a surname, from the Anglo Saxon Gild-an, to yield or pay (Dutch
Gilde, German Gilde), applied to a society or company
associated as a commercial or trade corporation.
an eminent divine of the 17th century, the son of a wealthy
armourer in Aberdeen, was born in that city in 1586. He received his
education at Marischal college, and was appointed, in 1608, minister
of the parish of King Edward, presbytery of Turriff, In 1617, he sat
in the Assembly held in Aberdeen at which it was resolved that a
liturgy should be prepared for Scotland, a project, however, which was
afterwards abandoned. In 1619 he dedicated his work, “The Harmony of
all the Prophets,’ to the learned Dr. Young, dean of Winchester, a
countryman of his own, through whose influence he was appointed one of
the royal chaplains. About the same time the degree of D.D. was
conferred upon him.
In 1631 Dr.
guild was appointed by the magistrates of Aberdeen one of the
ministers of that city; and, having become patron of the incorporated
trades, he purchased the ancient convent of the Trinity Friars there,
and liberally endowed it as an hospital for decayed workmen, the deed
of the foundation of which was ratified by royal charter in 1633. In
July 1638, when commissioners arrived in Aberdeen to enforce the
covenant, Dr. Guild subscribed it, under certain limitations, implying
a loyal adherence to the king, but o condemnation of episcopal
government. In the same year he was chosen one of the commissioners
from the presbytery of Aberdeen, to the famous General Assembly which
met at Glasgow and formally abolished Episcopacy in Scotland. In the
following March, when an army approached the city, to compel an
unconditional subscription of the Covenant, and the clergy and
professors, rather than consent to it, abandoned their charges, and
clandestinely left the city, Dr. Guild took refuge in Holland, but
soon returned. He now endeavoured to recommend moderation, by
publishing ‘A Friendly and Faithful advice to the Nobility, Gentry,
and Others,’ which, however, attracted no particular attention. In
August 1640, on the deprivation of Dr. William Leslie, principal of
King’s College, Old Aberdeen, for refusing to subscribe the Covenant,
Dr. Guild was chosen in his room, when he made no scruple to sign that
document. On June 27, 1641, he preached his last sermon as one of the
ministers of Aberdeen, in which situation he was succeeded by the
famous Andrew Cant.
In 1651, he
was deposed from the office of principal of King’s College, by a
military commission under General Monk. After this he lived in
retirement in Aberdeen, and chiefly employed his time in writing
theological treatises. In his latter years he also employed himself in
improving the Trades Hospital, and in other works of benevolence. He
died in August 1657, in the 71st year of his age. His
portrait graces the walls of Trinity Hall. His widow transmitted a
manuscript work, which he left, to Dr. John Owen, who published it at
Oxford, in 1659, under the title of ‘The Throne of David, or an
Exposition of the Second Book of Samuel.’ At her death, Mrs. Guild
left an endowment for the maintenance of six students of philosophy,
four scholars at the public school, two students of divinity, six poor
widows and as many poor men’s children. His works are:
Sacrifice of Christian Incense. Lond. 1608.
The only Way
to Salvation; or the Life and Soul of True Religion. Lond. 1608.
Unveiled; or, The Types of Christ in Moses explained. Lond. 1618, 8vo.
Glasg. 1701, 12mo. Reprinted at Edinburgh by A. and C. Black, in 1840.
of all the Prophets concerning Christ’s coming, and the Redemption he
was to accomplish. Lond. 1619, 8vo. 1658, 12mo. Printed along with
Moses Unveiled, &c. 1684.
Fatuus, or the Elf-fire of Purgatory. Lond. 1625.
Annex to the
Treatise of Purgatory, Dedicated to the Earl and Countess of
Glorying in Antiquity, turned to their shame. Inscribed to Sir
Alexander Gordon of Cluny. Lond. 1626, 1627, 8vo.
Battery; or, An Answer to a Popish Pamphlet of Christ’s Descent into
Hell. Aberd. 1630, 12mo.
Address both of Church and Poor to the King. Aberd. 1633, 4to.
against Profanation of the Lord’s Day, especially by Salmon-fishing.
Aberd. 1637, 12mo.
Treatises; viz., an Antidote agaynst Poperie; The Novelty of Popery;
and Errors’ Arraignment. Aberd. 1639, 12mo. The Antidote against
Popery here mentioned, published anonymously, has been attributed to
Dr. Guild, but there is not sufficient evidence that he was the
the Controversies of Religion. Dedicated to the Countess of Enzie.
and Faithful Advice to the Nobility, Gentry, and others. 1639.
Reprinted with Life by Dr. Shireffs. Aberd. 1799, 8vo.
Book opened, being an explication of the Revelations. Aberd. 1656,
of Popery Discovered and chiefly proved by Romanists out of
themselves. Aberd. 1656, 16mo. Dedicated to David Wilkie, dean of
and Application of the Song of Solomon. Dedicated to the Provost,
Magistrates, and Town Council of Edinburgh. London, 1658, 8vo.
An Answer to
a Popish Pamphlet called ‘The Touchstone of the Reformed Gospel,’ made
especially out of themselves. Dedicated to Sir Thomas Mudie, the
provost and other magistrates of Dundee.
of David, or an Exposition of the Second Book of Samuel. Posthumous.
Oxford, 1659, 4to.