieutenant of the bounds or district within which these Campbells and Macgregors resided; in which capacity he had found security for the lawless tribes over whom he had command; they in their turn becoming liable to him in relief, under separate bonds. In 1599, when measures were in progress for bringing the chiefs of the Isles under subjection to the king, the earl of Argyle and his kinsman, John Campbell of Calder, were accused of having secretly used their influence to prevent Sir James Macdonald of Dunyveg and his clan from being reconciled to the government. The frequent insurrections which occurred in the South Isles in the first fifteen years of the seventeenth century have also been imputed by Mr. Gregory, with what degree of truth cannot now be ascertained, to Argyle and the Campbells, for their own purposes. It seems difficult, however, to understand what means could be employed by them to influence their inveterate and hereditary enemies to adopt such a course of conduct. The proceedings of these clans were, however, so violent and illegal, that the king became highly incensed against the Clandonald, and finding he had a right to dispose of their possessions both in Kintyre and Islay, he made a grant of them to the earl of Argyle and the Campbells. This gave rise to a number of bloody conflicts between the Campbells and the Clandonald, in the years 1614, 1615, and 1616, which ended in the ruin of the latter, and for the details of which, and the intrigues and proceedings of the earl of Argyle to possess himself of the lands of that clan, reference may be made to Gregory’s ‘History of the Highlands and Isles of Scotland,’ chapters seven and eight.

      In the meantime, on the 23d February, 1603, the king, previous to his departure for England, succeeded in reconciling the earls of Argyle and Moray to the earl of Hunty, an object which he had long laboured to effect. In that same month the Macgregors, who were already under the ban of the law, made an irruption into the Lennox, and after defeating the Colquhouns and their adherents at Glenfruin, with great slaughter, plundered and ravaged the whole district, and threatened to burn the town of Dumbarton. For some years previously, the charge of keeping this powerful and warlike tribe in order had been committed to the earl of Argyle, as the king’s lieutenant in the “bounds of the clan Gregor,” and he was answerable for all their excesses. Instead of keeping them under due restraint, Argyle has been accused by various writers of having from the very first made use of his influence to stir them up to acts of violence and aggression against his own personal enemies, of whom the chief of the Colquhouns was one; and it is further said that he had all along mediated the destruction of both the Macgregors and the Colquhouns, by his crafty and perfidious policy. The only evidence on which these heavy charges rests is the dying declaration of Allester Macgregor of Glenstrae, the chief of the clan, to the effect that he was deceived by the earl of Argyle’s “falsete and inventiouns,” and that he had been often incited by that nobleman to “weir and truble the laird of Luss,” and others; but as these charges were not believed at the time, they ought to be received with some hesitation by the impartial historian now. Indeed, it is difficult to believe that the earl of Argyle would, for his own sake, have counselled the perpetration of such outrages as the Macgregors committed, and still less that the Macgregors, who detested his authority, would have carried them into effect to please him. The enmity alleged to have existed between the Colquhouns and Argyle is assumed without proof of any sort, and is not supported by any probability, whereas the hatred between the Macgregors and Colquhouns was an hereditary feud, and a war of races. However this may be, the execution of the severe statutes which were passed against the Macgregors after the conflict at Glenfruin, was intrusted to the earls of Argyle and Athole, and their chief, with some of his principal followers, was enticed by Argyle to surrender to him, on condition that they would be allowed to leave the country. Argyle received them kindly, and assured them that though he was commanded by the king to apprehend them, he had little doubt he would be able to procure a pardon, and, in the meantime, he would send them to England under an escort, which would convey them off Scottish ground. It was Macgregor’s intention, if taken to London, to procure if possible an interview with the king; but Argyle prevented this; yet, that he might fulfil his promise, he sent them under a strong guard beyond the Tweed at Berwick, and instantly compelled them to retrace their steps to Edinburgh, where they were executed 18th January 1604. How far there may have been deceit used in this matter, whether, according to Birrel, Argyle “keipit ane Hielandman’s promise; in respect he sent the gaird to convey him out of Scottis grund, but thai were not directit to pairt with him, but to fetch him bak agane;” or whether their return was by orders from the king, cannot at the present time be ascertained. This at least is certain, that so many families were bereaved of their sons by the atrocities of the Macgregors that there was no probability of a pardon having been obtained from James.

      In the decreet of ranking of the Scots nobility, 5th March 1606, the earl of Argyle was placed second in the list of earls. In 1608 he and the Marquis of Huntly were sent against the proscribed Macgregors, and almost totally extirpated that persecuted and unfortunate clan. In 1617, after the suppression by him of the Clandonald, Argyle obtained from the king a grant of the whole county of Kintyre, which grant was ratified by a special act of parliament the same year. At this time he seems to have been in high favour at court, and on the visit of King James to Scotland in that year, he was one of those who, at the command of the king, repaired to Holyroodhouse on Whitsunday the 8th of June, and partook of the communion, then and there celebrated after the English form; he and those with him, says Calderwood, “communicated kneeling, not regarding either Christ’s institution or the ordour of our kirk.” But this need not have surprised the worthy chronicler had he known that for some years Argyle had been a concealed papist. His first countess, to whom Sir William Alexander, afterwards earl of Stirling, inscribed his ‘Aurora’ in 1604, having died, his lordship had in November 1610, married, a second time, Anne, daughter of Sir William Cornwall of Brome, ancestor of the Marquis Cornwallis. This lady was a Catholic, and although the earl was a warm and zealous protestant when he married her, she gradually drew him over to profess the same faith with herself. After the year 1615, as Gregory remarks, his personal history presents a striking instance of the mutability of human affairs. In that year, being deep in debt, he went to England, but as he was the only chief that could keep the Macdonalds in order, the Privy Council wrote to the king urging him to send him home; and in his expedition against the clan Donald, he was accompanied by his son, Lord Lorn. On the 17th of June 1617, he carried the crown, at the opening of the parliament, and this seems to have been his last public appearance in his native country. In 1618, on pretence of going to the Spa for the benefit of his health, he received from the king permission to go abroad; and the news soon arrived that the earl, instead of going to the Spa, had gone to Spain; that he had there made open defection from the protestant religion, and that he had entered into very suspicious dealings with the banished rebels, Sir James Macdonald and Allaster MacRanald of Keppoch, who had taken refuge in that country. The king, upon this, wrote to the privy council at Edinburgh, recalling the license given to Argyle to go abroad, and directing that nobleman to be summoned to appear before the council in the following February under the pain of treason. In the meantime, various efforts were made to make the barons and gentlemen of Argyle answerable for the good rule of that extensive earldom. The result was that in December 1618, twenty of these barons and gentlemen appeared in presence of the council and made an arrangement for effecting the desired object, Campbell of Lundy undertaking the principal charge. On the 16th of February, the earl of Argyle having failed to make his appearance, he was, with sound of trumpets, and two or three heralds at arms, openly declared rebel and traitor, at the market cross of Edinburgh, and he remained under this ban until the 22d of November 1621, when, by open proclamation at the same place, with sound of trumpet and Lyon heralds, he was declared the king’s free liege. Nevertheless, he did not venture to return to Britain during the reign of James the Sixth, nor, indeed, till 1638; and he died in London soon after his return, in that year, aged 62. While on the continent he distinguished himself in the military service of Philip the Second of Spain, against the states of Holland. From the time of his leaving Scotland, he never exercised any influence over his great estates; the fee of which had, indeed, been previously conveyed by him to his eldest son, Archibald, Lord Lorn, afterwards eighth earl or Argyle. By his first wife he had a son, Archibald, eighth earl, and four daughters, namely, 1st, Lady Anne, married in 1607, to George, second marquis of Huntly; 2d, Lady Annabella, married to Robert, second earl of Lothian, of the house of Cessford; her eldest daughter, Lady Anne, inherited the title of Lothian, and carried it into the house of Fernyhirst; 3d, Lady Jane, married first to the first Viscount Kenmure, and, secondly, to the Hon. Sir Henry Montgomery, of Giffen, second son of the sixth earl of Eglinton; and 4th, Lady Mary, who became the wife of Sir Robert Montgomery of Skelmorly. By his second wife, the earl had a son and a daughter, viz., James, earl of Irvine, [see IRVINE, earl of,] and Lady Mary, married to James, second Lord Rollo [See ROLLO, lord.]

      His first countess was introduced by Lord Walpole into his Appendix, for having collected and published in Spanish, a set of sentences from the works of St. Augustine. Her portrait will be found in Walpole’s ‘Royal and Noble Authors,’ Park’s edition, 1806, vol. v. p. 71. Douglas says, and it seems likely, that the portrait may be that of Lady Anne Douglas, but the authoress must have been Anne Cornwallis, his second wife, as the latter was in Spain with him, but the former died many years before he went to that country. The following cut is taken from that portrait of the countess of Argyle.


[portrait of the countess of Argyle]

Of the more illustrious personages of the family of Argyle, memoirs are subsequently given in larger type. The conspicuous figure which they made in the history of their country, and the prominent part which the family has always acted in Scottish affairs, entitle its more celebrated members to separate biographies.

CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, eights earl and first marquis or Argyle, an eminent patriot and statesman, was the son of Archibald, seventh earl, by his first wife Lady Anne Douglas, daughter of the earl of Morton. He was born in 1598, and educated in the protestant religion, according to the strict rules of the Church of Scotland, as it was established at the Reformation. After his father went to Spain, as already narrated, he managed the affairs of his family and clan in his absence. In 1626 he was sworn a privy councillor, and in 1634 appointed one of the extraordinary lords of session. On the death of his father in 1638, he succeeded to his titles. The estates he had held previously. He attended the General Assembly at Glasgow, that year, at which presbyterianism was declared to be the established religion of Scotland. In 1639, when Charles prepared for the invasion of Scotland, Argyle raised nine hundred men to oppose the Macdonalds of the Isles and the earl of Antrim, who were to attack the kingdom on the west. In June 1640 he marched to the north against the earl of Athol and the Ogilvys, who had taken up arms for the king, and forced them to submit.

      Of Argyle’s ascendancy in the senate the marquis of Montrose at this time became particularly jealous, and he transmitted an accusation against him to court, of having declared in the presence of Athol and others that the states intended to depose the king. The fact was denied by all the witnesses, said to have been present, and Stewart, commissary of Dunkeld, the informer, who retracted his statement, was convicted and executed; while Montrose was committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh. In 1641, when Charles the First came to Scotland, his majesty created him marquis of Argyle.

      In 1644, after the marquis of Huntly, whom the king had appointed his lieutenant-general in the north of Scotland, had taken Aberdeen, Argyle was, by the convention at Edinburgh, commissioned to raise an army to oppose him. He, accordingly, assembled at Perth, a force of five thousand foot and eight hundred horse, with which he advanced on Aberdeen. Huntly fled to Banff, where he disbanded his army, and retired to Strathnaver. Argyle, after taking possession of Aberdeen, proceeded northward and took the castles of Gight and Kellie. The lairds of Gight and Haddo he made prisoners and sent to Edinburgh, where the latter was afterwards beheaded. In July 1644, Alexander Macdonald, who had been despoiled of his patrimony by Argyle’s father, landed in the west from Ireland, with fifteen hundred men, with the purpose of joining the marquis of Montrose, on the side of the king. Argyle collected an army to oppose his progress, and to cut off his retreat to Ireland he sent some ships of war to Loch Eishord, where Macdonald’s fleet lay, which captured or destroyed them.

      After the battle of Tippermuir, Montrose’s victorious army proceeded through Angus and the Mearns to Aberdeen, where he again defeated the army of the Covenanters. On the 4th of September, four days after the battle of Tippermuir, Argyle, who had been pursuing the Irish forces under Macdonald, had arrived with his Highlanders at Stirling, where, on the following day, he was joined by the ear of Lothian and his regiment. With an increased force, amounting to three thousand foot and two regular cavalry regiments, besides ten troops of horse, Argyle arrived at Aberdeen on the 19th, and issued a proclamation, declaring the marquis of Montrose and his followers traitors to religion, and to their king and country, and offering a reward of twenty thousand pounds Scots, to any person who should bring in Montrose dead or alive. Spalding, vol. ii. page 271, laments with great pathos and feeling the severe hardships to which the citizens of Aberdeen had been subjected by the frequent visitations of hostile armies at this period, but forgets to add how much the citizens of Aberdeen had done to bring it on themselves by their sympathy with Montrose. Three days after his arrival in Aberdeen, Argyle put his army in motion in the direction of Kintyre. On hearing of his approach, Montrose concealed his cannon in a bog, and marched his army into the forest of Abernethy. Argyle proceeded as far as Strathbogie, and allowed his troops to lose their time in plundering and laying waste the lands of the Gordons in that district, and in the Enzie. On the 27th of September Argyle mustered his forces at the Bog of Gight, and found them to amount to about four thousand men. The army of Montrose did not amount to much more than a third of that number. At this time the two armies were within twenty miles of each other; but Montrose passed unscathed through the forest of Rothiemurchus, and following the course of the Spey, marched through Badenoch. Argyle, on this, set his army in motion along Spey-side, and marched through Badenoch in pursuit. On entering Badenoch, having been delayed by illness, Argyle found Montrose several days’ march in advance of him, and had crossed the Grampians to Strathbogie, where he arrived on the 19th of October and remained till the 27th. Contrary to his expectations, Montrose was joined by but a small party of the Gordons, the marquis of Huntly keeping aloof altogether, while his sons were on the side of the parliament.

      After spoiling the lands of those in Badenoch and Athole who had joined Montrose, Argyle followed him across the Dee, and passing through Aberdeen and Kintyre, he reached Inverury on 25th October, with a force of about two thousand five hundred foot, and twelve hundred horse, and suddenly appeared within a very few miles of the camp of Montrose on the 28th of the same month. Montrose’s foot amounted only to fifteen hundred men, and about fifty horse; yet with this inferior force he resolved to await Argyle’s attack. He accordingly drew up his little army on a rugged eminence behind the castle of Fyvie, on the uneven sides of which several ditches had been cut and dikes built to serve as farm fences. Here he was attacked by Argyle, whose men, charging with great impetuosity, drove the forces of Montrose up the eminence, of a considerable part of which they got possession. The assailed, however, were soon rallied by Montrose, who directed an attack in turn with complete success. A subsequent attack of cavalry was resisted by interlining with his few horse a body of musketeers. In the evening Argyle drew off his forces and although he returned to the position on the following and subsequent days, the attack was not renewed.

      After nightfall of the second day, Montrose retreated towards Strathbogie, followed by Argyle, all whose attempts, however, to bring him to action in the open country proved unavailing against an antagonist of military genius so much superior to his own. Recourse was then had by Argyle to negotiation, but to a request for a personal meeting with the view of arranging a cessation of arms, Montrose, lest Argyle should avail himself of the occasion to tamper with his men, proposed in a council of war to retire to the Grampians. the council at once approved of this suggestion, on which Montrose resolved to march into Badenoch, and afterwards descended by rapid marches into Athole.

      In the meantime, Argyle disbanded his Highlanders, and went to Edinburgh, where, according to Spalding, vol. ii. page 287, he “got but small thanks for his service against Montrose.” so far from this being the case, the Committee of Estates passed an act of approbation of his services, “principally because he had shed no blood.” [Guthry, page 124.] To retaliate upon Argyle and his clan the miseries which he had occasioned in Lochaber, Montrose proceeded to ravage the country possessed by the Campbells, beginning with Glenurchy, on which Argyle hastened to his castle at Inverary, and gave orders for the assembling of his followers. He took no precautions, however to guard the passes leading into Argyle, although so important did he consider them that he had frequently declared he would rather forfeit a hundred thousand crowns than that an enemy should know them. While reposing in fancied security, some shepherds from the hills brought him the alarming intelligence that Montrose’s forces were within two miles of his castle. He immediately took refuge on board a fishing-boat in Loch Fyne, in which he sought his way to the Lowlands. For upwards of six weeks, the district of Argyle, as well as that of Lorn, was laid waste, so that, before the end of January, 1645, a single male inhabitant was not to be seen throughout their whole extent. Montrose then proceeded northwards, with the view of seizing Inverness; but, on his route, learning that Argyle had entered Lochaber with an army of three thousand men, and had advanced as far as Inverlochy, burning and laying waste the country wherever he appeared, he crossed the mountains, and reached Glennevis before Argyle had the slightest notice of his approach. Committing his army to the charge of his cousin, Campbell of Auchinbreck, who had considerable reputation as a military commander, Argyle went on board a boat on the loch, accompanied by Sir John Wauchope of Niddry, Sir James Rollock of Duncrub, Archibald Sydserf, one of the bailies of Edinburgh, and Mungo Law, a minister of the same city. His excuse for doing so, was some contusions he had received by a fall two or three weeks before. At sunrise on Sunday, 2d February 1645, Montrose gave orders to his men to advance, when Argyle’s forces were totally defeated, no less than fifteen hundred of his family and name being killed, and amongst the slain was Campbell of Auchinbreck, their commander. After this action, which was called the battle of Inverlochy, Argyle arrived in Edinburgh, “having,” says Guthrie,

“His left arm tied up in a scarf, as if he had been at bones-breaking.” He was present at the battle of Kilsyth, 15th August 1645, as the head of a committee of noblemen appointed by the estates to attend General Baillie, the general of the Covenanters, who sustained a signal defeat from Montrose. By way of retaliation for the destruction of Castle Campbell, and the properties of his vassals, by the Macleans, who had joined Montrose’s army, he had previously caused the house of Menstrie, the seat of the earl of Stirling, the king’s secretary, and that of Airthrie, belonging to Sir John Graham of Braco, to be burnt. Just before the battle he had, with a small body of troops, taken his route over the hills from Stirling, and crossing the Carron, at a ford still bearing his name, joined the main body under Baillie. The loss of the battle of Kilsyth, the most disastrous defeat which the covenanters ever sustained, is mainly to be attributed to the interference of Argyle and the “field committee,” with that general’s dispositions and arrangements. All Baillie’s officers fled in various directions; while Argyle hastened to the south shore of the Firth of Forth. According to Bishop Guthry, he “never looked over his shoulder until, after twenty miles riding, he reached the South Queensferry, where he possessed himself of a boat again.” [Memoirs, page 154.] Wishart sarcastically observes that this was the third time that Argyle had “saved himself by means of a boat, and even then, he did not reckon himself secure till they had weighed anchor and carried the vessel out to sea.” [Memoirs, page 171.] He afterwards took refuge in Ireland, until Montrose’s subsequent defeat at Philiphaugh. Among the prisoners executed by the Covenanters after that event was Sir William Rollock, one of Montrose’s principal officers, the chief cause of whose condemnation, Wishart says, (Memoirs, page 223,) was that he would not consent to assassinate Montrose, at the instigation of Argyle; a crime which, notwithstanding all the ferocity of the times, and all the enmity which subsisted between these two rival chiefs, it is impossible to believe Argyle to have been guilty of.

      In July 1646, when the king had surrendered to the Scottish army, the marquis went to Newcastle to pay him his respects. He was afterwards employed at London in the conference with the parliament of England on the Articles presented by them to his majesty. He was, besides, charged with a secret commission from the king, to consult with the duke of Richmond and the marquis of Hertford, as to the expediency of getting the Scottish parliament and army to declare for him; but was told that if the Scots should declare for the king, it might prove his majesty’s ruin, by turning the affair into a national dispute, in which all parties in England would unite, to prevent the kingdom from being conquered. Argyle returned to Scotland to attend parliament, which met 3d November, 1646, and on the 7th of that month, the convention of estates passed an “act of approbation to the marquis of Argyle and remanent commissioners at London.” In the same parliament a sum of money was voted to him for his various services, all his estates having been plundered by the Irish and other followers of Montrose. In 1647, also, the parliament voted him an additional sum for his family’s subsistence, and for paying annual rents to some necessitous creditors on his estate, and a collection was ordered throughout all the churches in Scotland, for the relief of the people of Argyle plundered by Montrose.

      The marquis of Huntly, who had appeared in arms for the king, having been taken prisoner, in December 1647, by Lieutenant-colonel Menzies, in Strathdon, and carried to Edinburgh, a reward of a thousand pounds sterling was bestowed on his captor, who, for payment of this sum, obtained an order, 6th January 1648, from the committee of estates. It has been made the ground of a charge, by the author of the history of the family of Gordon, against Hamilton and Argyle, that they were the first signers of this order; but they merely signed the document in the order of precedence of rank before the rest of the committee. It is related by Spalding that, taking advantage of Huntly’s situation, Argyle bought up all the comprisings on Huntly’s lands, and that he caused summon at the market cross of Aberdeen, by sound of trumpet, all Huntly’s wadsetters and creditors, to appear at Edinburgh in the month of March following, to produce their securities before the lords of session, otherwise they would be declared null a and void. Some of Huntly’s creditors sold their claims to him, and having thus bought up all the rights he could obtain upon Huntly’s estate, he granted bonds for the amount, which, according to Spalding, he never paid. In this way did Argyle possess himself of Huntly’s estates which he continued to enjoy upwards of twelve years, namely, from 1648 till the restoration in 1660. There can be no doubt, however, that in thus acting it was for the benefit of his nephew, Lord Gordon, and not for his own aggrandizement, Huntly’s estates being forfeited by the parliament.

      In 1648, when the duke of Hamilton formed an association to attempt the rescue of the king, which went under the name of “the Engagement,” Argyle and his party opposed it. After the defeat of the army led by Hamilton into England, a new commotion was raised in Scotland by those who had disapproved of the “Engagement.” The principal authors were the marquis of Argyle, the earls of Cassillis and Eglinton and the earl of Loudon, chancellor. To oppose them the committee of estates raised an army and conferred the command on the earl of Lanark, who was soon joined by Sir George Monro, with a small body of troops which he had conducted home from England. Argyle, having collected a small body of Highlanders in his own country, marched eastward to form a junction with Loudon and Eglinton. Halting at Stirling, after assigning to his troops their different posts, he went to dine with the earl of Mar at his residence in that town. But while the dinner was serving up, the advanced guard of Lanark’s forces, under Sir George Monro, entered the town, on which, mounting his horse, he galloped across Stirling bridge, and never looked behind him till he reached the North Queensferry, where he instantly crossed the Firth in a small boat. He then proceeded to Edinburgh, and, with Loudon, the chancellor, and the earls of Cassillis and Eglinton, as committee of estates, summoned a parliament to meet on the 4th of January. In the meantime, Cromwell had laid siege to Berwick, and was waited upon at Mordington, by Argyle, Lord Elcho, and Sir Charles Erskine, and after the surrender of that town they conducted him and General Lambert to Edinburgh. Cromwell took up his residence in the house of Lady Home in the Canongate, where he received frequent visits from Argyle, Loudon, the earl of Lothian, and others, both peers and ministers. It is said that during these conferences, Cromwell communicated to his visitors his intentions with respect to the king, and obtained their consent. It was with reference to this that Argyle made his celebrated declaration on the scaffold.

      Although Argyle and his friends had now the principal power in Scotland, he exerted himself in vain to prevent the execution of that eminent royalist, the marquis of Huntly, his brother-in-law, and when it was carried against him, 16th March 1649, he withdrew in disgust from the parliament. But when his great rival, Montrose, was conducted with every mark of ignominy, in May 1650, up the Canongate to the tolbooth of Edinburgh, Argyle, surrounded by his family and friends, appeared publicly on a balcony in front of the earl of Moray’s house in the Canongate, to gaze at him. He refused, however, to assist at or concur in the barbarous sentence pronounced against him, declaring that he was too much a party to be a judge. He was not present at Montrose’s execution, and is said to have shed tears on hearing of the particulars of his death.

      Argyle had the principal hand in bringing over Charles the Second to Scotland, where he arrived in June 1650. It is mentioned by Lord Dartmouth, in his MS. notes on Burnet, quoted in Rose’s Observations on Fox (p. 176), that on his arrival, Argyle informed his majesty that he could not serve him as he desired, unless he gave some undeniable proof of a fixed resolution to support the presbyterian party, which he thought would be best done by marrying into some family of quality and influence attached to that interest, and thought his own daughter would be the properest match for him. What truth there may be in this, it is impossible to say, but certain it is that the presbyterian party, at the head of which was Argyle, was then the strongest, and it is likely that with a sincere desire to serve his majesty, the ambition of that nobleman might have led h im to entertain such a design, with a view of advancing both his majesty’s interests and his own, as well as the cause of the presbyterian religion, while the report that the king was to marry his daughter was prevalent at the time.

      After the fatal defeat of the Scots army at Dunbar, 3d September, 1650, Argyle continued to exert himself for the defence of the country and the promotion of the cause of the king, who was so sensible of his zeal, and diligence in his service, that he drew up a paper which he presented to him with his sign manual, promising, on “the word of king,” to create him duke of Argyle, knight of the garter, and one of the gentlemen of his bedchamber, when he (Argyle) should think fit; and whenever it should please God to restore him to his just rights in England, to see him paid forty thousand pounds sterling, which was due to him. On the king’s coronation at Scone, 1st January 1651, Argyle placed the crown on his Majesty’s head, and was the first to swear allegiance to him. When Charles, in June of that year, resolved to march into England, Argyle endeavoured to dissuade him from it; but, nevertheless he would have accompanied his majesty, had not his countess been then lying at the point of death, and he took leave of the king at Stirling. After Charles’s defeat at Worcester, Argyle retired to Inverary, where he continued for a year to act on the defensive; but, falling sick, he was surprised by General Dean, who conducted him a prisoner to Edinburgh. Having received orders from General Monk to attend a privy council, he was thus entrapped to be present at the ceremony of proclaiming Oliver Cromwell lord protector. A paper was tendered to him to sign, containing his submission to the government as settled, which he refused, but afterwards, when he was in no condition to struggle, he did sign a promise to live peaceably under the protectorate; and under Richard Cromwell he sat in the parliament for the county of Aberdeen.

      At the restoration he went to London to congratulate the king, arriving there 8th July 1660; but, without being allowed to see his majesty, he was committed to the Tower, and after lying there for five months, he was sent down to Scotland to be tried for his compliance with the usurpation. On the voyage down he narrowly escaped shipwreck by a storm. When he arrived in Edinburgh he was confined in the castle. At his trial, his inveterate enemy, the earl of Middleton, presided as lord high commissioner; and, after the evidence had been closed on both sides, an express arrived from Monk with some private letters from Argyle to him and others, proving his full compliance with the usurpation. Being condemned for high treason, he was beheaded with the Maiden at the Cross of Edinburgh, May 27, 1661. On sentence being pronounced, the marquis, lifting up his eyes, said, “I had the honour to set the crown upon the king’s head, and now he hastens me to a better crown than his own.” He prepared for death with a fortitude not expected from the natural timidity of his character; wrote a long letter to the king, vindicating his memory, and imploring protection for his poor wife and family; and on the day of his execution, dined at noon with his friends, with great cheerfulness, and was accompanied by several of the nobility to the scaffold, where he behaved with singular constancy and courage. His last words were, “I desire all that hear me to take notice and remember, that now, when I am entering on eternity, and am to appear before my Judge, and as I desire salvation, I am free from any accession by knowledge, contriving, counsel, or any other way, to his late majesty’s death.” His head was exposed on the west end of the tolbooth, on the same spike from which that of Montrose had recently been removed; while his body was carried to St. Magdalene’s chapel in the Cowgate, and lay there for some days, until it was removed by his friends to the family burial-place at Kilmun. The head remained on the top of the tolbooth till 8th June 1664, when a warrant was obtained from Charles the Second for taking it down, and burying it with his body.

      Mr. Granger, in his Biographical History of England, observes that “the marquis of Argyle was in the cabinet what his enemy the marquis of Montrose was in the field, the first character of his age and country for political courage and conduct.” – The woodcut below is from an engraving after the original at Inverary.


[woodcut of the marquis of Argyle]

The marquis of Argyle is inserted in Walpole’s Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors, having published his ‘Instructions to his Son,’ 12 mo, Edinburgh, 1661, written during his confinement; on which Walpole remarks, it is observable that he quarrelled with both his father and his son; and ‘Defences against the grand indictment of high treason,’ 1661. Park, in his edition of Walpole, (vol. v. p. 115, edition 1806,) says, in 1642 was printed “the marquis of Argyll’s speech on peace, to be sent to his Majestie.” By his wife, Lady Margaret Douglas, second daughter of William, second earl of Morton, he had with three daughter, two sons; namely, Archibald, ninth earl of Argyle, and Lord Niel Campbell of Ardmaddie, who was governor of Dumbarton castle, and died in 1693. Lord Niel was twice married; and Dr. Archibald Campbell, his second son by his first wife, Lady Vere Ker, third daughter of the third earl of Lothian, was bishop of Aberdeen. [See a subsequent notice (CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD,) BISHOP OF Aberdeen.] His second wife was Susan, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Menzies of Weem, baronet, sister of Captain James Menzies, who had married his lordship’s daughter, Anna. Lord Niel’s widow afterwards married Colonel Alexander Campbell of Finnab, and had two sons, Niel Campbell, advocate, and Alexander. Her only surviving child, Jean, married Campbell of Inverawe. Lord Niel Campbell’s descendants have long been extinct in the male line. Menzies of Castlemenzies, baronet, and the Fergusons of Pitcullo in Fife descend from him in the female line.

The marquis’ eldest daughter, Lady Anne, died unmarried. His second, Lady Jean, became the wife of the first marquis of Lothian; and Lady Mary, the third, married first the sixth earl of Caithness, and after his death the first earl of Breadalbane, and had one son to him.


Editor's Note: The following two biographies were provided by Diane Snider...

CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, ninth earl of Argyle, eldest son of the preceding, was educated by his father in the true principles of loyalty and the protestant religion, and had from his youth distinguished himself by his steady attachment to the royal cause. After receiving his education he went to travel in France and Italy in 1647, and remained on the continent till the end of 1649. In 1650, when Charles the Second was invited to Scotland, the commission of colonel of foot guards was given to him by the convention of estates, which he declined to accept until it should be ratified by the king. He served with great bravery against Cromwell at the battle of Dunbar, in September of that year. After the king’s defeat at Worcester, he kept a party in arms in the Highlands, ready to act on any favourable opportunity. In 1654 he joined the earl of Glencairn with nearly a thousand men, and received the commission of lieutenant-general from Charles the Second. He was, in consequence, exempted from the general amnesty published by Cromwell in April of that year. Towards the end of the same year he was so reduced that h retired to an island with only four or five persons about him. It was not till 1655, when he received orders from General Middleton, sanctioned by the king’s authority, that he would consent to submit to Cromwell. In November of that year hee was compelled by General Monk to find security for his peaceable behavior, to the amount of five thousand pounds sterling. In spring 1657 Monk committed him to prison, where he remained till the Restoration.

In March 1658, while confined in Edinburgh castle, the lieutenant of that garrison, an Englishman, was one day amusing himself in throwing a bullet, when it glanced from a stone with so much force on Lord Lorn’s head, that it fractured his skull. He was obliged to undergo the operation of trepanning, and recovered with difficulty. [Burnet’s Hist. vol. i. p. 106.]

On the restoration, his lordship hastened to London to congratulate his majesty, being charged with a letter from his father, the marquis of Argyle, to the king, containing assurances of his duty. His majesty received him in so gracious a manner as to induce the marquis himself to undertake a journey to London, when, without being admitted to the king’s presence, he was committed to the Tower, and subsequently sent down to be tried in Scotland for treason. During all the time of his trial, Lord Lorn remained at court and laboured assiduously, but in vain, to save his father’s life. A letter to Lord Duffus, written after the marquis’ execution, in which he said that he had convinced the earl of Clarendon of the injustice done to his father, being intercepted, was carried to the earl of Middleton, who exhibited it to the parliament, as a libel on their proceedings. That body, on 24th June 1662, transmitted a representation to the king that the eldest son of the late marquis of Argyle had both written and spoken against their authority, and requesting that he might be sent down to Scotland to stand his trial. By the express command of the king, Lord Lorn proceeded to Edinburgh, and on the day of his arrival he appeared in his place in parliament, and made a long speech in his own justification. He was, nevertheless, committed close prisoner to the castle, and a process raised against him for the crime of leasing-making, or creating dissension between the king and his subjects, on which he was found guilty, and condemned to lose his head, but the day of his execution was left to his majesty’s pleasure, in consequence of a positive order of the king to the earl of Middleton. When the news of his condemnation reached the court at London it struck all there with astonishment, and the earl of Clarendon declared that if the king suffered such a precedent to take place, he would get out of his dominions as fast as his gout would let him. Lord Lorn suffered a long and severe imprisonment in the castle of Edinburgh, and was only released on 4th June 1663, when Middleton had lost his power.

Sensible of his services and of the injustice with which h e had been treated, Charles, the same year, restored to him the estates and title of earl of Argyle, which had been forfeited by his father. His residence while in Edinburgh, during his attendance on the Scots parliament, was in the Mint court, High street, as appears from a curious case reported in Fountainhall’s Decisions, vol. i. page 163 .

In 1681, when the duke of York went to Scotland, a parliament was summoned at Edinburgh, which, besides granting money to the king, and voting the indefeasible right of succession, passed an act for establishing a test, obliging all who possessed offices, civil, military, or ecclesiastical, to take an oath not to attempt any change in the constitution of church and state as then settled. When Argyle took the test as a privy councillor, he added, in presence of the duke of York, an explanation which he had before communicated to that prince, and which he believed to have been approved of by him, to the effect that he took it as far as it was consistent with itself and with the Protestant religion. The explanation was allowed, and he was admitted to sit that day in council. To his great surprise, however, he was a few days thereafter committed to prison, and tried for high treason, leasing-making, and perjury. Of five judges three did not scruple to find him guilty of the two first charges, and a jury of fifteen noblemen gave a verdict against him. The king’s permission was obtained for pronouncing sentence, but the execution of it was ordered to be delayed. Having no reason to expect either justice or mercy from such enemies, the earl made his escape from prison in the train of his step-daughter, Lady Sophia Lindsay, disguised as her page. He made his way to London, and though the place of his concealment was known at Court, it i said that the king would not consent to his being arrested. In the meantime, the privy council of Scotland publicly proclaimed his sentence at the cross of Edinburgh, and caused his coat of arms to be reversed and torn.

The earl soon after went over to Holland, where he resided during the remainder of Charles’ reign. On his death in 1685, deeming it his duty, before the coronation of James the Second, to do his best to restore the constitution, and preserve the civil and religious liberties of his native country, he concerted measures with the duke of Monmouth, and, at the head of a considerable force, made a descent upon Argyle; but, disappointed in his expectations of support, he was taken prisoner, and being carried to Edinburgh, was beheaded upon his former unjust sentence, June 30, 1685. Previous to his execution he was brought directly from the castle to the Laigh council room in the Tolbooth, and thence his farewell letter to his wife is dated. Fountainhall tells us, “Argile came in coach to the Toune Counsell, and from that on foot to the scaffold, with his hat on, betwixt Mr. Annand, dean of Edinburgh, on his right hand – to whom he gave his paper on the scaffold – and Mr. Lawrence Charteris, late professor of divinity in the college of Edinburgh. He was somewhat appalled at the sight of the Maiden – present death will danton the most resolute courage – therefor he caused bind the napkin upon his face ere he approached, and then was led it.” Under his misfortunes he evinced great firmness and self-possession. He ate his dinner cheerfully on the day of his death, and, according to his usual custom, slept after it for a quarter of an hour or more very soundly. At the place of execution he made a short, grave, and religious speech; and such was the calmness of his spirit that he took out of his pocket a little ruler, and measured the block. Perceiving that it did not lie even, he pointed out the defect to a carpenter, and had it rectified. After a solemn declaration that he forgave all his enemies, he submitted to death with extraordinary resolution and composure. His body was interred in the Greyfriers churchyard, Edinburgh, under a monument, with a poetical inscription composed by himself in prison the day before his execution; on account of which he has been admitted into Walpole’s Royal and Noble Authors, vol. v. edition 1806. He was twice married; first, to Lady Mary Stuart, eldest daughter of James, fifth earl of Moray; and, secondly, to :Lady Anne Mackenzie, second daughter of Colin, first earl of Seaforth (dowager of Alexander, first earl of Balcarres). By the latter he had no issue; but by the former he had four sons and three daughters.

CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, tenth earl, and first duke of Argyle, son of the preceding, was an active promoter of the Revolution, and accompanied the prince of Orange to England. In 1689 he was admitted into the Convention as earl of Argyle, though his father’s attainder was not reversed. He was one of the commissioners deputed from the Scots parliament to offer the crown of Scotland to the prince of Orange, and to tender him the coronation oath. For this and other eminent services the family estates which had been forfeited were restored to him; he was admitted a member of the privy council, and in 1690 made one of the lords of the treasury. In 1694 he was appointed one of the extraordinary lords of session, and, in 1696, colonel of the Scots horse guards. He afterwards raised a regiment of his own clan, which greatly distinguished itself in Flanders. On the 23d June 1701 he was created, by letters patent, duke of Argyle, marquis of Lorn and Kintyre, earl of Campbell and Cowal, viscount of Lochow and Glenila, baron Inverary, Mull, Morvern, and Tiry. He died 28th September 1703. Though undoubtedly a man of ability, he was too dissipated to be a great statesman. The scandal of the time alleged that his death was caused by a wound received in a brothel. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Lionel Talmash, by whom he had two sons, the elder being John, the celebrated duke of Argyle and Greenwich.

Lord Teignmouth, in his ‘Sketches of the Coasts and Islands of Scotland,’ [vol. ii. pp. 380-382,] gives the following interesting anecdote of the second duchess of Argyle: “The trees which adorn the shore of the bay were planted about a hundred and fifty years ago by a duchess of Argyle, who was extremely partial to Kintyre, fixed her residence chiefly at Campbellton, and inhabited a house on a site now occupied by a small farm-house to which, however, it was much inferior. This lady was the mother of the great duke John; and she is said to have adopted the following singular method of acquiring, for the duke, possession of the estates of the different proprietors, Campbells, to whom Argyle, after his conquest of Kintyre, had granted them. On pretence of revising, as the tradition goes, she got into her hands and destroyed the charters of these unsuspecting people. Thus the Argyle family revoked their original grants. Campbell of Kildalloig, ancestor of the present proprietor of this estate, pleasantly situated on the outside of the bay, owed the preservation of it to the shrewdness of a servant, who suspecting the intentions of the duchess, ran off, carrying away his master’s charter, and restored it not to him, till the fraud became apparent. The family of this man were, till within few years, employed, in grateful recollection of his services, by the family at Kildalloig. The duchess is said to have associated with herself, in her retreat, several young ladies of rank, whom she watched with Argus-eyed vigilance, lest they should stoop to alliance with the lairds of Kintyre. Impatient of restraint, they eluded her observation, and are said to have preferred humble freedom to splendid chains.”

CAMPBELL, JOHN, second duke of Argyle, and also duke of Greenwich, a steady patriot and celebrated general, the eldest son of the preceding, was born October 10, 1678. On the very day on which his grandfather suffered at Edinburgh, in June 1685, he fell from a window on the third floor of Donibristle castle in Fife, then possessed by his aunt, the countess of Moray, without receiving any injury. His father, anxious to put him in the way of advancement, introduced him to King William, who, in 1694, when not full seventeen years of age, gave him the command of a regiment. On the death of his father in 1703, he became duke of Argyle, and was soon after sworn of the privy council, made captain of the Scots horse guards, and appointed one of the extraordinary lords of session.

In 1704, on the revival of the order of the Thistle, he was installed one of the knights of that order. He was soon after sent down as high commissioner to the Scots parliament, where, being of great service in promoting the projected Union, for which he became very unpopular in Scotland, he was, on his return to London, created a peer of England by the titles of baron of Chatham, and earl of Greenwich.

In 1706 he Grace made a campaign in Flanders, under the duke of Marlborough, and distinguished himself at the battle of Ramillies, in which he acted as a brigadier-general; and also at the siege of Ostend, and in the attack of Meenen, of which he took possession on the 25th of August. After that event he returned to Scotland, in order to be present in the Scots parliament when the treaty of Union was agitated. In 1708 he commanded twenty battalions at the battle of Oudenarde. He likewise assisted at the siege of Lisle, and commanded as major-general at the siege of Ghent, taking possession of the town and citadel, January 3, 1709. He was afterwards raised to the rank of lieutenant-general, and commanded in chief at the attack of Tournay. He had also a considerable share, September 11, 1709, in the victory at Malplaquet. On December 20, 1710, he was installed a knight of th Garter.

In January 1711 he was sent to Spain as ambassador, and at the same time appointed commander-in-chief of the English forces in that kingdom. On the peace of Utrecht he returned home. Having changed his views regarding the Union, in June 1713 he supported an unsuccessful motion in the House of Lords for its repeal, occasioned by a malt bill being brought into the House for Scotland, on the ground that the Union had disappointed his expectations. In the spring of 1714 he was deprived of all the offices he held under the crown. On the accession of George the First he was made groom of the stole, and was one of the nineteen members of the regency nominated by his majesty. On the king’s arrival in England he was appointed general and commander-in-chief of the king’s forces in Scotland.

At the breaking out of the Rebellion in 1715, his grace, as commander-in-chief in Scotland, defeated the earl of Mar’s army at Sheriffmuir, and forced the Pretender to retire from the kingdom. In March 1716, after putting the army into winter quarters, he returned to London, but was in a few months, to the surprise of all, divested of all his employments. In the beginning of 1718 he was again restored to favour, created duke of Greenwich, and made lord steward of the household; on resigning which, he was appointed master-general of the ordnance. In 1722 the duke of Argyle distinguished himself in the House of Lords in a very interesting debate on the bill for banishing Dr. Atterbury, bishop of Rochester. It was chiefly owing to his grace’s persuasive eloquence that this bill passed. In 1726 he was appointed colonel of the prince of Wales’ regiment of horse. Such was his zeal for his native country that he warmly opposed the extension of the malt-tax to Scotland. In Jan. 1735-36 he was created field-marshal. In 1737, when the affair of Captain Porteous came before parliament, his grace exerted himself vigorously and eloquently in behalf of the city of Edinburgh; a bill having been brought in for punishing the lord provost of that city, for abolishing the city guard, and for depriving the corporation of several ancient privileges; and when the queen regent threatened, on that occasion, to convert Scotland into a hunting park, replied, then it was time that he should be down to gather his beagles. In 1739, when the convention with Spain was brought before the house, he spoke with warmth against it; and, in the same session, his grace opposed a vote of credit, as there was no sum limited in the message sent by his majesty.

      In April 1740 he delivered a speech with such warmth against the administration that he was again deprived of all his offices. To these, however, on the resignation of Sir Robert Walpole, he was soon restored, but not approving of the measures of the new ministry, he gave up all his posts for the last time, and never afterwards engaged in affairs of state. This amiable and most accomplished nobleman has been immortalized by Pope in the lines,

   “Argyle, the state’s whole thunder burn to wield,
And shake alike the senate and the field.”

Thomson, in his poem of Autumn, also introduces an encomium on his grace, and he is mentioned by Tickell, Broome, and other poets of his time. He was twice married. By his first wife, Mary, daughter of John Brown, Esq., (and niece of Sir Charles Duncombe, Lord Mayor of London in 1708), he had no issue. By his second wife, Jane, daughter of Thomas Warburton of Winnington in Cheshire, one of the maids of honour to Queen Anne, he had five daughters. His eldest daughter, Caroline, was created, in 1767, baroness Greenwich, but the title became extinct on her death in 1794. To his fifth daughter, Lady Mary Campbell, widow of Edward Viscount Coke, the son of the earl of Leicester, Lord Oxford dedicated his celebrated romance of the ‘Castle of Otranto.’ As the duke died without male issue, his English titles of duke and earl of Greenwich and baron of Chatham became extinct, while his Scotch titles and patrimonial estate devolved on his brother. He died of a paralytic disorder October 4, 1743; and a beautiful marble monument, was erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey. There is an engraving of John duke of Argyle and Greenwich in Birch’s Lives, from a portrait by Aikman, of which the following is a woodcut:


[woodcut of duke of Argyle and Greenwich]

CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, third duke of Argyle, the brother of the preceding, was born at Ham, Surrey, in June 1682, and educated at the university of Glasgow. He afterwards studied the law at Utrecht, but entering the army, he served under the duke of Marlborough, was colonel of the 36th foot, and governor of Dumbarton castle. He soon abandoned a military life, and employed himself in acquiring the qualifications necessary for a statesman. In 1705 he was constituted lord high treasurer of Scotland; in 1706 one of the commissioners for treating of the Union between Scotland and England; and 19th October of the same year, for his services in that matter, was created viscount and earl of Ilay, and baron Oransay, Dunoon, and Arrase. In 1708 hee was made an extraordinary lord of session, and after the Union, was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland. In 1710 he was appointed justice-general of Scotland, and the following year was called to the privy council. Upon the accession of George the First, he was nominated lord register of Scotland, and when the rebellion broke out in 1715, he took up arms for the defence of the house of Hanover. By his prudent conduct in the West Highlands, he prevented General Gordon, at the head of three thousand men, from penetrating into the country and raising levies. He afterwards joined his brother, the duke of Argyle and Greenwich, at Stirling, and was wounded at the battle of Sheriffmuir. In 1725 he was appointed keeper of the privy seal, and in 1734 of the great seal, which office he enjoyed till his death. Upon the decease of his brother, in September 1743, he succeeded to the dukedom.

      As chancellor of the university of Aberdeen, he showed himself anxious to promote the interest of that as well as of the other universities of Scotland, and he particularly encouraged the school of medicine at Edinburgh. He was the confident of Walpole, and as he had the chief management of Scots affairs, he was very attentive in advancing the trade and manufactures and internal improvement of his native country. He excelled in conversation, and besides building a very magnificent seat at Inverary, he collected one of the most valuable private libraries in Great Britain. He died suddenly, while sitting in his chair at dinner, April 15, 1761. He married the daughter of Mr. Whitfield, paymaster of marines, but had no issue by her grace. On his death the title of earl of Ilay became extinct. By Mrs. Anne Williams or Shireburn, to whom he left his whole real and personal property in England, he had a son, William Williams, otherwise Campbell, who was appointed auditor of excise in Scotland 4th January 1739, and was a lieutenant-colonel in the army. To the son of the latter, Archibald Campbell, Mr. Coxe expresses his acknowledgments for the papers of his grandfather, Archibald, duke of Argyle, among which he found several original letters of Sir Robert Walpole.

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      the third duke of Argyle was succeeded by his cousin, John, fourth duke, son of the Hon. John Campbell; of Mamore, second son of Archibald, the ninth earl of Argyle, (who was beheaded in 1685), by Elizabeth, daughter of John, eighth lord Elphinstone. The fourth duke was born about 1693. Before he succeeded to the honours of his family, he was an officer in the army, and saw some service in France and Holland. During the rebellion of 1715, he acted as aide-de-camp to his chief, John duke of Argyle and Greenwich. He was at the battle of Dettingen in 1741, as a brigadier-general. He had the rank of major-general 24th February 1744, and served a campaign in Germany in that capacity. When the rebellion of 1745 broke out, he was appointed to the command of all the troops and garrisons in the west of Scotland, and arrived at Inverary, 21st December of that year, and, with his eldest son, joined the duke of Cumberland at Perth, on the 9th of the following February. He had the rank of lieutenant-general 27th April 1747, and was appointed, in 1761, governor of Limerick. He was one of the grooms of the bedchamber both to George the Second and George the Third, and on succeeding as duke, he was chosen one of the sixteen representatives of the Scottish peerage. He was a privy councillor, a knight of the Thistle, and became general 22d February 1765. He died 9th November 1770, in the 77th year of his age. He married in 1720 the Hon. Mary Bellenden, third daughter of the second Lord Bellenden, and had four sons and a daughter, Lady Caroline, married, first, to the third earl of Aylesbury, and secondly to Field-marshal Conway, brother of the marquis of Hertford. Their only daughter, Anne Seymour, born 8th November 1748, married, 14th June 1767, the Hon. George Damer, (eldest son of Joseph, Lord Milton, afterwards earl of Dorchester,) was a celebrated female sculptor. She took lessons in the art from Ceracci and Bacon, and afterwards studied in Italy. The colossal statue of George the Third, which adorns the interior of the Register House, Edinburgh, was executed by her, and presented to her uncle, Lord Frederick Campbell, Lord Clerk Register. She also cut the figure of the eagle in the gallery at Strawberry Hill, thus inscribed, “Non me Praxiteles fecit, sed Anna Damer,” by the earl of Oxford, who bequeathed that beautiful Gothic villa and the principal part of his fortune to her. Her husband died without issue in 1776, and she herself in 1808. Her uncle, Lord Frederick above mentioned, was the third of the sons of the third duke of Argyle. He was appointed lord clerk register in November 1768, and laid the foundation stone of the General Register House at Edinburgh 27th June 1774. In January 1792 he obtained from the king a permanent sum of five hundred pounds a-year for the support of the fabric, and for defraying the various contingent expenses connected with it. Observing the perishing condition of the parliamentary records of Scotland, he formed the design of getting them printed for the public benefit, as the journals of both houses and the parliamentary rolls had been done in England. In 1793 he obtained from his majesty an order for the removal to the General Register House at Edinburgh of a manuscript which, besides transcripts of many deeds relative to Scottish affairs, contained minutes of several parliaments of Scotland, antecedent to the earliest parliaments mentioned in the statute book, that had been discovered in the state paper office at London. For this service he received the thanks of the court of session.

      John, fifth duke of Argyle, born in 1723, eldest son of the fourth duke, was also in the army, and attained the rank of general in March 1778, and of field-marshal in 1796. He was created a British peer, in the lifetime of his father, as Baron Sundridge of Coomb-bank in Kent, 19th December 1766, with remainder to his heirs male, and failing them to his brothers, Frederick and William, and their heirs male successively. He was chosen the first president of the Highland Society of Scotland, to which society, in 1806, he made a munificent gift of one thousand pounds, as the beginning of a fund for educating young men of the West Highlands for the navy. He died 24th May 1806, in the 83d year of his age. He married at London, 3d March 1759, Elizabeth, widow of James, sixth duke of Hamilton, the second of the three beautiful Miss Gunnings, daughters of John Gunning, Esq. of Castle Coote, county Roscommon, Ireland. Her grace was created a peeress of Great Britain, as Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon, Leicestershire, 4th May 1776, and died 20th December 1790. By this lady the duke had three sons and two daughters, namely, George John, earl of Campbell and Cowal, born in 1763, died in infancy; George William, marquis of Lorn, and sixth duke; John Douglas Edward Henry, seventh duke; Lady Augusta, married to General Clavering; and Lady Charlotte Susan Maria, born in 1775, married, first, in 1796, Colonel John Campbell, son of Walter Campbell, Esq. of Shawfield, by whom (he died in 1809) she had a large family; and secondly, in 1818, the Rev. Edward John Bury, who died in 1832. Lady Charlotte Bury was the authoress of several novels and other contributions to light literature.

      George William, sixth duke of Argyle, born 22d September 1768, succeeded on the death of his uterine brother, Douglas, duke of Hamilton, in 1799, to his mother’s baronage of Hamilton, and took his seat in the house of lords, as Baron Hamilton, 11th February, 1800. He was appointed his majesty’s vice-admiral over the western coasts and islands of Scotland, excepting the shires of Bute and the islands of Orkney and Shetland, 9th February 1807. He married, 28th November, 1810, Caroline Elizabeth, daughter of the fourth earl of Jersey, whose previous marriage with the marquis of Anglesea had been dissolved in Scotland, at her ladyship’s suit, but had no issue. His grace died 22d October 1839.

      His brother, John Douglas Edward Henry, (Lord John Campbell of Ardincaple, M.P.) Succeeded as seventh duke. He was born 21st December 1777, and was thrice married; first, in August 1802, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of William Campbell, Esq. of Fairfield, who died in 1818; secondly, 17th April 1820, to Joan, daughter and heiress of John Glassel, Esq. of Long Niddry; and thirdly, in January 1831, to Anne Colquhoun, eldest daughter of John Cunningham, Esq., of Craigends. By his second wife he had two sons and a daughter, namely, John Henry, born in January 1821, died in May 1837; George Douglas, marquis of Lorn, who succeeded as eighth duke; and Lady Emma Augusta, burn in 1825. His grace died 26th April 1847.

      George John Douglas, the eighth duke, born in 1823, married in 1844, Lady Elizabeth Georgina (born in 1824), eldest daughter of the second duke of Sutherland; issue, John Douglas Sutherland, marquis of Lorn, born in 1845, and other children. Author of ‘An Essay on the Ecclesiastical History of Scotland since the Reformation.’ Chancellor of University of St. Andrews, 1851; Lord Privy Seal, 1853; Postmaster-general, 1855-8; Knight of the Thistle, 1856.

      The duke of Argyle is hereditary master of the queen’s household in Scotland, keeper of the castles of Dunoon, Dunstaffnage, and Carrick, and heritable sheriff of Argyleshire.

CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, bishop of Aberdeen, and a religious writer of some note in his day, was the son of Lord Niel Campbell, and Lady Vere Ker, the former the second son of the great marquis of Argyle, and the latter the third daughter of the third earl of Lothian. The date of his birth is uncertain. He was educated for the episcopalian ministry, and after being long in priest’s orders, he was, on the death of Bishop Sage, consecrated a bishop at Dundee, in the year 1711, by Bishops Rose, Douglas, and Falconar, but without any particular diocese. On the 10th of May 1721, he was elected, by the clergy of Aberdeen, to be their ordinary, but never visited his diocese, residing chiefly in London; and finding that his views with regard to certain usages were not approved by the greater number of his brethren, he resigned his new office in 1724. [Keith’s Scottish Bishops, App. page 530.] skinner says of Bishop Campbell, that “He was highly commendable for his learning and other valuable accomplishments, which his curious writings, though out of the common line in some things, abundantly testify. His affairs led him to reside mostly at London, where he long acted as a Scottish bishop, and in that character was of great service to our church [the Scots episcopal communion]; having been among the first projectors, and, by his activity and connexions, a constant promoter of that charitable fund which was a great support to the poorer clergy in their straitened circumstances. He had got into his hands the original registers of the General Assemblies produced by [Johnston of] Warriston in the rebellious Assembly of Glasgow in the year 1638, [in Mr. Skinner’s view that famous Assembly was ‘rebellious,’] which he generously communicated to such of his brethren as had any use to make of them; and at last, in 1737, made a gift of them to Sion college for preservation. In his latter days, he carried his singularities to such a length as to form a separate nonjuring communion in England, distinct from the Sancroftian line; and even ventured, in contradiction to the advice and opinion of his brethren in Scotland, upon the extraordinary step of a single consecration by himself, without any assistant, for keeping up the separation which, through Mr. Laurence, Mr. Deacon, and some others, subsists in some of the western parts of England to this day.” [Skinner’s Ecclesiastical History, vol. ii. p. 608.] the records of the General Assemblies above referred to, were borrowed by the House of Commons, and the librarian of Sion’s College holds the speaker, Mr. Manners Sutton’s receipt for them. They were burnt in the great fire which destroyed the two houses of parliament in 1834. In 1717 Bishop Campbell became acquainted with Arsenius, the metropolitan of Thebais, who was then in London, and with others of his nonjuring brethren, made a proposition to that prelate, towards a union with the Eastern church, which Arsenius, on his going to Russia, communicated to the emperor Peter the Great. His majesty not only approved of the design, but directed one of his clergy, of the order of Archimandrites, or chiefs of monasteries, from amongst whom the bishops of the Greek church are always chosen, to assure Bishop Campbell and his associates of his readiness to promote so good a work by all the means in his power. A letter of thanks was returned to the emperor, but as there were five points, assimilating to the superstitious observances of the church of Rome, in which Campbell and his coadjutors could not agree with the Eastern church, the union never took effect. Bishop Campbell died in 1744.

    His works are: –

      Queries to the Presbyterians of Scotland. Lond. 1702, 8vo.

      A query turned into an Argument in favour of Episcopacy. 1703, 8vo.

      Life of the Reverend Mr. John Sage. Lond. 1714, 8vo.

      The Doctrines of a Middle State, between Death and the Resurrection. London, 1731, fol. A very scarce and curious work.

      Remarks on some Books published by him, with his Explications. Edin. 1735, 8vo.

      Further Explications with respect to some Articles of the former Charge; wherein the R. Committee, for Purity of Doctrine, have declared themselves not satisfied. Edin. 1736, 8vo.

      Remarks on the Report of the Committee for Purity of Doctrine. Edin. 1736, 8vo.

      The Necessity of Revelation; or an Inquiry into the Extent of Human Powers with respect to matters of Religion, especially the Being of God, and the Immortality of the Soul. Lond. 1739, 8vo.

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      Donald Campbell, abbot of Cupar, elected bishop of Brechin in 1558, and lord privy seal to Queen Mary, was a son of the family of Argyle. He never assumed the title of bishop, the election not being approved of by the Pope.

      The first protestant bishop of Brechin was Alexander Campbell, a son of Campbell of Ardkinglass. In 1566, while yet a mere boy, he got a grant of the bishopric, by the recommendation of the earl of Argyle, and he afterwards alienated most part of the lands and tithes of that see to his chief and patron, retaining, says Keith, for his successors scarce so much as would be a moderate competency for a minister in Brechin. It may be some set off against the displeasure of the worth bishop, that this alienation was not a private arrangement, but done with the consent of the heads of the state, and confirmed by parliament. It is not for after-ages to judge of these matters by ex parte or partial views alone. The Lords of the Congregation, as they were called, maintained large bodies of armed men at their own expense, for the defence of the state and of religion, and the crown had frequently no other mode of giving them compensation for such disbursements than by doing what it hade to do for its own support, viz. availing itself of the wealth of the now overturned Romish church. On 7th May 1567 the bishop got a license from Queen Mary to depart and continue forth from the realm for the space of seven years, but it would appear that he did not leave Scotland for more than two years thereafter. In the books of Assumptions there is particular instruction that this bishop was abroad at Geneva, “at the schools,” on the 28th January 1573-4. After his return to Scotland, he sometimes exercised the office of particular pastor at Brechin, though he still retained the designation of bishop. He died in 1696.

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      Four families of the name of Campbell enjoy the dignity and title of a baronet of Scotland and Nova Scotia, namely, Campbell of Aberuchill and Kilbryde, created in 1627; Campbell of Ardnamurchan; Campbell of Auchinbreck; these two baronetcies being created in 1628; and Campbell of Marchmont, in 1665. Six are baronets of the United Kingdom, namely, Campbell of Succoth (1808), Fitzgerald Campbell (1815) Cockburn-Campbell of Gartsford, Ross-shire (1821), Campbell of Barcaldine and Glenure (1831), Campbell of Burman (1831), (see SUPPLEMENT), and Campbell of Dunstaffnage (1836)

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      The founder of the Aberuchill family was Colin Campbell, second son of Sir John Campbell of Lawers, and uncle of the first earl of Loudoun, who got a charter from the Crown, in 1596, of the lands of Aberuchill, Perthshire. His son, Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, a devoted royalist, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I. 13th Dec. 1627. His representative, Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, was born in 1818.

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      The first baronet of the Ardnamurchan family was Sir Donald Campbell, natural son of Sir John Campbell of Calder, who was killed in 1592, by an assassin employed by Campbell of Ardkinglass, and others of the name of Campbell [See ante BREADALBANE..] He was originally educated for the church, and became dean of Lismore; but he was of too restless a disposition to confine himself to his ecclesiastical duties. His talents and activity recommended him to Argyle, by whom he was, in 1612, commissioned to reduce the district of Ardnamurchan to obedience. He afterwards received from the earl a lease of Ardnamurchan, and made himself very obnoxious to the natives by his severities. In May 1618, John Macdonald, captain of the Clanranald, united with the clan Ian, who acknowledged him as their chief, and expelled Xampbell and his adherents from Ardnamurchan. He was, however, afterwards repossessed in the disputed lands, and in 1625 he became heritable proprietor under Lord Lorn of the district of Ardnamurchan and Sunart, for which he paid an annual feu duty of two thousand merks. He was created a baronet on 14th June 1628, with remainder to his heirs male whatsoever, which, in 1634, was changed to remainder to his nephew and his heirs male. He was succeeded by his nephew, George Campbell, who inherited the estate of Airds in Argyleshire, but not that of Ardnamurchan, which, owing to Sir Donald’s having no male issue, reverted to the family of Argyle. Neither this gentleman, however, nor any of his three successors, assumed the title. It was taken up by the sixth baronet, Sir John Campbell, born 15th March, 1767, only son of Alexander Campbell of Airds, on being served heir male to Sir Donald Campbell, the first baronet. The seventh baronet, Sir John Campbell, born in 1807, admitted advocate in 1831, succeeded his father in 1834. He was lieutenant-governor of St. Vincent’s, and died there in 1853. His eldest son, Sir John William Campbell, born in 1836, succeeded as eighth baronet. He served as an officer in the artillery in the campaign in the Crimea in 1854-5, in the trenches with the siege train before Sebastopol.

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      The first baronet of the Auchinbreck family was Sir Dugald Campbell of Auchinbreck, knight, the baronetcy being conferred on him 21st March 1628, with remainder to his heirs male whatsoever. Sir Louis Henry Dugald Campbell, the eighth baronet, born march 2d, 1844, succeeded his father 9th December 1853.

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      The first of the Campbells of Marchmont, Berwickshire, was Sir William Purves, knight, grandson of William Purves of Abbey Hill, an eminent lawyer and staunch loyalist, who was appointed by Charles the Second solicitor-general for Scotland, and created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 6th July 1665. He died in 1685, and his eldest son, Sir Alexander Purves, was nominated by patent his successor in the solicitor-generalship. He married a daughter of Hume of Ninewells, and died in 1701.. His eldest son, Sir William Purves, was succeeded in 1730 by his eldest son Sir William, who married Lady Anne Hume Campbell, eldest daughter of Alexander, second earl of Marchmont, by whom he had three daughters and a son, Sir Alexander, who married four times, and died in 1813. His eldest son, Sir William, born 4th October 1767, assumed, on inheriting the estates of his maternal family, the additional surname of Hume-Campbell. His uncle, the Hon Alexander Hume Campbell, lord registrar of Scotland, died without surviving male issue in 1760, and his cousin, Alexander, fourth earl of Marchmont, in 1781, when that title became dormant [see MARCHMONT, earl of]. Sir William died 9th April 1833, leaving an only child, Sir Hugh Hume Campbell. of Purves Hall, the seventh baronet, born in 1812: M.P. for Berwickshire from 1834-1847.

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      The Ardkinglass family was an old branch of the house of Argyle. Sir Colin Campbell, the son and heir of James Campbell of Ardkinglass, descended from the Campbells of Lorn, by Mary his wife the daughter of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy was created a baronet in 1679. The family ended in an heiress, who married into the Livingstone family, and was the mother of Sir James Livingstone, baronet, whose son, Sir James Livingstone Campbell of Ardkinglass, was for some time governor of Stirling castle. He entered the army early in life; fought under the duke of Cumberland in the Netherlands; and at the battle of Lafeldt commanded the 25th regiment of foot. He subsequently served in America during the Canadian war, and was wounded in the leg, which rendered him lame for life. In 1778, when the Western Fencible regiment was raised by the duke of Argyle and the earl of Eglinton, Sir James was appointed lieutenant-colonel. He was small in stature, but of a military appearance. He died at Gargunnock in 1788, and was succeeded by his son, Sir Alexander, on whose death, in 1810, the title and estate descended to the next heir of entail, colonel James Callander, his cousin, son of Sir James’s sister, Mary Livingstone, and Sir John Callander of Craigforth the celebrated antiquary. Of Colonel James Callander, afterwards Sir James Campbell, [see CALLANDER.] At his death, without legitimate issue, the title became extinct.

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      the baronetcy was conferred on the Succoth family on the retirement of Sir Hay Campbell from the president’s chair of the court of session in 1808. That eminent judge was the eldest son of Archibald Campbell, Esq. of Succoth, writer to the signet, and one of the principal clerks of session, descended from a branch of the ducal house of Argyle. His mother, Helen Wallace, was the daughter and representative of Wallace of Ellerslie. He was born at Edinburgh in 1734, and admitted advocate in 1757. His practice soon became extensive, and he was one of the counsel for the defender in the great Douglas cause, which excited so much public interest at the time. Immediately after the decision in the House of Lords, he posted without delay to Edinburgh and was the first to announce the intelligence there. In 1783 he was appointed Solicitor General, and in 1784 Lord Advocate. In the latter year he was returned member of parliament for the Glasgow district of burghs. The university of that city at the same time conferred on him the degree of doctor of laws, and he was elected by the students to the office of Lord Rector. In November 1789, on the death of Sir Thomas Miller, he was appointed President of the court of session, and in 1794, was placed at the head of the commission of Oyer and Terminer, issued for the trial fo those accused of high treason. In 1808 he resigned his high office of Lord President, and on the 17th September following he was created a baronet. After his retirement from the bench he resided chiefly on his paternal estate of Garscube. He died 28th March 1823. He hd six daughters and two sons. One of his sons, Sir Archibald Campbell, who succeeded him in the baronetcy, born in 1769, was from 1809 to 1825 a judge in the court of session with the title of Lord Succoth. He retired on a pension and died in 1846. His grandson, Sir Archibald Islay Campbell, succeeded as third baronet. The son of John Campbell, Esq., eldest son of the second baronet, Sir Archibald, was born at Garscube, Dumbartonshire, in 1825, and was educated at Oxford, where he was 2d class in classics in 1847; was M.P. for Argyleshire from 1851 to 1857, and again in 1859.

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      Another eminent judge, John Campbell, Lord Stonefield, was the son of Archibald Campbell, Esq. of Stonefield, many years sheriff-depute of the counties of Argyle and Bute. Admitted advocate in 1748, he was elevated to the bench of the court of session in 1762 In 1787 he succeeded Lord Gardenstone as a lord of justiciary, which appointment, however, he resigned in 1792, retaining his seat in the court of session till his death, 19th June 1801, having been thirty-nine years a judge of the supreme court. By his wife, Lady Grace Stuart, daughter of James, second earl of Bute, and sister of the prime minister, John, third earl, Lord Stonefield had seven sons, all of whom predeceased him. Of his second son, Lieutenant-colonel John Campbell, whose memorable defence of Mangalore, from May 1783 to January 1784, arrested the victorious career of Tippoo sultan, a notice will be found below, in larger type.

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      THE FAMILY OF Campbell of Barcaldine and Glenure, in Argyleshire, (whose baronetcy was conferred in 1831), is descended from a younger son of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurchy, ancestor of the marquis of Breadalbane. The second baronet, Sir Alexander Campbell, son of Sir Duncan, the first baronet, was born in 1819; married, with issue.

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      The Campbells of Dunstaffnage descent from Colin, first earl of Argyle. Sir Donald, the first baronet, so created in 1836, was appointed lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward’s Island in 1847, and died in 1850. His son, Sir Angus, born in 1827, became a lieutenant, R. N., in 1849. Appointed to the Eurydice, 26 guns, in 1854. Is hereditary captain of the royal castle of Dunstaffnage.

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      The ancient family of Campbell of Monzie, in Perthshire, descend from a third son of the family of Glenurchy.

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      For CAMPBELL of ARDEONAIG, see supplement.

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      the title of Lord Campbell in the peerage of the United Kingdom was, in 1841, conferred on Sir John Campbell, second son of the Rev. Dr. George Campbell, minister of Cupar, Fifeshire, from 1771 to 1825, by the only daughter of John Halyburton, Esq. He was born in 1781, and after being educated at St. Andrews, he went to London, and studied the law at Lincoln’s Inn. Called to the bar in 1806i, he gradually rose to eminence in his profession. In 1821 he married Mary Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the first Lord Abinger, who was created by King William the Fourth in 1836, Baroness Stratheden in the county of Fife. There are therefore two peerages in the family. In 1827 he became a bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. He was M.P. for Stafford in 1830 and 1831, and was elected for Dudley in 1832, in which year he was appointed solicitor-general for England, which office he held till February 1834, when he was appointed attorney-general, but he resigned in November of the same year when the Whigs went out of office. In April 1835 he was again appointed attorney-general, and represented Edinburgh from June 1834 to June 1841, when he was appointed lord-chancellor of Ireland, and elevated to the peerage. He resigned the chancellorship in September of the same year, and in July 1846 was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In 1850, on the retirement of Lord Denman, he was appointed lord-chief-justice of the Court of Queen’s Bench. In June 1859, his lordship was created lord-high-chancellor of the kingdom. He is author of the ‘Lives of the Chancellors of England;’ ‘Lives of the Chief Justices of England,’ &c. lord Campbell’s elder brother, Sir George Campbell of Edenwood, died in 1854.

      The family were originally from Argyleshire. George Campbell, a steady adherent of the first marquis of Argyle, settled in 1662 at St. Andrews, Fifeshire, and became proprietor of the estate of Baltulla, parish of Ceres. His eldest son, John, took the degree of M.A. in 1687. John’s grandson, the Rev. Dr. George Campbell, minister of Cupar, was father of Lord Campbell.

CAMPBELL, GEORGE, D.D., a moral and religious writer, born in Argyleshire in 1696, was educated in St. Salvator’s college, St. Andrews, where he took his degrees. He afterwards obtained a living in the Highlands of Scotland. In 1718 he was appointed professor of church history in the new college of St. Andrews. Certain of his publications, entitled ‘Oratio de vanitate luminis naturae;’ ‘The Aposbles no Enthusiasts,’ and ‘An Inquiry into the original of Moral Virtue,’ having been submitted for examination to a committee appointed by the commission of the General Assembly of 1735, were found to contain various unsound and objectionable passages, of an Armenian and Pelagian nature; similar to those taught by Professor Simson, professor of divinity in the university of Glasgow, and for which the latter had been twice called to the bar of the General Assembly; and in the Assembly of 1736, Dr. Campbell was allowed to give in an explanation and defence, the substance of which was that his meaning was quite different fro what his words expressed, and that he did not hold the sentiments which were attempted to be drawn from them. The Assembly, without passing any censure, agreed to a recommendation to Dr. Campbell, and all ministers and teachers of divinity within the national church, to be cautious not to use doubtful expressions of propositions which might lead their hearers or readers into error, however sound such words or propositions might be in themselves, but “to hold fast the form of sound words.” In the same year he published a Vindication of the Christian Religion. He died in 1767, aged 61.

CAMPBELL, COLIN, an architect of reputation in the early part of last century, was born in Scotland, but the year of his birth is uncertain. The best of his designs are Wanstead House, since pulled down, the Rolls, and Merworth in Kent, the latter avowedly copied from Andrea Palladio. He distinguished himself by publishing a collection of architectural designs in folio, entltled ‘Vitruvius Britannicus;’ the first volume of which appeared in 1715, the second in 1717, and the third in 1725. Many of these were his own, but plans of other architects were also introduced. Two supplementary volumes by Woolfe and Gandon, both classical architects, appeared in 1767 and 1771. Campbell was surveyor of the works at Greenwich Hospital, and died about 1734. – Walpole’s Anecdotes of Painters, &c.

CAMPBELL, JOHN, author of the Lives of the Admirals, a miscellaneous writer of considerable merit, was born at Edinburgh March 8, 1708; and when five years old his mother removed with him to England. Being intended for the law, he was articled to an attorney; but his taste leading him to literature, he did not pursue the legal profession. His early productions are not known. In 1736 he published, in 2 vols. folio, ‘The Military History of Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough.’ The reputation he acquired by this work led to his being engaged to assist in writing the ancient part of the ‘Universal History,’ which extended to sixty vols. 8vo. The first two volumes of his ‘Lives of the English Admirals and other eminent Seamen,’ the work by which he is best known, he published in 1742, and the two remaining volumes appeared in 1744. He wrote many of the articles in the ‘Biographia Britannica,’ which was commenced in 1745; his contributions to which work, extending through four volumes, and marked by a strain of almost unvarying panegyric, and distinguished by the initials E and X.

      For the ‘Preceptor,’ published by Dodsley in 1748, Mr. Campbell wrote the Introduction to Chronology, and the Discourse on Trade and Commerce. He was next employed on the modern part of the ‘Universal History.’ In 1756 he had the degree of LL.D. bestowed on him by the university of Glasgow. After the peace of Paris in 1763, he wrote, at the request of Lord Bute, a pamphlet in defence of it, pointing out the value of the West India Islands which had been ceded to this country. For this service he was, in March 1765, appointed his majesty’s agent for the province of Georgia in North America. He was the author of many other publications, a list of which is subjoined. Dr. Campbell died at London, December 18, 1776. His works, so far as can be ascertained, are: –

      The Military History of the Prince Eugene, and the Duke of Marlborough; comprehending the History of both those illustrious persons to the time of their decease. Lond. 1736, 2 vols. fol. anon.

      The Trials and Adventures of Edward Brown. Lond. 1739, 8vo.

      Memoirs of the Basha Duke de Riperda. Lond. 1839, 8vo.

      A Concise History of Spanish America. Lond. 1741, 1747, 8vo. anon.

      A Letter to a Friend in the Country on the Publication of Thurlow’s State Papers. 1742.

      The Case of the Opposition impartially stated. 1742, 8vo.

      Lives of British Admirals, and other eminent Seamen. Lond. 1742-4, 4 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1750, 4 vols. 8vo. This work passed through three editions in the author’s life-time, and a fourth, with a continuation to the year 1779, was given by Dr. Berkenhout. Lond. 1761-1779, 5 vols, 8vo. a new edit. by R. H. Yorke.

      Hermippus Revived. Lond. 1743. A 2d edition much improved and enlarged came out, under the title, Hermippus Redivivus, or the Sage’s Triumph over old age and the grave; wherein a method is laid down for prolonging the life and vigour of Man; including a Commentary upon an ancient inscription, in which the great secret is revealed, supported by numerous authorities. The whole interspersed with a great variety of remarkable and well-attested Relations. Lond. 1749, 8vo. also, Lond. 1771, 8vo.

      Voyages and Travels, containing all the Circumnavigators, from the time of Columbus to Lord Anson; a compete History of the East Indies; Historical details of the several attempts made for the discovery of the north-east and north-west passages; the Commercial History of Chroea and Japan; the Russian Discoveries by land and by sea; a distinct Account of the Spanish, Portuguese, British, French, Dutch, and Danish settlements in America, &c. Lond. 1744, 2 vols. fol.

      The Sentiments of a Dutch Patriot; being the Speech of V.H. – n, in an August assembly, on the present state of affairs, and the resolution necessary at this juncture to be taken for the safety of the republic. 1746, 8vo.

      A Discourse on Providence. 8vo. 3d edition, 1748.

      Occasional Thoughts on Moral, Serious, and Religious Subjects. 1749.

      The Present State of Europe. Lond. 1750, 1753, 8vo. This Work was originally begun in 1746, and some part of it published in Dodsley’s Museum. It has now passed through six editions. 1757.

      An Exact Account of the greatest White Herring Fishery in Scotland, carried on yearly in the island of Zetland, by the Dutch only. Lond. 1750, 8vo.

      The Modern Universal History. this extensive Work was published in detached parts till it amounted to 16 vols. folio, and a second edition of it in 8vo began to make its appearance in 1739. A very large share of this immense undertaking fell on Dr. Campbell.

      The Highland Gentleman’s Magazine for January 1751. 8vo.

      A Letter from the Prince of the Infernal Legions to a Spiritual Lord on this side of the great gulph, in Answer to a late invective Epistle levelled at his Highness. 1751, 8vo.

      The Naturalization Bill Confuted, as most pernicious to these United Kingdoms. 1751, 8vo.

      His Royal Highness Frederick late Prince of Wales Decyphered; or a full and particular description of his Character, from his juvenile years until his death. 1751, 8vo.

      A Vade Mecum; or Companion for the Unmarried Ladies; wherein are laid down some examples whereby to direct them in the choice of husbands. 1752, 8vo.

      A Particular but Melancholy Account of the great hardships, difficulties, and miseries that those unhappy and much to be pitied creatures, the Common Women of the town, are plunged into at this juncture. 1752, 8vo.

      The Shepherd of Ranbury’s Rules. A small work of great popularity among the lower orders of the people.

      A Full Description of the Highlands of Scotland; with a scheme for making the most disaffected among them become zealously affected to his reigning Majesty. 1751. 8vo.

      A Full and Particular Description of the Highlands of Scotland. Lond. 1752, 8vo.

      The Case of the Publicans, both in town and country, laid open. 1752, 8vo.

      The Rational Amusement; comprehending a Collection of Letters on a great variety of subjects, interspersed with Essays, and some little Pieces of humour. 1754, 8vo.

      A Description and History of the New Sugar Islands in the West Indies. Lond. 8vo.

      A Treatise on the Trade of Great Britain to America. Lond.; 1772, 4to.

      A Political Survey of Great Britain; being a series of Reflections on the situation, lands, inhabitants, revenues, colonies, and commerce of this island. Intended to point out further improvements. Lond. 1774, 2 vols, royal 4to.

CAMPBELL, GEORGE, D.D., an eminent divine and theological writer, the youngest son of the Rev. Colin Campbell, one of the ministers of Aberdeen, was born there December 25, 1719. Being at first intended for the law, he was apprenticed to a writer to the signet in Edinburgh, but afterwards studied divinity in the Marischal college of his native city. He was licensed June 11, 1746, and in 1747 was an unsuccessful candidate for the living of Fordoun in Kincardineshire. In 1748 he was presented by Sir Thomas Burnett of Leys, Bart., to the church of Banchory-Ternan, about twenty miles west from Aberdeen. From this he was in 1756 translated to Aberdeen, and on the decease of Principal Pollock in 1759, was chosen principal of the Marischal college. Soon after he obtained the degree of D.D. from King’s college, Old Aberdeen. In 1763 he published his celebrated ‘Dissertation on Miracles,’ in answer to the views on the subject advanced by Mr. Hume. This work procured him no small share of reputation, and was speedily translated into the Dutch, French, and German languages. In 1771 he succeeded Dr. Gerard in the divinity chair at Marischal college. His ‘Philosophy of Rhetoric’ appeared in 1776, in 2 vols. 8vo, and at once established his fame as an accurate grammarian, a judicious critic, and a profound scholar. His great work, ‘The Translation of the Gospels, with Preliminary Dissertations,’ was published in 1793 in two vols. 4to.

      Some time before his death, he resigned his offices of principal, professor of divinity, and one of the city ministers, on which occasion the king granted him a pension of three hundred pounds a-year. Dr. Campbell died April 6, 1796, in the seventy-seventh year of his age.

    His works are:

      The Character of a Minister of the Gospel, as a Teacher and Pattern; a Sermon on Matt. v. 13, 14. Aberd. 1752, 8vo.

      Dissertation on Miracles; containing an Examination of the principles advanced by David Hume, with a correspondence on the subject by Mr. Hume, Dr. Campbell, and Dr. Blair, to which are added, Sermons and Treacts. Edin. 1762, 8vo. 3d edit. Edin. 1797, 2 vols. 8vo.

      The Spirit of the Gospel neither a Spirit of Superstition nor of Enthusiasm; a Sermon on 2 Tim. i. 7. 1771, 8vo.

      Occasional Sermons. One of these “On the Duty of Allegiance,” preached on the Fast day, was published in 4to in 1771, and, afterwards, at the expense of government, six thousand copies were printed in 12mo, enlarged with notes, and circulated widely in America, but too late to do any good there.

      Philosophy of Rhetoric. Lond. 1776, 2 vols. 8vo.

      The Success of the First Publishers of the Gospel a proof of its Truth; a Sermon preached before the Society in Scotland for propagating Christian Knowledge. Edin. 1777, 8vo.

      Address to the Public, when the great Riots were in Scotland on account of the Bill for the Relief of the Roman Catholics. 1779, 12mo.

      A Sermon on the happy Influence of Religion on Civil Society. 1779.

      The Four Gospels; translated from the Greek. With preliminary Dissertations, and Notes critical and explanatory. Lond. 1790, 2 vols. 4to. Edin. 1807, 2 vols, 8vo. 3d edit. Lond. 3 vols, 8vo.

      Lectures on Ecclesiastical History. To which is added, An Essay on Christian Temperance and Self-denial; with the Life of the Author, by the Rev. Dr. George Skene Keith. Lond. 1800, 2 vols. 8vo.

      Lectures on Systematic Theology, and Pulpit Eloquence. Lond. 1807, 8vo.

      Lectures on the Pastoral Character. Editied by J. Fraser. 1811, 8vo.

      These three last works were posthumous.

CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, Colonel of the 29th regiment of infantry, and a brigadier-general on the West India staff, was the younger son of an ancient family in Argyleshire, and related to the noble house of Argyle.  He served in the American war with great gallantry. On his regiment coming to England, the majority being vacant a commission was made out at the war office appointing another gentleman major. On hit being laid before the king for the royal signature, his majesty threw it aside, and ordered another to be drawn up for Major Campbell, saying, “A good and deserving officer must not be passed over.” In 1792 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the 21st, and afterwards to that of the 29th. He was with his regiment on board the fleet in the glorious action of the 21st of June 1794. In 1795 he was sent with the troops to the West Indies where, on his arrival, he was appointed brigadier-general. His merits in this service were conspicuous, but unfortunately he was seized with a fever of which he died, August 15, 1796.

CAMPBELL, WILLIELMA, viscountess Glenorchy, a lady of great piety and usefulness, the daughter of William Maxwell, Esq. of Preston, in the stewartry of Kirkendbright, a branch of the Nithsdale family, was born, after her father’s death, September 2, 1741. Her education, and that of her sister, devolved upon her mother, a lady of a proud and ambitious spirit, who strove to instil the same character of mind into her daughters. The two sisters were married about the same time, Mary, the eldest, to the earl of Sutherland, premier earl of Scotland, and Willielma to John, Viscount Glenorchy, the second son and heir of John, the third earl of Breadalbane. Highly accomplished and beautiful, she was well fitted to adorn her high station, and for some time after her marriage she spent her time in the usual gaieties and pleasures of fashionable life, in the course of which she resided for two years on the continent. Her attention was first awakened to the subject of religion, through an intimacy which she contracted with the pious family of Sir Rowland Hill at Hawkstone, in the neighbourhood of her occasional residence, Great Sugnal, in Staffordshire. Early in the summer of 1765, while residing at Taymouth castle, Perthshire, she was seized with a dangerous fever, in recovering from which her thoughts were more particularly directed to religious matters; and from a correspondence which she carried on with Mill Hill, a member of the Hawkestone family, and a relative of the celebrated Lord Hill, she derived much spiritual instruction and consolation. Her husband having sold his estate of Sugnal in Staffordshire, purchased that of Barnton near Edinburgh, and the change of residence was particularly pleasing to her ladyship.

      With Lady Maxwell, who, like herself, was zealous in the cause of religion, she joined in the plan of having a place of worship in which ministers of every orthodox denomination should preach. With this design, Lady Glenorchy hired St. Mary’s chapel in Niddry’s Wynd, Edinburgh, which was opened for the purpose on Wednesday, March 7, 1770, by the Rev. Mr. Middleton, then minister of a small episcopal chapel at Dalkeith. The countenance which she gave to the Methodist preachers led to her acquaintance with Mr. Wesley, and caused the ministers of the establishment to decline officiating in the chapel. Her ladyship, therefore, resolved to select a pious clergymen, who, besides acting as her domestic chaplain, should regularly preach there. On the recommendation of Miss Hill, the Rev. Richard de Courcy, an episcopalian minister, was appointed to that office. A private chapel had been erected at Barnton; but in little more than a month after Lord and Lady Glenorchy’s arrival there his lordship died, 14th November 1771, bequeathing to her his whole disposable property; and her father-in-law, Lord Breadalbane, having paid the balance of the purchase-money of that estate, presented it to her. After her husband’s death, Lady Glenorchy took up her residence at Holyroodhouse, spending the summer usually at Taymouth castle. Being now possessed of considerable wealth, she formed the design of erecting a chapel in Edinburgh, in communion with the Church of Scotland, which was speedily built at the old Physic Gardens, in the park of the Orphans’ Hospital, and opened for divine worship on Sabbath, May 8, 1774. Shortly after this, at the request of Mr. Stuart, minister of Killin, she built and endowed a chapel at Strathfillan, placing it under the direction and patronage of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian knowledge. She also employed, at her own expense, two licensed preachers as missionaries in the Highlands, under the sanction and countenance of the same society. In the Synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, in 1775, a strong attempt was made, which for the time was successful, to prevent the chapel of Lady Glenorchy fro being admitted into the communion of the church. The unfavourable decision of the Synod however, was reversed by the General Assembly in the following May.

      After repeated disappointments in the choice of a minister for her chapel in Edinburgh, Lady Glenorchy fixed upon the Rev. Francis Sheriff, chaplain in one of the Scots regiments in Holland, who soon died. The Rev Mr. afterwards Dr. Jones, assistant minister at Plymouth Dock was next appointed, and having been duly ordained by the Scots presbytery in London, he officiated as minister of Lady Glenorchy’s chapel for upwards of half a century. Her ladyship also purchased Presbyterian chapels in Exmouth, Carlisle, and Matlock, and built one at Workington in Cumberland, and another in Bristol, in the latter of which she was aided by a bequest of two thousand five hundred pounds, from her friend and companion in her latter years, Lady Henrietta Hope , daughter of the earl of Hopetoun, Lady Glenorchy died about 1786. Previous to her death she wold the Barnton estate to William Ramsay, Esq., then an eminent banker in Edinburgh. Lady Glenorchy’s chapel in the Orphan Park was taken down in 1845, with other buildings there, for the formation of the North British Railway. a Life of her ladyship was published by the Rev. Dr. Jones, after her death, which is much esteemed.

CAMPBELL, JOHN, a naval officer of merit, of whose origin and early history nothing is known, accompanied Lord Anson in his voyage round the world. He was then a petty officer on board the Centurion. Soon after his return he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and in 1747 was appointed captain of the Bellona. In 1755 he was promoted to the Prince, of 90 guns. In 1759 we find him under Sir Edward Hawke, as captain on board the Royal George. His valour was conspicuous in the battle which ended in the total defeat of the marquis de Conflans, off Belleisle, and he was despatched to England with intelligence of the victory; when the offer of knighthood was made to him, but he declined it. In 1778 he was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, and afterwards became progressively vice-admiral of the Blue and of the White. He died December 16, 1790.

CAMPBELL, JOHN, a lieutenant-colonel in the army, who, during his too brief career, greatly distinguished himself by his valour and merit, and gave promise of rendering important services to his country, was the second son fo John Campbell, Lord Stonefield, a judge of the court of session, descended from the Campbells of Lochnell, and Lady Grace Stewart, sister of John earl of Bute, and was born at Edinburgh, December 7, 1753. He received his education at the high school of his native city, and at the age of eighteen became an ensign in the 57th regiment. three years afterwards he was appointed lieutenant of the 7th foot, or Royal Fusileers, with which regiment he served in Canada, where he was made prisoner. In 1775 he was promoted to a captaincy in the 71st foot, and some time after was appointed major of the 74th, or Argyleshire Highlanders. In Feb. 1781 he exchanged into the 100th regiment, and with this corps he served with distinction in the East Indies, against the troops of Hyder Ali, during which period he was appointed to the majority of the second battalion of the 42d regiment. In one engagement with Tippoo Sultan, when the latter was repulsed with great loss, Major Campbell was wounded, but did not quit the field till the enemy was defeated. He was afterwards engaged in the siege of Annantpore which he reduced and took from the enemy. In May 1783 he was appointed to the provisional command of the army in the Bidnure country. His defence of the important fortress of Mangalore, where he was stationed, against the prodigious force of Tippoo, amounting to about one hundred and forth thousand men, with a hundred pieces of artillery, is justly accounted one of the most remarkable achievements that ever signalised the British arms in India. The garrison, under Major Campbell’s command, consisted only of one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three men, of whom not more than two ro three hundred were British soldiers, the remainder being Seapoys, or native infantry. This little garrison, however, resisted for two months and a half all the efforts of Tippoo, after which, a cessation of hostilities taking place, the siege was turned, for a time, into a blockade. The bravery and resolution displayed by Major Campbell on this occasion, were so much admired by Tippoo, who commanded his army in person, that he expressed a wish to see him. The major, accompanied by several of his officers, accordingly waited on Tippoo, who presented to each of them a handsome shawl; and after their return to the fort, he sent Major Campbell an additional present of a very fine horse, which the famishing garrison afterwards killed and ate. After sustaining a siege of eight months, during which they were reduced to the greatest extremities by disease and famine, the garrison at length capitulated, January 24, 1784; and on the 30th they evacuated the fort, and embarked for Tillicherry, one of the British settlements on the coast of Malabar. He had now attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel; but the fatigue which he endured during this memorable siege had undermined his constitution, and, in the following month, he was obliged, by ill health, to quit the army and retire to Bombay, where he died, March 23, 1784, in the 31st year of his age. A monument was erected to his memory in the church at Bombay, by order of the East India Company.

CAMPBELL, GEORGE, a minor poet, was born in Kilmarnock in 1761. His father died when he was very young. Who he was, or what trade or profession he followed, is not known. His mother, whose maiden name was Janet Parker, earned a scanty subsistence by winding yarn for the carpet works. His education was very limited, and he was bred a shoemaker. Being of a religious case of mind, he formed the resolution of studying for the ministry, and to procure the means necessary for prosecuting his studies at college, he laboured at his trade not only very hard during the day, but frequently during the night, with others were asleep; and by thus working industriously, he raised himself above the occupation of shoemaking, and became teacher of a small school in Kilmarnock. In his efforts he was greatly befriended by the late Rev. Dr. Mackinlay of Kilmarnock, who assisted him by lending him books, and otherwise placing within his reach the means of intellectual improvement. To aid in defraying his expenses at college, he collected and published his poetical pieces, in the year 1787. They were printed in Kilmarnock at the press of John Wilson, from which had been issued in the preceding year, the first edition of the poems of Robert Burns. The book was of a 12mo. size, containing 132 pages, and was entitled ‘Poems on Several Occasions, by George Campbell.’ In the preface the author states “that it is the production of a tradesman, obliged at the time it was composed to labour for his daily maintenance,” and that his sole intention in writing the various pieces in the volume was “to celebrate virtue, to ridicule vice, and to paint the works of nature and the manners of mankind.” Though displaying neither richness of imagination nor depth or originality of thought, and not remarkable for elegance of diction, his poems are not deficient in merit, and exhibit in numerous instances much plain good sense, with a shrewdness of observation and a chasteness of expression which few minor poets possess. The longest poem in the volume is founded on the Book of Esther and bears that name; but, with the exception of a few passages, it is inferior ad poetry, to some of his other productions. The best of the pieces are, ‘A Morning contemplation;’ ‘Ossian’s Address to the Sun;’ and ‘A Winter Evening – Scene, A Farm-House in the Country’ which are all in the heroic verse.

      After attending the ordinary period at college, Mr. Campbell was licensed to preach the gospel by the Burgher Associate Synod, and was appointed pastor to a congregation in that connection at Stockbridge, near Dunbar. As a preacher he is said to have displayed considerable ability and zeal. In 1816 he published at Edinburgh a collection of Sermons, in an octavo volume of 479 pages more with the desire, as he hints in his preface, of being useful as a teacher of Christianity than distinguished as an author. In appearance Mr. Campbell was somewhat slender. He died of consumption, at Stockbridge, the place of his ministry, about the year 1818. – Contemporaries of Burns.

CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER, a miscellaneous writer, born in 1764, at Tombea, Loch Lubnaig, Perthshire, was the son of a country wright or carpenter, who, by perseverance and economy, had saved five hundred pounds, which, with thee exception of a trifling dividend, he lost by lending to his landlord, who became bankrupt. Old Campbell then removed to Edinburgh, where he soon after died, leaving a widow, two sons and three daughters. Alexander, the youngest son, who was only eleven years old when this event occurred, had received some education at the grammar-school of Callander, and with his elder brother, John (for twenty year a teacher in Edinburgh, and leader of psalmody in the parish church of Canongate), became a pupil of Tenducci, an accomplished musician who had fixed his residence in Edinburgh about this period.

      Alexander was first known as a teacher of the harpsichord and of singing, officiating at the same time as organist to an episcopal chapel in the neighbourhood of Nicolson street, Edinburgh. Amongst his pupils was Sir Walter Scott, who describes him as “a warm-hearted man and an enthusiast in Scotch music, which he sang most beautifully.” Of Scott, however, he could make nothing, as the great novelist had no ear for music. His first publication was a volume of ‘Odes and Miscellaneous Poems.’ His ‘Introduction to the History of Poetry in Scotland,’ of which only ninety copies were printed, appeared in 1798. After publishing four years later ‘A tour through North Britain,’ which obtained him some reputation, he signally failed in a volume of poetry brought out in 1804. The object of this publication was to expose the depopulation policy of the Highland proprietors, and to direct the attention of the legislature to some remedy for it. But the poetry was not of a very superior order, and the work ‘fell dead from the press.’ One incident, however, related in a note, led to the institution of the Edinburgh “Destitute Sick Society,” which still exists. By this time he had been twice married; the second time to the widow of Ranald Macdonald, Esq. of Keppoch. On marrying this lady he relinquished the profession of teacher of music, and studied medicine, in the hope of obtaining an appointment through the influence of his friends; but in this he was disappointed. In order to encourage him, however, a sum of money was voted by the Highland Society of Scotland to enable him to make a collection of Gaelic melodies and vocal poetry. He forthwith set out on a rout through the Highlands and Western Islands. Having performed a journey of between eleven and twelve hundred miles, in which he collected one hundred and ninety-one specimens of melodies and Gaelic vocal poetry, he returned to Edinburgh, and laid the fruits of his gleanings before the Society, who expressed their approbation of them. The result of these labours appeared in his ‘Albyn’s Anthology,’ a compilation published some time afterward. Among those who furnished pieces for this publication were Sir Walter Scott; Mr., afterwards Sir Alexander Boswell; Hogg; Maturin; Mrs. Grant of Laggan, and other eminent song writers of the day In this work he claims authorship of the air to Tannahill’s beautiful song of “Gloomy winter’s now awa’.” The question has been discussed by Mr. Stenhouse (Musical Museum, vol. vi. p. 508,) but is not important; and it does not appear that Campbell made out his claim, as an air time out of mind known as “The Cordwainer’s march” was the basis of Smith’s set. During the latter years of his life Campbell was employed by Sir Walter Scott in the transcription of manuscripts, which, indeed, formed his chief mode of subsistence. Although a man of many accomplishments, they were, says Sir Walter, dashed with a bizarrerie of temper which made them useless to their proprietor.

      Mr. Campbell died of apoplexy, May 15, 1824, in the sixty-first year of his age, and an obituary notice of him, from the pen of Sir Walter Scott, appeared in the Edinburgh Weekly Journal.

      After Mr. Campbell’s death, his books, manuscripts, and other effects, were sold under judicial authority; and amongst other manuscripts was a tragedy, which was purchased by the late Mr. William Stewart, bookseller. Both he and his brother, Mr. John Campbell, were caricatured by Kay, and biographical sketches of them are inserted in ‘Kay’s Edinburgh Portraits.’

      The following is a list of his works:

      Odes and Miscellaneous Poems.

      Twelve Songs, set to music by Alexander Campbell.

      An Introduction to the History of Poetry in Scotland, quarto, including The Songs of the Lowlands, with illustrative Engravings by David Allan, and dedicated to Fuseli. Edinburgh, 1798. A dialogue on Scottish Music, prefixed to this work, is said to have first conveyed to foreigners a correct idea of the Scottish scale.

      A Journey from Edinburgh through various parts of North Britain, &c., in 2 vols. quarto, with aquatint drawings by himself, 1802. This is considered his best work.

      The Grampians Desolate, a poem in six books, in 2 vol. 8vo, with Notes, 1804.

      History of the Rebellion in Scotland, in 1745-46. 1804, 12mo.

      Beauties of Literature, or Cabinet of Genius; containing the complete Beauties of the most distinguished Authors of the present Age. 1804, vol. i.

      Albyn’s Anthology; or, a Select Collection of the melodies and local poetry peculiar to Scotland and the Isles; volume first 1816, volume second 1818.

CAMPBELL, JOHN, a zealous missionary and African traveller, was born at Edinburgh in March 1877. His father died when he was not more than two years old, and his mother when he was only six. a maternal uncle, of the name of Bowers, a sincere Christian, who was an elder or deacon of the Relief church, received him and his two brothers under his roof, and attended strictly to their religious training, as well as to their domestic comfort. With his brothers he was educated at the High School of his native place, then under the rectorship of Dr. Adams, after leaving which he was apprenticed to a respectable goldsmith and jeweller in Edinburgh. About 1789, when on a journey to London, he became acquainted with the Rev. John Newton, with whom he regularly corresponded for a long period. In the same year he began to publish and circulate religious tracts, at first privately, and that chiefly among his friends and their families. In afterwards occurred to some of his friends that a plan might be formed to print small pamphlets on religious subjects, to be distributed gratis, or sold at a cheap rate, and Mr. Campbell, in July 1793 , was one of about a dozen who formed themselves into a Religious Tract Society, in Edinburgh, the first society of the kind that ever existed in the world. His name, therefore, deserves to be recorded, as one of the founders, if not the originator, of Tract Societies. His next scheme for the advancement of religion was the establishment of Sabbath evening schools, of which very few then existed in Scotland. In 1795, he established Sabbath evening schools at the Archer’s Hall, and in the hall of the Edinburgh Dispensary, and engaged teachers, at a small salary, to instruct the children in the essential truths of the gospel. At Loanhead, then a colliery village, about five miles south of Edinburgh, he himself taught, for two years, a Sabbath evening school, which he had also commenced there. The success that followed his efforts in and around Edinburgh induced him, in connexion with Mr. J. A. Haldane, to visit Glasgow, Paisley, Greenock, and other paces in the west, to urge the formation of similar institutions, and the result was that sixty Sabbath schools were formed in those places within three months.

      In 1796 Mr. Campbell’s attention was directed to the degraded condition of the female streetwalkers of Edinburgh, and with a view to their reformation, he was mainly instrumental in forming the Philanthropic Society, which was the commencement of the institution known as the Magdalene Asylum, and was its secretary till he left Edinburgh for Glasgow, where he was one of the first originators of a similar institution in that city. towards the end of the same year Mr. Haldane applied to Mr. Campbell to accompany him and his associates, Dr. Bogue, and Messrs. Ewing and Innes, on their intended mission to Bengal. At first he as willing to go, but the arguments of his friends, Mr. Newton, and the pious countess of Leven, were effectual in leading him to abandon the design. He now commenced a system of village preaching, and at Gilmerton, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, he succeeded in establishing a regular Sabbath evening service, which was supplied by students of divinity and lay-preachers. Mrssrs. Aikman and Haldane, as well as Mr. Campbell, commenced their exertions as lay-preachers in Gilmerton. He afterwards frequently preached also at Lasswade, Dalkeith, Musselburgh, and Linlithgow, and other places near Edinburgh. On the formation of the Edinburgh Missionary Society he was chosen one of the Directors. In 1798 he suggested the establishment of the Tabernacle in Edinburgh, which was so long presided over by Mr. J. A. Haldane. Early in 1799 he gave up his business of a hardware merchant, went to Dundee, and joined a class under Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Innes, preparatory to his entering on the regular ministry; and in 1800, he, with the other students, removed to Glasgow, under Mr. Greville Ewing, who had shortly before left the Established Church and joined the Independents. At this time he occasionally preached in the suburbs, particularly at Rutherglen. In June of that year Mr. Campbell and Mr. Haldane itinerated in the south of Scotland, and in the autumn they preached through Kintyre. After leaving the class Mr. Campbell returned to Edinburgh, and assisted Mr. Haldane in the Tabernacle for sometime, and aided in the instruction of the students; the academy being then removed from Glasgow. In April 1803, he again visited Kintyre, and in the following month he accompanied Mrssrs. Haldane and Innes on a tour to the counties of Perth, Inverness, Ross, and Caithness, and to the islands of Orkney. Subsequently he and Mr. Haldane went on an itinerating tour \to the southern counties of Scotland and the northern counties of England. Mr. Campbell afterwards accepted a call to take the pastoral office at Kingsland chapel, London, [being ordained in the beginning of 1804,] the duties of which he discharged for thirty-seven years, with credit to himself, and great usefulness to others. For the instruction of the young, he set on foot ‘The Youth’s Magazine,’ of the first ten volumes of which he was editor. He was one of the founders of the British and Foreign Bible Society, of the London Hibernian Society, and of the Female Penitentiary. As his income was small, he had to take up a school at Kingsland to add to it. In 1812, at the request of the Directors of the London Missionary Society, he visited their stations in South Africa, and again in 1818. On his return from each of his voyages to Africa, he travelled through most of the counties of England and Scotland, and also visited Ireland, to plead in behalf of the Missionary Society. He died April 4, 1840, aged 74. His works are:

      Alfred and Galba, or the History of the Two Brothers; supposed to be written by themselves. Lond. 1807, 8vo.

      Remarkable Particulars in the Life of Moses. Lond. 1808, 12mo.

      Voyages and Travels of a Bible, 1808.

      Travels in South Africa, undertaken at the request of the Missionary Society. London, 1814, 8vo. 2d edit. 1815, 8vo.

      Second Journey in South Africa, 1818. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1822.

      He also prepared an abridgment of his African Travels, in two small volumes, for the Religious Tract Society, and added to them a similar volume, giving an account of his voyages.

      He was also the author of a small unpretending but useful little book, entitled ‘African Light,’ the object of which was to illustrate passages of Scripture by a reference to his own observations in South Africa.

      Walks of Usefulness.

CAMPBELL, THOMAS, a distinguished poet, the most perfect lyrical writer of his time, was born at Glasgow on the 27rh of July, 1777. Alexander Campbell, the father of the poet, was the youngest of the three sons of the laird of Kirnan, and was born in 1710. He was educated for the mercantile profession, and early in life went to America, where he entered into business, and resided many years at Falmouth, in Virginia. There he had the pleasure of receiving his brother Archibald, on his first quitting Jamaica to settle in the United States, and there also, about ten years afterwards, he formed an intimate acquaintance with Daniel Campbell, a clansman, but no relation, with whom he returned to Glasgow, and there entered into partnership with him as Virginian traders, under the firm of Alexander and Daniel Campbell. For some years their business prospered, and both partners were highly esteemed as men of probity and experience. Daniel, the junior partner, had a sister named Margaret, whom Alexander took to be his wife, and she became the mother of the poet. They were married in the cathedral church of Glasgow on the 12th of January 1756. At this time Mrs. Campbell was about twenty, while her husband had reached the mature age of forty-five. They had eight sons and three daughters, and the poet, who was the youngest of the family, was born when his father had reached his 67th year, the age at which he himself died.

      The outbreak of the war with America in 1775, two years before the poet’s birth, ruined the Virginia trade, and many of the Glasgow merchants suffered severely in their business and fortunes. Amongst others, the old and respectable firm of Alexander and Daniel Campbell sustained losses from which they never recovered, and saw very nearly the whole amount of forty years’ successful industry swept away at once, frm the failure of other houses with which they were connected. The poet’s father is stated by his biographer to have lost at this disastrous time a sum of not less than twenty thousand pounds, while his uncle, Daniel Campbell, always estimated his own individual loss at eleven or twelve thousand pounds.

      The poet’s father died at the age of 91, in the spring of 1801, and his death is recorded in the ‘Edinburgh Magazine,’ with high encomiums on his moral and religious character. He is mentioned as a gentleman of unblemished integrity and amiable manners, who united the scholar and the man of business, and amidst the corroding cares of trade, cherished a liberal and enthusiastic love of literature. His mother was a person of much taste and refinement, and well educated for the age and the sphere in which she moved. She is described as being passionately fond of music, particularly sacred music, and she sang many of the popular melodies of Scotland with taste and effect. She knew many of the traditional songs of the Highlands, especially those of Argyleshire, and from her it seems probable that the love of song was early imbibed and cultivated by her children.

      The poet was born in his father’s house in the High street of Glasgow, which stood nearly opposite the university, but has long since been taken down. He was baptized by Dr. Thomas Reid, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow, who preached in the college-hall on Sabbaths, and after whom he was named. He received the rudiments of his education at the grammar school, now called the high school, of his native city. At the age of seven he commenced the study of the Latin language under the Rev. David Alison, a teacher of much reputation. At this time he possessed a vivacity of imagination and a vigour of mind surprising in a boy so young. A strong inclination for poetry was already discernible in him, and at an early age he began to write verses. At the grammar school he became an enthusiastic admirer of Greek; and a passion for the Greek poets and orators distinguished him during life. In October 1791, when in t\his thirteenth year, he entered Glasgow university. At this period he is described as having, with uncommon personal beauty, possessed a winning gentleness and modesty of manners, a cheerful and happy disposition, and a generous sensibility of heart, which made him the object of universal favour and admiration.


[portrait of Thomas Campbell]

      His biographer says that even while a student, he was not characterized by the virtue of close application. “While a mere boy,” he states, “Campbell appears to have had the enviable tact of looking into a book, and extracting from it whatever was valuable. He took the cream, and left what remained for the perusal of less fastidious readers.” In his first year at college he gained three prizes. He also, after a formidable competition with a student nearly twice his own age, who was considered one of the best scholars in the university, gained the exhibition, called in Scotland a bursary, on Archbishop Leighton’s foundation, for a translation of one of the comedies of Aristophanes, which he executed in verse. He continued seven years at the university, and his proficiency was each year rewarded by an academical prize being conferred on him. In translations from the Greek he was so successful that his fellow-students at last declined to compete with him. His poetical version of several entire plays of Aristophanes,  Ęschylus, and others obtained the high praise of his professor, who, in awarding him the prize for a translation of ‘The Clouds’ of Aristophanes, accompanied it with the flattering and unusual compliment, publicly expressed, “that, in his opinion, it was the best performance which had even been given in within the walls of the university.” Some of these translations he afterwards published among his poems. By Professor Young, who then filled the Greek chair in the university of Glasgow, he was encouraged to cultivate that love for the language and literature of Greece, which he had already so successfully displayed. On one occasion he gained the professor’s favour, and a holiday for the students, by a Greek poem, in the form of a petition, which he had slipt into the professor’s Greek text book. One of his early poetical attempts at this period he got printed, in the ballad form, on slips of paper, and distributed among his fellow-students.

      While at college he was obliged by his necessities to give elementary instruction to younger lads; but while thus prosecuting vigorously his classical studies, he continued to pursue his poetical fancies and work his upward way int the path that was to lead him to lasting fame. In 1793, while yet only in his fifteenth year, during the college vacation, he attended for several weeks in the office of Mr. Alexander Campbell, a writer in Glasgow, author of several pamphlets on the bankruptcy laws, a relation by his mother’s side, but he went there only on trial, and disliking the business, he soon left it. During his third session at college, according to the late Dr. Duncan of Ruthwell, who was his fellow-student, he made several enemies by the severity of his satirical effusions, particularly on the Irish students; but many of them were the cause of amusement, rather than of anger. In the logic class he was commended for his exercises by Professor Jardine, although not in the warmest terms, for, at this period, it would appear that although an excellent Latin and Greek scholar, he could not spell or write the English language with propriety. Before leaving college he also attended the lectures of Professor Millar, who then filled, with much distinction, the chair of civil law. He seems at one period to have had an intention of studying for the church of Scotland, but the want of any hope of efficient patronage caused him to change his purpose. He next thought of studying for the medical profession, but this required a greater outlay than his circumstances permitted, and after attending some preliminary lectures this idea was also abandoned. He then entered the counting house of a merchant, where he remained for some time, still hankering after the church, studying Hebrew in his leisure hours, and writing religious poetry.

      Undecided as to his future pursuits, he went in the summer of 1795 to the island of Mull, to act as tutor in the family of Mrs. Campbell of Sunipol. there he remained for five months, and returned to Glasgow for his fifth session. During the winter he supported himself by private tuition. Among other scholars, he had a youth named Cunninghame, who became an advocate, and was afterwards made a lord of session under the title of Lord Cunninghame.

      After leaving college he passed some time as a tutor in the family of General Napier, who was then residing at Downie, on the romantic banks of loch Goil, among the mountains of Argyleshire. He disliked, however, the profession of a tutor, and on leaving Downie he went to Edinburgh, where the reputation he had acquired at the university gained him a favourable reception into the distinguished circle of science and literature for which that city was then renowned. At this time the poet proposed to establish a magazine, but funds were wanting. through the recommendation of Mr. Cunninghame he found employment in the Register House. He was subsequently engaged in the office of a Mr. Whytt, and being introduced to Dr. Robert Anderson, the biographer of the poets, received through him an engagement for an abridged edition of ‘Bryan Edward’s West Indies,’ for which he was paid £20. He returned to Glasgow to meet a brother whom he had never seen, and to finish his abridgment. At that time he wrote ‘The Wounded Hussar,’ and ‘The Dirge of Wallace,’ two of his most popular lyrics.

      At the age of nineteen he was again in Edinburgh, fagging for Messrs. Mundell and Son, the publishers, at a very limited rate of remuneration. About this period he formed arrangements to proceed to Virginia, in North America, but the state of his health set them aside. He commenced to write ‘the Pleasures of Hope,’ about 1797. He resided at this time in a small house on St. John’s Hill, and of the young men then resident in Edinburgh, with whom he associated, several raised themselves to eminence and consideration. Amongst them were the two lawyers who subsequently became Lords Cockburn and Brougham. He published ‘the Pleasures of Hope’ in 1799, when he was scarcely twenty-two, the volume being dedicated to Dr. Robert Anderson. It was sold to the Mundells for £60 in cash and books, but for two or three years the publishers gave him fifty pounds on every new edition, besides allowing him to print a splendid edition of the work for himself. The success of this work was such as it once to place the young author in the foremost rank of the poets of the time. In planning the poem he seems to have taken Pope and Goldsmith as his models, and to have caught something of the spirit of Gray; but in harmony of versification, and elegance, and above all genuine fervour of style, he far exceeds them all, as well as every other poet that had gone before him. In these and other essential qualities, indeed, this exquisite production is not surpassed by anything in British poetry. In the original manuscript the different sections of the poem had separate distinctive titles, but by the advice of Dr. Anderson these were dispensed with, and ‘the Pleasures of Hope’ came before the world as a complete poem. Some lines at the beginning were also omitted. Soon after its publication, Mr. Campbell entered into an engagement with Mr. Mundell for another poem, descriptive of Scottish history, to be called, ‘The Queen of the North,’ of which the prospectus was published, and arrangements for its illustration were made with Mr. Williams, a landscape painter, but the work was never completed.

      Anxious to become acquainted with German literature at its fountainhead, as well as to visit foreign parts, in the summer of 1800 he left for Hamburgh. This he was enabled to do by the profits arising from the sale of his ‘Pleasures of Hope.’ He had originally fixed on the university of Jena for his first place of residence, but on his arrival at Hamburgh, he found by the public prints that a victory had been gained by the French near Ulm, and that Munich and the heart of Bavaria were the theatre of war. From the walls of the monastery of St. Jacob, he witnessed the memorable battle of Hohenlinden, fought on the 3d December 1800, between the french under General Moreau, and the Austrians under the Archduke John, when the latter were signally defeated. “One moment’s sensation,” he observes in a letter to a relation in this country, “the single hope of seeing human nature exhibited in its most dreadful attitude, overturned my past decisions. I got down to the seat of war some weeks before the summer armistice of 1800, and indulged in, what you will call, the criminal curiosity of witnessing blood and desolation. Never shall time efface from my memory the recollection of that hour of astonishment and suspended breath, when I stood with the monks of St. Jacob to overlook a charge of Klenan’s cavalry upon the French under Grennier, encamped below us. We saw the fire given and returned, and heard distinctly the sound of the French pas de charge, collecting the lines to attack in close column. After three hours waiting the issue of a severe action, a park of artillery was opened just beneath the walls of the monastery, and several waggoners, that were stationed to convey the wounded in spring waggons, were killed in our sight.” His spirit-stirring lyric of ‘The Battle of Hohenlinden’ was written on this event – a poem which, perhaps, contains more grandeur and martial sublimity than is to be found anywhere else, in the same compass of English poetry. He afterwards proceeded to Ratisbon, where he was at the time it was taken possession of by the French, and expected, as a British subject, to be made prisoner; but, he observes, “Moreau’s army was under such excellent discipline, and the behaviour both of officers and men so civil, that I soon mixed among them without hesitation, and formed many agreeable acquaintances at the messes of their brigade stationed in town, to which their chef-de-brigade often invited me. this worthy man, Colonel Le Fort, whose kindness I shall ever remember with gratitude, gave me a protection to pass through the whole army of Moreau.”

      After this Mr. Campbell visited different parts of Germany, and had the misfortune to be plundered amongst the Tyrolese mountains, by a Croat, of his clothes, his books, and thirty ducats in gold. About mid-winter he returned to Altona, where he remained four months. While in Germany, he made the friendship of the two Schlegels, and passed an entire day with Klopstock. At Altona he casually became acquainted with some refugee Irishmen, who had been engaged in the rebellion of 1798, and their story suggested to him his beautiful ballad of The Exile of Erin.’ The hero of the poem was an Irish exile, named Anthony M’Cann, whom he had met at Hamburgh. A claim was subsequently got up by the editor of an Irish provincial paper, on the part of an Irishman of the name of Nugent, to the authorship of this song, professing to have drawn his information from Nugent’s sister; but the question was conclusively settled by the certificate of the late Lord Nugent, a relative of the person by whom the song is said to have been composed, which stated that for a considerable period, Mr. Nugent, the supposed author, was quite familiar with the song, knew it in Campbell’s works, and never personally claimed the authorship. The circumstances connected with the song were all well known to the party of Irish exiles whom Campbell met at Altona; by whom it was first sung, and on whose account it had been written. His beautiful verses addressed to Judith, the Jewess, were also written in Altona. About this tie also, he wrote ‘Ye Mariners of England,’ after the model of an old song ‘Ye Gentlemen of England.’ A war with Denmark was at that time expected, and seems to have suggested to the poet the idea of this noble lyric. The fifth line of the second stanza was originally different, but after the battle of Trafalgar, Mr. Campbell introduced the name of Nelson, making it read,

“Where Blake and mighty Nelson fell.”

      Early in the spring of 1801 war was declared against Danmark, when the English residents were obliged to leave Altona, and Campbell sailed for England on the 6th of March. They were allowed to pass the English batteries without molestation, and sailed under convoy to England. There were only two Scottish vessels in convoy, and they were carried to Yarmouth along with the English fleet. Mr. Campbell arrived in London with only a few shillings in his pocket, for all his resources had been expended in assisting a friend at Altona. Though unprovided with a single letter of introduction, the fame of his poetry procured him immediate admission into the best literary society. While on the continent it would appear that Mr. Perry of the Morning Chronicle was paying him for poems contributed to that journal from the seat of war. Although he had never seen Mr. Perry, he was obliged to call upon him and explain his situation to him, and he had no cause to repent of it. Writing to one of his Scotch correspondents the poet says, “I have found Perry. His reception was warm and cordial, beyond what I had any right to expect. ‘I will be your friend,’ said the good man. ‘I will be all that you could wish me to be.’” In reference to this his first visit to London, he says, in his own notes, “Calling on Perry one day, he showed me a letter from Lord Holland, asking about me, and expressing a wish to have me to dine at the King of Clubs. Thither with his lordship I accordingly repaired, and it was an era in my life. There I met in all their glory and feather, Mackintosh, Rogers, the Smiths, Sidney, and others.” After a short stay in London he returned to Edinburgh, for the purpose of visiting his mother. On the voyage to Leith, a lady, a passenger on board, who had read his poems, without knowing him, surprised him by expressing her regret that the poet Campbell had been arrested in London on a charge of high treason, was confined in the Tower, and would probably be executed. On his arrival at Edinburgh he took up his residence with his mother and sisters in Alison square. He found his mother greatly troubled by the rumour of his apprehension, which she had heard previous to his coming. It was a period of high political excitement, and he at once determined to wait on the sheriff Mr. Clerk, and report his position. That functionary frankly told him that they were aware of his guilt; but they did not want to see him. He asked the grounds of the charge against him, and was told that “it seems you have been conspiring with General Moreau, in Austria, and with the Irish at Hamburgh, to get a French army landed in Ireland. You attended Jacobin clubs at Hamburgh, and you came over from thence in the same vessel with Donovan, who commanded a regiment of the rebels at Vinegar-hill.” A box, with a number of the poet’s papers, had been seized at Leith, in the expectation of finding treasonable documents among his manuscripts. ‘The Exile of Erin’ was somewhat suspicious, but ‘Ye Mariners of England,’ found in his box, was in his favour. “The sheriff,” he says, “began to smoke the whole bubble, and said, ‘This comes of trusting a Hamburgh spy. Mr. Campbell,’ he added, ‘this is a cold wet evening – what do you say to our having a bottle of wine during the examination of your democratic papers?’”

      While in Edinburgh his mother and sisters were dependent on him solely for support. During the food riots in Edinburgh, in the year 1801, he began part of a poem, entitled ‘The Mobiade,’ in a style altogether different from his other works, which was never printed till it appeared in Dr. Beattie’s ‘Life and Letters of Thomas Campbell.’ From Lord Minto, whom he met, at his lordship’s own desire, at the house of the late Dugald Stewart, he received great kindness, and was invited to Minto House, Roxburghshire. While there he wrote ‘Lochiel’s Warning,’ during the night. His evening thoughts had been turned to the wizard’s warning, and in the course of the night he awoke, repeating the idea for which he had been searching for days, rang for the servant, had a cup of tea, and produced ‘Lochiel’s Warning’ before day-dawn.

      Early in 1803, Mr. Campbell repaired to London, to settle, as the only field that promised any permanent and profitable exercise of his talents.  On his arrival there he resided for some time in the house of his friend and brother poet, Mr. Telford, the celebrated engineer. On the 10th of September of that year he married his cousin, Miss Matilda Sinclair, of Greenock, a lady who was surpassingly beautiful. After residing a year in London, he took and furnished a house in the village of Sydenham, in Kent, about seven miles from London. He now devoted himself, most industriously, to writing and compiling for the booksellers, and furnishing occasional articles to the daily press, and other periodical publications. He wrote on all subjects, even including agriculture, for the most part anonymously, and by writing on the latter subject he acquired so much information, as to have been more than once complimented, as he states himself, on that knowledge by practical farmers. Soon after his marriage he wrote a work, entitled ‘Annals of Great Britain, fro the accession of George III.,’ to the Peace of Amiens, which was published in 1808, in three volumes 8vo, without his name. Besides his other literary work, he accepted an engagement to write and translate foreign correspondence for the ‘Star’ newspaper, and the ‘Philosophical Magazine’ conducted by Mr. Tulloch, the editor of ‘The Star,’ for which he received at the rate of two hundred pounds a-year. He also contributed several papers to ‘Brewster’s Edinburgh Encyclopedia,’ especially biographies, an account of the drama, and an extended historical notice of Great Britain, which were all marked with the taste and judgment that invariably distinguished his writings.

      During the first year of his residence at Sydenham, among other poetical pieces which he elaborately polished were ‘Lord Ullin’s Daughter,’ ‘The Soldier’s Dream,’ and ‘The Turkish Lady;’ the first of which, we are told by his biographer, had been sketched in the island of Mull, and the two latter in Bavaria, – but were not revised and finished until this period. ‘The Battle of the Baltic’ was composed at short intervals during the winter, and, as soon as it came before the public, “was set to music and sung with applause by the great vocalists of the day.” Through the influence principally of Charles James Fox, a pension of £200 a-year was, in 1806, conferred on him by his majesty George III.

      In 1809 appeared his second volume of poems, containing ‘Gertrude of Wyoming,’ a simple Indian tale, in the Spenserian stanza, the scene of which is laid among the woods of Pennsylvania; ‘Glenara;’ ‘Lochiel’s Warning;’ ‘Lord Ullin’s Daughter;’ and ‘The Battle of the Baltic,’ the noblest of his lyrics. To a subsequent edition was added the touching ballad of ‘O’Connor’s Child.’ This volume greatly increased his popularity. In the same year he delivered a course of lectures on poetry, at the Royal Institution, which excited much attention at the time, and were afterwards published. He was also employed by Mr. John Murray, the publisher, to edit selections from the British poets, intended as specimens of each, with biographical and critical essays, and this work appeared in 1819, in seven volumes.

      In the beginning of 1821, in which year, owing to his literary engagements, he left Sydenham to reside in London, he became editor of a new series of the ‘New Monthly Magazine,’ for Mr. Colburn, the publisher, to which, however, at that time, he contributed little besides a few of his minor poems, and a series of lectures on Greek dramatic literature. His connexion with this magazine ceased in 1831, when he was engaged for a brief period as editor of the ‘Metropolitan’ magazine. He had even been assisted by Mr. Samuel Rogers, the poet, with five hundred pounds, to purchase a third share of the ‘Metropolitan,’ but finding the concern, as he styled it, at that time “a bubble,” he got back the money, and immediately repaid it to Mr. Rogers. That periodical was afterwards conducted with great spirit and talent, under different auspices. In 1824 appeared his “Theodric,’ a brief poetical tale of modern life; but the fire of his genius was beginning to burn low, and the poem disappointed public expectation. The volume, however, had, for the time, an extensive sale, and was declared by an anonymous punster of that day, to have been “the odd trick”: of the season.

      In November 1826, Mr. Campbell was elected by the students Lord Rector of the university of Glasgow, after a severe opposition on the part of the professors. He went down to his native city, delivered an inaugural address, which he got printed, and sent a copy of it to each of the students, the presentation inscription being in his own hand, which greatly enhanced the value of such a gift. No event in his life seems to have gratified his feelings so highly, and he always spoke of his election with honest pride. The honour was enhanced by his being three times chosen Lord Rector successively. On his re-election, the students presented him with a silver bowl, which, in his will, he styled one of “the jewels of his property.” At the same time, a literary club was formed in Glasgow, and named after him, ‘The Campbell Club,’ which still exists, and possesses an excellent library, many of the books having been donations from the poet, who also presented the club with an elegant silver cup. The students of Glasgow university he addressed in a series of articles inserted in the ‘New Monthly Magazine.’ The senatus academicus conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Laws, but he never assumed the title of Doctor before his name. He contributed in no small degree to the establishment of the London university, in which project Lord Brougham was an active coadjutor, but Campbell might, with some propriety, be considered its founder.

      During the struggle for independence in Greece, Mr. Campbell took an active interest in the cause of that country, as he subsequently, and indeed all his life did in that of Poland. In 1832, in conjunction with the Polish poet Niemcewicz, Prince Czartoryski, and others, he founded the society styled the “Literary Association of the friends of Poland,” for collecting, publishing, and diffusing information relative to that unhappy country, and for the aid and support of the Polish exiles in England.

      In the month of September 1828, Mrs. Campbell died. He had lost his youngest sister and his mother some time previously. In 1830 he went into chambers; and for some years he resided, in a state of comparative loneliness, at No. 61 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London. Two sons were the fruit of his marriage, one of whom, a youth of great promise, died early. The other, having shown symptoms of insanity, was for years in a private asylum, but soon after the poet’s death, he was restored to society, by the verdict of a jury de lunatico inquirendo, which declared him to be of perfectly sound mind.

      In 1832, Mr. Campbell visited Algiers, and on his return he furnished an account of his journey to the ‘New Monthly Magazine,’ which he afterwards published, in a collected form, under the name of ‘Letters from the South,’ in two volumes. In 1834 he published his ‘Life of Mrs. Siddons.’ On the death that year of his friend, Mr. Telford, the engineer, after whom he had named his surviving son, he, as well as Mr. Southey, received a legacy of £500.

      The first time that I saw Mr. Campbell was in the year 1838. It was in the studio of an eminent sculptor in London, to whom the poet was at that time sitting for his bust. On being introduced to him, he received me with an affability and kindness of manner which put me at once at my ease. He was about the middle size, and remarkably well made. In his younger days he was considered particularly handsome, but at this period time, and care, and thought, had begun to make visible inroads on his frame. He never had a robust constitution, and his domestic calamities had fallen heavily on his nervous and sensitive mind. I shall never forget the quiet beauty of his eyes, which were large and of a deep blue colour, and when he became animated there was a sparkling poetical expression in them peculiarly striking.. He wore a wig of chestnut brown. His manner was frank and unreserved, and his conversation agreeable and instructive. He was fond of discoursing about poetry, and his criticisms were at all times marked by good taste and correct appreciation. When he descanted on the beauties of the Greek and English poets, he occasionally enriched his remarks by quotations, which he had by heart, and recited with the greatest enthusiasm. Often have I, while sitting in his company, been electrified by the beauty and power with which he recited favourite passages from the Greek poets, with whose writings his mind was richly stored, and which he appreciated and praised with the characteristic warmth of one who was himself a master in their divine art. the following incident, to which I myself was a witness, shows the genuine benevolence and kindness of his heart. Calling one forenoon, in the year 1839, on the poet at his Chambers 61 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, I found him busily engaged looking over his books, on the shelves around the room; while near the fireplace, was seated an elderly gentlewoman in widow’s weeks. I was desired to take a chair for a few minutes. Presently the poet disappeared into his bedroom, and returned with an armful of books, which he placed among a heap of others that he had collected on the floor. “There now,” he said, addressing the widow, “these will help you a little, and I shall see what more I can do for you by the time you call again. I shall get them sent to you in the course of the day.” The widow thanked him with tears in her eyes, and, shaking her cordially by the hand, he wished her a good morning. On her departure, he said to me, with great feeling, – “That lady whom you saw just now is the widow of an early friend of mine, and as she is now in somewhat reduced circumstances, she wishes to open a little book and stationery shop, and I have been busy looking out all the books for which I have no use, but which will be of use to her, to add to her stock. She has taken a small shop in the neighbourhood of town, and I shall do all I can to serve her, and forward her prospects, as far as my assistance and influence extend; old times should not be forgotten.’ On another occasion, soon after this, on introducing to him, in that same room, a friend of mine from Edinburgh of the name of Sinclair, he said, while he shook him by the hand, “I am glad to see you, Sir, your name recommends you to me,” adding, with much tenderness, “my wife’s name was Sinclair.”

      In 1842, Mr. Campbell published his ‘Pilgrim of Glencoe,’ and other poems, which he dedicated to his friend and physician, Dr. William Beattie whom in his will he named one of his executors, and who became his biographer. Mr. William Moxon, of the Middle Temple, barrister, the brother of the publisher, was also named an executor. among Mr. Campbell’s other works are a ‘Life of Petrarch,’ and ‘Memoirs of Frederick the Great.’ In the year last mentioned Mr. Campbell again visited Germany, and, on his return to London, he took a house at No. 8, Victoria Square, Pimlico, his niece Miss Mary Campbell, daughter of his deceased brother, Mr. Alexander Campbell, formerly of Glasgow, having gone to London, to reside with him. But his health had long been declining, and for change of air, in the summer of 1843, he retired to Boulogne, in France, where he died on Saturday afternoon, 15th June 1844, aged 67 years. His niece, his friend Dr. Beattie, Mr. Moxon, the publisher, and his medical attendants were with him when he breathed his last; as was also the Rev. Mr. Hassell, a clergyman of the church of England. His last hours were marked by calmness and resignation. His body was brought to England, and buried in the Poets’ Corner of Westminster Abbey, on Wednesday, July 3d; the funeral being attended by a great number of noblemen and gentlemen, and by several of the most eminent authors of the day.

      Mr. Campbell was extremely studious, but at the same time social in his disposition, and gentle and endearing in his manners. With a delicate and even nervous sensibility, frequently allied to real genius, he was yet eminently domestic in his disposition and habits, and admirably fitted to shine in society. To his niece, Mary Campbell, afterwards Mrs. W. Alfred Hill, whose kindness and attention cheered his latter days, he left the great bulk of his property and effects, his son being otherwise provided for. Campbell is decidedly the most classical of our modern poets. He never wearied retouching and polishing what he had written, and yet, notwithstanding his extreme fastidiousness in this respect, no poet of his day has exhibited, in his lyrics, so much originality and freedom, or so much energy of thought and style. His works are:

      Pleasures of Hope; a poem. Edinburgh, 1799, 12mo. And other Poems, Edin. 1801, 12mo. 7th edit., Edin. 1804.

      Annals of Great Britain, from the accession of George III. to the Peace of Amiens. London 1808, 3 vols, 8vo. anon.

      Gertrude of Wyoming; a Pennsylvanian Tale, and other Poems. London, 1809, 4to, 5th edit. 1814, 12mo.

      Specimens of the British Poets, with biographical and critical notices; and an Essay on English poetry. Lond. 1819, 7vols. small 8vo.

      Theodric, a poem, London, 1824. 8vo.

      Inaugural Discourse on being installed Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow. 8vo. Glasgow, 1827.

      Poland, a Poem. 12mo. London, 1831.

      Life of Mrs. Siddons, London, 2 vols, 1834.

      Letters from the South, London, 1837, 2 vols. 8vo.

      Pilgrim of Glencoe, and other poems, 8vo. London, 1842.

      Life of Petrarch, London.

Memoirs of Frederick the Great, London.

      A complete collection of his Poems, of which there are various editions, appeared after his death. One of them contains a biography of the poet by the Rev. W. Alfred Hill the husband of his niece, Mary Campbell.

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