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Home


HOME, Earl of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, dating from 1605, possessed by the distinguished family of Home, descended from the ancient and potent earls of Dunbar and March, originally sprung from the Saxon kings of England and the princes or earls of Northumberland. Patrick, second son of Cospatrick, third earl, had a son, William, who, in the early part of the 13th century, took for his second wife his cousin Ada, daughter of Patrick fifth earl of Dunbar and March, and widow of a gentleman named De Courtenay, on her marriage with whom she had obtained from her father, “in liberum maritagium,” the lands of Home in the west of Berwickshire. These lands her second husband became possessed of in her right, and in consequence assumed the name of Home. He also carried the armorial bearings of the earls of Dunbar, being a white lion in a red field, with a green field for difference, as relative to his estate of Greenlaw, which with other lands in Berwickshire had been bestowed on his father by his grandfather, Earl Cospatrick. This William de Home made a grant of various lands to the monastery of Coldstream. He died in 1266.

      His son, William de Home, in many authentic writings styled lord of Home, confirmed in 1268, a grant made by his mother, Ada, to the monastery of Kelso, prior to the year 1240. He had a son, Galfridus or Geoffrey de Home, who was one of the barons who found it expedient to swear allegiance to Edward I. In 1296. The son of this Geoffrey, Roger de Home, had a son, Sir John de Home, a gallant border chieftain, who, from his successful forays across the border, always fighting in a white jacket, acquired from the English, the nickname of “Willie with the white doublet.”

      His son, Sir Thomas de Home, in the reign of Robert the Third married Nicholas Pepdie, heiress of Dunglass, and got with her the lands of that name in Berwickshire. He had three sons, Sir Alexander, who carried on the principal line; David, the first of the family of Wedderburn, ancestor of the earls of Marchmont (See MARCHMONT, earl of); and Patrick Home of Rathburn. He had also two daughters.

      Hitherto this warlike family acknowledged as their feudal lords the earls of March, whose vassals they were. When, however, George earl of March sided with the English against his countrymen, they abandoned his banner, and rallied round the standard of the Douglases. Sir Alexander Home, of Home and Dunglass, fought at the head of his clan at the battle of Homildon, 5th May 1402, against Henry Percy and their former chieftain, George earl of March, but was taken prisoner. On obtaining his liberty he accompanied the earl of Douglas to France, and was slain with him at the battle of Vereuil in 1424. He married Jean, daughter of William Hay of Locharret, ancestor of the marquis of Tweeddale, and had three sons, namely, Sir Alexander, his heir; Thomas, ancestor of the Homes of Tyninghame, the Homes of Ninewells, of which family was David Hume the historian, and other families of the name; and George, progenitor of the Homes of Spott.

      On the forfeiture of the earldom of March in January 1435, the family of Home ceased to be vassals, and became manorial tenants under the crown. As they had risen on the fall of their chiefs, they were often appointed conservators of the peace with England. In 1449, Sir Alexander Home, the eldest son above mentioned, was one of the guarantees of a treaty with England, and warden of the marches. He died in 1456.

      The eldest of his five sons, Sir Alexander Home, was, in 1459, one of the ambassadors extraordinary to treat with the English. On 2d August 1465 he was appointed by the prior and chapter of Coldingham, to the office of ballie of the lands belonging to the convent, an office which had been held both by his uncle and his father, but which, in his case, was made hereditary. The same year he sat in the Estates among the barons. He was created a lord of parliament, by the title of Lord Home, 2d August, 1473, and from 1476 to 1485, he was employed in various negotiations with the English. Using with stringent vigour his power as bailie of Coldingham to make the property of the convent his own, when James III., in 1484, obtained the Pope’s consent to annex the revenues of the priory to the chapel royal at Stirling, he resented this attempt to wrest them from himself by joining, with all his strength, the party of disaffected nobles who had conspired against him, and took an active part in the rebellion that ended in the death of that unfortunate monarch. Lord Home died betwixt 14th May and 16th June 1491. He married firs, Mariota, daughter and heiress of Landales of Landales in Berwickshire; and, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Alexander, master of Montgomery. By the former he had, with a daughter, three sons, namely, Alexander; George, ancestor of the Homes of Ayton; and Patrick, ancestor of the Homes of Fastcastle. By his second wife, he had a son, Thomas Home of Lainshaw, Ayrshire. Alexander, the eldest son, predeceased his father before 1468, leaving two sons, namely, Alexander, second Lord Home, and John of Whiterigs and Ersiltain, ancestor of the present earl and of the Homes of Bassenden, and a daughter, Elizabeth.

      Alexander, second Lord Home, is frequently mentioned in the public records after his grandfather was created Lord Home, under the designation of Alexander home of that ilk. In May 1488, he was one of the ambassadors sent to England by the disaffected nobles, and immediately after the assassination of James III. In the following month, he got the office of steward of Dunbar, and obtained a joint share of the administration of the Lothians and Berwickshire, during the minority of James IV. He was sworn a privy councillor, and constituted great chamberlain of Scotland for life, 7th October 1488. He was served heir to his grandfather in 1492. He had been appointed warden of the east marches for seven years, 25th August, 1489, and at the same time he was nominated captain of the castle of Stirling and governor of the young king. He had committed to him the tuition of the king’s brother, John, earl of Mar, , 10th January 1490. On the 12th of the same month he had a charter of the office of the bailiary of Ettrick forest, and on 28th April 1491, he was appointed by the Estates to collect the king’s rents and dues within the earldom of March and barony of Dunbar. He also obtained various lands in the constabulary of Haddington. In 1493, in accordance with the superstitious feeling of the age, he made a pilgrimage to Canterbury, for which he got a safe-conduct to pass through England, from Henry VII. From 1495 to 1504 he was employed in several negotiations with the English.

      In 1497, when James IV. Invaded England in support of the pretensions of Perkin Warbeck, the Homes formed part of his army on the occasion. After devastating the counties of Northumberland and Durham, James, on learning that a superior force, under the earl of Surrey, was marching against him, slowly retreated into Berwickshire, closely pursued by Surrey, who, in retaliation of his ravages south of the Tweed, overthrew Ayton castle and several other of the strongholds of the Homes, as well as various places belonging to other families in the Merse. Ford, in his dramatic Chronicle of ‘Perkin Warbeck,’ makes Surrey thus taunt the Scots for allowing these places to be demolished:

                        --------------------------------------“Can they
                        Look on the strength of Cundrestine defac’t;
                        The glory of Heydon-hall devasted, that
                        Of Edlinton cast downe; the pile of fulden
                        Overthrowne; and this the strongest of their forts,
                        Old Ayton castle, yielded and demolished,
                        And yet not peepe abroad?”

And in Marmion, Sir Walter Scott makes his hero say,

                        “I have not ridden in Scotland since
                        James backed the cause of that mock prince
                        Warbeck, the Flemish counterfeit
                        Who on the gibbet paid the cheat;
                        Than did I march with Surrey’s power,
                        What time we razed old Ayton tower.”

The second Lord Home died in 1506. He had, by his wife Nicolas Ker of Samuelston, a daughter and seven sons. Of these, Alexander, the eldest, was third Lord Home, and George, the second, was fourth lord; David, the third son, was prior of Coldingham, and William, the second youngest son, was arrested and tried with his elder brother, and executed at Edinburgh, 9th October 1516. The rest died without issue.

      Alexander, third Lord Home, succeeded to the great power and vast estates of his family, and in 1507 was appointed to the office of lord chamberlain. In 1513, in the midst of King James’ preparations for a war with England, Lord Home, as warden of the eastern marches at the head of 8,000 men crossed the border, and after laying waste the country, carried off a large booty of cattle and other property, but was surprised and defeated, with great slaughter, at a pass called the Broomhouse, by Sir William Bulmer. Five hundred of the borderers were slain upon the spot, and their leader compelled to flee for his life, leaving his banner of the field, and his brother, Sir George Home, and 400 men, prisoners in the hands of the English. Incensed at this defeat, James levied one of the finest armies which Scotland ever sent forth, at the head of which he invaded England. The disastrous battle of Flodden was the result. Jointly with the earl of Huntly, Lord Home led the vaward or advance of the Scots army, and commenced the battle by a furious charge on the English right wing under Sir Edmund Howard, which, after some resistance, was thrown into confusion, and totally routed. Although he himself escaped the carnage of that dreadful day, a considerable number of his clan were slain, with Cuthbert Home, the lord of Fastcastle, the baron of Blackadder, David Home of Wedderburn, and his son George. Lord Home has been blamed by some historians, and even accused of cowardice and treachery, for not hastening to the relief of his sovereign when he saw him contending with his nobles against the superior force of the earl of Surrey, and in the utmost danger; but he seems to have been the only leader on the Scots side that acted the part of a prudent general in that fatal battle, and the reserve of the English cavalry rendered it impossible for him to go to the aid of the king, to whose impetuosity of temper and chivalrous valour, as well as to the mistimed and precipitate courage of the main body of the Scots, may be attributed his defeat and death. The subsequent inroads of the English across the border were retaliated by Lord Home with equal promptitude and destructiveness.

      In March 1514, six months after the battle, he was declared one of the standing councillors of the queen-mother, who had been appointed regent, and constituted chief justice of all the territories lying south of the forth. In 1515, when the regency was withdrawn from Queen Margaret and conferred upon the duke of Albany, Lord Home (erroneously styled an earl by Tytler, in several instances, see History of Scotland, vol. v. pp. 76, 108 and 112) joined the party of the queen-mother, and plotted with her and her husband the earl of Angus, with whom he had previously been at deadly feud, to deliver the young king and his infant brother to their uncle the king of England. This intrigue was defeated by the vigilance of the new regent, and on the royal children being demanded from the queen-mother by the authority of the Estates, she named Lord Home as one of the four barons to whom she proposed that the charge of them should be committed. This being deemed an evasion, Albany, among other measures, commanded Home, who was then provost of Edinburgh, to arrest Sir George Douglas, Angus’ brother, which he indignantly refused to do, and under cover of night, fled to Newark, a border tower on the Yarrow. In a private conference with Lord Dacre, the English agent, he now concerted measures of resistance to Albany’s authority, and requested the assistance of an English army. Assembling a powerful force, he commenced hostilities by retaking the castle of Home, which had been seized by the regent, and securing the strong tower of Blacater, on the borders, within five miles of Berwick. To this stronghold, at the head of an escort of forty soldiers, he conveyed the queen-mother, in consequence of which Albany, at the head of a large force, marched into Berwickshire, and after razing Lord Home’s fortlet of Fastcastle, and capturing the castle of Home, he overrun and ravaged his estates. Lord Home afterwards made predatory incursions into Scotland, and Albany, having caused the French ambassador to offer him an amnesty and pardon, with the request of a conference, he agreed to meet the regent at Dunglass, where he was instantly arrested, and committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh, then under the charge of the earl of Arran. He had the address, however, to prevail on Arran, who was his brother-in-law, to let him escape, and to accompany him in his flight to England, whither he was soon after followed by the queen and Angus.

      In March 1516, he made his peace with Albany, and was restored to his possessions; but renewing his intrigues with England, and encouraging disorders on the border, Albany resolved to make an example of him as soon as he got him within his power. Inveigled by the regent’s promise, Home and his brother William imprudently visited the court at Holyrood palace in September 1516, when they were arrested, tried for treason, and convicted. Lord Home was executed on the 8th and his brother on the 9th October, and their heads placed on the tolbooth or public prison of Edinburgh, where they remained till 1521, when their kinsman, Home of Wedderburn, had them taken down, and buried with funeral honours in the Greyfriars churchyard. Lord Home’s title and estates were forfeited to the crown. Soon after, another brother, David Home, prior of Coldingham, was assassinated by the Hepburns. For Albany’s treachery towards his chief, Home of Wedderburn took fearful revenge. Pretending to besiege the tower of Langton in the Merse, he drew Antony Darcy, styled the Sieur de la Beauté, whom Albany had made his lieutenant and warden of the marches, into an ambuscade, and put him to death under circumstances of savage ferocity, on 9th September 1517.

      Lord Home, having only daughters, was succeeded by his brother George, fourth Lord Home, who had at first taken refuge in England, but by means of his kinsman, Home of Wedderburn, was brought back to his own castle of Home, and put in possession of the family estates. He had charters of several lands forfeited by his brother in 1517, and was restored to the title, and to such of the estates as were held by the crown, 12th August 1522. Conciliated by the clemency manifested to their chief, the Homes deserted Angus, whose cause they had hitherto supported, and taking part with the regent, exerted their influenced towards ejecting Prior Douglas from the monastery of Coldingham, in which, however, they were never successful.

      In 1524, when Albany finally left Scotland, Angus usurped the regency, and for his hostility towards himself and his kinsman, Prior Douglas, summoned Lord Home to answer a charge of treason before the Estates, by whom, however, he was acquitted. It would appear that he fought on Angus’ side, in 1526, when an unsuccessful attempt was made by Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch to rescue the young king from his hands, on his return from the borders to Edinburgh. In 1528, after James had made his escape from the Douglases, he assisted the earl of Argyle in expelling Angus from the priory of Coldingham, and driving him across the borders. In the arrests that subsequently took place, Home was one of the border chiefs who were imprisoned for not enforcing the laws against thieves and marauders on the borders. In 1542 he did good service, first, by jointly with the earl of Huntly and at the head of four hundred spears, repulsing at Haddenrig, an incursion of the English under Sir Robert Bowes and the exiled earl of Angus, and, next, by opposing and harassing, with Huntly and Seton, the more formidable army which, in the subsequent October, invaded Scotland under the duke of Norfolk. In the following year he joined the party of Cardinal Bethune, and with Bothwell and Scott of Buccleuch mustered his feudal array upon the borders against the English alliance. In a skirmish with the English at Fanside, the day preceding the battle of Pinkie, 9th September 1547, he was thrown from his horse and severely injured. He was carried to Edinburgh, where he died. His son and heir being at the same time taken prisoner, Home castle, after a stout resistance by Lady Home (Mariota, second daughter and coheiress of the sixth Lord Halyburton of Dirleton) fell into the hands of the protector Somerset, on the 22d of the same month, and was garrisoned by a detachment of his troops. Lord Home had two sons and a daughter.

      Alexander, fifth Lord Home, the elder son, distinguished himself in the campaigns against the English of 1548 and 1549, and retaking his family castle by stratagem, he put the garrison to the sword. He had a charter of the office of bailie of Coldstream, 31st December 1551. He had also the appointment of warden of the east marches, and was one of the Scots commissioners who negotiated the treaty of Upsetlington, 31st May 1559. He supported the Reformation, and sat in the parliament which abolished popery in 1560. In 1565 he attached himself to the party of Mary and Darnley, and in 1566 that unfortunate princess, with a splendid retinue, visited the castles of Home, Wedderburn, and Langton. At this time Randolph, the English ambassador, wrote that it was expected that Lord Home would be created earl of March. He was one of the nobles who signed the bond in favour of Mary’s marriage to Bothwell; but in 1567 he joined the association in favour of the young king, James VI., and in June of that year he was one of those who signed the order for imprisoning Mary in Lochleven castle. After the queen’s escape, he led 600 of the border spearmen against her to the battle of Langside, where, though wounded in the face and leg, he is said to have decided the fortune of the field. In 1569 he deserted the party of the regent and joined the queen’s friends, and on 16th June, 1571, he was taken prisoner in a skirmish with the earl of Morton in the suburbs of Edinburgh. He assisted Kirkaldy of Grange and Maitland of Lethington in holding out the castle of Edinburgh, which, however, surrendered in May 1573, and on 27th October following, he was tried in parliament and convicted of treason, but was pardoned and restored to his estates. He died 11th August, 1575. Melvil says, “He was so true a Scotsman that he was unwinnable to England, to do any thing prejudicial to his country.”

      His son, Alexander, sixth Lord Home, stood high in the favour of King James VI., and in 1589, when that monarch sailed to Denmark to marry the princess Anne, he was named among those nobles to whom the conservation of the public peace was confided. He was very instrumental in suppressing the insurrection of Francis earl of Bothwell in 1592, for which service he had a grant of the dissolved priory of Coldingham. In 1599, being a Roman Catholic, he was sent by the king on a suspicious embassy to the papal court. In 1603, when James VI. Departed for England, he staid a night on his way at Lord Home’s castle of Dunglass, and was accompanied by his lordship to London. He was sworn a privy councillor, and was there naturalized. On 4th March 1605 he was created earl of Home and Lord Dunglass, the patent being to him a and his heirs male whatsoever. He died 5th April 1619.

      His only son, James, second earl of Home, was twice married, but died without issue, in February 1633. He had two sisters. Margaret, married to Lord Doune, afterwards fifth earl of Moray, and Anne, duchess of Lauderdale. These ladies were served heir to him in the greater part of his estates. In him ended the male line of the first son of Alexander, first Lord Home. The titles devolved on the heir male, sir James Home of Coldingknows, the sixth in descent from John Home of Whiterigs and Ersilton, second son of Alexander, master of Home, son of the first lord.

      Sir James Home of Coldingknows, third earl of Home, obtained from Charles I. A ratification of all the honours, privileges, and precedencies formerly enjoyed by the two earls of Home, his predecessors, to him and his heirs male, 22d of May 1636, by patent dated at Hampton court. He joined the association in favour of Charles I., at Cumbernauld, in January 1641, and during the civil wars that succeeded he maintained a steady loyalty. In 1644 he violently dispossessed sir Patrick Hepburn of Waughton, of Fastcastle and the adjacent lands of Wester Lumsdean, for which he was fined in the sum of £20,000 Scots. In 1648 he was colonel of the Berwickshire regiment of foot in the celebrated “Engagement” set on foot by the duke of Hamilton to attempt the rescue of Charles I. His firm adherence to that unfortunate monarch rendered him peculiarly obnoxious to Cromwell, who, in 1650, immediately after the capture of Edinburgh castle, despatched Colonel Fenwick, at the head of two regiments, to seize the earl’s castle of Home. In answer to a peremptory summons to surrender, sent him by the colonel at the head of his troops, Cockburn, the governor of the castle, returned two missives, which are worthy of being quoted for their humour. The first was: “Right Honourable, I have received a trumpeter of yours, as he tells me, without a pass, to surrender Home castle to the Lord General Cromwell. Please you, I never saw your general. As for Home castle, it stands upon a rock. Given at Home castle, this day, before 7 o’clock. So resteth, without prejudice to my native country, your most humble service, T. Cockburn.” The second was expressed in doggerel rhymes, which have long been familiar in the mouths of Scottish children:

            “I, Willie Wastle,
            Stand firm in my castle;
            And a’ the dogs o’ your town
            Will no pull Willie Wastle down.”

Cockburn, however, notwithstanding these two doughty epistles, was obliged to surrender the castle, which was garrisoned by the soldiery of Cromwell.

      In 1661 earl James was reinstated in his estates. He died in December 1666. By his countess, Lady Jane Douglas, fourth daughter of William, second earl of Morton, he had three sons, Alexander, fourth earl, who died, without issue, in 1674; James, fifth earl, who died without issue in 1687; and Charles, sixth earl. The latter was in 1678 imprisoned in Edinburgh castle for his accession to the clandestine marriage of the heiress of Ayton to the laird of Kimmerghame. In 1681 he was chosen a member of the Estates for Berwickshire, but his election was not sustained. He did not concur in the Revolution, and took a principal lead in the opposition to the Union, but died during the pendency of that treaty, 20th August, 1706. Lockhart of Carnwath, in his Memoirs gives a high character of him as a true patriot. With three daughters, he had three sons, Alexander, seventh earl; Hon. James Home of Ayton, who engaging in the rebellion of 1715, had his estate forfeited, and died 6th December 1764, and the Hon. George Home.

      Alexander, seventh earl, was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers at the general election of 1710, and the following year was appointed general of the mint. On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1715, he was committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh, but released at the expiry of the act suspending the habeas corpus bill, 24th June, 1716. He died in 1720. He had six sons and two daughters, most of whom, with Charles, Lord Dunglass, the eldest son, died young. William, the second son, succeeded as eighth, and Alexander, the fifth son, as ninth earl.

      William, eighth earl, a captain in the 3d regiment of foot guards, (commission dated in July 1743) served on the continent, but was in Scotland in 1745 when the rebellion broke out. He joined Sir John Cope at Dunbar in September of that year, and was at the battle of Preston, where he endeavoured, but in vain, to rally the dragoons. Having taken the command of the Glasgow regiment of 600 men, with it he joined the royal army at Stirling on the 12th of the following December. After passing through the subordinate grades, on 29th April 1752 he was promoted to be colonel of the 25th foot, and on 16th April 1757 was appointed governor of Gilbraltar, where he died 28th April 1761, being then a lieutenant-general in the army. He was elected one of the sixteen Scots representative peers at the general elections of 1741, 1747, and 1754, also on 5th May 1761, a week after his death, which was not then known in Scotland. Dying without issue, he was succeeded by his brother, Alexander, ninth earl, a clergyman of the Church of England. This nobleman died at the family seat of Hirsel, Berwickshire, 8th October, 1786. He was thrice married: first, to Primrose, second daughter of Charles, ninth Lord Elphinstone, and by her, who died 18th December, 1759, had a son, William, Lord Dunglass, a lieutenant in the Coldstream regiment of foot guards, which he accompanied to America, and was mortally wounded at the battle of Guildford, 15th March, 1781. He died soon after, unmarried. They had also a daughter, Lady Eleonora Home, married to Major-general Thomas Dundas of Fingask, M.P., who fell a victim to pestilential disease on public service in the West Indies in 1794, and to whose memory a monument was erected by a vote of the House of Commons, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. The earl’s second wife, his cousin, Marion, daughter of the Hon. James Home of Ayton, died without issue, 30th Oct. 1763. By his third wife, Miss Ramey of Great Yarmouth, he had two sons and two daughters. The eldest son died in infancy. Alexander, the second son, became tenth earl. Lady Caroline, the elder daughter, died unmarried 30th April 1794. Lady Charlotte, the younger, married Rev. Charles Baillie, archdeacon of Cleveland and rector of Middleton, 2d son of Hon. George Baillie of Jerviswoode, with issue.

      Alexander, tenth earl, born at Hirsel, 11th Nov. 1769, married Elizabeth, 2d daughter of Henry, third duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, and had three sons: 1. Cospatrick Alexander, Lord Dunglas; 2. William Montagu Douglas, born 22d Nov. 1800, died 22d July 1822; and 3. Henry Campbell, born 1801, died in infancy. His lordship, a representative peer, died 21st October 1841.

      His only surviving son, Cospatrick Alexander Ramsey-Home, 11th earl, born at Dalkeith House 27th October 1799, was under secretary of state for foreign affairs from June 1828 to Nov. 1830, elected a representative peer in 1842, and keeper of the great seal of Scotland from Feb. to Aug. 1852. He married in 1832, Hon. Lucy Elizabeth Montague, eldest daughter and co-heir of the last Lord Montague (a title in the English peerage extinct in 1848), issue, six sons and three daughters. On the death of her cousin, the 4th Lord Douglas, without issue, 6th April 1857, the countess of Home succeeded to his estates, estimated worth £55,000 per annum.

_____

      The Homes of Wedderburn were descended from Sir David Home of Thurston, in East Lothian, second son of Sir Thomas Home of Home. He got from Archibald earl of Douglas a grant of the barony of Wedderburn, county Berwick, in 1413, which received a royal confirmation 19th April 1430. He and his wife, Alice, had an additional charter from the superior, Archibald, 4th earl of Douglas, confirmed by royal charter, dated at Stirling, 16th May 1450. He had a son, David, who predeceased him, leaving two sons, George, who succeeded his grandfather, and Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, immediate ancestor of the earls of Marchmont (See MARCHMONT, earl of), also, of the Homes of Kimmerghame, Castle Hume, &c.

      The grandson, George Home of Wedderburn, was killed by the English near his own house in 1497. His son and successor, Sir David Home, was slain at Flodden, with his eldest son, George. He had seven sons altogether, who were called “the spears of Wedderburn.” The second son, David, inherited the estate. The third son, Alexander Home of Manderston, was ancestor of the Homes, earls of Dunbar, the Homes of Renton, and the family of Home Drummond of Blair Drummond in Perthshire. The fourth son, John, was progenitor of the Homes of Blackadder, who possess a baronetcy. The younger son, Patrick, was styled of Broomhouse.

      The second son, Sir David Home, was the energetic baron of Wedderburn, who revenged the execution of his chief, Lord Home, and his brother, by the assassination of Anthony de la Bastie in September 1517, as above related, when he was assisted by his brothers, John and Patrick. With cockburn of Langton and others who had been accessary to the murder, they were cited to appear before the court of justiciary at Edinburgh on 19th February following, but disregarding the citation, they were declared by parliament rebels and traitors, and their estates confiscated. When the earl of Arran, at the head of a strong force, entered Berwickshire against him, Sir David shut himself up in the castle of Edrington, about three miles from Berwick, and defied all his attempts to take him prisoner. That nobleman at length returned to the capital, after having placed garrisons in the castles of Home, Langton, and Wedderburn. Sir David, however, still possessed so much power in the Merse, that it is stated “none almost pretended to go to Edinburgh, or any where else out of the country, without first both asking and obtaining his liberty.” Blackadder, prior of Coldingham, alone refused to submit to him, and having accidentally met one day while following the chase, they fought with such obstinacy that the prior and his six attendants were slain on the spot. He soon recovered the castles which had been garrisoned by the regent’s forces, his own fortress of Wedderburn being the first that surrendered to him. He and his kinsmen, the Homes of Ayton, Fastcastle, and Manderston, swelled, with their retainers, the forces of the earl of Angus in the famous street encounter, “Cleanse the Causeway,” against the Hamiltons at Edinburgh in 1520. On the return of Albany from France in the following year, with cockburn of Langton and others concerned in the death of De la Bastie, they put their respective fortresses of Fastcastle, Wedderburn, Buncle, and Billie, into a strong condition. They were again declared traitors, but a compromise was, in August 1522, entered into with albany, and as the Homes were restored to their estates, they were thenceforth found on the side of the regent. With three daughters, he had three sons.

      The eldest son, Sir George Home, with his chief, Lord Home, and his kinsmen of Ayton, Renton, and Fastcastle, were among the number of those who were taken prisoners at Solway Moss in 1542. He was slain at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, and was succeeded by his next brother, Sir David. His youngest brother, John, was styled of Crumstane.

      Sir David Home of Wedderburn was taken prisoner at Pinkie. With the Homes of Ayton and Manderston, the latter of whom was slain, he fought under the banners of his chief, against Queen Mary at the battle of Langside. He died in 1574. He had, with three daughters, four sons, namely, George, his heir; David, of Godscroft, the well-known author of a ‘History of the House and Race of Douglas and Angus,’ a memoir of whom is given under Hume.

      The eldest son, Sir George Home of Wedderburn, was appointed warden of the east marches in 1578, and comptroller of Scotland in 1597. He died 24th November 1616. He had an only son, Sir David Home of Wedderburn, slain at the battle of Dunbar in 1650, with his son, George Home, whose son, also named George, inherited the estate, and died before 1715. With a daughter, he had two sons, George, his heir, and Francis Home of Quixwood, from whom the claimant of the Marchmont peerage derives his descent.

      The elder son, George, was put in possession of the family estate in 1695, and engaging in the rebellion of 1715, was taken at the battle of Preston, tried and condemned, but obtained a pardon, and died at Wedderburn in 1720. By his wife, Margaret, eldest daughter of Sir Patrick Home, baronet, of Lumsdean, he had nine children. David, the eldest son, died laird of Wedderburn, in 1762. His next brother, George, having predeceased him in 1758, he was succeeded by the third son, Patrick, who died in 1766. John and James, the two youngest sons, were captains in the royal navy, and both died, unmarried, in 1758, the latter killed in action with the French. Margaret, the eldest daughter, married in 1782, Ninian Home of Billie, and was mother of Patrick Home, who succeeded to the estate of Wedderburn, and was a member of parliament. Isabella, the second daughter, married Alexander Home of Jardinfield, and was mother of Ninian Home of Paxton, in the parish of Hutton, Berwickshire, governor of Grenada, who was murdered there by Fedon, in 1795, and of George Home, who succeeded to the estates of Wedderburn and Paxton, and resided for many years at his seat of Paxton. He was a member of the celebrated literary circle of Edinburgh which included Henry Mackenzie, the author of the Man of Feeling, Lord Craig, &c., and several of his papers appeared in the Lounger and Mirror. Jean, the youngest daughter, married the Rev. John Tod, minister of Ladykirk, and had three sons and three daughters. None of these married except the eldest daughter, Margaret, who, in 1799, became the wife of John foreman, Esq., and died in 1820. With a daughter, Jean, married to the Rev. Dr. Smith, she had three sons, John Foreman Home, burn 29th January 1781, who succeeded to the estate of Wedderburn, and married Mademoiselle Adelaide Rocharde, without issue; William Foreman Home, of Paxton House, born 24th April 1782, married in January 1811, Jean, daughter of the Rev. George Home of Gunsgreen, and had four daughters, of whom the eldest, Jean Foreman, now of Wedderburn and Paxton, married 30th July 1832, David Milne, Esq., eldest son of Admiral Sir David Milne, G.C.B., with issue a son, David, and five daughters. Ninian, the third son, died young.

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      TheHomes of Blackadder are descended from John Home, fourth son of Sir David Home of Wedderburn, and one of “the seven spears.” By his marriage with Beatrix Blackadder, eldest daughter of one of the two heirs portioners of Robert Blackadder of that ilk, he acquired that estate, and was thereafter designed John Home of Blackadder. He had one son, also named John, whose son, Sir John Home, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1671. He distinguished himself much by his loyalty and patriotism. B his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir James Dundas of Arniston, he had two sons, Sir John, his successor, and Sir David.

      The latter, sir David Home of Crossrig, was admitted advocate 3d June 1687, having studied the civil law on the continent, and was amongst the first judges in the court of session nominated by King William at the Revolution. He took his seat on the bench 1st November 1689, by the title of Lord Crossrig, and was appointed a lord of justiciary 27th January 1690. Shortly afterwards he was knighted by King William. In November 1700, he presented a petition to parliament respecting the loss of his papers at the great fire in the meal market. Edinburgh, 5th February of that year. The fire broke out in the lodging immediately under his house, while part of his family were in bed, and his lordship was going to bed, and the alarm was so sudden that he was forced to escape in his night clothes, with his children undressed. Only a small portion of his papers were recovered. In a litter from Duncan Forbes of Culloden to his brother, giving him an account of the fire, he says, “Many rueful sights, such as Corserig naked, with a child under his oxter, happing for his life.” His petition was remitted to a committee of three, upon whose report an act of parliament was passed 31st January 1701, entitled “An act for proving the tenor of some writs in favour of Sir David Home of Crossrig.” The writs related chiefly to the lands of Crossrig, which were adjudged to Sir John Home of Blackadder, and his son James, by Elizabeth Home, &c., of Crossrig, and came afterwards to Lord Crossrig by disposition of the above-mentioned James Home, designed of Greenladean. His lordship died 13th April 1707. He was twice married; his second wife was a daughter of Sir Alexander Swinton of Swinton, by whom he had issue.

      From Lord Crossrig’s eldest surviving son, Mr. Home of Eccles, advocate, author of several works professional and historical, descended the Homes of Cowdenknows, the first of that family, Dr. Francis Home, an eminent physician of Edinburgh, being his grandson. The latter, who was the third son of Mr. Home of Eccles, was born 17th November 1719. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and was among the few who founded the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh. As surgeon of a regiment of dragoons he served in Flanders during the whole of the seven years’ war. After studying for some time at Leyden, at the termination of the war he settled in Edinburgh, and graduated there in 1750. The subject of his inaugural dissertation was the remittent fever, which had prevailed very severely in the army, a treatise yet quoted as one of the best on that disease. In 1768 he was appointed professor of materia medica in the university of Edinburgh, and continued in that chair for thirty years, having contributed, with his eminent colleagues, to maintain the high character of that university as a medical school. He was also one of the king’s physicians for Scotland. He died a bachelor on 15th February 1813, at the advanced age of 94. Dr. Home was the author of several valuable medical works. His ‘Principia Medicinae,’ written in correct and elegant Latin, contains an excellent scientific history of diseases. It went through several editions, and on the continent was soon adopted by several professors as a text-book. He was the first who described the croup as a separate and distinct disease. His works entitled ‘Medical Facts and Experiments,’ and ‘Clinical Experiments, Histories, and Dissertations,’ form valuable collections of very important facts regarding the history of diseases and their treatment. In 1751 he published a treatise on the Dunse Spa, which brought that mineral spring into notice. For a work entitled ‘Experiments on Bleaching,’ he obtained a gold medal from the Honourable board of Trustees for the Improvement of Manufactures in North Britain. It was published in 1756 by request of the Board. His essay on the Principles of Agriculture long continued to be the most scientific account of that most important art, and obtained for him in 1790, when it was founded, the first professorship of agriculture in the university of Edinburgh.

      Lord Crossrig’s elder brother, Sir John Home, 2d baronet of Blackadder, married his cousin, Mary, eldest daughter of Sir James Dundas, 2d of Arniston, and had 2 sons, Sir John, who succeeded him, and William, a colonel in the army.

      The eldest son, Sir John Home, 3d baronet, had, with a daughter, 3 sons. The eldest, Sir John, 4th baronet, had, with a daughter, 4 sons. The eldest, Sir John, 4th baronet, dying without surviving issue, was succeeded by his next brother, Sir James, 5th baronet, who died before 1755. His son, Sir James, a clerk to the signet, had, with a daughter, 1 son, Sir George, 6th Baronet, who early entered the navy, and became vice-admiral. He died at Daruhall in 1803.

      His eldest son, Sir James, 7th baronet, born March 17, 1790, was in the East India Company’s civil service, and died in 1836. He had two sons, Sir John, 8th baronet, born August 4, 1829, who also entered the navy, but died, unmarried, March 26, 1849, and Sir George, 9th baronet, advocate, born Sept. 23, 1832, married, in 1858, Ann Oliphant, only child of Graham Speirs, Esq., Sheriff of Mid-Lothian; captain of the city of Edinburgh volunteer rifles, 1859.

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      The Homes of Renton were descended from Patrick Home of Kill-know, Coldingham, second son of Sir Alexander Home of Maderston, and ancestor of the earls of Dunbar. Patrick obtained the lands of Renton, and other estates, by his marriage in 1558 with Janet, daughter and sole heiress of David Ellem of Renton, sprung from an ancient family in the county of Berwick.

      His son, Sir Alexander Home of Renton, was appointed sheriff principal of Berwickshire in 1616, on the resignation of Alexander earl of Home, and continued in that office till 1621. He was very rigorous against those accused of witchcraft, and as we learn from a letter from his son to Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, sheriff, dated may 15, 1624, burned seven or eight witches at Coldingham. His son, Sir John Home of Renton, was bred to the law. In 1633 he was one of the commissioners in parliament for the county of Berwick. For his adherence to Charles I., his lands and property were pillaged to the value of £8,000 sterling, for which, after the Restoration, he was rewarded with a grant of the crown feu duties payable out of his estate. He was knighted, sworn a privy councillor, and appointed a lord of session, 4th June 1663, and took his seat on the bench, the 20th, with the judicial title of Lord Renton. He was also constituted justice-clerk for life by patent of the same date; and general and master of the ceremonies; his commission for the latter office being dated 10th December 1663. He died in the summer of 1671. According to Wodrow, (vol. i. p. 256), he was one of the greatest zealots for the prelates in Scotland. He married Margaret, daughter of John Stewart, commandator of Coldingham, son of Francis, the turbulent earl of Bothwell, and had three sons, namely, 1st, Sir Alexander Home of Coldingham, whose male line terminated at the death of his grandson, Sir John Home, in January 1788; 2d, Sir Patrick Home of Renton, created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1682. He sat in the Union parliament, and adhered to the protest of the duke of Argyle against that measure. His male line is said to have expired at the death of his grandson, Sir James Home, third baronet, in 1785. 3d, Henry Home of Kames, Berwickshire, whose grandson was the celebrated Henry Home, Lord Kames, of whom a memoir is given below.

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      The old Homes of Kimmerghame and Redhaugh (which lands were exchanged for those of Houndwood and Ferneyside) terminated in an heiress, Elizabeth Home, married first to William Macfarlane Brown of Dalgowrie and Kirkton, and second, on 23d December 1778, to her cousin-german, Robert Robertson of Brownsbank, and Penderguest, Berwickshire. Mrs.  Robertson died 9th July 1785, leaving her estate of Ferneyside to her distant relative, Sir Abram Hume of Wormleyburgh, baronet, and it is now possessed by his descendant, Earl Brownlow, who assumes the name of Hume and Egerton, as heir of line of the marriage of Sir Abram Hume with Amelia, sister of John, earl of Bridgewater, and granddaughter of Henry de Grey, duke of Kent. Robertson of Penderguest, on whose second son the estate of Ferneyside had been settled previously to the deed of Mrs. Robertson in favour of Sir Abram Hume, is represented by Robert Bruce Robertson Glasgow, Esq. of Montgreenan, Ayrshire, Ensign 27th foot, 13th in descent from Alexander, 1st Lord Home.

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      From the Homes of Greelaw castle, also in the county of Berwick, descended Sir Everard Home, baronet, an eminent surgeon, born at Hull 6th May 1746, died at London, 31st August 1832. His sister, Anne Home, authoress of a volume of poems printed at London in 1802, was married in July 1771, to the celebrated anatomist, John Hunter.

      A David Home, a Protestant minister educated in France, was employed by James VI. To reconcile the differences between Tilenus and Duimoulin on the subject of Justification; and if possible to induce the Protestants throughout Europe to agree to one single form of doctrine. His is often confounded with David Hume of Godscroft, to whom some of his works have been ascribed.

      His chief work is, – Apologia Basilica; seu Machiavelli Ingenium Examinatum. Paris, 1626, 4to.

      There are also attributed to him, De Unione Insulae Britannicae, Tractatus. Lond. 1605, 4to.

      Lusus Poetici. Lond. 1605, 4to.

      Le Contr’ Assassin; on Response a l’Apologie des Jesuites. Geneve, 1612, 8vo.

      Lettres et Traictez Chrestiens, pleins d’Instructions et consolations Morales et Sainctes. Bergerac, 1613, 12mo.

      Illustrissimi Principis Henrici, Justa. Lond. 1613, 4to.

      Regi suo, Scotiae Gratulatio. Edin. 1617, 4to.

      L’Assassinat du Roi; on Maximes du Viel de la Montague, Pratiquees en la personne de defunt Henri le Grand. 1617, 8vo.

      Poemata Omnia. Paris, 1639, 8vo.   

      He is likewise the author of several compositions in the Deliciae Poetarum Scotorum.

HOME, or HUME, LADY GRIZEL, better known as lady Grizel Baillie, celebrated for her amiable, prudent, and exemplary conduct as a daughter, wife, and mother, as well as for her poetical talents, was the eldest daughter of the first earl of Marchmont, and was born at Redbraes castle, Berwickshire, December 25, 1665. When only twelve years of age, she acted a most heroic and courageous part on two remarkable occasions. Her father, then Sir Patrick Hume, and that eminent patriot, Mr. Robert Baillie of Jerviswood, were very intimate friends, and on the imprisonment of the latter, Sir patrick sent his daughter Grizel from Redbraes to Edinburgh, to endeavour to convey a letter to Mr. Baillie in prison, and bring back what intelligence she could. In this difficult enterprise she succeeded, and having, at the same time, met with his son, George Baillie, afterwards of Jerviswood, a friendship was formed, which, after the Revolution, was completed by their marriage, on September 17, 1692. During her father’s concealment in the vaults of Polwarth church, she went every night alone at midnight, carrying victuals to him, which, to prevent the suspicions of the servants, she conveyed from off her own plate into her lap, while she was at dinner. In their subsequent exile in Holland, she managed all the family matters, and by her prudent conduct and cheerful disposition lightened the gloom and hardships of their lot. At the Revolution she was offered the situation of maid of honour to the princess of Orange, which she declined, preferring to return to Scotland with her family. Her daughter, Lady Murray of Stanhope, wrote a very interesting account of her life and character, which is appended to Rose’s Observations on Fox’s Historical Work, in 1809, and was also published separately by Thomas Thomson, Esq., Advocate, in 1822. One or two of Lady Grizel Baillie’s ballads were printed in the Tea Table Miscellany, and other collections of Scottish song. One of these is the well-known humorous song, “Were na my heart light I wad dee.’ Lady Murray says, that she possessed a book of songs of her mother’s writing when in Holland, “many of them interrupted, half writ, some broke off in the middle of a sentence,” &c. Lady Grizel died December 6, 1746, in the 81st year of her age. And was buried beside her husband at Mellerstain. An elegant inscription by Judge Burnet, engraved on marble, was placed on her monument. She had one son, who died young, and two daughters, Grizel, married to Sir Alexander Murray of Stanhope, baronet, and Rachel, who became the wife of Charles Lord Binning.

HOME, HENRY, LORD KAMES, a judge distinguished for his profound knowledge of law, and for his numerous legal and metaphysical writings, was born in 1696. He was the son of George Home of Kames, in Berwickshire, and received his education at home, under a private tutor. In 1712 he was apprenticed to a writer to the signet, and assiduously studied the law at Edinburgh, with the view of practising at the bar. In January 1724 he was admitted advocate. In 1728 he published his collection of ‘Remarkable Decisions of the Court of Session from 1706 to 1728,’ which at once brought him into practice. In 1732 appeared ‘Essays on several Subjects in Law;’ and in 1741 ‘Decisions of the Court of Session from its first Institution to the year 1740,’ in the form of a dictionary; to which two volumes were afterwards added by his friend and biographer, Lord Woodhouselee. During the rebellion of 1745 he employed himself in writing ‘Essays upon several Subjects concerning British antiquities,’ which were published in 1747. These subjects are, Introduction of the Feudal Law into Scotland; Constitution of parliament; Honour, Dignity; Succession or Descent, with an Appendix on the Hereditary and Indefeasible Rights of Kings. In 1751 appeared ‘Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion, in two parts.’ The latter work, in which he advocates the doctrine of philosophical necessity, was believed to have a tendency to infidelity, and it was accordingly attacked in two able pamphlets, by the Rev. Mr. Anderson, who also brought the subject before the church courts, but his death soon after put an end to the controversy.

      In February 1752 Mr. Home was raised to the bench of the court of session, when he took the title of Lord Kames. In 1755 he was appointed a member of the board of trustees for the encouragement of the Fisheries, Arts, and Manufactures of Scotland, and shortly after one of the commissioners for the management of the forfeited estates. In 1757 he published, in one volume 8vo, ‘The Statute Law of Scotland abridged, with Historical Notes,’ which has gone through several editions, and is still among the books consulted by practitioners. In 1759, with a view of improving the law of Scotland by assimilating it as much as possible to the law of England, and after corresponding on the subject with Lord-chancellor Hardwicke, he published ‘Historical Law Tracts;’ which was followed in 1760 by a work, with a similar object, entitled ‘The principles of Equity.’ In 1761, quitting professional subjects, he brought out a small volume on the elementary principles of education, styled ‘Introduction to the Art of Thinking,’ which was originally written for the use of his own family. In 1762 he published, in three volumes, his ‘Elements of Criticism,’ a valuable and ingenious work, which, of all others, established his reputation in England.

      In April 1763 Lord Kames was appointed one of the lords of the justiciary court, and uniformly distinguished himself in the trial of criminals by his strict impartiality, diligence, and ability. At all times remarkable for his public spirit, his lordship took an active part in promoting every measure calculated for the improvement of the country. In 1765 he published a small pamphlet on the progress of Flax-Husbandry in Scotland, with the patriotic design of stimulating his countrymen to continue their exertions in a most valuable branch of national industry. In the year following appeared his ‘Remarkable Decisions of the Court of Session from 1730 to 1752;’ which includes the period of his own practice at the bar. In 1772 he produced ‘/The Gentleman Farmer, being an attempt to improve Agriculture by subjecting it to the test of Rational Principles;’ a very useful work, characteristic of the genius and disposition of the author. In 1773 he published, in two volumes, his ‘Sketches of the History of Man,’ containing some curious metaphysical disquisitions concerning the nature and gradations of the human race.

      The subjoined woodcut of Lord Kames is from a portrait by D. Martin, in the Scots Magazine for July 1801 (vol. ixiii.), engraved by Beugo:


[woodcut of Henry Lord Kames]

      Even after he had attained his 80th year, his mind had lost none of its vigour, and he continued his usual pursuits with unabated ardour and perseverance. In 1777 he published ‘Elucidations respecting the Common and Statute Law of Scotland,’ and in 1780, ‘Select Decisions of the Court of Session, from 1752 to 1768.’ He closed his literary labours with ‘Loose Hints upon Education, chiefly concerning the Culture of the Heart,’ published in 1781, when the venerable author had reached his 85th year. He died of extreme old age, December 27, 1782. He had married, in 1741, Agatha, daughter of Mr. Drummond of Blair, by whom, in 1766, he acquired the extensive estate of Blair-Drummond in Perthshire. His son in consequence assumed the name of Home Drummond.

HOME, JOHN, an eminent dramatic poet, the son of Mr. Alexander Home, town-clerk of Leith, of the ancient family of Bassenden, lineally descended from Alexander first Lord Home, was born in the parish of Ancrum, Roxburghshire, September 22, 1722. He was educated at Edinburgh for the Church of Scotland. In April 1745 he was licensed to preach the gospel, and the same year, when the rebellion broke out, he joined a volunteer corps on the side of the government, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Falkirk, but contrived, with some others, to escape from Doune castle, where he was confined. In 1746 he was ordained minister at Athelstaneford, in East Lothian, vacant by the death of the Rev. Robert Blair, author of ‘The Grave.’ Having written a tragedy, named Agis, he went to London in 1749, and offered it to Garrick, then manager of Drury Lane, who refused it. In February 1755 he again visited the metropolis, taking with him his tragedy of Douglas, which was also rejected by Garrick. It was, however, performed at Edinburgh with the most enthusiastic applause, December 14, 1756, the author and several other ministers being present at the first representation. For this bold violation of the rules of clerical propriety, his friends were subjected to the censures of the church, which he himself only escaped by resigning his living in June 1757. By the influence of the earl of Bute, the tragedy of Douglas, the plot of which is taken from the beautiful old ballad of ‘Gil Morice,’ was brought out at London with great success, and became a stock piece. His tragedy of Agis was now acted, but with temporary success, while the siege of Aquileia, another play of his, represented in 1759, was a complete failure. In 1760 he published his three tragedies in one volume, dedicated to the prince of Wales, who, soon after his accession to the throne, granted him a pension of £300 a-year. The sinecure situation of conservator of Scots privileges at Campvere was likewise conferred on him, and, in 1763, he was appointed one of the commissioners of Sick and Wounded Seamen. In 1769 was produced The Fatal Discovery; in 1773, Alonzo; and in 1778, Alfred, tragedies which were all unsuccessful. In 1770 Mr. Home married a lady of his own name, by whom he had no children. In 1779 he removed to Edinburgh, where he spent the latter years of his life. Soon after his return the duke of Buccleuch raised a regiment of Fencibles, in which Mr. Home accepted of a captain’s commission, which he held till the disbandment of the corps on the succeeding peace. In 1802 appeared his History of the Rebellion of 1745, which universally disappointed public expectation. Home died September 5, 1808, in his 86th year. His portrait is subjoined.


[portrait of john home]


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