British politician, born
near Holytown, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. He worked in the mines
between the ages of seven and 24, and was victimized as the miners'
champion. He became a journalist and the first Labour candidate,
entering parliament in 1892. He founded and edited the Labour Leader,
and was chairman of the Independent Labour Party (founded 1893).
Instrumental in the establishment of the Labour Representation
Committee, he served as chairman of the Labour Party (1906--8). His
strong pacifism led to his becoming isolated within the Party,
particularly once World War 1 had broken out.