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Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil, from Spanish and Portuguese Domination
By Thomas Cochrane, Tenth Earl of Dundonald (1859)


Preface

The first of these volumes forms a history of the consolidation of Chilian independence, and of the subsequent liberation of Peru--through the instrumentality of the Chilian squadron under my command; a service which called forth from the Governments and people of the liberated states the warmest expressions of gratitude to the naval service collectively, and to myself personally, as having planned and conducted the operations whereby these results were attained.

It records also the strangely inconsistent fact that--beyond these marks of national approbation--neither Chili nor Peru ever awarded to the squadron or myself any more substantial reward--though, in a pecuniary sense, deeply indebted to us; for, during the greater portion of the war of independence, the subsistence of the crews, and the repairs and equipment of the Chilian squadron were solely provided for by our own exertions, without cost to the Government; since, in addition to the capture of Spanish ships-of-war and merchant vessels--money, provisions, and stores to a great extent fell into our hands; all of which--though our own stipulated right--were voluntarily devoted to state exigencies, in the full conviction that, at the expiration of the war, the value of our sacrifices would, as a point of national honour, be returned to us by Chili. As regards Peru, our still unpaid for captures of ships-of-war formed her first naval force, for which the only requital has been, a vote of her first National Assembly--almost its inaugural act--ascribing to me the double praise of her liberation from the Spanish yoke, and of her subsequent deliverance from an intolerable military tyranny.

The volume contains another point, which forms a yet stranger sequel to my services on the Western shores of South America. After the expiration of thirty years, Chili granted me the absurdly inadequate sum of L.6,000 in full of all my claims! And this, with the knowledge that, after my return to England I was involved in litigation on account of the legal seizure of vessels under the orders of her former Government--by which I was subjected to a loss, directly and indirectly, of more than three times the amount. The Chilian portion of this history, therefore, resolves itself into the fact, that not only did I reap no reward whatever, for the liberation of Chili and Peru, but that the independence of both countries was achieved at a heavy pecuniary sacrifice to myself! in compensation for which, as well as for my recognised services--Chili has thought its national honour sufficiently vindicated by allotting me one-third of my losses only, without other compensation of any kind! I regret to add, that my necessities at the time, arising for the most part from the pecuniary difficulties to which I had been subjected on Chilian account, compelled me to accept the amount tendered.

The second volume is of a character somewhat similar. It narrates the circumstances under which--by promises the most inviting, and stipulations the most binding--I was induced to accept the command, or rather organization of the first Brazilian navy. It details the complete expulsion of all Portuguese armaments, naval and military, from the Eastern shores of the South American Continent, by the squadron alone, wholly unaided by military co-operation; in the course of which arduous service, ships of war, merchant vessels, and valuable property to the extent of several millions of dollars were captured under the Imperial order, and their value--in spite of previous stipulations--refused to the captors, on the falsely assumed ground that the provinces liberated were Brazilian--though a Brazilian military force had been recently beaten in an attempt to expel the Portuguese--and though these provinces were, at the period of my assuming the command, in the uninterrupted occupation of the very Portuguese fleets and armies afterwards expelled, it was falsely pretended that the property captured was not enemy's property--though expressly described as such in numerous Imperial decrees--and more especially by the instructions given to me by His Imperial Majesty to seize or destroy it wherever found.

It was, in short, subsequently decided by a Court of Admiralty--for the most part composed of Portuguese members, acting under the influence of a Portuguese faction in the Administration--that neither myself nor the squadron were entitled to the prizes made--though most inconsistently, the same tribunal condemned the ships of war taken--as "droits" to the crown--for which, compensation was awarded to the squadron by His Imperial Majesty, but never paid by the ministers to whom the order was directed.

Not to anticipate the contents of the volume devoted to Brazilian affairs. It being found after the expulsion of the enemy, that the stipulations made with myself were too binding to be easily set aside, several futile attempts were made to evade them, but this being found impossible, the unworthy expedient was resorted to of summarily dismissing me from the service, after the establishment of peace with Portugal--an event entirely consequent on my individual services. By this expedient--of the rectitude or otherwise of which the reader will be able to judge from the documentary evidence laid before him--I was got rid of without compensation for my claims, which for thirty years were altogether repudiated; but, at the expiration of that period, fully recognised as having been due from the beginning! The Brazilian Government, however, satisfied its own sense of justice by awarding me less than one-half the simple interest of the amount stipulated in my patents; thus retaining the whole of the principal admitted to be due.

The preceding remarks form a synopsis of my career on both sides of the continent of South America; the narrative, where dispute might arise, being carefully founded on, and in all cases accompanied by documentary evidence, which admits neither dispute nor contradiction.

The trifling amount awarded by Chili, would probably not have been granted at all, but for the earnest remonstrance of Lord Palmerston, warmly seconded by the efforts of the Hon. Mr. Jerningham, British Minister to the Chilian Republic, by whose joint exertions the Government was induced to admit--that national honour was involved in fulfilling national obligations; though an infinitesimal view of either the one or the other was certainly taken when awarding me the insignificant sum previously mentioned.

In Brazil the case was somewhat different. It is to His present Imperial Majesty, Don Pedro II. that I owe any investigation of my claims, by the appointment of a Commission (Seccoes), which reported that they ought never to have been withheld, as being my stipulated right. But even the limited amount awarded in consequence of this decision, was on the point of being further diminished one half by its projected payment in a depreciated currency--and, had it not been for the intervention of Lord Clarendon, and of the Hon. Mr. Scarlett, British Minister at Rio de Janeiro, of whose zealous exertions in my favour I cannot speak too warmly--this further injustice would have been perpetrated without the knowledge or sanction of His present Imperial Majesty.

It may be asked, why--with the clear documentary evidence in my possession--and now adduced--I have for so many years endured an amount of obloquy and injustice, which might at any time have been set aside by its publication? The reply is obvious. The withholding of my claims by the Governments of both sides the South American Continent, and the ruinous expense to which I was put on account of Chili, entailed upon me many years of pecuniary difficulty. To have told even the truth--unbacked as I then was, by the British Government--would have been to have all my claims set at defiance, so that compulsory discretion was a sufficient reason for my silence. It was long before I could induce a British Minister to satisfy himself of the rectitude of my conduct--the soundness of my claims--or the dishonesty of those who, believing me to be powerless, laughed at reiterated demands for my stipulated rights. Yet more I have never sought from those to whom I gave liberty and dominion.

There is, however, a reason for the present publication, of which I have never lost sight. Amidst all the injustice which it has been my lot to sustain, I have ever determined--for the sake of my family--to whom my character is an heir-loom--that no obloquy shall follow me to the grave, for none have I merited. On the day these volumes see the light, this resolution will be partially fulfilled. On that day I shall have completed the eighty-third year of a career strangely chequered, yet not undistinguished; and, therefore, the opinions of either Chilians or Brazilians are now of small moment to me in comparison with a reputation which has been demmed worthy of belonging to history. None of the present ruling powers in either Chili or Brazil can possibly be offended with me for giving a guardedly temperate documentary narrative of what must hereafter form the basis of their national annals. I do not for a moment contemplate that men of enlightened views such as now direct the affairs of both countries have either part or sympathy with self-interested adventurers who in popular revolutions too often rise to the surface, and for a time make confusion worse confounded; till replaced--as a matter of course, no less than by necessity--by men of greater grasp of mind and more exalted aspirations.

But this is as it maybe--my reputation as a British seaman is to me of the highest moment, and it shall not be sullied after my death by the aspersions of those who wilfully revenged the thwarting of their anti-Imperial designs, by imputations which can alone enter into the minds of men devoid of generous impulses and therefore incapable of appreciating higher motives. I have not followed their example, but where it is necessary to bring forward such persons--they will be viewed through the medium of their own documents, which are incontestible and irresistible, and which would as easily convict me of untruth as they convict my maligners of practices unworthy the honour of a nation.

To my own countrymen these volumes can scarcely be matter of indifference; though, perhaps, few reflect that the numerous fleets of British merchantmen which now frequent both shores of South America, are the consequence of the deliverance of these vast territories from an exclusive colonial yoke. It is true that England had previously formed a treaty with Portugal, permitting English vessels to trade to her South American Colonies, but such was the influence of Portuguese merchants with the local governments, that it was nearly inoperative; so that, practically, the Portuguese were in the exclusive possession of that commerce which my expulsion of the fleet and army of the mother country unreservedly threw open to British enterprise. The same, even in a higher degree, may be said with regard to Chili and Peru.

Yet, scarcely had my mission to Chili become known, than the influence of Spain induced the British Ministry to pass a "Foreign Enlistment Act," the penal clauses of which were evidently aimed at me, for having entered into the service of unacknowledged governments without permission--though I had shortly before been most unjustly driven from the service of my native country.

In blind animosity towards me, my former English persecutors failed to perceive the advantage to British commerce, of freeing both sides of South America from lingering war and internal dissension. An amusing instance of this occurred on my return to England. Having occasion to wait upon the then Attorney-General relative to a patent which I had in hand, he brusquely inquired "whether I was not afraid to appear before him?" On my replying that "I was not aware of having reason to fear appearing in the presence of any man," he told me the question had been officially put to him, whether I could be punished under the "Foreign Enlistment Act," for the part I had taken in the liberation of Chili, Peru, and Brazil? To this I replied, that "if Government was indiscreet enough further to persecute me for having thrown open to British commerce the largest field for enterprise of modern times, they could take what steps they chose, for that I, having accepted service in South America before the passing of the Act, was not afraid of the consequences of having infringed its provisions." It is almost needless to say that no such prosecution was instituted, though the will was good, despite the national benefits conferred.

I will not enter farther into the subject in a preface to volumes which themselves form only a summary of events in which I was a principal actor, but at the same time, one, which I hope will prove satisfactory and decisive. It would have been easy to have dilated the narrative, but my object is solely to leave behind me a faithful record of events which must one day become history, and there is no history like documentary history.

To those high personages who have advocated my cause with other nations, the present volume will give satisfaction, as affording additional proof that their advocacy rested upon no visionary basis. To the members of the press, who have adopted the same views, this exposition will be equally satisfactory. To all these I owe the thanks of recognising in me, a love for that service, from which--for a time I was unjustly expelled. It is my intention, if God spare my life, to add to these Memoirs a narrative of my former experience in the British navy, and, what may be of greater utility, an exposition of that which, from jealousy and other causes no less unworthy, I was not permitted to effect. To these I shall add a few remarks upon my connexion with the liberation of Greece, developing some remarkable facts, which have as yet escaped the notice of historians. These reminiscences of the past will, at least, be instructive to future generations and if any remarks of mine will conduce to the permanent greatness and security of my country, I shall deem the residue of my life well spent in recording them.

At my advanced age, such a task as that now partially executed, would, perhaps, have presented insuperable difficulties, but for the assistance rendered me by Mr. Earp, who, with great perseverance, has unravelled--what, in the lapse of time, had become the almost inextricable confusion of my papers. That, however, has, with his assistance, been accomplished in such a way as to base upon original documents every incident contained in the work--the more important of these documents being adduced, so as to admit of neither doubt nor question. The same course will be pursued in the forthcoming English portion of my career, with a result, I trust, equally clear and convincing.

DUNDONALD.

Contents - Volume I

Chapter I.
Invitation to take command of Chilian Navy--Arrival at Valparaiso--First expedition to Peru--Attack on Spanish shipping at Callao--Departure for Huacho--Capture of Spanish convoys of money--Paita taken--Return to Valparaiso to reorganise the squadron--Offer to give up my share of prize money to the Republic--This offer declined by the Supreme Director--Popular congratulations--Attempt on Lady Cochrane's life.

Chapter II.
Second expedition to Peru--Disappointment at not being provided with troops--Failure of rockets--Departure for Arica--Capture of Pisco--Capture of Spanish ships at Puna--Determine to make an attempt on Valdivia--Arrival off that port, and capture of Spanish brig of war Potrillo--Troops obtained from Conception--Flag-ship nearly wrecked--Attack on forts, and conquest of Valdivia.

Chapter III.
Departure for Chiloe--Preparations of the enemy--Capture of Fort Corona--Failure at Fort Aguy, and subsequent retreat--Return to Valdivia--Capture of Osorio--Return to Valparaiso--Enthusiastic reception--Chagrin of the ministry--Importance of conquest of Valdivia in a political point of view--Promotion of officers under arrest--Employment of Indians by the Spaniards--Career of Benavides--Mutinous spirit of the seamen in consequence of their captures being appropriated by Government--Resignation of my commission--Refusal thereof--Renewed offer of an estate--This again declined--Seamen obtain their wages--Private purchase of an estate--Government gives notice of taking it--Appointment of flag captain against my wishes--Annoyance given to me by Minister of Marine--Renewed resignation of the command--Officers of the squadron resign in a body--Government begs of me to retain the command--My consent--General San Martin--The Senate--Zenteno--Corruption of parties in the Administration.

Chapter IV.
Obstacles to equipping the squadron--Sailing of the liberating expedition--Debarcation at Pisco--Long inaction of the army--General San Martin removes to Ancon--Capture of the Esmeralda--Exchange of prisoners--Acknowledgment of the service by General San Martin--Lady Cochrane's visit to Mendoza.

Chapter V.
San Martin's violation, of truth--Removal of blockade--Spanish depression--Troops dying of fever--San Martin's designs on Guayaquil--Mutinous conduct of officers--Refusal to obey orders--Deposition of Viceroy--San Martin gives me troops--Jealousy of San Martin--Attack on Arica--Capture of Tacna--Capture of Moquega--Refusal of more men--an armistice ratified--Distress of Lima--Dissatisfaction of the army--Lady Cochrane in action--Devotion of seamen.

Chapter VI.
Return to Callao--Lima abandoned--Hesitation of General San Martin to occupy the City--Loss of the San Martin--Excesses of the Spaniards--Proclamation of independence--San Martin assumes autocratic power under the title of Protector--My remonstrance--His reply--Mutinous state of the squadron from neglect.

Chapter VII.
Tampering with Chilian officers--The Archbishop of Lima--His expulsion--Negociation for surrender of the Forts--This counteracted--San Martin's bombastic Proclamations--His refusal to encounter the enemy--The Spaniards relieve Callao--Delusive proclamation--The unblushing falsehood--Spaniards carry off the treasure--Discontent of the squadron.

Chapter VIII.
Prolonged destitution of squadron--The men mutiny in a body--The seamen's letters--San Martin sends away the public treasure--My seizure of it--Private property restored--San Martin's accusations against me--The squadron paid wages--Attempt on the officers' fidelity--I am asked to desert from Chili--Ordered to quit on refusal--Monteagudo's letter--My reply--Justification of seizing the treasure--- No other course possible.

Chapter IX.
Arrival at Guayaquil--Address to Guayaquilenos--Injurious monopolies--Ministerial folly--Departure from Guayaquil--Arrival in Mexico--Anchor at Acapulco--Mock Ambassadors--Plot against me--Return to Guayaquil--Venganza taken possession of--Agreement with Junta--General La Mar--Orders to withhold supplies--Abominable cruelty--Courtly splendour--Destruction of a division of the Army--Dissatisfaction of officers--Renewed overtures from San Martin--Their refusal by me--Warning to the Chilian Government.

Chapter X.
Return to Valparaiso--Thanks of the Government--Reasons for satisfaction--Illegitimate trade--Turned to good account--Denunciation of Officers deserted--Investigation of accounts--San Martin's charges against me--My refutation--Government refuses its publication--Cruelty to Spanish prisoners--Retirement to Quintero--Political fruits of our success--Destitute condition of squadron--Infamous attempt to promote dissatisfaction therein--Object of this course--Steps taken to defeat it--Disavowed by the Minister--Sympathy of officers--Attempt to get rid of Gen. Freire--Its eventual result--Letter of the Captains.

Chapter XI.
Negociations with Bolivar--Exile of Monteagudo--Complaints of the Limenos--Extravagance of the Government--Exculpation of San Martin--Effects of popular dissension--Disagreement of Bolivar and San Martin--Vote of Peruvian Congress--Extraordinary neglect of the Chilian Squadron--San Martin's arrival at Valparaiso--I demand his trial--Countenance of the Supreme Director--Squadron at length paid wages--Revolt of Conception--General Freire apprises me of it--Freire asks for my support--His letter not replied to--San Martin's influence.

Chapter XII.
The squadron taken from me--I accept invitation from Brazil--Letter to the Supreme Director--San Martin quits Chili--His prudence--Opinion of his Aide-de Camp--Ministerial neglect--Permission to quit Chili--Letter to General Freire--For the first time made public--Letter to the Captains and Officers--To the Chilian people--To the foreign merchants--To the President of Peru--San Martin actuated by revenge--This shewn from his letters.

Chapter XIII.
Freire marches on Valparaiso--Elected Supreme Director--He begs of me to return--My reply--Subsequent letter to General Freire.

Chapter XIV.
Injustice to the squadron--Inconsistency of this--Estate taken from me--My losses by litigation--Endeavours to enforce my claims--Petty excuses for evading them--I am charged with expenses of the Army--And with costs for making legal captures--My conduct approved at the time---Ministerial approbation--Paltry compensation at length given--Ministerial corruption--Proved by San Martin--Cause of official animosity to me--Conclusion.

Appendix

Contents - Volume II

Chapter I.
Brazilian and Portuguese factions--Don Pedro ordered to quit Brazil--Appointed "Perpetual Protector"--Proclaimed Emperor of Brazil--Efforts to obtain foreign officers and seamen--The naval command offered to me--Acceptation thereof--Arrival at Rio de Janeiro--Visit of inspection to the squadron--Condition of the vessels--Inferiority of seamen--Imperial affability--Attempt to evade the terms offered me--This failing, to reduce the value of my pay--Pretended commission conferred--And refused--The point argued--I decline the command--The Prime Minister gives in--Explanatory Portaria--Formal commission--Orders to blockade Bahia--Portuguese faction--Averse to me from the outset.

Chapter II.
Attempt to cut off the enemy's ships--Disobedience to orders--Letter to the Prime Minister--Worthlessness of the men--Their treachery--Blockade established--Equipment of fireships--Enemy's supplies cut off--Portuguese untrustworthy--Demonstrations of the enemy--His pretended contempt for us--The enemy returns to port--Their consternation at the fireships--Portuguese contemplate attacking us--Flagship reconnoitres enemy at anchor--Excessive alarm at my nocturnal visit--Proclamation of the Commandant--Consternation in the city--The authorities decide on evacuating Bahia--Instructions to the Brazilian Captains--Warnings addressed to the authorities--Enemy quits Bahia--Readiness for chase--Numbers of the enemy--Capture of the Convoy--Prizes disabled--Attempt of troops to escape--Prizes sent to Pernambuco--Pursuit discontinued--Reasons for going to Maranham--Reasons for not taking more prizes--Advantages to the Empire.

Chapter III.
Capture of the Don Miguel--Summons to the authorities--Reasons for threats held out--Proposals for capitulation--Proclamations--Terms granted to Portuguese garrison--Declaration of Independence--Portuguese troops ordered to embark--Symptoms of disobeying the order--Delight of the people on becoming free--Election of a Provisional Government--Letters to the Minister of Marine.

Chapter IV.
Captain Grenfell sent to summon Para--The Junta demands the prize property--My refusal--Imperial approval of my services--Realisation of prize property--Turi Assu sends in its adhesion--Money captured lent to the Junta--Its return to the squadron expected--Possession taken of Para--Insurrection at Para--Misconduct of the Maranham Junta--Their persecution of the Portuguese--Steps in consequence--Manifestation of the national delight--The Marquisate conferred on me--Vote of thanks by the Assemblea Geral--My arrival at Rio de Janeiro--Satisfaction with my services--Lady Cochrane joins me.

Chapter V.
First effort to curtail the Imperial power--Portuguese intrigue--Dismissal of the Andradas--The Assembly dissolved by force--Exile of the Andradas--Letter to his Imperial Majesty--My advice partly adopted--and causes ministerial enmity towards me--Ratification of my patent--I demand the adjudication of prizes--Letter to the Minister of Marine--Offer of personal advantage to foreign claims--Squadron remained unpaid--I am appointed a Privy Councillor--The prize vessels plundered--Shameful treatment of Captain Grenfell--Troubles in Pernambuco--Hostility of the Prize Tribunal--Condemns me to the restitution of prizes--Forbids making any capture at all.

Chapter VI.
Remonstrance against decree of Prize Tribunal--Settlement of prize question by the Emperor--His Ministers refuse to conform to it--Obstacles thrown in the way of equipment--My services limited to the duration of war--My remonstrance on this breach of faith--Ministers refuse to pay the squadron anything--A fresh insult offered to me--Offer to resign the command--My resignation evaded--Letter to the Prime Minister--Letter to the Minister of Marine.

Chapter VII.
Ministerial malignity towards me--Dangers in Pernambuco--Portuguese threats--My advice thereon--Failure in Manning the squadron--Plot formed to search the flagship--Timely warning thereon--I demand his Majesty's interference--Which was promptly granted--Protest against prize decisions--My advice sought as regards Pernambuco--Letter to his Imperial Majesty--Pointing out the annoyance practised--And tendering my resignation--The Emperor's intervention--His Ministers neglect to fulfil his engagement--Confirmation of my previous patents--But with an unjustifiable reservation--Prize money devoted to advance of wages--Proofs thereof--Baseless imputations on me--Extracts from log--Further distribution of prize money.

Chapter VIII.
Republican Government proclaimed at Pernambuco--Its Concordat--The President Carvalho--Threat of Bombardment--A bribe offered to me and refused--The revolt admitted of palliation--It was fast becoming general--Intimidation ineffectual--The revolutionists expect Foreign aid--Pernambuco taken possession of--- Payment of prize money--The accounts rendered in due course--Orders to put down revolt at Para--Character of the revolution--Difficulty in finding proper Governors--Revolt at Ceara--Steps taken to suppress it--They prove successful--The insurgent leader killed--Measures for preserving tranquillity.

Chapter IX.
Arrival at Maranham--Character of disturbances there--I assume the military command--Proclamation commanding surrender of arms--Condition of the people--Corruption of the authorities--Murderous propensities--Difficulty in detecting assassins--Letter to Minister of Marine--Pacification of Parahyba--Doubts as to the President's sincerity--He establishes secret agencies--Extraordinary memorials--Public complaints of the President--Bruce endeavours to intercept them--My reply to the memorialists--Letter to the Minister of Marine--Enclosing complaints of the Consuls--Bruce prepares to resist my authority--Complaints of the British Consul--He considers my presence necessary--Letter of the French Consul--Detailing shameful atrocities--Danger of collision with foreign states--Suspension of the President--Provision for future Government--Conduct of the faction at Rio de Janeiro--No instructions sent for my guidance--Letter to the Minister of Marine--The Ministry had previously deposed Bruce--But turned on me for anticipating their own act.

Chapter X.
Misrepresentations made in England--Letter to the Emperor--Tendering my resignation--Repayment demanded from the Junta--Conduct of the Prize Tribunal--No adjudication of prizes intended--Letter to the interim President--Demanding the sums owing to the squadron--Disturbance in Para--Statement of Account to the Junta--Offer of compromise--Imperial decree--Right of the squadron to the claim.

Chapter XI.
Imperial approval--Continued enmity of the Administration--Junta refuses to pay the squadron's claim--I persevere in the demand--Junta agrees to pay the amount in bills--This refused--Arrival of a new President--But without authority for the assumption--Intrigues to establish him in office--I order him to quit the province--And send him to Para--Letter to the President of Ceara--International animosities--The squadron left to provide for itself--Abuse of authority--Explanations to Minister of Marine--Of transactions at Maranham--Letter to Carvalho e Mello--Anticipating ministerial displeasure--The Junta reimburses part
of its debt.

Chapter XII.
I quit Maranham for a cruise--Bad state of the frigate--Connivance at illicit trade--We are compelled to proceed to England--The frigate reported to the Brazilian Envoy--Who cheats me of L2,000--His assumption that I had abandoned the service--My contradiction thereof--Order to return to Rio--Reasons for not doing so--Brazilian Envoy tampers with my Officer--Who acquaints me therewith--Envoy stops pay and provisions--Declares that the Brazilian Government will give me nothing!--Captain Shepherd's reply--I prepare to return to Rio--The Envoy dismisses me from the service--Without reason assigned--He declares that I voluntarily abandoned the service--Receipts for accounts transmitted to Brazil--These denied to have been sent.

Chapter XIII.
I am dismissed the service by the Brazilian Government--Without any acknowledgment of my services--Inconsistency of this with former thanks--Though dismissed I am tried as a deserter--And am refused all compensation--Report of recent Commission on the subject--False representations--But partially true conclusions--My original patents never set aside--Untrue assumptions as to my dismissal--My claims founded on the original patents--Less than half the interest due paid--Opinions of eminent Brazilians thereon--My services tardily acknowledged--No act of mine had annulled them--The Estate conferred, not confirmed--Promises on account of Chili unfulfilled--The whole still my right.

Chapter XIV.
Proclamation for payment of Officers and Men--Log extracts in proof thereof--The sum given up to the squadron disbursed--Denial thereof by the Brazilian Government--Though made to serve as advance of wages--The amount received at Maranham--Fully accounted for--By the receipts of the Officers--Officers' receipts--Extracts from log in further corroboration--Up to my arrival in England--All our prizes, monopolized by Brazil--The conduct of the Brazilian Government unjustifiable.


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