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Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life in Upper Canada
By a "Canuke".of the fifth generation (1905)


Introduction

THE main object of the author in putting together the scattered pages forming this humble volume has been to give glimpses of life—of real homely life—among the early pioneers. He lays no claim to any other merit than that of telling his simple story. His means of information have been of a more than ordinary character, and these he has endeavored to improve by personal enquiry and visiting the localities, so far as possible, where the scenes are laid and depicted. There is, as will be seen, a large amount of information supplied, which he would fain hope may be found useful in adding to the historic fund of other writers, who have already placed themselves on record on the same subject as historians of early pioneer life in Canada. Real and homely as his tale has been told, there will still be found no lack of romantic incidents and chapters of much interest to the general reader. The book, in a word, is the author's humble contribution to the history of the early days of his native province. Access to old manuscripts and records of family events retained in both his father's and mother's families for a century and more, has helped him to a very great extent in carrying out the design which he had in view when he first commenced what, to him, was a labor of love.

Contents

THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS

Who the Early-Settlers Were
The United Empire Loyalists
Butler's Rangers
The Mennonites and Tunkers

EARLY EXPERIENCES OF THE SETTLERS

How the Emigrants from the States Reached Canada
Appearance of the Country
The Indians
The Wild Animals

PREPARATORY WORK OF THE SETTLER

The Old Log Houses and Barns
The Fireplaces
The Felling of the Trees
The Stumping

TRAVELLING CONVENIENCES

An Old Military Road
The Wayside Tavern
The Corduroy and Other Roads
The Old Stage Coach
Horseback Riding

WAYS AND MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

The Mails
The Newspapers
Postage Stamps and Envelopes
The Quill Pens
The Old Currency

SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS

The Industry of the People
The Hospitality of the People
The Amusements of the People
The Schools
The School-houses
The Churches

SOME PHASES OF EARLY COUNTRY LIFE

The Country Store
The Wayside Blacksmith
The Country Peddler
The Itinerant Shoemaker
The Country Squire
Tramps

SOME PHASES OF EARLY SOCIAL LIFE

The Old-Time Camp-meeting
he Old-Time Funerals
The Superstitions of the People
Ghosts, Hobgoblins and Will.o'-the-Wisps
The Lightning Bug or Firefly
In Time of Sickness
Saving Habits of Grandfather
Nursery Rhymes and Lullabies

HOME SURROUNDINGS

The Old Homestead .
The Orchards and Vineyards
The Old-Time Garden
The Old-Time Wells
The Family Cemetery
The Rail Fence

HOME SURROUNDINGS. (Continued)

The Bake-Ovens
The Smoke Houses
The Old Workshop
The Old Grindstone
The Corn Crib

HOUSEHOLD APPURTENCES

the First Stoves
The Old Corner Cupboard .
The Grandfather's Clock
The Old Flintlock Musket
The Dinner Horn
The Old Dash Churn

HOUSEHOLD APPURTENCES (Continued)

Early Household Utensils and Articles of Furniture
Pewter and Crockery Ware
Candles and Candlesticks
Tea and Coffee, and Their Substitutes
Lighting the Fire

CLOTHING AND DRESS

The Clothing of the People
The Fashions in Dress
Our Grandmothers' White Caps

DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES

Spinning Yarn
Straw Working
Milking Time
Plucking Geese
Soap-Making
Potash
Cheese Making
How Saner Kraut was Made

DOMESTIC AND FARM WORK

Cider and Cider Mills
Making Apple Butter
Honey Gathering, Straw Hives and Superstitions About Bees
Shingle Making
Flax Culture
Tanning Leather

FARM WORK

Early Farm Implements
The Sickle and Reaping Hook
Sowing the Grain
Cradling Grain
The Reaping Machine
Sheep Washing and Shearing

FARM WORK—(Continued)

The Threshing
The Logging Bee
The Raising Bee
Maple Sugar Making Time

CO-OPERATIVE GATHERINGS

The Paring Bee
The Quilting Bee
The Husking Bee
Butchering Day, or "The Killing"

EARLY PASTIMES

Raccoon Hunting
Hunting for Bees
Hunting and Trapping
Fishing in the River
The Wild Pigeons and Wild Geese

COUNTRY AMUSEMENTS

The Old-fashioned Country Dance
The Charivari (Shivaree)
The "Old Sorrel"
The Spelling School
The Singing School
Pop Corn, Nuts and Apples

COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE

Early Country Courtship
The Country Wedding

FARM SCENES

The Family Watch-Dog
A Trip to Market
An Auction Sale on the Farm

COUNTRY SCENES

The Old Water Wheel
The Old Sawmills
The Windmills
The Old-Time Winter
Views of The Niagara

FOREST LIFE

The Wild Fruits
The Familiar Wild Flowers
Lost in the Woods
Forest Fires
A Primitive Canadian Band
Mosquitoes and Black Flies

FOREST LIFE—(Continued)

The Squirrel
The Fox
Rabbit Hunting


 


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