RUSSELL, a surname
originally English, having the same meaning as Rufus, Rous, and the
French Rousseau, namely red, and derived from colour or complexion.
The family of Russell of
Aden, Aberdeenshire, descends from one Rozel or Russell, an English
baron who accompanied Edward III. to the siege of Berwick and battle of
Halidon Hill in 1333, and settled in Scotland, being designed Russell of
that ilk. IN 1600 Alexander Russell of this family purchased property
near Elgin, and his son, Patrick Russell, who married a sister of
Archbishop sharp, in 1680 bought part of the lands of Moncoffer,
Banffshire, which were sold by his grandson, Alexander Russell, who, on
his part, purchased Aden and other estates in Aberdeenshire.
Of the family of Russell
of Ashiesteel, Selkirkshire, two members have distinguished themselves
by their military services, namely, Colonel #William Russell of
Ashiesteel, who, when lieutenant of the 79th, led the storming party at
the siege of Manilla, and afterwards, as adjutant-general of the Madras
army, was engaged in all the memorable expeditions in India, under
Clive, Coote, Laurence, &c., and his son, (by his wife, a daughter of
John Rutherford, M.D. of Edinburgh,) Major-general Sir James Russell,
born in 1781, who served in the East Indies from 1799 to 1825, commanded
a brigade of cavalry at the battle of Mahedpoor, and in 1837 was
nominated K.C.B. The latter died in 1860. He married in 1834 Katherine,
daughter of Sir J. Hall, Bart., with issue. He was succeeded by his
daughter, Helen Jane Mountstuart.
an eminent physician and naturalist, the son of a lawyer, was born and
educated in Edinburgh. He studied in the university of his native city,
and having taken his degree of M.D. he repaired about 1734 to London.
Shortly after he sailed for Aleppo, and in 1740 was appointed physician
to the English factory there. He soon became the principal practitioner
in the place, being honoured by the particular regard and confidence of
the pasha. He returned to England in 1754, and in 1756 he published his
‘Natural History of Aleppo,’ with a diary of the progress of the plague
in 1742-3-4. In 1759, a vacancy occurring in St. Thomas’ Hospital,
London, Dr. Russell was elected physician to that institution, which
office he retained till his death, November 25, 1768. He contributed
several papers to the Royal and Medical Societies, which will be found
in their Transactions. His works are:
Testamen Medicum et
Medicastrorum audacitate. Edin. 1709, 8vo.
The Natural History of Aleppo and parts adjacent, containing a
Description of the City, and the principal Natural Productions in its
neighbourhood; together with an Account of the Climate, Inhabitants, and
Diseases, particularly the Plague; with the methods used by the
Europeans for their preservation. Lond. 1756, 4to. 2d edition revised,
enlarged, and illustrated with Notes, by his brother, Patrick Russell,
M.D. Lond. 1794, 2 vols. 4to. This valuable history has been translated
into different European languages.
Of a remarkable Marine Production. Phil. Trans. 1762, Abr. xi. 635.
Vorticella Ovifera Lin.
Letter describing the Scammony Plant. Med. Obs. And Inq. i. p. 12, 1755.
Account of two Paralytic Cases. Ib. p. 296.
Cases of Lues Venerea cured by a solution of Corrosive Sublimate. Ib.
ii. p. 88.
Of several Hydatids discharged with the Urine. Ib. iii. p. 146. 1767.
Experiments made with the Decoction of Mezereon in Venereal Nodes. Ib.
Case of almost universal Emphysema. Ib. p. 397.
An Essay on his Character. Lond. 1770, 4to.
M.D., a younger brother of the preceding, was born at Edinburgh in 1726.
After completing his medical studies at the university of that city, he
went out to Aleppo, where he resided with his brother, whom he
succeeded, in 1754, as physician to the British factory there. During
his residence at Aleppo, the great plague of 1760 and the two following
years broke out in Syria; and his quarto Treatise on the subject,
published in 1791, some years after his return to England, contains an
historical and medical account of the disease in all its varieties.
Besides superintending the publication of an enlarged edition of his
brother’s ‘Natural History of Aleppo,’ in 1796 he published an account
of the Indian serpents collected on the coast of Coromandel. He was a
fellow of the Royal Society, and contributed various articles to the
Transactions of that body. He died July 2, 1805. His works are:
A Treatise on the Plague,
containing an Historical Journal, and Medical Account of the Plague at
Aleppo in the years 1760-1-2; also, Remarks on Quarantines, Lazarettoes,
and the administration of Police in times of Pestilence. With an
Appendix, containing Cases of the Plague, and an Account of the Weather
during the Pestilential Season. Lond. 1791, 4to.
An Account of the Indian Serpents, collected on the Coast of Coromandel,
containing descriptions and drawings of each Species; together with
Experiments and Remarks on their several Poisons. Lond. 1796, fol. Lond.
1801-5, 2 parts, 4to.
Of the late Earthquakes in Syria. Phil. Trans. xi. 1760, 437.
On the Inoculation in Arabia. Ib. 1768, xii. 529.
Account of the Tabasheer. Ib. 1790, xvi. 653.
Observations on the Orifices found in certain Poisonous Snakes, situated
between the Nostril and the Eye; with Remarks, by Everard Home, Esq.,
F.R.S. Ib. 1804, 70.
Remarks on the voluntary Expansion of the Skin of the Neck, in the Cobra
de Capello, or Hooded Snake of the East Indies; with a Description of
the Structure of the Parts which perform that office. Ib 353.
An Account of two Cases, showing the existence of the Small-Pox and the
Measles in the same person at the same time; and an Account of a Case of
Ague in a Child in Utero. Trans. Med. And Chir. ii. p. 90, 1800.
an able historian, poet, and miscellaneous writer, eldest son of
Alexander Russell and Christian Ballantyne, was born in 1741 at
Windydoors, a farm-house in Selkirkshire. He was educated at the school
of Innerleithen and Edinburgh, and was bound apprentice to the
book-selling and printing business. About 1763 he published at Edinburgh
a ‘Collection of Poems,’ which seems to have attracted some temporary
attention, and recommended him to the notice of Lord Elibank.
In May 1767 Russell set
out for London, and became corrector of the press to Mr. Strahan. In
1769 he was appointed overseer of the printing office of Brown and
Adlard. He published various pieces in prose and verse, and in 1779
brought out the first and second volumes of his ‘History of Modern
Europe,’ the work by which he is best known. The three volumes which
complete ‘The History of Modern Europe’ made their appearance in 1784.
He died in 1793. His works are:
Collection of Modern
Poems. Printed at Edinburgh about 1763.
An Ode to Fortitude. Lond. 1769, 4to. Reprinted at Edinburgh same year.
Sentimental Tales. 1770.
Collection of Fables, Moral and Sentimental, in Verse. Lond. 1772, sm.
Essay on the Character, Manners, and Genius of Women; from the French of
M. Thomas. 1772.
Julia; a Poetical Romance. 1774.
The History of Modern Europe; with an Account of the Decline and Fall of
the Roman Empire, and a View of the Progress of Society from the 5th to
the 18th century; in a series of Letters from a Nobleman to his son.
Lond. 1779, 2 vols. 8vo. Part II., from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648,
to the Peace of Paris 1763; with a View of the Progress of Society
during the present century; in a series of Letters from a Nobleman to
his Son. Lond. 1784, 3 vols. 8vo. The first of these was anonymous, but
the author in the last subscribed his name, in the Dedication to the
duke of Bedford. An enlarged and improved edition of the two parts
conjoined was published, 1786, 5 vols. 8vo. New edition in 6 vols, 8vo;
the last volume written by Dr. Coote.
The History of America, from its first Discovery by Columbus, to the
conclusion of the late War. Lond. 1779, 4to.
The Tragic Muse. 1783. A just compliment to the abilities of Mrs.
The History of Ancient Europe; with a View of the Revolutions in Asia
and Africa; in a series of Letters to a young Nobleman. Lond. 1793, 2
Besides the above Dr.
Russell wrote an immense number of Articles for the Various London
Magazines, which, if collected, would form several volumes. He also left
a great many unfinished Productions, which have not been printed.
A Life of him, by Irvine,
was published in 1801, 12mo.