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James Chalmers


James Chalmers: Missionary to Cannibals
by Christa G. Habegge

His fearlessness won the respect of the cannibals;
his compassion, their loyalty and friendship

James ChalmersThe Chalmers who invested his life as a missionary to New Guinea was very different from the carefree, high-spirited youth who grew up in county Argyllshire, Scotland. The one trait that bound the man to the boy was a love of adventure. Chalmers wrote of his youth: "I was very restless and dearly loved adventure, and a dangerous position was exhilarating."

James Chalmers was born in 1841 in the town of Ardishaig. His father, a stonemason, and his Highlander mother brought him up with the stern discipline of a Scots peasant home. His most vivid boyhood memories centered around the nearby Loch Fyne and other bodies of water in the county. Young James became a favorite of the local fishermen. He won recognition for his bravery in sea escapades, having rescued comrades from drowning on several occasions.

As a scholar, James did not distinguish himself, "either in attendance or conduct," but he was a leader among his classmates, particularly when there were fights between rival schools. At 13, James left the local school and attended an upper level grammar school. During his early teens, James was busy "sowing wild oats," but it was also during this time that he made a decision which affected the whole course of his life.

Despite his rebelliousness, James attended a Sunday school class under the direction of the Reverend Gilbert Meikle, a godly man who wielded a strong influence over him. During one class Mr. Meikle read to the children a letter from a missionary to the cannibals in the Fiji Islands. When he had finished reading, he looked around the room and said, "I wonder if there is a boy here this afternoon who will become a missionary, and by and by bring the Gospel to cannibals like these?"

Moved, Chalmers immediately responded in his heart, "Yes, God helping me, I will."

The memory of the incident diminished during the next few years. James, as yet unconverted, strayed from the influence of the Sunday school. However, in November 1859, two preachers from Northern Ireland arrived to hold special meetings. A friend prevailed on James to attend. At the service, James felt that the message was intended for him. The following Sunday, James recorded that "in the Free Church I was pierced through and through from the conviction of sin, and felt lost beyond all hope of salvation. On the Monday Mr. Meikle came to my help, and led me kindly to promises and to light ... I felt that God was speaking to me in His Word, and I believed unto salvation."

Eighteen-year-old Chalmers began immediately to testify of his conversion at meetings in his town and county. Furthermore, he recalled his boyhood vow to become a missionary and renewed it, this time confident of the Lord's leadership. On the advice of a missionary home on furlough, James applied to the London Missionary Society, and was accepted and sent by them to Cheshunt College for theological training. His eagerness to go to the mission field prompted him to study hard. Yet, he retained his love of adventure and fun. He remained a leader in student activities and good-natured pranks, one of which was donning a huge bear skin and terrifying the student body during an evening meal.

Fellow students with Chalmers at Cheshunt said of his appearance and influence: "He was tall and thin ... His hair was black, and his eyes hazel with an endless sparkle in them. He was active and muscular, lithe but strong ... By all his natural qualities of body, mind and spirit he was a born pioneer and leader of men."

During his student days, James became engaged to a girl named Jane Hercus. They were married in October 1865. Two days after his marriage, James was ordained to the ministry. His appointment to Rarotonga, an island in the Hervey or Cook group in the South Pacific, was cemented, and the couple looked forward to January when they would sail for their mission field.

Fifteen months later, the Chalmerses were still far from Rarotonga. They first sailed to Australia, where they spent much time for repairs to the ship. From there they secured passage to one of the Samoan islands from which they hoped to sail on to Rarotonga. After waiting six weeks, Chalmers finally secured passage aboard the Rona, commanded by a notorious pirate, Bully Hayes.

Unlikely as their association must have appeared, the two men were instantly drawn to each other. Probably, the "blustering pirate and the high-spirited missionary ... had nothing more in common than a reckless indifference to danger and a thirst for adventure."

Chalmers continued to have services on board ship as was his custom, and Hayes for his part tried to behave as a gentleman and even required his men to attend.

On May 20, 1867, the Chalmerses saw the mountains of Rarotonga. A boat could not get close enough to shore, so a brawny native waded out to carry Chalmers to land. The native wished to know his passenger's name that he might announce it to those waiting on the shore. "Chalmers," the missionary said. "Tamate," was the nearest equivalent the confused native could call out to other Rarotongans, and Tamate became Chalmers's name for the next 35 years.

Chalmers, eager to pioneer a work for Christ, was disappointed to find the "gem of the Pacific," as the beautiful island was appropriately called, already Christianized. For the next ten years, he was responsible for the smooth operation of an already-established mission. However, he set out to explore the island in order to know his "parish" better, and his treks revealed that there were still areas left unconquered. Life was easy on the island, and the natives' only employment seemed to be fighting among themselves or indulging in drunken festivals involving gross immorality. He determined to find useful outlets for native energy. He reorganized an existing Training Institution and also set about educating native children.

An important aspect of Chalmers's missionary method became apparent in his work on Rarotonga: he encouraged self-government and independence of European influence once a native work was well established. He wrote: "So long as the native churches have foreign pastors, so long will they remain weak and dependent." He visited native churches on a regular basis and reported that the "out-stations under the charge of native pastors contrast very favourably with the stations under the care of European missionaries."

Chalmers had pleaded repeatedly with the LMS to be assigned to a new field. In 1877 he finally received instructions to move on to New Guinea. "Several bands of native teachers from the islands went to New Guinea during that period, but only a few survived the ferocity of the cannibals and the trying climactic conditions." Like all challenges, this new one stimulated him.

New Guinea, or Papua, the largest island in the world, located across from the northern tip of Australia, was largely unexplored at the time of Chalmers's arrival. Chalmers became to New Guinea what David Livingstone was to Africa. He found the people "a very fine race physically, but living in the wildest barbarism. Nose-sticks, huge rings adorning the lobe of the ear, necklaces of human bones, gaudy-coloured feathers, repulsive tattoo marks, and daubs of paint were almost the sole clothing of the men. The only additional adornment of the women was their bushy grass skirts." The natives of New Guinea, like those of Rarotonga, spent much of their energy fighting. Tribal disputes were settled by bloodshed, and victorious tribes celebrated with cannibal feasts. Many Papuan houses were built in the tops of tall trees to help protect the inhabitants from surprise attacks. Unlike the Rarotongans, however, the Papuans were industrious in the cultivation of the soil. There were talented craftsmen among them in woodwork or pottery. Surprising to the first missionaries, too, was the fact that Papuan family life was much better developed than among many primitive cultures. Parents were affectionate with their children, and children, in turn, cared for sick or aging parents. Women enjoyed a much better status -- approaching equality with men--than did the women of most areas where Christianity had never permeated.

The Chalmerses, along with a small staff of native teachers, established Suau as their first mission center. Upon arrival, Chalmers handed out presents -- beads, leather belts, red cloth -- to the suspicious natives to convince them that they were coming peaceably. The village chief offered the Chalmerses the hospitality of his hut while the mission house was under construction. Privacy there was minimal, and household decorations consisted of human skulls and other bones, and bloodstained weapons.

Nonetheless, Mrs. Chalmers was delighted with the warm reception the missionaries received. "Tamate" was more realistic, but said nothing to dampen her optimism. One day their true peril became obvious. While Tamate was on his way to the shore, a group of armed, yelling savages surrounded the partly built mission house. Tamate rushed back and was confronted by a native warrior brandishing a stone club. The missionary looked at him coolly and demanded the reason for the attack. The savage responded that the villagers wanted "tomahawks, knives, iron, beads," and that if these were not supplied, the missionaries would be killed. Tamate replied calmly that he didn't give presents to armed people. Again the savage repeated his demand and threat, and again Tamate refused, over the frightened protest of a native teacher. The natives eventually retreated to the bush for a parley, and the missionaries spent a watchful, uneasy night. The next morning, a native, without war paint, approached Tamate and apologized. Tamate received him cordially." 'Now you are unarmed and clean,' he said genially, 'we are glad to make friends with you,' and taking [him] to the house he gave him a present." Tamate, by his refusal to be cowed by threats, won the respect of the natives and eventually their loyalty and friendship.

Both Chalmerses worked tirelessly to make the mission a spiritual success, he by conducting services and she by teaching. Those who accepted Christ were carefully nurtured in the faith. Tamate baptized only those who demonstrated a genuine transformation and a growing knowledge of the Word of God.

Convinced that the work at Suau was progressing well, Tamate was eager to penetrate other areas with the gospel. In 1878, he travelled for several weeks, leaving his wife alone among the natives. On his return he wrote: "Mrs. Chalmers says it is well she remained, as the natives saw we had confidence in them, and the day following our departure they were saying amongst themselves, 'They trust us; we must treat them kindly. They cannot mean us harm, or Tamate would not have left his wife behind.'"

In February 1879, Tamate lost his beloved wife and brave helpmate. Her health had been broken by repeated attacks of fever and the strain of the difficult mission work. Tamate, though grieving, plunged into his work even more energetically.

Besides introducing Papua to the gospel, Tamate accomplished the seemingly impossible goal of promoting peace among the tribes all along the coast. According to those who accompanied him on his visits to native villages, Tamate had a remarkable influence over people. A fellow missionary wrote:

"Tamate's power over savages was partly a personal thing ... It was in his presence, his carriage, his eye, his voice. It was not only wild men whom he fascinated. There was something almost hypnotic about him ... Then again, his judgment, largely the result of wide experience in critical situations, was unerring. He saw evil brooding where an inexperienced eye would have seen nothing to fear; he was equally certain everything was satisfactory, when a novice would have suspected danger.

"His fearlessness must have been a great factor of success in his hazardous work. He disarmed men by boldly going amongst them unarmed ..."

"Tamate was not only fearless, but as a pioneer he was also perfectly cool ... His perfect composure, as well as his judgment and tact, and fearlessness ... must have brought him through a hundred difficulties ... during his long service for Christ in New Guinea."

The natives themselves testified most eloquently of his influence. When asked what prompted one tribe to give up cannibalism, an old chief said simply, "Tamate said, 'You must give up man-eating': and we did."

During a typical first-time encounter with a savage tribe, Tamate and a native escort would wait on board their boat until the natives on the shore had had a chance to notice the strange vessel and absorb the shock of seeing a white man for the first time. Usually, an armed party of men would climb into canoes and approach the missionary boat. Tamate would then make signs of peace, distribute presents, and make a brief address, stating that he had come to make friends and planned to return for a longer visit in order to tell them of a great Being of whom they were ignorant. He felt that the first visit should be short -- just long enough to establish amiable relations. Sometimes during such a visit, the natives would invite him ashore in order that the rest of the village might admire his white skin. If the reception were especially warm, he would be accorded the sign of affection -- nose-rubbing. "Alas, " he wrote. "I cannot say I like this nose-rubbing; and having no looking-glass, I cannot tell the state of my face ... Kissing with white folks ... is insipid -- but this! When your nose is flattened, ... and your face one mass of pigment [from the war paint]!" After a successful first visit, he was assured that his longer missionary campaign there would be well received.

In November 1884 Great Britain announced that New Guinea was formally annexed as a territory. Tamate was enormously successful in smoothing over native resistance to the Protectorate. On his own initiative he visited tribal chiefs, explaining the terms of the annexation. The chiefs were then invited aboard a British man-o'-war for the official ceremony. Tamate was present to explain the proceedings to the natives. After the ceremony, Tamate corresponded often with British officials to ensure that the terms of the agreement were kept and that the natives were treated fairly.

In 1888 Tamate married a widow, "Lizzie" Harrison, a longtime friend of the first Mrs. Chalmers, with whom Tamate had maintained correspondence. This second Mrs. Chalmers provided the companionship and support Tamate had longed for since his first wife's death. She too, proved herself to be a brave and self-denying missionary. Unfortunately, like her predecessor, Lizzie Chalmers did not live long in New Guinea. In 1900, after 12 years on the field, she died.

The last brief phase of Tamate's service to New Guinea was spent visiting existing mission stations. He was much encouraged by the arrival of a dedicated young helper, Oliver Tomkins. Together they planned an expedition to the Aird River Delta. The natives in that region were reputed to be fierce and unapproachable, even by Papuan standards. No white man had ever seen them. For a long time, Tamate had desired to make the dangerous trip there in order to win them for Christ. On April 4, 1901, the mission steamer sailed to Risk Point, off the shore of the village of Dopima. Immediately the ship was surrounded by natives. Tamate promised to come ashore in the morning. The next day, both Tomkins and Tamate went ashore, saying they would return shortly for breakfast. After a certain interval had passed, as if by prearrangement, the natives who remained on the ship looted it, taking all of the stores of presents and Tamate's and Tomkins's belongings. The captain, alarmed by the prolonged absence of the two missionaries and by the conduct of the natives, was further concerned when he saw a large number of warriors getting into canoes. He suspected that the missionaries had been murdered and that the next targets were he and his shipmates. He sailed away to report to the governor. His suspicions were confirmed a short time later by British investigators and the testimony of captured natives from the guilty village. The missionaries had been clubbed, beheaded, and eaten.

The news of Chalmers's murder made headlines all over the world. Those who had worked closely with Chalmers were shocked and grieved at the news of his death, but felt strongly that he would have wished to die as he did -- engaged in service to the natives of New Guinea. As an old friend wrote: "Hitherto God had preserved him; now he allowed the blow to fall, and His faithful servant to be called up home."

Reprinted from FAITH for the Family (1982).
Bob Jones University, www.bju.edu/faith . All rights reserved.



James Chalmers of New Guinea by Cuthbert Lennox (1903)

Preface

NOT once, but a dozen times, the writer has been asked—Who was Chalmers of New Guinea? It would seem that, notwithstanding the numerous occasions on which this great man was enthusiastically received at public gatherings during his visits to Great Britain, in 1884—85 and again in 1896—97, there is a very considerable proportion of the British people to whom he is yet unknown.

Moffat and Livingstone, Mackay of Uganda, and Paton of the New Hebrides are universally recognised as pioneer missionaries of the nineteenth century; and, without attempt at the invidious task of deciding their comparative merits and their individual rights of precedence, we claim a place for James Chalmers in this group of missionary heroes.

When we try to account for the prevailing ignorance in regard to one of the most interesting personalities conceivable, one of the biggest men of last century, we believe we find some excuse for it in the extreme modesty of the man himself. Chalmers cared nothing for fame, and only visited this country in 1884, after an absence of twenty years, from a compelling sense of the need for more men to exploit and occupy the field which he had surveyed alone.

The present sketch is designed to furnish the reading public with some idea of the splendid achievements and attractive personality of this remarkable man. There is every reason for supposing that the name and work and personality of "Tamate" are better known to the citizens of the Commonwealth of Australia; but even from them, as well as from his many friends and admirers in the home-land, a particular and consecutive narrative of his life-story may receive a welcome, if it serves to fill up lacuna in the information they already possess.

For the somewhat scanty details of the boyhood and student days of Chalmers, the writer wourd acknowledge help received from a slender biographical sketch written a good many years ago by the late William Robson, and published by Messrs. Partridge, and from an article in the Sunday at Home, from the pen of the Rev. Richard Lovett, to whom has been entrusted the preparation of the forthcoming official life of Chalmers.

The earliest record of Tamate’s work in New Guinea took the form of extracts from his joufnals and reports, published in the London Missionary Society’s Chronicle, and of articles from his pen, contributed to various periodicals and newspapers. In 1885 he placed many of his journals and papers at the disposal of the Religious Tract Society, "in the hope that their publication may increase the general store of knowledge about New Guinea, and may also give true ideas about the natives, the kind of Christian work that is being done in their midst, and the progress in it that is being made." In that year this Society published Work and Adventure in New Guinea, a compilation in which ample use was made of the journals from which the above-mentioned extracts had been taken (with the addition of several chapters from the pen of Dr. W. Wyatt Gill).; and in 1887 the same publishers issued a similar compilation under the title of Pioneering in New Guinea. Both these volumes have been out of print for a number of years, and it is gratifying to notice that they are shortly to be republished at popular prices.

In the preparation of his narrative of Tamate’s earlier years in New Guinea, the writer has sought to unravel "the bewildering record "—as Dr. George Robson has called it—contained in the two volumes just mentioned, obtaining from them the main facts of the period from 1878 to 1885. For the rest, he has derived much help from the Chronicle of the London Missionary Society, the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, and numerous other biographical aids.

Acknowledgment should also be made of assistance received from an article contributed by Mr. G. Seymour Fort to the Empire Review, and from an appreciation of Tamate by Dr. H. Bellyse Baildon which recently appeared in the Dundee Advertiser.

To furnish an intelligible background for the portrait which it is sought to outline, and to indicate the local conditions—missionary and otherwise—when Chalmers entered upon his labours on Rarotonga and, later, in New Guinea, it has been deemed desirable to include in the following pages two short chapters of general description and missionary history.

Within the limits of the present volume it has only been possible to indicate the main facts and splendid purpose of Tamate’s life. The writer has learned, with great satisfaction, that his hero has left much valuable biographical material in the hands of his representatives, and he believes that the following pages will but whet the appetite of the reader for perusal of the official Autobiography and Letters.

In his verses "In memoriam" of Chalmers. Mr. John Oxenham expresses the confidence that

"His name,
Shall kindle many a heart to equal flame;
The fire he kindled shall burn on and on,
Till all the darkness of the lands be gone,
And all the kingdoms of the earth be won,
And one."

The writer will rejoice if this little volume, like a torch, renders humble service in helping to pass on the kindling flame to "many a heart."

CUTHBERT LENNOX.

EDINBURGH, 18th March 1902.

CONTENTS

Chapter I
Beginnings

Birth—Parentage—Schooling—Boyish adventure—Earliest missionary impulse—The Revival of 1859—Changed life—Christian work— Glasgow City Missionary—Accepted by the London Missionary Society—Student days at Cheshunt—At Highgate Institution—The spell of Livingstone—Appointment to Rarotonga—Marriage.

Chapter II
Outward Bound

The John Williams II.—Ordination of Chalmers—Farewells—Storm in the Channel—Final departure—The voyage to Australia—The voyage continued—On a reef—Back to Sydney—Final wreck of the John Williams 11.—Samoa—With "Bully" Hayes—Arrival in Rarotonga—"Tamate".

Chapter III
The South Seas Mission in 1867 and Before

The London Missionary Society—Cook’s voyages—William Carey and the South Seas—Early missionary effort in Tahiti—Progress of the work— Arrival of John Williams—His pioneer work—Christianity in the South Seas—Discovery of Rarotonga—The island—Incidents in the life of John Williams—The first resident missionaries—Rarotonga in 1834 —Williams founds a Training College—1839 to 1867.

Chapter IV
At Rarotonga

The island in 1867—Religious condition of the people—Work for Chalmers—Settlement on Rarotonga—Isolation—Conduct of the Institution and its reform—The students—Routine of study—A High School—-The printing press—The daily programme.

Chapter V
At Rarotonga.(continued)

Chalmers goes after the young men—Crusade against strong drink—Rechabite Society—Natives held down by debt—Chalmers prepares a Constitution for the Island—Christian progress—Work at the out-stations—Visit to Mangaia—Chalmers encourages the churches in self-support and missionary interest—A contingent of students for New Guinea—Chalmers offers to go to the New Hebrides—First call to New Guinea—The second call accepted—Departure from Rarotonga—Experience gained on Rarotonga—Visit to New Zealand.

Chapter VI
New Guinea in 1877 and before

The largest island in the world—Discovery and early exploration—The island in 1 877—Its inhabitants—Founding of the New Guinea Mission—Mr. Lawes at Port Moresby.

Chapter VII
At South Cape

Arrival in New Guinea—A tramp inland—A coasting trip—A born explorer—Tamate’s journals—East Cape—Suau—Settlement among cannibals—Indiscretion of native teachers—Invitation to a cannibal feast.

Chapter VIII
Exploring from South Cape

Tamate explores the south-east coast—Pioneer methods—Visit to an Amazon settlement—Dangerous communings at Dedele—Among hostile savages—First real inland trip—Suau proves unhealthy—Illness and death of Mrs. Chalmers—Tamate abandons Suau.

Chapter IX
Pioneering: Ten weeks in the Interior

Port Moresby—Work of Mr. Lawes—Inland with Ruatoka—Scarcity of carriers—Native terror—Dissipated by the missionary—The personal influence of Tamate—The native larder—The family pig—Native cooking—Salt-eating extraordinary—The ground covered—Rough travelling—The savage and the evangel—Back in Port Moresby.

Chapter X
Exploring in the Gulf of Papua

Port Moresby to Bald Head—Geographical value of the cruise—Native toilettes—Varied reception by the natives—Cannibals—Papuan deities and eschatology.

Chapter XI
Pioneering in 1880

Visiting the eastern stations—Six weeks inland—Rafting, and a spill on the Kemp-Welch River—Massacre at Aroma—Visit to Manumanu and Kabadi—Famine-stricken Animarupu—Peace-making—Results of the earlier expeditions.

Chapter XII
The Dawn

Work for big results—First converts—Peace-making at Motumotu—Surprised by a fighting canoe—Expedition to Doura—A forward movement—At Delena—In the thick of the fight—Maiva—Death of Kone— Port Moresby men in far Elema—Adventurous navigation.

Chapter XIII
Errands of Justice and Mercy

The Massacre at Kalo—Estiniate of its cause—its punishment—Tamate’s opinion of punitive expeditions—Visit to Kabadi—In search of the Dourans—Improved conditions at South Cape—Cannibal boatmen—Need for New Guineans as teachers—The Institution at Port Moresby.

Chapter XIV
Work and Adventure in the Gulf: 1883

Motuan pottery—Trade with the Far West—Lakatois—Voyage in a trading canoe—Crossing the bar at Vailala—Other sea risks—The dubu—Discovery of the Purari—Intercourse with natives—Picture, song, and smoke—Native salutations—The white man on exhibition—Evening prayers at Vailala—New Guineans preach at Orokolo and Namau— A memorable scene.

Chapter XV
Placing Teachers

The Age Expedition—One hundred miles in a week—Meeting with cannibals at the Annie River—New Guinea fever—Visit of Rev. W. W. Gill— Round the stations with Mr. Gill—New beginnings at Kalo—Placing teachers—Motumotu as a vantage ground—Native teachers the true pioneers—The devotion of the native teacher—Mr. Hume Nisbet’s testimony—Teachers as linguists—The choice of teachers—Peace at Kabadi—The staleness of travel—Tamate’s buoyant spirit.

Chapter XVI
A Protectorate Proclaimed

Early attempts to secure annexation for New Guinea—Tamate’s opinion—The Proclamation—Tamate’s share in its publication—Admiral Erskine’s tribute—Testimony of Admiral Bridge—Hopes and fears— Pastoral supervision of teachers—Sleeps at Kalo—Koapena of Aroma.

Chapter XVII
With the Special New Guinea Commission

Tamate invited to join Sir Peter Scratchley—Expeditions with the Commissioner—Sir Peter and Koapena—The influence of Tamate—Incidents of peril and adventure—Tamate’s prudence—Against the burning of villages—" Ask Tamate "—More discoveries—The influence of the missionary—The Lord’s Supper at Suau—Death of the Commissioner—Furlough.

Chapter XVIII
Tamate in England and Scotland

An enthusiastic welcome—Work and Adventure in New Guinea: 1877— 1885—Tamate’s message to the Directors—The lion of the hour— At the Colonial Institute—Views on "Civilisation " and on native dress—Robert Louis Stevenson corroborates—John Williams and missionary bonnets—Tamate at the Royal Geographical Society—Pioneering in New Guinea—Its reception—Visit to Inveraray—Tamate calls for volunteers—The ninety-third anniversary of the London Missionary Society—A policy of advance—" No retreat: no retrenchment "—Return to New Guinea.

Chapter XIX
Motumotu

Tamate visits all the stations and notes progress—Annexation proclaimed by Sir William MacGregor—His opinion of the missionaries—Tamate’s second marriage—Se ttlement at Motumotu—Its strategic position—The mission house at Motumotu—Serious illness of Tamate and his wife—Motumotu to Port Moresby in an open boat—Missionary diet—Death of Pin’s wife—Missionaries in conference.

Chapter XX
Torres Straits and Rarotonga

A cruise with the Governor—Disappointing condition of stations in Fly River district—A great change at Saibai—In search of the Tuger— Pioneering again—Tamate visits the Samoas and the Hervey Islands —At Rarotonga again—A splendid reception.

Chapter XXI
With Robert Louis Stevenson

Tamate and Robert Louis Stevenson meet—A warm friendship results— Stevenson’s opinion of Tamate—Extracts from letters to Tamate— Stevenson commends Pioneering in New Guinea—Dr. Baildon contrasts the friends—Their treatment of the native—Tamate’s estimate of Robert Louis Stevenson.

Chapter XXII
Towards the Fly River

Hopeful signs at Motumotu—Visits Queensland—Wreck of the Harrier— Fiftieth birthday—Tamate in his shirt-sleeves—The return voyage to New Guinea—Mrs. Chalmers left in charge—Among the cannibals of Namau—Culinary difficulties—Baptisms and teacher-training— Arrival of the Miro—A trial trip round the stations—Serious illness—Further testimony of Sir William MacGregor—Prospecting on the Fly River—Last visit to Great Britain—At the City Temple—Pioneer Life and Work in New Guinea—Return to New Guinea.

Chapter XXIII
At Saguane

Removal to Saguane, Fly River—Its advantages and disadvantages— Natives and tinned food—The humdrum life of a mission station— Success and progress-—Sends teachers up the Fly River—Their fortunes—Saguane abandoned.

Chapter XXIV
The Angel of Death

Removes to Daru—Illness and death of Mrs. Chalmers—Renewed activity—Loneliness and work—Tamate and Christian Endeavour—Rev. O. F. Tomkins—Expedition to Aird River—Martyrdom—Supposed cause—World-wide grief and lamentation.

Chapter XXV
Great-Heart of New Guinea

Results of Tamate’s life-work: scientific, imperial, and missionary—His personal appearance—His personality—His faith—His hope.