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The Scottish Nation
Carmichael


CARMICHAEL, a local surname, of great antiquity in Scotland, derived from the lands and barony of Carmichael, in the parish of that name, in the upper ward of Lanarkshire, of which the earls of Hyndford (a title now extinct), whose family name it was, were the proprietors. The parish appears to have been so named from St. Michael, under whose protection it was placed.

      The first of the family known was William de Carmichael, who is mentioned in a charter of the lands of Ponfeigh about 1350. John de Carmichael, supposed to be his son, was infeft in the lands of Carmichael, on a precept from James earl of Douglas and Mar, killed at Otterburn in 1388. The name of William de Carmichael, probably his son, occurs in a charter of donation to the priory of St. Andrews in 1410. Sir John de Carmichael, supposed to be the son of this William, accompanied the Scottish auxiliaries sent to the assistance of Charles the Sixth of France, against the English. At the battle of Beaugé in Anjou, in 1422, he is said to have unhorsed the duke of Clarence, who commanded the English army, a feat which decided the victory in favour of the French and Scots. In the encounter he broke his spear, and his descendants bear for crest a dexter hand and man armed holding a broken spear. This deed has been attributed to the earl of Buchan, and Sir Alexander Buchanan [See BUCHANAN], as well as to Sir John de Carmichael and the honour of it must be equally divided among these three. Sir John died in 1436. By his wife, supposed to have been a lady Mary Douglas, he had three sons, namely, William, his successor; Robert, ancestor of the Carmichaels of Balmadie; and John, provost of St. Andrews, who was one upon a perambulation of some lands and marches in that neighbourhood in 1434.

      William, the eldest son, was one of the inquest upon the service of Sir David Hay of Yester, in 1437. He had two sons, Sir John, and George. The latter, a doctor of divinity, was elected bishop of Glasgow in 1482, but died before his consecration, in the following year. He had previously been treasurer of that see, as rector of Carnwath. The same year that he was elected bishop, he was joined in commission with several lords and barons, to treat of a peace with England.

      Sir John Carmichael, the elder son, had three sons and a daughter. William, the eldest, had also three sons; Bartholomew, who predeceased him; William, who succeeded him; and Walter, the progenitor of the Hyndford line. On the 8th March 1528 a remission was granted to William Carmichael of that ilk, and three others, for art, part and assistance given by them to Archibald sometime earl of Angus, his brother and eme (or uncle). William’s son, John Carmichael, married Elizabeth, third daughter of the fifth lord Somerville, and had two sons, John and Archibald, and a daughter, Mary, married to John, son of Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston. John Carmichael, the father, his son John, his brother Archibald, James Johnstone of Westraw, and thirty-one others, were, January 8th, 1564, indicted before the high court of justiciary, for wounding and deforcing a sheriff’s officer of Lanarkshire, when apprizing certain head of cattle, and for taking one of his assistants captive and keeping him in confinement in various places. They were ordered to enter into ward on the north side of the water of Spey, and remain there during her majesty’s pleasure.

      Sir John Carmichael, the elder son, was, in 1584, with his son Hugh, and William Carmichael of Rowantreecross, forfeited for being concerned in the raid of Ruthven. The forfeiture, however, appears soon to have been taken off, as we afterwards find him appointed warden of the west marches, and in 1588, he was one of the ambassadors sent to Denmark, to negotiate the marriage between King James the Sixth and the princess Anne, daughter of the Danish king. About the same time he was constituted captain of his majesty’s guard. In 1590 he was sent ambassador to queen Elizabeth. In 1592 he resigned the wardenship of the west marches in favour of the earl of Angus, but in 1598, on that nobleman’s demitting that office, Sir John was restored to it, and as he was going to hold a warden’s court at Lochmaben, for the punishment of offences committed on the borders, he was murdered, 16th June, 1600, by Thomas Armstrong, ‘sone to Sandeis Ringane,’ and nephew of Kinmont Willie, and several associates, on their return from a match at football, such meetings being often, in those days, arranged for the perpetration of deeds of violence. The Armstrongs being the most turbulent of the border clans, the warden had announced his intention to punish severely some of their recent thefts and forays, and to prevent this they sent to him a brother of old William Armstrong of Kinmont, (the noted Kinmont Willie,) whose name was Alexander Armstrong, alias Sandeis Ringan or Ninian. On being admitted to a conference with the warden he found that there was no lenity to be expected from him; and some of Carmichael’s young retainers having, in mockery of Ringan, slipped his sword out of his scabbard and put yolks of eggs in it, whereby his sword, when sheathed, would not draw, he vowed in a rage that they should see his sword out, if they went on ground where he could avenge the insult. When he returned home he told his sons that he had been “made shame of,” and he would be “equal” with them yet. Next day they waylaid the warden, and shot him with a hagbut. For this murder, Thomas Armstrong was tried before the High Court of Justiciary, 14th November, convicted and executed. Before he was hanged his right hand was struck off at one stroke by the executioner. He was thereafter hung in chains on the boroughmuir, the first instance on record, in Scotland, of a criminal having been hung in chains. the murder of Sir John Carmichael sealed the fate of many of the Armstrongs, the most distinguished of the warlike thieves of the Scottish border, and led to the adoption of measures of the utmost severity against all those of the name who were thereafter convicted, or even suspected of any crime. Sir Walter Scott supposes that the well-known verses “Armstrong’s Good Night,’ were composed by Thomas Armstrong, called by him “Ringan’s Tam,’ previous to his execution. In February 1606, another of the Armstrongs, called Alexander, or Sandie of Rowanburne, was executed for this murder. An epitaph on Sir John Carmichael, by John Johnstone, is printed in Crawford’s peerage. By his wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich, sister of the regent Morton, he had three sons and four daughters.

      Sir Hugh Carmichael, the eldest son, was sworn a privy councillor, and appointed master of the horse in 1593. The same year he was sent ambassador to Denmark. He married Abigail, daughter of William Baillie of Lamington, and had a son, Sir John, and a daughter, married to James Lockhart of Cleghorn.

      Sir John, the son, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth, but died without issue. His estate was inherited by his cousin, Sir James Carmichael of Hyndford, created Lord Carmichael in 1647, and grandfather of the first earl of Hyndford. [See HYNDFORD, earl of.] He was descended from Walter Carmichael of Carmichael, above mentioned. John Carmichael, the third son of Walter’s grandson, James Carmichael, was designed of Howgate. He had a son, John, who, choosing a military life, entered the Russian service, and was advanced to the rank of colonel by John Basiliowitz, the then Czar, and distinguished himself at the siege of Plescow, where he commanded five thousand men, and afterwards was appointed governor of that place.

      From the first-mentioned William de Carmichael to Sir Wyndham Carmichael-Anstruther, baronet, who, in right of his ancestor, Sir John Anstruther, marrying, in 1717, the Lady Margaret Carmichael, daughter of the second earl of Hyndford, succeeded his nephew in the estate in 1831, inclusive, there were twenty generations, during a period of four hundred and eighty-one years.

      Sir John Gibson-Carmichael of Skirling, bart., grandson of John Gibson of Durie [see GIBSON, surname of] and Helen, his wife, daughter of the Hon. William Carmichael, advocate, son of John, first earl of Hyndford, and father of John, fourth earl, assumed, at the death of the latter, in conformity to an entail, the surname and arms of Carmichael in addition to his own. He married Janet, daughter of Cornelius Elliot, Esq., clerk to the signet, by whom he had an only daughter. The estates with the title of baronet (conferred in 1628 on his ancestor, Sir Alexander Gibson of Durie, an eminent lawyer in the reign of James the Sixth, and lord president of the court of session) devolved on his brother, Sir Thomas Gibson-Carmichael, tenth baronet of the Gibson family.

      The representation of the Carmichaels of Balmadie, above mentioned, as descended from the second son of Sir John de Carmichael who fought at the battle of Beaugé, devolved upon Thomas Carmichael, Esq.., who, in 1740, married Margaret, eldest daughter and heiress of James Smyth, Esq. of Atherny, and dying in 1746, left an only son, James Carmichael, a distinguished physician, who, in compliance with the testamentary injunctions of his maternal grandfather, assumed the additional surname and arms of Smyth – see a biographical notice of him in this work under SMYTH. He had eight sons, six of whom adopted a military life, and two daughters, the elder of whom, Maria, became the wife of Dr. Alexander Monro, professor of anatomy in the university of Edinburgh. His eldest son, Major-general Sir James Carmichael Smyth, K.C.H., and C.B., born 22d February 1780, was a distinguished officer, and served in command of the engineers at the battle of Waterloo. He was created a baronet, 25th August, 1821. At the time of his death he was governor of British Guiana. He married, 28th May, 1816, Harriet, daughter of General Robert Morse, and died 4th March, 1838. His son, Sir James Robert Carmichael, of Nutwood, county Surrey, the second baronet, dropped, by royal license, 25th February, 1841, the additional name of Smyth, which had been assumed by his grandfather.

      One of the mistresses of King James the Fifth was Katherine Carmichael, daughter of Sir John Carmichael of Meadowflat, Captain of Crawford, described in that curious work ‘The Memorie of the Somervilles,’ as “a young lady, admired for her beautie, handsomenes of persone, and vivacity of spirit.” By her the king had John, prior of Coldinghame, &c., father of the turbulent Francis Stewart, earl of Bothwell. She afterwards married Sir John Somerville of Cambusnethan.

      Of the third earl of Hyndford, the most distinguished of the noble family of Carmichael, the following is a notice.

CARMICHAEL, JOHN, third earl of Hyndford, an eminent diplomatist, son of the second earl, was born, according to Douglas’ Peerage, at Edinburgh, 15th March 1701, but according to the Old Statistical Account, at Carmichael house, Lanarkshire, in April of that year. He was for some time an officer in the third regiment of footguards and succeeded his father in his titles and estates, in 1737. The following year he was chosen one of the sixteen representatives of the Scottish peerage, and four times afterwards rechosen. In March of the same year (1738) he was appointed one of the lords of police, an office long since abolished. He was twice lord high commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, viz. in 1739 and 1740. He was always high in the favour of George the Second, and in 1741, when the king of Prussia invaded Silesia, the earl of Hyndford was sent, as envoy extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to that monarch, and was so successful in accommodating matters, that preliminaries of peace, between the empress queen of Hungary and the king of Prussia, were signed at Bresiau, 1st June, 1742. On the conclusion of the treaty, his lordship was nominated a knight of the Thistle, and vested with the insignia of that order, at Charlottenburg, 2d August, 1742, by the king of Prussia, in virtue of a commission from King George the Second. In 1744 he was sent, on a special mission, to Russia, and by his memorable negociations with that power, was instrumental in accelerating the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1750 he returned to England, and was sworn a privy councillor 29th March that year, and appointed one of the lords of the bedchamber. In 1752 he was sent ambassador to Vienna, which situation he held till 1764, when he was nominated vice-admiral of Scotland, and on that occasion he resigned his seat at the board of police. He spent the remainder of his life at his seat in Lanarkshire. Some idea may be formed of his assiduity, from the fact that in the library in Westraw, there are twenty-three MS. volumes of his political life, in his own handwriting. Besides this, during the whole of his stay abroad, he kept up a regular correspondence with his factor at Carmichael, in which he evinces an accurate knowledge of architecture, agriculture, and rural affairs in general. A few years before his death, he granted leases of fifty-seven years’ duration, in order to improve his lands, and even at that early period, when agriculture in Scotland was in a very rude state, he introduced clauses into the new leases which have since been adopted as the most approved mode of farming. The greater part of the beautiful plantations which adorn the now deserted family mansion of Carmichael house, and which are excelled by none in Scotland, were reared from seeds which his lordship selected when on the continent, but particularly when he was in Russia; and for many years he employed a great number of workmen in the buildings and plantations of Carmichael and Westraw. He died 19th July 1767, in the 67th year of his age, and his remains were interred in the family burial ground in the parish of Carmichael.

CARMICHAEL, GERRHOM, M.A., a learned divine, was born at Glasgow in 1682, and educated in the university of that city, where he took his degrees. He was afterwards ordained minister of Monimail, in Fifeshire; and, in 1722, appointed professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow. For the use of his students, he wrote some learned notes on ‘Puffendorfi de Officiis Hominis.’ He died at Glasgow in 1738, aged 56.

CARMICHAEL, FREDERICK, son of the preceding, was born at Monimail in 1708, and received his education in Marischal college, Aberdeen. He was ordained minister of Monimail in 1737, on the presentation of the earl of Leven. In 1743 he was translated to Inveresk, and in 1747 he was elected one of the ministers of Edinburgh, having previously declined an offer made to him of the divinity chair in Marischal college. In 1751 he was seized with a fever, of which he died, aged 45. He left one volume of sermons.

From the Dictionary of National Biography...

CARMICHAEL, FREDERICK (1708–1751), Scotch divine, son of Professor Gershom Carmichael of Glasgow University, was born in 1708. He took his M.A. degree on 4 May 1725, and taught the humanity classes during the illness of Professor Ross, 1728-8. On the death of his father in 1729 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the chair of moral philosophy. He was licensed by the Glasgow presbytery of the church of Scotland on27 Sept. 1 83, ordained at Monimail in March 1737, translated to Inveresk in December 1747, and died 17 Oct. 1751. He was the author of a ‘Sermon on Christian Zeal,' 1753, and ‘Sermons on several Important Subjects,’ 1753, said to be of ‘great merit.’

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. i. 80. ii. 503; Watt's Bibl. Brit.]

CARMICHAEL, Sir JAMES, Lord Carmichael (1578?–1672), was the third son of Walter Carmichael of Hyndford, by Grizel, daughter of Sir John Carmichael of Meadowflat. He was originally designated of Hyndford, but on purchasing the lands of Westeraw took his title from them, until, on succeeding his cousin, Sir John Carmichael of Carmichael [q. v.] he adopted the designation of the older branch of the family. Having in early life been introduced to the Earl of Dunbar at the court of James VI, he was appointed a cupbearer, afterwards carver, and then chamberlain of the principality. He was created a baronet of Nova Scotia on 17 Ju1y 1627, and the following year he subscribed the submission to Charles I. He was appointed sheriff-principal of Lanarkshire on 5 Sept. 1632, and in 1684 lord justice clerk, which office he resigned in 1634, on being made treasurer-depute. He was admitted an ordinary lord of session on 8 March 1639. His presence as treasurer-depute at the prorogation of parliament, by warrant of the king's commissioners, led to the presentation of a remonstrance against the same as illegal. On 13 Nov. he was named one of the commissioners for executing the office of lord high treasurer, and was at the same time appointed treasurer-depute, privy councillor, and lord of session, to be held ad vitam aut culpam. For his services to Charles I during the civil war, especially in lending him various sums of money, he received a patent of Lord Carmichael; but the patent was not made public until 3 Jan. 1651, when it was ratified by Charles II. For his adherence to the engagement, he made a humble submission on 28 Dec. before the presbytery of Lanark, but was nevertheless deprived of his offices by the Acts of Classes on l6 March 1649. That of treasurer-depute was, however, bestowed on his second son, Sir Daniel Carmichael. By Cromwell’s act, in 1651, a fine was imposed on him of 2,000l. In Douglas‘s ‘Peerage’ it is stated erroneously that after the secession of Charles II he was sworn a privy councillor, and reappointed lord justice clerk, that office having been bestowed on Sir John Campbell of Lundy [q. v.] Carmichael died on 29 Nov. 1672 on his ninety-fourth year. By his wife Agnes, sixth daughter of John Wilkie of Foulden, he had three sons and four daughters. His eldest son, Sir William, after serving as one of the gens d'armes of Louis XIII, joined the committee of estates in Scotland, and commanded the Clydesdale regiment against the Marquis of Montrose at the battle of Philiphaugh in 1648. He died before his father in 1657, leaving a son, John [q. v.], who became second Lord Carmichael and first Earl of Hyndford. The first Lord Carmichael had two other sons and four daughters.

[Acts of Parliament of Scotland, vol. v. passim; Haig and Brunton's Senators of the College of Justice, 298-9; Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ii. 754-5; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, ii. 17-21.]

CARMICHAEL, JAMES (fl. 1587), grammarian, was a Scotchman who published a Latin grammar at Cambridge in September 1587. He dedicated it to James VI—‘Scotorum regi christianissimo gratiam et pacem à Domino.’ Carmichael's work, ‘Grammatice Latino de Etymologia,’ &c., was from the press of the university printer, Thomas Thomas, M.A., a lexicographer himself, and its full title is given by Ames; it consists of 52 pp., and has some commandatory poems prefixed. There is a copy of it in the Bodleian.

[Cooper's Athenæ Cantab. ii. 22; Ames’s Topogr. Antiq. (Herbert), 1414, l4l8.]

CARMICHAEL, JAMES WILSON (1800–1868), marine painter, was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1800. At about the age of ten or eleven he went to sea. He returned, and was apprenticed to a shipbuilder, who employed him in drawing an designing, a early works are in water colours, but about 1825 he began also to paint in oils. Between 1838 and 1862 he was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy at the British Institute, and at the Suffolk Street Gallery. He made his first public appearance in the farmer year with a picture of ‘Shipping in the Bay of Naples,’ contributed to the exhibition of the Society of British Artists. In 1841 he sent to the Academy a drawing of the ‘Conqueror towing the Africa off the Shoals of Trafalgar,’ and in 1843 two drawings, ‘The Royal Yacht with the Queen on board off Edinburgh,’ and the ‘Arrival of the Royal Squadron.’ In the Water-Colour Collection at South Kensington there is one example of this painter, ‘The Houses of Parliament in course of Erection.’ About 1845, according to Redgrave, he left Newcastle for London. Probably about 1862 (at which date he ceased to exhibit in London) he went to Scarborough, and there died on May 1868. In the north of England his work was highly thought of. There is a large painting by him in the Trinity House, Newcastle, ‘The Heroic Exploit of Admiral Collingwood at the Battle of Trafalgar.’ He appears as an author, having published ‘The Art of Marine Painting in Water Colours,’ 1859, and ‘The Art of Marine Painting in Oil Colours,’ 1864.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Graves's Dict. of Artists; Cat. Engl. Coll. South Kensington Museum.]

CARMICHAEL, Sir JOHN (d. 1600), of Carmichael, a powerful border chief, was the eldest son of Sir John Carmichael and Elizabeth, third daughter of the fifth lord of Somerville. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich, sister of the regent Morton, and in 1581 he and his son Hugh were found guilty of a treasonable conspiracy in assembling two hundred men at the rocks of Braid, with the view of rescuing Morton from the Castle of Edinburgh. They, however, escaped punishment by fleeing the kingdom, and having afterwards returned were attained in 1584 for being concerned in the raid of Ruthven, when they again fled the kingdom. In August 1588 Carmichael was appointed captain-general of the troops of light horse raised to assist in resisting the threatened invasion by the Spaniards (Register of the Privy Council, iv. 315); and when his services were not found necessary, he was appointed warden of the west marshes. He was one of the ambassadors sent to Denmark to negotiate the marriage between James VI and the Princess Anne of Denmark. In 1590 he was despatched on an important mission to Queen Elizabeth, with a result entirely satisfactory. In 1592 he resigned the warden-ship in favour of the Earl of Angus; but on that nobleman resigning it in 1598, he was restored to the office. While on his way to Lochmaben, to hold a warden's court for the punishment of offences committed on the borders, he was attacked (16 June 1600) by a body of the Armstrongs and shot dead with a hacbut. For this murder Thomas Armstrong, nephew of Kinmont Willie [see Armstrong, William, fl. 1596], was executed in the following November, and Alexander Armstrong of Rowanburne in February 1606. According to Sir Walter Scott, tradition affirms the well-known ballad, 'Armstrong's Good Night,' to have been composed by Thomas Armstrong previous to his execution.

[Crawford's Scottish Peerage; Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ii. 752; Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, vols. iii. iv. and v.; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, i. 13-16.]

CARMICHAEL, JOHN, second Lord Carmichael and first Earl of Hyndford (1638–1710), son of William, master of Carmichael, and Lady Grizel Douglas, third daughter of the first marquis of Douglas, was born on 28 Feb. 1638. He succeeded his grandfather as Lord Carmichael in 1672. In 1689 he was appointed by William one of the commissioners of the privy seal and a privy councillor. The following year he was appointed William's commissioner to the first general assembly of the newly established church of Scotland. In 1693 he was appointed to the command of a regiment of dragoons, which he held till the peace of Ryswick in 1697. In December 1696 he was made secretary of state for Scotland, and in January 1696-7 was chosen commissioner by the general assembly. By patent at Kensington, on 5 June 1701, he was created Earl of Hyndford. He retained the offices of secretary of state and privy councillor under Queen Anne. He was one of the commissioners for the treaty of union, and cordially supported the act for carrying it into effect. He died on 20 Sept. 1710. By his wife, Beatrice Drummond, second daughter of the third Lord Madderty, he had seven sons and three daughters.

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ii. 756; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, i. 21-4; Luttrell's Relation, ii. iii. iv. v.]

CARMICHAEL, JOHN, third Earl of Hyndford (1701–1767), diplomatist, son of James, second earl, and Lady Elizabeth Maitland, only daughter of John, fifth earl of Lauderdale, was born at Edinburgh on 15 March 1701. He entered the third regiment of foot-guards, in which he became captain in 1733. He succeeded to his father's title and estates on 10 Aug. 1737, and was chosen a representative peer on 14 March 1738, and again in 1741, 1747, 1754, and 1761. He was appointed one of the lords of police in March 1738, and constituted sheriff-principal and lord-lieutenant of Lanark on 9 April 1739. In 1739 and 1740 he acted as lord high commissioner to the general assembly of the kirk of Scotland. When Frederick II invaded Silesia in 1741, the Earl of Hyndford was sent to George II as envoy extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to mediate between the king and Maria Theresa. Carlyle, in his 'Life of Frederick,' thus delineates his characteristics: 'We can discern a certain rough tenacity and horse-dealer finesse in the man; a broad-based, shewdly practical Scotch gentleman, wide awake; and can conjecture that the diplomatic function in that element might have been in worse hands. He is often laid metaphorically at the king's feet, king of England's; and haunts personally the king of Prussia's elbow at all times, watching every glance of him like a British house-dog, that will not be taken in with suspicious travellers if he can help it; and casting perpetual horoscopes in his dull mind.' It was in a great degree owing to the patience and persistence of Hyndford that the treaty of Breslau was finally signed on 11 June 1742. On its conclusion, Hyndford was nominated a knight of the Thistle, and was invested with the insignia of that order at Charlottenburg, on 29 Aug. 1742, by the king of Prussia, in virtue of a commission from George II. From Frederick he also received the gift of a silver dinner service, and was permitted the use of the royal Prussian arms, which now enrich the shield of the Carmichaels. In 1744 Hyndford was sent on a special mission to Russia, when his skillful negotiations greatly accelerated the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. He left Moscow on 8 Oct. 1749, and after his return to England was, on 29 March 1750, sworn a privy councillor, and was appointed one of the lords of the bedchamber. In 1752 he was sent as ambassador to Vienna, where he remained till 1764. On his return he was appointed vice-admiral of Scotland, when he gave up his office at the board of police. The remainder of his life was spent at his seat in Lanarkshire, where he devoted his attention to the improvement and adornment of his estate. While occupied with his diplomatic duties abroad, he continued to take a constant interest in agricultural affairs. To encourage his tenants in the improvement of their lands, he granted to them leases of fifty-seven years' duration, and also introduced clauses in the new leases which have since met with the general approval of agriculturists. The fine plantations on the estates have been reared from seeds brought by him from Russia. He died on 19 July 1767. He was twice married: first, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Clowdisley Shovell, and widow of the first Lord Romney; and secondly, to Jean, daughter of Benjamin Vigor of Fulham, Middlesex. By his first wife he had a son, who died in infancy, and by his second he had no issue. The earldom passed to his cousin, John Carmichael. The title became dormant or extinct on the death of the sixth earl in 1817. His correspondence while ambassador abroad is in the 'State Papers,' and there are rough copies of it in the Additional MSS. in the British Museum.

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood),ii. 756-7; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, i. 24-5; Carlyle's Frederick; Add. MSS. 11365-87, 15870, 15946.]

CARMICHAEL, RICHARD (1779–1849), surgeon, was born in Dublin on 6 Feb. 1779, being fourth son of Hugh Carmichael, solicitor, who was nearly related to the Scotch family of the earls of Hyndford. When he attained fortune, Carmichael spent much time and money in seeking to establish the proof of his eldest brother's title to this earldom; but the loss or destruction of some indispensable family records rendered his efforts futile.

After a two years' apprenticeship to Peile, a well-known Dublin surgeon, and study at the Irish College of Surgeons, Carmichael passed the requisite examination, and was appointed assistant-surgeon (and ensign) to the Wexford militia in 1795, when only sixteen. This position he held, gaining considerable notice by his early skill and attention to his duties, till 1802, when the army establishment was reduced after the peace of Amiens. In 1800 he had become a member of the Irish College of Surgeons, and in 1803 he commenced practice in Dublin. In the same year he was appointed surgeon to St. George's Hospital and Dispensary, and in 1810 surgeon to the Lock Hospital. In 1816 he obtained the important appointment of surgeon to the Richmond, Whitworth, and Hardwicke Hospitals, an office which he held till 1836. Already in 1813, at the early age of thirty-four, he was chosen president of the Dublin College of Surgeons, a position he also held in 1826 and 1846. In 1835 he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of France, being the first Irishman to receive that distinction.

In 1826 Carmichael, in conjunction with Drs. Adams and McDowell, founded the Richmond Hospital School of Medicine (afterwards known as the Carmichael School), and was for two years a principal, and afterwards an occasional lecturer. In addition to considerable donations in his lifetime, he bequeathed 8,000l;. for its improvement, and 2,000l., the interest to be given as prices to the best students of the school. During the last ten years of his life (1839–49) he took deep interest in medical reform, strongly supporting the Medical Association of Ireland, of which he was president from its formation till his death. He aimed at securing for the medical student a good preliminary and a high professional education, and uniform and searching examinations by all universities and medical and surgical colleges. He also advocated the separation of apothecary's work from medicine and surgery as far as practicable. To promote its objects he placed 500l. in the hands of the Medical Association; but when it proved that the fund was not needed, he directed its transfer to the Medical Benevolent Fund Society. To this society, one much cared for by him, he left 4,500l. at his death. A piece of plate was presented to him in 1841 by 410 of his professional brethren, with an address expressing their sense of his unwearied zeal for the interests of his profession and the advancement of medical science.

In addition to numerous pamphlets and papers in the medical journals, Carmichael published: 1. 'An Essay on the Effects of Carbonate of Iron upon Cancer, with an Inquiry into tho Nature of that Disease,' London, 1806; 2nd edit. 1809. 2. 'An Essay on the Nature of Scrofula,' London, 1810 (of which a German translation was published at Leipzig in 1818). 3. 'An Essay on the Venereal Diseases which have been confounded with Syphilis, and the Symptoms which arises exclusively from that Poison,' 4to, 1814. The latter he made in an especial manner his own subject; and his practical views established important improvements in the treatment of those diseases of those diseases, especially in regard to the administration of mercury. His work went through many editions. It was at first severly reviewed in the 'Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal' (xi. 380), the review being ably answered by Carmichael in the same volume.

Carmichael was originally a member of the established church; but in 1825 he joined a unitarian church. He was a handsome man, with a stern cast of countenance; and was all that was admirable in domestic life. He was drowned, on 8 June 1849, while crossing a deep arm of the sea between Clontarf and Sutton on horseback. Among his benefactions by will he left 3,000l. to the College of Surgeons, the interest to be applied as prizes for the best essays on subjects specified in the will. A list of his writings is given in the 'Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science,' ix. 497-9.

[Dublin Medical Press, 4 July 1849, p. 13; Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, ix. 493-504.]


From the Dictionary of National Biography

CARMICHAEL, FREDERICK (1708–1751), Scotch divine, son of Professor Gershom Carmichael of Glasgow University, was born in 1708. He took his M.A. degree on 4 May 1725, and taught the humanity classes during the illness of Professor Ross, 1728-8. On the death of his father in 1729 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the chair of moral philosophy. He was licensed by the Glasgow presbytery of the church of Scotland on27 Sept. 1 83, ordained at Monimail in March 1737, translated to Inveresk in December 1747, and died 17 Oct. 1751. He was the author of a ‘Sermon on Christian Zeal,' 1753, and ‘Sermons on several Important Subjects,’ 1753, said to be of ‘great merit.’

CARMICHAEL, Sir JAMES, Lord Carmichael (1578?–1672), was the third son of Walter Carmichael of Hyndford, by Grizel, daughter of Sir John Carmichael of Meadowflat. He was originally designated of Hyndford, but on purchasing the lands of Westeraw took his title from them, until, on succeeding his cousin, Sir John Carmichael of Carmichael [q. v.] he adopted the designation of the older branch of the family. Having in early life been introduced to the Earl of Dunbar at the court of James VI, he was appointed a cupbearer, afterwards carver, and then chamberlain of the principality. He was created a baronet of Nova Scotia on 17 Ju1y 1627, and the following year he subscribed the submission to Charles I. He was appointed sheriff-principal of Lanarkshire on 5 Sept. 1632, and in 1684 lord justice clerk, which office he resigned in 1634, on being made treasurer-depute. He was admitted an ordinary lord of session on 8 March 1639. His presence as treasurer-depute at the prorogation of parliament, by warrant of the king's commissioners, led to the presentation of a remonstrance against the same as illegal. On 13 Nov. he was named one of the commissioners for executing the office of lord high treasurer, and was at the same time appointed treasurer-depute, privy councillor, and lord of session, to be held ad vitam aut culpam. For his services to Charles I during the civil war, especially in lending him various sums of money, he received a patent of Lord Carmichael; but the patent was not made public until 3 Jan. 1651, when it was ratified by Charles II. For his adherence to the engagement, he made a humble submission on 28 Dec. before the presbytery of Lanark, but was nevertheless deprived of his offices by the Acts of Classes on l6 March 1649. That of treasurer-depute was, however, bestowed on his second son, Sir Daniel Carmichael. By Cromwell’s act, in 1651, a fine was imposed on him of 2,000l. In Douglas‘s ‘Peerage’ it is stated erroneously that after the secession of Charles II he was sworn a privy councillor, and reappointed lord justice clerk, that office having been bestowed on Sir John Campbell of Lundy [q. v.] Carmichael died on 29 Nov. 1672 on his ninety-fourth year. By his wife Agnes, sixth daughter of John Wilkie of Foulden, he had three sons and four daughters. His eldest son, Sir William, after serving as one of the gens d'armes of Louis XIII, joined the committee of estates in Scotland, and commanded the Clydesdale regiment against the Marquis of Montrose at the battle of Philiphaugh in 1648. He died before his father in 1657, leaving a son, John [q. v.], who became second Lord Carmichael and first Earl of Hyndford. The first Lord Carmichael had two other sons and four daughters.

[Acts of Parliament of Scotland, vol. v. passim; Haig and Brunton's Senators of the College of Justice, 298-9; Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ii. 754-5; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, ii. 17-21.]

CARMICHAEL, JAMES (fl. 1587), grammarian, was a Scotchman who published a Latin grammar at Cambridge in September 1587. He dedicated it to James VI—‘Scotorum regi christianissimo gratiam et pacem à Domino.’ Carmichael's work, ‘Grammatice Latino de Etymologia,’ &c., was from the press of the university printer, Thomas Thomas, M.A., a lexicographer himself, and its full title is given by Ames; it consists of 52 pp., and has some commandatory poems prefixed. There is a copy of it in the Bodleian.

CARMICHAEL, JAMES WILSON (1800–1868), marine painter, was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1800. At about the age of ten or eleven he went to sea. He returned, and was apprenticed to a shipbuilder, who employed him in drawing an designing, a early works are in water colours, but about 1825 he began also to paint in oils. Between 1838 and 1862 he was a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy at the British Institute, and at the Suffolk Street Gallery. He made his first public appearance in the farmer year with a picture of ‘Shipping in the Bay of Naples,’ contributed to the exhibition of the Society of British Artists. In 1841 he sent to the Academy a drawing of the ‘Conqueror towing the Africa off the Shoals of Trafalgar,’ and in 1843 two drawings, ‘The Royal Yacht with the Queen on board off Edinburgh,’ and the ‘Arrival of the Royal Squadron.’ In the Water-Colour Collection at South Kensington there is one example of this painter, ‘The Houses of Parliament in course of Erection.’ About 1845, according to Redgrave, he left Newcastle for London. Probably about 1862 (at which date he ceased to exhibit in London) he went to Scarborough, and there died on May 1868. In the north of England his work was highly thought of. There is a large painting by him in the Trinity House, Newcastle, ‘The Heroic Exploit of Admiral Collingwood at the Battle of Trafalgar.’ He appears as an author, having published ‘The Art of Marine Painting in Water Colours,’ 1859, and ‘The Art of Marine Painting in Oil Colours,’ 1864.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Graves's Dict. of Artists; Cat. Engl. Coll. South Kensington Museum.]

CARMICHAEL, Sir JOHN (d. 1600), of Carmichael, a powerful border chief, was the eldest son of Sir John Carmichael and Elizabeth, third daughter of the fifth lord of Somerville. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich, sister of the regent Morton, and in 1581 he and his son Hugh were found guilty of a treasonable conspiracy in assembling two hundred men at the rocks of Braid, with the view of rescuing Morton from the Castle of Edinburgh. They, however, escaped punishment by fleeing the kingdom, and having afterwards returned were attained in 1584 for being concerned in the raid of Ruthven, when they again fled the kingdom. In August 1588 Carmichael was appointed captain-general of the troops of light horse raised to assist in resisting the threatened invasion by the Spaniards (Register of the Privy Council, iv. 315); and when his services were not found necessary, he was appointed warden of the west marshes. He was one of the ambassadors sent to Denmark to negotiate the marriage between James VI and the Princess Anne of Denmark. In 1590 he was despatched on an important mission to Queen Elizabeth, with a result entirely satisfactory. In 1592 he resigned the warden-ship in favour of the Earl of Angus; but on that nobleman resigning it in 1598, he was restored to the office. While on his way to Lochmaben, to hold a warden's court for the punishment of offences committed on the borders, he was attacked (16 June 1600) by a body of the Armstrongs and shot dead with a hacbut. For this murder Thomas Armstrong, nephew of Kinmont Willie [see Armstrong, William, fl. 1596], was executed in the following November, and Alexander Armstrong of Rowanburne in February 1606. According to Sir Walter Scott, tradition affirms the well-known ballad, 'Armstrong's Good Night,' to have been composed by Thomas Armstrong previous to his execution.

[Crawford's Scottish Peerage; Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ii. 752; Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, vols. iii. iv. and v.; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, i. 13-16.]

CARMICHAEL, JOHN, second Lord Carmichael and first Earl of Hyndford (1638–1710), son of William, master of Carmichael, and Lady Grizel Douglas, third daughter of the first marquis of Douglas, was born on 28 Feb. 1638. He succeeded his grandfather as Lord Carmichael in 1672. In 1689 he was appointed by William one of the commissioners of the privy seal and a privy councillor. The following year he was appointed William's commissioner to the first general assembly of the newly established church of Scotland. In 1693 he was appointed to the command of a regiment of dragoons, which he held till the peace of Ryswick in 1697. In December 1696 he was made secretary of state for Scotland, and in January 1696-7 was chosen commissioner by the general assembly. By patent at Kensington, on 5 June 1701, he was created Earl of Hyndford. He retained the offices of secretary of state and privy councillor under Queen Anne. He was one of the commissioners for the treaty of union, and cordially supported the act for carrying it into effect. He died on 20 Sept. 1710. By his wife, Beatrice Drummond, second daughter of the third Lord Madderty, he had seven sons and three daughters.

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage, ii. 756; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, i. 21-4; Luttrell's Relation, ii. iii. iv. v.]

CARMICHAEL, JOHN, third Earl of Hyndford (1701–1767), diplomatist, son of James, second earl, and Lady Elizabeth Maitland, only daughter of John, fifth earl of Lauderdale, was born at Edinburgh on 15 March 1701. He entered the third regiment of foot-guards, in which he became captain in 1733. He succeeded to his father's title and estates on 10 Aug. 1737, and was chosen a representative peer on 14 March 1738, and again in 1741, 1747, 1754, and 1761. He was appointed one of the lords of police in March 1738, and constituted sheriff-principal and lord-lieutenant of Lanark on 9 April 1739. In 1739 and 1740 he acted as lord high commissioner to the general assembly of the kirk of Scotland. When Frederick II invaded Silesia in 1741, the Earl of Hyndford was sent to George II as envoy extraordinary and plenipotentiary, to mediate between the king and Maria Theresa. Carlyle, in his 'Life of Frederick,' thus delineates his characteristics: 'We can discern a certain rough tenacity and horse-dealer finesse in the man; a broad-based, shewdly practical Scotch gentleman, wide awake; and can conjecture that the diplomatic function in that element might have been in worse hands. He is often laid metaphorically at the king's feet, king of England's; and haunts personally the king of Prussia's elbow at all times, watching every glance of him like a British house-dog, that will not be taken in with suspicious travellers if he can help it; and casting perpetual horoscopes in his dull mind.' It was in a great degree owing to the patience and persistence of Hyndford that the treaty of Breslau was finally signed on 11 June 1742. On its conclusion, Hyndford was nominated a knight of the Thistle, and was invested with the insignia of that order at Charlottenburg, on 29 Aug. 1742, by the king of Prussia, in virtue of a commission from George II. From Frederick he also received the gift of a silver dinner service, and was permitted the use of the royal Prussian arms, which now enrich the shield of the Carmichaels. In 1744 Hyndford was sent on a special mission to Russia, when his skillful negotiations greatly accelerated the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. He left Moscow on 8 Oct. 1749, and after his return to England was, on 29 March 1750, sworn a privy councillor, and was appointed one of the lords of the bedchamber. In 1752 he was sent as ambassador to Vienna, where he remained till 1764. On his return he was appointed vice-admiral of Scotland, when he gave up his office at the board of police. The remainder of his life was spent at his seat in Lanarkshire, where he devoted his attention to the improvement and adornment of his estate. While occupied with his diplomatic duties abroad, he continued to take a constant interest in agricultural affairs. To encourage his tenants in the improvement of their lands, he granted to them leases of fifty-seven years' duration, and also introduced clauses in the new leases which have since met with the general approval of agriculturists. The fine plantations on the estates have been reared from seeds brought by him from Russia. He died on 19 July 1767. He was twice married: first, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Clowdisley Shovell, and widow of the first Lord Romney; and secondly, to Jean, daughter of Benjamin Vigor of Fulham, Middlesex. By his first wife he had a son, who died in infancy, and by his second he had no issue. The earldom passed to his cousin, John Carmichael. The title became dormant or extinct on the death of the sixth earl in 1817. His correspondence while ambassador abroad is in the 'State Papers,' and there are rough copies of it in the Additional MSS. in the British Museum.

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood),ii. 756-7; Irving's Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, i. 24-5; Carlyle's Frederick; Add. MSS. 11365-87, 15870, 15946.]

CARMICHAEL, RICHARD (1779–1849), surgeon, was born in Dublin on 6 Feb. 1779, being fourth son of Hugh Carmichael, solicitor, who was nearly related to the Scotch family of the earls of Hyndford. When he attained fortune, Carmichael spent much time and money in seeking to establish the proof of his eldest brother's title to this earldom; but the loss or destruction of some indispensable family records rendered his efforts futile.

After a two years' apprenticeship to Peile, a well-known Dublin surgeon, and study at the Irish College of Surgeons, Carmichael passed the requisite examination, and was appointed assistant-surgeon (and ensign) to the Wexford militia in 1795, when only sixteen. This position he held, gaining considerable notice by his early skill and attention to his duties, till 1802, when the army establishment was reduced after the peace of Amiens. In 1800 he had become a member of the Irish College of Surgeons, and in 1803 he commenced practice in Dublin. In the same year he was appointed surgeon to St. George's Hospital and Dispensary, and in 1810 surgeon to the Lock Hospital. In 1816 he obtained the important appointment of surgeon to the Richmond, Whitworth, and Hardwicke Hospitals, an office which he held till 1836. Already in 1813, at the early age of thirty-four, he was chosen president of the Dublin College of Surgeons, a position he also held in 1826 and 1846. In 1835 he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of France, being the first Irishman to receive that distinction.

In 1826 Carmichael, in conjunction with Drs. Adams and McDowell, founded the Richmond Hospital School of Medicine (afterwards known as the Carmichael School), and was for two years a principal, and afterwards an occasional lecturer. In addition to considerable donations in his lifetime, he bequeathed 8,000l;. for its improvement, and 2,000l., the interest to be given as prices to the best students of the school. During the last ten years of his life (1839–49) he took deep interest in medical reform, strongly supporting the Medical Association of Ireland, of which he was president from its formation till his death. He aimed at securing for the medical student a good preliminary and a high professional education, and uniform and searching examinations by all universities and medical and surgical colleges. He also advocated the separation of apothecary's work from medicine and surgery as far as practicable. To promote its objects he placed 500l. in the hands of the Medical Association; but when it proved that the fund was not needed, he directed its transfer to the Medical Benevolent Fund Society. To this society, one much cared for by him, he left 4,500l. at his death. A piece of plate was presented to him in 1841 by 410 of his professional brethren, with an address expressing their sense of his unwearied zeal for the interests of his profession and the advancement of medical science.

In addition to numerous pamphlets and papers in the medical journals, Carmichael published: 1. 'An Essay on the Effects of Carbonate of Iron upon Cancer, with an Inquiry into tho Nature of that Disease,' London, 1806; 2nd edit. 1809. 2. 'An Essay on the Nature of Scrofula,' London, 1810 (of which a German translation was published at Leipzig in 1818). 3. 'An Essay on the Venereal Diseases which have been confounded with Syphilis, and the Symptoms which arises exclusively from that Poison,' 4to, 1814. The latter he made in an especial manner his own subject; and his practical views established important improvements in the treatment of those diseases of those diseases, especially in regard to the administration of mercury. His work went through many editions. It was at first severly reviewed in the 'Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal' (xi. 380), the review being ably answered by Carmichael in the same volume.

Carmichael was originally a member of the established church; but in 1825 he joined a unitarian church. He was a handsome man, with a stern cast of countenance; and was all that was admirable in domestic life. He was drowned, on 8 June 1849, while crossing a deep arm of the sea between Clontarf and Sutton on horseback. Among his benefactions by will he left 3,000l. to the College of Surgeons, the interest to be applied as prizes for the best essays on subjects specified in the will. A list of his writings is given in the 'Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science,' ix. 497-9.

[Dublin Medical Press, 4 July 1849, p. 13; Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science, ix. 493-504.]


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