Highlanders of Waipu
Chapter XV - Arrival of the "Gertrude"
Immediately upon their settlement at Waipu the people
wrote their friends at St. Ann’s, Nova Scotia. They described the new
country in which they had found a home as "The Land of Goshen." Here was a
land, they said, of perpetual sunshine, a rich soil, a total absence of
any animals injurious to man, and abundance of cheap land, with endless
opportunities for successful home-making. Their lots had fallen in
pleasant places, and they strongly advised all who could to come and join
them. These letters produced as much commotion in St. Ann’s as did Captain
Donald McLeod’s letter from Adelaide. Meetings were called and the letters
discussed, when it was decided they should build their own ship and set
sail for New Zealand. The adventure was not now considered a mad one.
Here, after much wandering and many privations, their people had found the
Promised Land, and it was evident the Hand of God had been directing them.
Ship-building, however, was a slow process, and many months must elapse
ere they could build and equip a suitable vessel. Then, too, they would
have to dispose of their land and stock. Leaders, however, were not
awanting. The keel of a new ship had been laid, and early in the summer of
1856 she was ready for launching. Buyers had come forward and purchased
their land, so that no difficulty was encountered in disposing of their
stock. Early in June, 1856, their ship, the "Gertrude," of 250 tons, was
ready to sail, and on June 24 she left St. Ann’s with 176 souls on board
bound for Auckland.
Amongst those who sailed in her was a Mr. John Munro
and his family. He had been a member of the Nova Scotian Legislature, and
so had considerable knowledge of business affairs. The "Gertrude" called
at Capetown for supplies. While there, Mr. Munro called upon Governor Grey
and explained that he had come from Nova Scotia with a shipload of people
on the lookout for a new home. Would they be welcome in South Africa, and,
if so, on what terms could they procure land? After some consideration, he
was informed that if he and his party decided to remain in South Africa
they would be given a settlement of their own, with 40 acres freehold for
each adult and 20 for each child, with any additional lands at ten
shillings per acre. He asked for these terms to be put into writing so
that he might show them to his people. This was done, and the terms
discussed on board; but as they had decided to visit New Zealand
they might as well proceed and see what New Zealand had to
offer them. The "Gertrude" arrived in Auckland on
December 25, 1856. Immediately on arriving Mr. Munro interviewed
Governor Gore-Brown (Sir George Grey having meantime been
recalled) and explained the situation to him. The Governor referred him to
Mr. John Williamson, who at that time was Leader in the Legislative
Council. Mr. Williamson heard his story, but said he could do nothing as
Mr. Robert Graham, the Leader of the Opposition, was too powerful. Mr.
Munro then said that in those circumstances he and his people would return
to Capetown and settle there. This threat set Mr. Williamson athinking,
and he afterwards made the following offer:—A fresh election was pending,
and if Mr. Munro and his party would land and become settlers they might
take part in the election, and he (Mr. Munro) might become a candidate for
the House of Representatives. Then, if Mr. Williamson should be returned
to power and if Mr. Munro joined them, legislation on the lines desired by
Mr. Munro would be introduced. All this came to pass as prearranged, so
this band of Nova Scotians and all future comers from Nova Scotia were to
secure 40 acres of freehold for each adult and 20 acres freehold for each
child who paid their own passages to the Province of Auckland. The people
desired to proceed to Waipu, so the Waipu block of 47,600 acres was
declared a special settlement, and only Nova Scotians would be permitted
to settle within its bounds. The best part of the block had already been
largely occupied, but all of it came under the new Act. This peculiar
arrangement remained in force for some 40 years, and probably to the
detriment of the settlement. When the new law came into force all the
newcomers moved on to Waipu and took possession of
the lands allotted to them. There was great joy in Waipu when the
newcomers arrived. They were heartily welcomed, and every home was opened
to them. What a contrast to St. Ann’s and Nova Scotia. Here, in
mid-December, was glorious sunshine and green fields. The seasons were
reversed, but the climatic conditions were excellent. No fur clothing and
no log fires were necessary. They brought with them many things that were
sorely needed in the new settlement, so the honours were equally divided.
Friend met friend, countless strange experiences were recounted, and all
By O. N. CAMPBELL, Esq.,
Commissioner of Crown Lands, Auckland,
From Appendices to the
Journals of Legislative Council and House of Representatives.—C-8,
IMMIGRANTS FROM NOVA SCOTIA.
Auckland, December 15, 1833.
Sir,— Your Excellency is already aware, from
correspondence with the Rev. Mr. Norman McLeod, of Melbourne, Pastor of a
community of Highland families now in that Colony, that it is anxiously
desired by them to emigrate to New Zealand, where they expect
to find a country suited to their wants, and they
are now ready and most anxious to come here
provided a suitable locality can be obtained for a
I may mention that there is a party of about
250 in Melbourne, natives of the Highlands of
Scotland, and who went there about two years ago
from Nova Scotia. Another party of them (of whom I was one)
went to Adelaide, and after remaining there
about twelve months, that Colony was
found unsuitable, on account of which we left it and came here, a
short time back, in the schooner "Gazelle," amounting in number to about
100 souls. Since our arrival we have been making
every enquiry and effort to discover a suitable locality for fixing a
Besides the numbers already alluded to, I have advices
that other three or four vessels are preparing to start from Nova Scotia
to bring many more families on receiving the first encouraging
intelligence from their friends who have preceded them hither to prepare a
settlement for them.
I, in conjunction with the other leading men amongst
the small body now here, have fully made up our minds to settle at
Whangarei, provided your Excellency can assist us in obtaining sufficient
blocks of land to enable us to form a settlement not only for ourselves
but also for those to follow us, so that we may form a community and be as
near to each other as practicable. The difficulty of our obtaining this
desirable object is the cause of my now addressing your Excellency, in the
hope of your being able to assist us to carry it into effect.
I need not point out to your Excellency the reasons
which have operated upon myself and others in selecting the locality
referred to, as your Excellency will at once recognize its capabilities
for carrying on fishing, ship-building, agriculture, and other purposes
required for such a community; but what I would desire to point out to
your Excellency is the fact that we speak the Gaelic language, and there
are many of our old people who speak nothing else, so that it becomes a
matter of the greatest importance that our people who speak that language
only should, as far as possible, be located in the same place; and more
especially we unite with our Pastor, Mr. McLeod, in desiring that this
should be so on account of devotional purposes.
Without entering minutely into the reasons which weigh
with us in trying to obtain a settlement in one place as nearly as
circumstances will permit, I have to assure your Excellency that such an
object is of great moment to us and, if such a prospect can be held out by
your Excellency, I may state that I have only to make it known to the rest
of our people in Melbourne and Nova Scotia and they will lose no time in
coming here to effect a settlement.
Without assistance from your Excellency, I see no hope
of this being accomplished, as those who are here at present have not the
means of paying for so large a block of land as would be required, and
unless your Excellency should feel inclined to make a special case for the
sake of the community on whose behalf I now write, by setting aside a
sufficient block of land for them, I despair of being able to carry out
the object. I would, therefore, respectfully request that your Excellency
will take the matter into your consideration, and set aside, if you
approve of our design, such parts of the block of land now about to be
purchased, in the vicinity of
Whangarei, extending from the Arai to the Harbour of
Whangarei, say to the extent of from 30,000 to 50,000 acres, in such
places as may be determined as soon as practicable after the purchase, say
for the space of two or three years, to enable me to correspond with the
rest of our people in Nova Scotia, and to remain open for selection by
them for that period at the present upset price of 10s. per acre.
I may state that if such an arrangement can be acceded
to by your Excellency, the party now here are prepared at once to locate
themselves upon the ground and to take up and pay for several throusand
acres.—I have, etc.,
(Signed) DUNCAN McKENZIE,
To His Excellency the Governor, etc.
Colonial Secretary’s Office, Auckland,
January 24, 1854.
Sir.—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of
your letter of the 15th ultimo stating that several Highland families now
residing at Melbourne and who lately emigrated from Nova Scotia are
anxious to locate in New Zealand, and requesting that a block of from
thirty to fifty thousand acres in the vicinity of Whangare may be set
apart and remain open for selection by these Highland emigrants for some
time at the present upset price of ten shillings per acre, and in reply I
am directed by His Excellency the Officer administering the Government to
inform you that it is impossible for the Government under the present land
regulations, to enter into an arrangement of the kind referred to; but,
that if these emigrants are prepared at once to select and pay for a
reasonable quantity of land from any specified block, such portions only
of the remaining land as are immediately required should be offered for
sale-—I have, etc.,
(Signed) ANDREW SINCLAIR, Colonial Secretary.
Duncan McKenzie, Esq.,
c/o Messrs. Brown and Campbell, etc.,
Auckland, January 25, 1854.
With reference to your letter of the 24th instant, I
beg to reply that I do not perceive thereby how the land in question is to
he reserved to us by the tenor of your communication, as simultaneous
applications by others than our people might be made for what you term
"such portions of the remaining land as are immediately required." Such a
privilege so far from being a special case, or benefit, is the undoubted
right of every applicant for land, and hence I presume that the intention
of the Government is hardly expressed explicitly in the communication
Under these circumstances, I beg to trouble you to
again state in explicit terms the amount of reserve which I understand the
Government are inclined to give, in proportion to the land immediately or
shortly purchased, and the period of time such reserve should be secured
to us.—I have, etc.,
(Signed) D. MCKENZIE.
The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, etc.
Colonial Secretary’s Office, Auckland,
February 3, 1854.
In reply to your letter of the 25th ultimo respecting the purchase of land
by you and others on whose behalf you have made application to the
Government, I have the honour to state, by direction of His Excellency the
Officer administering the Government, that His Excellency has no power to
extend the terms of the offer made to you in my letter of the 24th
ultimo—terms which are considered to present two advantages, namely, the
offering for sale of a small block of the extent you may wish for your
immediate accommodation and, next, the reserving from sale the contiguous
land to a reasonable extent and for a reasonable term until the party whom
you represent may be prepared to purchase the same.— I have, etc.,
(Signed) ANDREW SINCLAIR, Colonial Secretary.
D. McKenzie, Esq., etc.
Auckland, February 4, 1854.
Sir,— I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of
your answer, of yesterday’s date, to my letter of the 25th ultimo,
respecting the locating of the Highland emigrants now here and those about
1. I gather from your letter that the Government are
prepared to give us possession of such block of the land at Mongawhai
applied for, as the party now here are ready to take up under the present
regulations at ten shillings per acre.
2. That the Government are prepared to reserve from
sale the contiguous land to a reasonable time, and purchasable by our
party during the said time, upon the present terms of ten shillings per
I have the honour to ask:
1. Whether I am correct or not in thus interpreting
2. To request that you will specify what extent of
reserve the Government are prepared to make for the party of emigrants
about to arrive?
3. What length of time will such reserve be kept open
for selection on the present terms of ten shillings per acre?
You will at once perceive that without this information
the whole arrangements which I am now endeavouring to make might fail and
be rendered nugatory, and I feel it the more necessary to make this
further enquiry from the remark introduced in your letter of January 24
(omitted in your last letter of the 3rd instant) namely, that "such
portions only of the remaining land as are immediately required shall be
offered for sale."
May I enquire, respectfully, if this last condition has
now been waived; because if it has not it would seem to neutralize the
proposed advantages which the Government purpose offering to us by making
the reserve in question?
May I respectfully request, in conclusion, that you
will favour me with an answer to this letter at your earliest convenience,
as you are well aware that the season is almost gone for locating
ourselves upon the land, although the negotiations for our settlement have
now been carried on with the Government during the last five or six
months.—I have, etc.,
(Signed) DUNCAN MCKENZIE.
The Honourable the Colonial Secretary, etc.
Auckland, February 7, 1854.
Sir,— In reference to the communications, verbal and
written, which for some months back have been carried on with the
Government in the name of Mr. Duncan McKenzie respecting the locating of
the Highland emigrants now here and those to follow, I (being one of the
party referred to, and acting for the others), have the honour
respectfully to request that you will recognize my present address to your
Excellency as a continuation of the correspondence which Mr. McKenzie had
originated, but who is now at a distance in the country on an exploring
expedition connected with the subject of the present letter. And I would
further respectfully request a reference to the correspondence on the
subject which has already taken place, and more particularly to the
Colonial Secretary’s letter of the 3rd instant, in which your Excellency
states that the terms already offered us present the following advantages,
viz., offering us "for sale a small block of the extent we wish for our
immediate accommodation and, next, the reserving from sale the contiguous
land to a reasonable extent and for a reasonable time until the party whom
I represent may be prepared to purchase same."
I have already, in the name of Mr. McKenzie, addressed
the Government (4th instant) on the terms of this letter, and would have
waited a written reply; but the urgency of the circumstances of our case
having exhausted my patience T took the liberty of calling to-day at the
Colonial Secretary’s office in the hope of finding a reply waiting me,
after which I had the honour of a personal interview with your Excellency,
and then learned, to my great surprise and disappointment, that your
Excellency did not see how the reserve of land could be made to the
party whom I represent in accordance with the present land regulations.
I am surprised at this statement, inasmuch as the
letter from which I have just quoted the above remarks states, in what may
be considered explicit terms, that the Government will make a reserve to a
"reasonable extent and for a reasonable time," and I naturally concluded
that I had only to request that the Government would specify clearly the
extent and the time, and so close the whole negotiation which has been
carried on with the Government for so many months, during which our
people, instead of locating themselves as they might have done—though
perhaps less advantageously on the lands of private parties - were buoyed
up by hopes held out by the Government of a location being obtained on the
most favourable terms. Had this not been the case we should have effected
a settlement long ago; and, therefore, it is that I feel extremely
disappointed—I may say fairly taken back—with the expression of doubt (for
the first time used to-day) by your Excellency as to your ability to grant
our request under the present regulations.
It was never supposed by us that your Excellency could
do so under the present regulations if they had been officially
promulgated. Our first application showed that we considered ours a
special case, and we gave in our first written correspondence (December 15
last) sundry reasons on which we rested our claims to such special
Up to that period, from our personal communications
with the Government, we had been led to believe that the Government had no
difficulty on the point, and, therefore, it was that our letter of
December 15 contained so few reasons for considering ours a special case.
Since that letter, both Mr. McKenzie and myself have had interviews with
Governor Grey, who spoke most warmly of his interest in our views and
success, and even assured us that our application would be favourably
entertained, and that a formal communication to that effect would be made
to us, and which we expected to receive at the very furthest, before the
end of the first week of January last.
Since your Excellency, however, has thrown out doubts
as to your ability to make ours a special case, but having at the same
time expressed your willingness to do so if in your power, I am now
induced to draw your attention to the following observations which appear
to me to present full and sufficient warrant for your Excellency’s
acceding to our request of our case being made a special one.
Craving reference to the letter of December 15 referred
to, I would only further, observe that the land regulations requiring a
month’s notice of lands open for sale before being appropriated under the
new system, though promulgated in the southern provinces, have not yet, I
believe, been proclaimed here, nor have they yet been acted upon; so that
no obstacles from this cause would seem to prevent your Excellency’s
acceding to our request, as the regulations become thus reduced to a mere
Government message, or notice to the Surveyor-General, which the Governor
can at any subsequent moment alter or wholly set aside.
But, were the land regulations in full force, even then
I cannot see how your Excellency (holding in your own hand the entire
disposal of the land and the making of such regulations therein as from
time to time you may deem best for the general benefit) should not fairly
and reasonably make special exception therefrom, in cases like the
present, whenever they might arise.
Again, in asking the Government to make the reserve
applied for, it is only carrying out a principle already introduced in the
southern provinces. I refer to the block of land reserved by the
Government in the Province of Wellington for trying the effect of the
Small Farm System sought to be established there; and if the Government so
far made a special exception in that instance, merely for the illustration
of a theoretical plan of colonization, I cannot but think that under the
circumstances of our case we have a far stronger claim upon the favourable
consideration of the Government, inasmuch as it would not only be carrying
into practice the Small Farm System but also be planting a new settlement,
which must draw a considerable number of our people to this country if we
can hold out the favourable inducement which we are asking from the
In our case there exists the further strong claim of
our being a Gaelic community, requiring to be located near each other, if
this can possibly be accomplished, seeking thus to be under the ministry
of a Gaelic clergyman who has accompanied us, especially as some of our
aged people can understand no other language but Gaelic. We are ready at
once to settle upon and use the land, whereas under the Small Farm Reserve
at Wellington it remains to be seen whether the land will be taken up or
not—in other words, where such a reserve were really wanted or not—by any
considerable number of the community.
In conclusion, I think I may very fairly say that the
great benefit which we as a community would confer on this or any other
Province in which we may settle affords a strong claim upon such Province
for the most favourable terms that can be offered, and we have in the
first instance come to this Province, although His Excellency Sir George
Grey recommended to us the Ahuriri District, where he assured us of every
possible facility for settling by special reserve and otherwise, which
reserve is indispensable to our carrying out the principal objects of our
Seeking your Excellency’s early and favourable
consideration of the matter,—I have, etc.,
(Signed) D. MCLEOD.
To the Honourable the Colonial Secretary, etc.
Colonial Secretary’s Office, Auckland,
February 10, 1854.
In reply to your letter of the 7th instant relating to
the location of the party of Highlanders which you represent, I have the
honour to state, by direction of the Officer administering the Government
that, under the peculiar circumstances of the case, His Excellency will
consider the party as the first applicants under the old land regulations,
provided the application for the first block is made at once, specifying
the extent required; but, with regard to the further requirements of the
party for land, the Government can do no more than abstain from surveying
or offering to public competition the land contiguous to the block first
I am also directed to state that the Government is not
prepared to make any alteration in the land regulations, seeing that the
General Assembly, under whose control the Crown Lands will be, is to meet
in a short time.
I am further instructed to inform you that the land at
Mangawhai, referred to by Mr. McKenzie in his letter of the 4th instant as
desirable for your party, is not yet the property of the Crown, but that
every effort is being made to purchase it from the natives. —I have, etc.,
(Signed) ANDREW SINCLAIR,
D. McLeod, Esq. Colonial Secretary.
Colonial Secretary’s Office, Auckland,
February 13, 1854.
I am directed by His Excellency the Officer
administering the Government to apprise you of the following arrangements
regarding the proposed location of certain Highlanders at Mangawhai.
His Excellency has been pleased, under the
circumstances of the case, to direct that the representatives of this body
(Messrs. Duncan McKenzie and D. McLeod) on their forthwith describing the
land claimed be considered under the Land Regulations of March last the
first applicants for the purchase of such land.
The land also contiguous to such block is not for the
present to be surveyed or offered to public competition.
Mr. McLeod has informed the Government that he has made
arrangements for proceeding to Mangawhai and obtaining the necessary
information for describing the land required.
You are requested to be good enough, directly the land
in question has been obtained from the natives, to communicate the same to
me for the information of the Government.—I have, etc.,
(Signed) ANDREW SINCLAIR, Colonial Secretary.
Auckland, February 11, 1854.
I have the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your
communication, of yesterday’s date, relative to the location of the party
of Highlanders, whom I represent, informing me that His Excellency the
Officer administering the Government has agreed to consider the party here
as the first applicants under the old regulations (of March 4 last I
presume), but with regard to further requirements His Excellency can do no
more than abstain for the present from the surveying or offering to public
competition the land contiguous to that first selected.
As the Government are thus unable to do more, I shall
not lose additional time by attempting any further representations on the
subject, but shall at once make arrangements as required for proceeding to
Mangawhai in order to obtain the necessary information for describing the
land which we desire to purchase.
From the terms of your letter, I am further encouraged
to hope that His Excellency will not be unwilling to forward our views
with the General Assembly in procuring the privilege of the reserve which
His Excellency has felt himself unable to grant.— I have, etc.,
(Signed) D. McLEOD.
The Honourable the Colonial Secretary.
AUCKLAND WASTE LAND ACT, 1858.
LAND FOR SPECIAL SETTLEMENT.
58. It shall be lawful for the Superintendent from time
to time to declare by Proclamation that a certain block of land therein
described shall be set apart and reserved for certain Immigrants expected
to arrive from the United Kingdom or elsewhere other than the Australian
59. Such land so set apart and reserved shall be sold
exclusively to such Immigrants upon the terms and conditions herein-before
prescribed respectively in reference to Town and Suburban Land and to
General Country Land and Credit Land as the Superintendent may from time
to time think fit.
60. It shall be lawful for the Superintendent at any
time to revoke any such Proclamation and the land therein comprised shall
thereafter be open to be classified and dealt with as though the same had
not been set apart and reserved as aforesaid. Provided always that the
validity of any act which shall have been done under such Proclamation
before revocation thereof shall not be affected by such revocation.
69. As it is expedient that persons emigrating at their
own costs from the United Kingdom and elsewhere other than the Australian
Colonies should be permitted to acquire land free of cost in proportion to
their expenditure on emigration, it shall be lawful for the Superintendent
from time to time to appoint Emigration Agents in the United Kingdom or
elsewhere with authority to grant land orders to persons intending to
emigrate and settle in the Province of Auckland and any such Agent at any
time to remove. Provided always that no person shall be entitled to demand
any such land order as a right or be entitled to receive any land whatever
free of cost in respect of any such expenditure unless he shall have
obtained previously to his emigrating from some one of such agents of the
said Province a land order as herein provided.
70. Such land orders shall be granted according to the
following scale namely for any person eighteen years of age and upwards
forty acres and for any person upwards of five years and under eighteen
years of age twenty acres. Provided always that in any case in which a
child under eighteen years of age shall accompany a parent the order shall
be granted to the parent and not to the child and in any case in which a
servant shall be brought into the Province at the sole expense of a master
the allowance shall be made to the master and not to the servant.
71. No such land order shall be transferable but in the
event of the death before the expiration of the five years as hereinafter
mentioned of any person to whom any land order shall have been
granted in respect of his own emigration all his right
and interest under such order shall vest in his appointee constituted in
writing or in default of such an appointee in his legal representative who
shall be at once entitled to a grant of the land in case all the terms and
conditions to which such deceased person was subject have been fulfilled
up to the time of his death.
72. In the event of the death before the
expiration of the period of five years as hereinafter mentioned of any
child or servant in respect of whom any land order shall have been granted
to any parent or master such parent or master shall if all the terms and
conditions in respect of such deceased child or servant shall have been
fulfilled tip to the time of his death be entitled at once to a Crown
Grant of the land in which respect of such order he may have selected or
be entitled to select.
73. Every such order shall be null and void unless the
person in respect of whom the same shall have been granted shall present
the same in person to the Commissioner or his Deputy within the said
Province within twelve calendar months from the date of the order being
74. On presentation thereof to the Commissioner or his
Deputy such officer on being satisfied that the person presenting same is
the person in respect of whom the land order was granted shall make a note
thereon stating the fact of such presentation and of the day of the
arrival in the Province of such person presenting the same and shall date
and sign such note.
75. Every such land order when so signed shall
authorize the person entitled to the same or his agent constituted in
writing to select the number of acres mentioned therein out of the Special
Settlement Land if any specified in such order or out of any General
Country Land subject in all cases to the provisions of this Act in
reference to the selection of Special Settlement Land and General Country
76. Provided always that it shall be lawful for the
Commissioner if he shall think fit to divide any allotment for the purpose
of enabling any person to obtain the exact number of acres to which any
such land order may entitle him. Provided also that the land selected by
any one person shall either be one allotment or contiguous allotments.
77. Every such land order when so signed as
aforesaid shall be in force for five years from
the day of the arrival stated in such note and if no selection be made
within that time such land order shall he null and void.
78. When any person in respect of whom any such land
order shall have been granted shall within the said five years have been
absent from the Province of Auckland more than twelve calendar months in
the whole such land order shall be null and void and all right to land
selected under same shall cease and determine.
79. At the expiration of five years from the day of
arrival stated in such note as aforesaid the person entitled to any land
selected under any such order shall be entitled to a Crown Grant thereof
on proving to the satisfaction of the Commissioner or his Deputy that the
person in respect to whom such land order shall have been granted is then
resident within the said Province and has resided therein not less
altogether than forty-eight calendar months out of the said five years.
An Act to enable the Superintendent of the Province
of Auckland to issue Certificates by way of Land
Orders to certain persons.
WHEREAS in the years 1856 and 1857 certain persons
emigrated from the United Kingdom and elsewhere for the purpose of
settling in the Province of Auckland under the belief that upon their
arrival in the said province they would be entitled to select land under
the terms of the "Waste Lands Regulations 1855" of that Province or terms
AND WHEREAS by an Act intituled the "Immigration
Certificates Act 1858" passed by the Provincial Council of the Province of
Auckland in Session VIII and reserved by the Superintendent of the
Province for the assent of the Governor and subsequently confirmed by the
"Waste Lands Act 1858" of the General Assembly the Superintendent was
authorized to grant to certain persons who had emigrated from the Colony
of Nova Scotia for the purpose of settling in the Province of Auckland and
who arrived there in the years 1856 and 1857 in certain vessels called the
"Gertrude" and "Spray" respectively certificates empowering the holders
thereof to select land in accordance with the terms of the "Auckland Waste
Lands Act 1858" and by the same Act the Superintendent of the Province of
Auckland was authorized to issue such certificates as aforesaid to any
other person or persons whomsoever who should prove to the satisfaction of
the Provincial Council that he or they had emigrated from the United
Kingdom under a belief that he or they would be entitled to such selection
as aforesaid upon receiving an address from the Provincial Council to that
AND WHEREAS the persons hereinafter mentioned also
emigrated from the said Colony of Nova Scotia in the year 1857 for the
purpose of settling in the Province of Auckland under the belief that they
would be entitled to select land in accordance with the terms of the said
"Auckland Waste Lands Regulations 1855."
AND WHEREAS the lastly mentioned persons have been
since settled in the Province and claim to be dealt with in the same
manner as the immigrants who arrived in the before mentioned vessels the
"Gertrude" and "Spray" and it is just that they should he so dealt with:
AND WHEREAS the Superintendent of the Province of
Auckland cannot grant such certificates as aforesaid for the selection of
land without the sanction of the General Assembly:
BE IT ENACTED by the General Assembly of New Zealand in
Parliament assembled and by the authority of the same as follows :—
1. The short title of this Act shall be the "Auckland
Immigration Certificate Act 1861."
2. It shall be lawful for the Superintendent of the
Province of Auckland to grant to every person who arrived in the Province
of Auckland in the barque "Breadalbane" on or about the twenty-first day
of May 1858 except those hereinafter mentioned a certificate in form in
the Schedule hereunto annexed and the person to whom the said certificate
shall be so granted shall be entitled to the same right of selection and
other privileges as though the said certificate had been a Land Order
granted under powers contained in the said "Auckland Waste Lands Act
1858." And every person to whom such a certificate shall be granted shall
have a priority of selection thereunder over the piece of land of which at
the time of the passing hereof he may he in the bona fide occupation.
Provided always that nothing herein contained shall authorize the said
Superintendent to grant to any person any certificate for a greater number
of acres than such person would be entitled to under a Land Order issued
by an Emigration Agent under the said "Auckland Waste Lands Act 1858."
3. No person who shall have received from the
Treasury of the Province of Auckland a refund of a portion of his or her
passage money shall be entitled to receive such certificate as aforesaid.
4. This Act shall not come into operation until the
same shall have received Her Majesty’s Royal Assent and until a
Proclamation of such Assent with the advice of Her Majesty’s Privy Council
having been given shall have been published by the Governor.
This is to certify that (insert name) is entitled to a
right of selection fo acres and the same privilege as though (he) had
received a Land Order for the said number of acres under the "Auckland
Waste Lands Act 1858" (he) having (stat grounds).
Note.—Here follows a long list of Land Orders granted
to a number of Waipu applicants, the areas varying from 40 to 624 acres,
the majority varying from about 100 to 300 acres.
N.B.—The above extracts slightly modify things as
related by the settlers.—(The Author.)
MONEY AND BARTER.
In the early days of the
settlement the people had little money for purposes of
exchange. So far as they themselves were concerned money was of little
use, as they worked for each other or gave to each other on the
understanding that each would reciprocate as
necessity demanded. This was their mode of business
since leaving Scotland. They found it convenient, and only when they had
to deal with outsiders did the question of cash payment arise. Cash
payment even to outsiders was rare, for cash they had not, so that
promissory notes of an informal nature took its place. When it was
necessary to redeem a promissory note it was frequently renewed or payment
made in kind. This reduced their outside trading to the direst
necessities, as debts were neither encouraged nor desired.
Every man was his own food producer and tradesman,
while every woman played much the same part. Nothing came amiss to these
men. They built their own homes, grew their own food, made their own
clothing and footwear. In short, every man and woman was something of a
self- contained jack-of-all-trades. The cultivating of the soil followed
the simplest of hand-working methods. The pick, spade, and rake were about
their only agricultural tools, while the results in the warm, moist,
virgin soil of the country were excellent. Reaping was done by the
old-fashioned sickle or hook. Threshing was accomplished by the flail, and
winnowing by a sieve and the winds of heaven. All these methods were
common to the Highlands, and in remote parts of the country they still
exist. The old quern or stone-mill was too heavy and too cumbersome for
use, so they substituted the steel-mill. To those who are curious a
specimen of the old Scottish quern can be seen in the Dunedin
Museum. Every home had its own quern, but one steel-mill would easily
serve from two to six families according to their numbers. The wheatmeal
they called "aran geal" (or white bread), while the maize bread they
called " aran buidhe " (or yellow bread).
Many tales are told of the meal
grinding days. If a home was favoured with a fair Hebe the gallants around
gathered of an evening and turned the mill while Hebe plied the grain. In
this fashion many a fair maid was wooed, and many a
contract spliced. The maize cob was also used in its green state. It was
slightly roasted and then eaten with milk and sugar. Though Norman
prohibited the use of spirits, still the people made on occasion small
quantities of maize beer which was much relished while logging, digging,
or harvesting proceeded.
It required initiative, edurance,
and courage for some 300 people of all ages to move out into the
wilderness and find therein their food and shelter. Yet, impossible as
this task seems to have been, the Scots and Nova Scotians successfully
accomplished it. Fortunately they were familiar with the building and
management of boats and the art of fishing. The sea at their doors teemed
with fish, and from it they drew an endless supply of food. The country
around was virgin forest, which gave excellent shelter to birds and
any introduced animals. It is questionable if there be any
four-footed animals that are natives of the country. Many have been
introduced, and the earliest of these were rats, dogs, and pigs. In the
early days pigs were abundant throughout the whole country. Pig-hunting by
means of dogs became an everyday amusement. The dogs rounded up the
pig, and at a favourable moment the hunter stepped in with a long
sheath-knife and dealt the animal a deadly blow in some
vital part. Captain Cook is said to have introduced the
pig, and in doing so he conferred an enormous
boon upon the Maoris and the early pioneers of the country.
The native birds were numerous, and those used for food were the wood
pigeon, a large comparatively tame and beautiful bird, ducks of various
kinds, a few varieties of the parrot tribe, and
several flightless birds. The Maoris snared these birds by various
methods, but the Pakeha used the gun. The streams and lagoons abounded in
eels, which the Maoris enjoyed, but the Scots and Nova Scotians seldom
used them unless pressed by hunger. Fortunately they
had an endless supply of cockles, oysters, and other shell fish at their
door, so that with all these natural supplies their larders were seldom
After the "Gertrude" arrived cows began to appear in
the settlement. Mr. John McKay, of pioneering fame, was the first to
introduce this useful animal. A colony of whalers had formed a settlement
at the head of the Whangarei Bay, where now stands the town of Whangarei.
From them Mr. McKay bought his first cow, while calves were occasionally
lassooed at the old whaling station at Bream Head. As they increased in
numbers, bullock teams came into general use. Horses and sheep were late
arrivals, as lack of roads and a stumped country made the horse of little
value; while sheep were lost in the dense undergrowth of the forest. The
cow and bullock are the pioneers’ best friends in most new countries, as
they can travel almost anywhere and live upon the roughest herbage.
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