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Memoirs of Robert Dollar
Vol. 1 - Chapter Fifteen. An Epoch Making Voyage


We arrived in San Francisco on the 14th of May but our stay was not for long, as we sailed again on August 23, 1910, with a party of business men, thirty in number, sent by the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast, to visit China. This was in acceptance of the invitation which I had brought home from the Chinese Chamber of Commerce the year before.

The object of this visit was to create and increase the friendly feeling between China and the United States, and also to increase our commerce.

At Honolulu we went ashore, where we were entertained by the Chamber of Commerce. Automobiles were waiting to take us around the harbor, to Pearl Harbor, the Pali Museum, Aquarium and Waikiki, and back to Young's Hotel for lunch. Governor Freer, ex-Governor Dole, Mr Waterhouse and Mr. Wood, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, with several others, received and entertained us in such a way that we had a most enjoyable day. The people of Honolulu are noted for their hospitality, but, 011 this occasion, they more than did themselves proud.

The next day we sailed, and got down to work again. Committee meetings were held in the forenoons and general meetings of the Commissioners and the ladies in the afternoons. One morning I addressed the ladies on the importance of the mission in winch we were engaged, and tried to impress on them that at times seriousness and tact would be necessary.

A TALK TO THE LADIES

To the Ladies of the Commission:

I have been requested by the executive committee to address you on the. part you can and should take on this trip. No doubt many of you came expecting it to be a pleasure excursion, and nothing more. While I promise you that it will probably be the most pleasant trip you have ever had and its memory will last as king as you live, there is a seriousness connected with it that makes the strongest of us pause and think.

We are going to a people numbering nearly one-third of the population of the world. The Empire of China is as large as the United States, Alaska, all our island possessions, France, .Spam and Italy, and still room left. Our self-imposed task is to create a better feeling of friendship between the two nations, and, incidentally, to promote and increase our trade relations. I hope what I have said is sufficient to convince you that none of you has ever been fortunate enough to engage in a work that interests over one-third of the population of our globe.

So that the magnitude of the work before us may not discourage you, I will say that a woman in Shanghai formed a small club, called the Anti-Foot Binding Society. It spread to other cities and word of it finally reached the Empress Dowager. She was so impressed with the earnestness of the members that she issued an edict forbidding in future the binding of any girl's feet. Now, when a custom, which had existed for ages past can be changed by the efforts of one woman, you can well take courage and use your efforts to get in close touch with the ladies, and you will, I am sure, succeed in doing much,

The International Institute in Shanghai has been the means of bringing foreigners and the Chinese together, and the ladies have, a club in which they have induced several Chinese ladies to become members. At the unveiling of a tablet in the Institute, I saw several ladies present, which ;s a great innovation from the old established custom of seclusion for women. 1 have tried to get some parts of the subject of education assigned to you to investigate and report on, especially the education of girls, kindergarten work, music, etc.


BRIDGE OF ONE HUNDRED ARCHES AT SOOCHOW

The subject of the Chinese woman and her position, socially and legally, has been assigned to you, and I trust  you will make a full investigation and report. You all appreciate the fact that, on the education of the masses depends, to a great extent, the prosperity of a nation. In this, China is sadly deficient, but she is now fully awake to the necessity of universal education. Bear in mind that anything you can do for the uplift of China will bring a reward that all great men and women are striving for, "to leave the world better than you found it."

I have to report the passing of a very short week; in fact, I find that time rushed on so fast that I could not accomplish as much as I wanted to. One day was given over to sports, in which both old and young participated and which was thoroughly enjoyed. On Friday we passed the one hundred and eightieth meridian; therefore, that day was dropped from our calendar. We went to bed on Thursday night and woke up Saturday morning.

One day I called a meeting of the ladies and suggested that they organize, to be in a better position to take up any subject brought to them and be better prepared to give prompt reports and material assistance. They took kindly to the suggestion, and elected Mrs. Dollar, President; Mrs. Booth, Vice-President, and Mrs. Moulton, Secretary. Several committees were appointed, to which various subjects were assigned.

The Commissioners have begun to realize the magnitude of the work we are undertaking. They know now what they did not know before they left home-—that they have a man's job on their hands. They are all. without exception, read-'ng and studying the various subjects that will be brought before us. For myself, I have devoted two-thirds of my time to answering questions and telling others what I know. Now, I feel responsible for the time and work I have put in during the past few years in making a study of China and the Chinese, and, while all I do not know about the subject is a hundred times more than what I know, it is a great satisfaction to assist others, even in a small way. Before leaving home I filled a trunk with books about China that I thought would be of service to the Commissioners, amongst them being a number of copies of the National Review, published <n China, all of which they used as a circulating library, and which the Commissioners found instructive and interesting.

In regard to the personnel of the party. I am pleased beyond measure w ith the number of able men we have. They are all well informed men, and there is practically no choice between them, except wherein one man may be better posted on a certain subject than another. President B<x>th has good material with which to work, and I am sure he will produce extra good results, although I am not unmindful of the old saying—"A wise man defers boasting until he is taking off his armor."

JAPAN

We arrived in Yokohama <luring a rain storm. The Japanese, wishing to show those who had entertained them in America some kindness, invited our party to visit Tokio. They provided a special car on the railroad and hail automobiles in waiting at the station in Tokio. After luncheon at the Imperial Hotel they drove us about the city and then out to the home of Baron Shibusawa, where his son and <laughter hospitably received and entertained us. The Baron was in Osaka raising funds for the flood sufferers and the Baroness was confined to her bed. We were then driven to the Nippon Club, where we had an excellent Japanese dinner. After dinner a theatrical company wound up the festivities with a good Japanese play. We returned on board the steamer after midnight.

From the railroad on our trip to Tokio we saw evidences of the recent flood, which had destroyed many homes and crops. It is reported that there is much destitution and suffering among the communities affected, and strong efforts are being put forth to raise money to aid them. Nine of our Commissioners gave live hundred yen.

KOBE

At Kobe the Commissioners went ashore. Many of them visited Osaka and took in all the sights around Kobe.

Considerable headway has been made on the new breakwater, and it will not be long before this much needed improvement will make loading and discharging into barges possible when it is blowing hard. At present it does not take much wind to stop all work in the harbor. T noticed three dredgers at work deepening the water close to shore to enable the vessels to lay nearer in than at present. The present plan of harbor improvement is to build several piers from shore, so a great quantity of freight can be handled direct to rail or wagons, without the use of lighters.

Going through the Inland Sea the weather was good, and we had a good view of it.

SHANGHAI

At Shanghai we visited various industries, one of which was a woolen mill, three years old and fitted with modern machinery from Belgium. Most of the wool was Chinese grown, but they had a quantity of Australian wool and some South African, which they used in mixing. In this mill and a paper mill, there were about six hundred hands employed.

We left the mill to attend a reception at the Shanghai Taotai's yam en. There we were met by all the great people of the city. The large reception hall was beautifully decorated with American and Chinese flags. There were no speeches, as it was quite informal, and the Americans as well as the Chinese seemed to enjoy it. Quite a number of peacock feathers were in evidence, the owners being mandarins of various ranks. We got back to the hotel in time to dress for the grand banquet at the ball in the Chang Su Ho gardens. We were taken there in a street car, specially decorated with flags and brilliant lights, and electric designs of the American flag on front and rear. The street car company decorated its line for over three miles.

On arrival at the grounds we found them brilliantly lighted, some thousands of Chinese lanterns having been specially made with American and Chinese flags on each. Large electric designs with the words "Welcome" were over the doors. The hall seated over two hundred, and at one end was a stage where a theatrical troop entertained us during the banquet. The trimmings and fittings on the stage were most beautiful, and any attempt to describe it or the costumes of the actors would fall far short of the reality.

The dinner was semi-Chinese, commencing with birds' nest soup, sharks' fins, and so on. It was very well served, and there were many courses.

The speakers of the evening were Consul General Wilder, on the American side, and Wu Ting Fang for the Chinese, although there were a few others. All did justice to their well chosen subjects in addressing this very unusual audience. there also were great displays of fireworks. Chinese merchants told me that no such preparations had been made since the late Emperor visited Shanghai, many years ago.

The next day, Sunday, a reception was held at the International Institute in the afternoon, where several addresses were delivered, and, in the evening, the Press Club gave us a banquet.

The next morning the party visited a cotton mil1, employing six thousand persons, and a silk filature, where we saw an exhibit of finished silks. This took up the entire forenoon. After lunch at the hotel, the party started for Hangchow, in house boats. A boat, with a boy servant, was provided for every four persons. The Palace Hotel furnished the help and did the catering. We left at I o'clock in the afternoon and arrived at the Hangchow landing at 10 o'clock the next morning. There we took the steam train for a fifty-mile trip to the city, where we were entertained at luncheon.

All the members of the party enjoyed seeing the world-famous Grand Canal, and the. realization of the age of China was hrought forcibly to them, when they learned that for twenty-five hundred years billions of people have been traveling up and down this waterway. The bridges, built at that time, are still in perfect condition.

HANGCHOW

At Hangchow we were immediately taken to an official reception and luncheon, and the. afternoon was spent in viewing the sights of a Chinese city, which only a few of our party had seen before In the evening, a banquet was given by the Governor of Chekiang Province at his official vamen. It was a magnificent affair, served with all the splendor of the Orient; it was also a most significant affair, as foreigners had previously been most unwelcome in this vicinity, and this was the lirst time they had ever been received officially in the province. Speeches were made, and the Governor asked us to suggest ways and means by which they could become a manufacturing as well as an agricultural community.


THE CHAMBER OP COMMERCE OF SHANGHAI ENTERTAINS COMMISSIONERS AND LADIES

From early morning till late at night the next day the time was taken up in visiting temples, lunching at a mandarin's, and a boat excursion on West Lake- one of the most picturesque bodies of water in China. We went to the temple on the bank of the river to see the famous "bore" come up the river, which only occurs once in the spring and once each fall. It is a great sight to watch the great wall of water—twelve to fifteen feet high—roll up the river from the ocean, carrying everything before it.

Then we left for Shanghai. The cars were all decorated, and the railway company provided dinner for us; in fact, it would have been impossible for the entire community to have devised ways of doing more. Every section man on the road was provided with a Chinese lantern decorated with Chinese and American flags, and every station along the route was decorated with flags and evergreens, and crowds of people were there to see us pass. At the principal cities on the way receptions were held and presents given to each of us.

Returning to Shanghai, the men visited various industrial plants, while the ladies visited missions, hospitals and so on, and a flourishing Young Women's Christian Association of one hundred and sixty members.

The last evening we were m Shanghai we were given a Chinese theater party. The play was on the effects of opium, this subject being chosen because Americans were the first to assist the Chinese n the suppression of the traffic in opium.

We left Shanghai for Nanking. The station was beautifully decorated, and thousands of lire-crackers were set off to wish us good luck. A band played our national airs, and the leading men of the city were on the platform to bid us goodby and God-speed.

The train was a special one of private cars. On the window of each seat was a card bearing the name of the American city of the representative who would occupy it. Each car had a buffel from which we were served with meals or refreshments along the way. It was very unique, and I have never seen anything quite like it. I noticed that every way station, even though we did not stop at it, was decorated and the section hands were drawn up in line on the station platforms. We did not stop until we reached Soochow, fifty miles distant. Here a great crowd met us, in it being nearly the entire membership of the Chamber of Commerce, officials and mandarins. The station was beautifully decorated and a brass band was in attendance Carriages were in waiting, and we were conveyed to the Governor's yamen, a great big, rambling building. It took us ten minutes to walk through the intricate passages and rooms before we reached the audience hall where tables were set for one hundred and fifty people. The decorations of cut flowers were beautifully combined with artificial flowers and many works of art. The Governor made an address, to which I replied as follows:

Those of us who know a little of your customs, know that your hospitality is unbounded, but, in the manner in which you have received us, in the different places in China, I must say you have excelled yourselves. Our primary object in coming seven thousand miles to visit your country was to increase the friendly relations between our country and yours, and from the enthusiastic manner your people, from the highest to the lowest, have received us, I am firmly convinced that this result will be accomplished in a manner exceeding our fondest hopes.

But we have another object in our visit, and by some of you it may seem primary, instead of secondary. This object is to increase trade and commerce, and in offering suggestions to you on this subject, I cannot help feeling like a small boy coming to his great grandfather and giving him advice, as I am a citizen of the youngest of the nations, addressing many citizens of the oldest nation on earth, I also realize that your nation represents one-third of the human race.

You have a very rich agricultural country, perfectly level land, and as productive as the best of any country, but you lack manufactures. No nation has ever become truly great, measured by our modern standards, that has not engaged extensively in manufacturing and skipping. A merchant marine is a necessary part in the development of any great country. All these things you lack. At a meeting of this kind, with limited time, it is impossible to accomplish much, but: I would suggest to your merchants and bankers to meet us at some future, time, when we can discuss fully how best we can increase your trade. We are not here for pleasure—-we are here to develop and increase trade. What we want and must have are practical results, and if we do not gel them, our visit here will have been a failure. So we want to get in close touch with your merchants, that the much desired result may be accomplished.

I was loudly applauded by the entire audience when I finished my talk.

We left at 2 o'clock in the afternoon and our next stop was at Yuseb. the great silk center. At this place the crowd was larger than ever, and extended even into the fields. We gave and received many presents, and proceeded on our journey.

At Changchow, the Chamber of Commerce gave us an address to which we made proper reply, and each of us was presented with a package of tea of their own growing, as this is a tea growing section. They are particularly proud of the fine quality they produce.

At Chingkang, after we had attended a luncheon, we took the train for Nanking, which brought us right through to the Exposition grounds without changing cars. The grounds and buildings are a credit to the Chinese, as this is their first attempt at expositions. The American exhibit was very fair.

NANKING

In the early evening the ladies of our party were invited to a tea at the home of Eadv Chang, wife of the Viceroy. This was the first time such a function had ever been given to foreigners, but the affair went oft in fine order. An hour was spent here, and the conversation was interpreted by three girl students from the Mission schools.

Later, the ladies joined us at the Viceroy's banquet hall, where one hundred and eighteen sat down to dinner. The table decorations were all that could be desired; in fact, one could only see a short distance on account of them. I was fortunately located near the Viceroy's Secretary. Taotai Chung Mun Yew, the managing director of the China Merchants' Steamship Company, the Government line; and Taotai Wang Chung Liang, the managing director of the Pukow-Tientsiri Railroad. They talked very good English, so it made a very pleasant party, and I enjoyed the evening better than any entertainment I had attended :n a long time. The conversation was animated and dealt with the subjects that are now troubling China, and as they all had their hands on the pulse of matters deeply affecting their country and the rest of the world, it was intensely interesting and instructive. Although we were on a commercial trip, politics and the policy of China and the nations closely connected with her prosperity, or in many cases her adversity, always came to the surface, especially when we came in contact with the great men of China.

The Viceroy delivered a speech of welcome, and asked us for advice and criticisms of China. Mr. Hotahng made a stirring reply, which no diplomat or representative of any government would have dared make, as he would have instantly lost his position. Our Commissioners have been in China only ten days, and have seen in this short time enough to convince them of the injustice that is being indicted oti


CAMELS, ELEPHANTS AND OTHER ANIMALS OF STONE LINE THE ROADS AT THE MING TOMBS

the Chine&e by foreigners. For instance, on a sign board of a park >n Shanghai is a notice that no Chinese are allowed unless they are servants to Europeans. This, our Commissioners could not understand, especially as the Chinese pay nine-tenths of the upkeep. Verily, a day of reckoning is coming.

After the banquet, at i o'clock in the morning, the Viceroy sent a message to me, stating that if I was not too tired he would like to have an hour's conversation with me. In this conversation many matters were discussed that were of great importance.

A double row of troops, on each side from the street entrance to the house, presented arms as we went in. A line military band played our American national airs. The next morning we saw a drill of one of the Viceroy's regiments (he has sixteen thousand troops here). No one was admitted to this but our party, as it was for our special benefit.

Some of our party knew considerable of military affairs and enjoyed it immensely; as, in fact, we all did. The drill was entirely German in style. They showed us their barracks' gymnastic drill, which was wonderful, as the athletes were not selected but a company chosen indiscriminately for each particular drill. One of our party, who was well versed m military affairs, remarked that had he not seen for himself he could not have believed that they were so proficient. After it was over the General took us into the officers' mess room, where cake, wine and tea were served at a long table specially prepared. We learned that a soldier's wages averaged about three dollars gold, a month, out of which he boards himself. We were told that now men of good families join the army, but up to five or six years ago it was considered a disgrace to join.

We had another display of New China in the Exposition grounds. In the large audience hall about one hundred children from the Mission kindergarten school gave us an exhibition. There were little tots from five to six years old, and a class of sixty girls from ten to twelve, who sang American songs, played the piano, etc.; then as a contrast, music of China's old style was rendered. The contrast was very great, and showed what rapid strides the new education is making. The manager told us of the seemingly insurmountable difficulties they had overcome, before the Exposition grounds were thrown open to the public. The ability and energy they have shown in getting up such a creditable exhibit from people who had never heard of such a thing before, are wonderful.

We had a reception at the Nanking University, which is a combination of Methodist, Christian and Presbyterian churches—all American. The union of churches and colleges, as well as missions, is the proper way: in fact, China is showing us the way in this respect. It is a great saving of money, talent and effort, and is getting far better results and far greater respect from the Chinese.

Professor Davis, the President, delivered a short, concise address. They have six hundred students, and the buildings are full to overflowing all the tune. They have twelve hundred communicants m connection with the various missions in the city. There is such a demand for educated young men that it is hard to get them to take the full course. High wages are offered them as soon as they receive only a fair education. The university authorities have had the foresight to secure large, desirable grounds, and their future looks bright, while their power for good, as the years roll on, will be felt all over China.

After the address and informal talks I visited the buildings and grounds where I found they were erecting excellent, permanent buddings at a very low cost, which proves that their management must be of a high order

The Provincial Assembly of Kiangsi Province, which corresponds to our State legislature, invited us to a banquet in their building. They are just getting started in this venture of constitutional government, so this meeting of the assemblymen was most important. as they w ere extremely anxious to learn from us what has proved good and what is bad in our form of State government. On our gathering in their assembly ball the President of the Assembly proposed a toast to the health of the President of the United States. The building was really opened in our honor, as this was the first meeting held in it. Many speeches were made, both in English and Chinese. The banquet was a wonderful affair, caterers and f(x>d having been brought from Shanghai, two hundred miles distant.

This is the only session that has been held by the Assembly, and that in a temporary building; but they will soon hold regular sessions in their own building, which is built on modern plans and in the most approved style. All this is preparatory to the establishment of the Federal Government in Peking.

We visited the Ming tombs, outside of the city wall, driving in carnages to the gate and from there being conveyed in sedan chairs. The last Ming emperor was buried here over four hundred and fifty years ago, and the first one of record was buried about eighteen hundred years ago. For China, the tombs are in a fair state of preservation. A few of the descendants live there, and have sufficient land to support them, but according to our ideas of looking after such historical places they are sadly neglected. Great stone elephants, camels and dromedaries and various other representations of animals, line the road on each side. They are about three times the natural size, and fences surround them to prevent vandalism by our civilized European and American travelers!

I had denounced in very strong terms the vandalism of parries who had marked these monuments, but our party put it all back on me when, on investigating one of the huge dromedaries, we saw the name of the steamer "Hazel Dollar" carved. Evidently, one of our officers had gone up there when the steamer was in Nanking and with a chisel had carved her name in the stone. So they had a joke on me. stating I had better look after my own people before advising others.

Our hosts again outdid themselves in thoughtfulness and hospitality, for they actually had tables, chairs, carpets and refreshments carried out from the city, and we were served in the temple at the tombs. And all this from a people so recently said to be antagonistic to foreigners! With all this display, I am pleased to say that we never lost sight of the fact that we were here for a purpose, and kept strongly before our hosts, the fact that we wanted to establish trade relations between our countries. I must say that whenever we talked trade and commerce, ceremonies disappeared. and, to use a military term, they immediately "stood at attention" and listened intently to all we had to say.

HANKOW

At Hankow, I found the Yangtsze Engineering Works bad doubled in size during the year. They have plenty of work on hand, and now employ fifteen hundred men.

When we were about ready to sit down to the luncheon, Mr. Wong came to me very much excited and stated that the caterers had brought the lunch from Hankow with plenty of wine but not a glass, and there was none within six miles of the place. He wanted to know what I would recommend him to do. I replied. "Say nothing, and leave the matter to me." So when the party sat down I called their attention to the fact that there was no wine on the table, being the first luncheon or banquet we had attended in China without it. I noticed, after I made this remark, that Mr. Wong turned pale; but I followed it up by saying that he was the only one who understood American customs, as it was not customary to serve wines with luncheons in America.

We next visited the Han Yang Steel Works, and after seeing the mine at Tah Yei and this big plant, our members changed their opinions of Chinese industries and of their management by Chinese. We stood at the end of the rolling mill and saw bars, plates and steel rails all coming out in various merchantable shapes. We learned that there were about twenty-five thousand men employed in the coal and iron mines, coke ovens, transportation and in the plant. They have many tugs, barges, junks and steamers, about sixty miles of a coal railroad and fourteen miles of an iron ore railroad. This plant is located in about the geographical center of China and on one of the greatest rivers of the world, which, at the works, is about a mile and a quarter wide, and up which for eight months in the year vessels drawing thirty feet of water can go for seven hundred miles from the ocean.

Sunday was a day of rest only in our imagination, as we went to Wuchang, to an official banquet given by the Viceroy of Hupeh Province. He sent two gunboats to take us across the river and back. His Excellency thought his yamen was not grand enough, so he rented a very large budding and fitted it up in grand style for this function. The road was lined with soldiers, and in the halls and the large court, military bands played as we went in. About one hundred and fifty sat down to the banquet. The decorations were very fine, and the walls were hung with very large Amercan and Chinese flags. The flowers and silk-trimmings on the tables exceeded anything we had seen in this line. This banquet lasted about three hours, and when we returned to Hankow we found a meeting had been called for the Committee on Commerce, so we drove to the Chamber of Commerce where we had a talk with twenty of the leading merchants on trade matters. From there we drove to a church service, and listened to an interesting sermon on what missions had done and were doing for China. After church we went to dinner at the home of Mr. Wong Kwong. Certainly a full day for Sunday!

The next morning we visited cotton, hemp, flax and silk factories and a large grist mill, finding them all large, modern, up-to-date plants. We also visited a Russian tea factory, where they made tea into bricks for exportation to Russia. The tea is ground, steamed and pressed by hydraulic power into bricks about four by six inches and one inch thick. It looks like black plug tobacco. This is quite a tea center.

A large reception and banquet was held for us at the Chinese race track, two miles outside of the city. Although we were not aware of it, this proved to be the grand event of our trip. The buildings were very large and commodious, and the grounds were laid out in shrubs and flowers. In describing this entertainment I want to say that it is impossible to do :t justice. I asked a newspaper reporter if he could describe it, but he said it was impossible. In driving out from the city the road was so crowded that the carriages had to go slowly, and when we neared the place, the. crowd was so great we had to go at a slower walk, with frequent stops, until at the approach to the grounds, a passage was cleared by soldiers.

A triumphal arch, commanding a fine view of the grounds had been built three stories high. This was full of people. It was brilliantly lighted wiith electric globes of different colors, and presented a gorgeous appearance. From the verandas we had an opportunity of seeing the crowds which extended around for a radius of half a mile. It was as light as day from the brilliancy of the lights and the fireworks. Military bands, as well as native ones, and bugles and drums made music and noise to please all classes in the crowd.

The reception rooms presented an animated appearance, and the large banquet room was packed to its utmost capacity. A Chinese dinner was served, the entertainment being furnished by the Hankow Chamber of Commerce. The Vice-Chairman made a very good, carefully prepared address along commercial lines, which was well received by our party. Mr. Booth, m introducing me as speaker of the evening, said an introduction was hardly necessary as they all knew me. He paid me a very flattering compliment in saying that I was not only a man that said things hut did them, and in the development of American trade in Hankow I had played a conspicuous part. T confined my remarks to the Yangtsze Valley, as follows:

Before proceeding, I cannot permit the opportunity to pass without thanking you for such a princely reception and, I say without fear of contradiction, that no commercial body of men in the history of the world ever had such a reception.

I will endeavor to confine my remarks to a talk as a business man to business men, and consequently they must be practical. The object, of our visit was set forth in the invitation which you sent us. At the end of it you say, "To promote good will, and the growth of trade between the two countries." You have divided t into two parts: the first part has been dealt with fully everywhere we have gone; our receptions have been sincere, enthusiastic, and even this early in our journey, I consider it has been accomplished. The second part is not so easy and with tax to the utmost all our thoughts, ability and energy to accomplish.

As I am addressing an audience in what you are very proud to call the Chicago of China, and which I accept as a great compliment to Americans, I will confine my remarks to the Yangtsze Valley. Seeing that one quarter of a billion people live in this valley and its tributaries, I confess to have taken a subject so great, that it is entirely beyond my ability to do it justice. Hankow trade has been increasing by leaps and bounds. Trade statistics show that during the last fifteen years trade has increased tremendously. This, in some measure, is the result of railway communication, which has only begun in a small way, and as we look forward to Hankow being the railroad center of China, it being at the head of deep water navigation, it will certainly be the great commercial center of China.

The reason for this is not far to seek, as this is one of the richest agricultural valleys in the world and capable of producing in abundance everything that man requires. Up to the present time you lack large manufacturing plants, but, with your agricultural productions and your natural resources, you will be able to manufacture for the whole world.

In time your river must be made navigable all the year for vessels drawing twenty-five feet of water. This, I know, may seem an almost impossible task, but greater things have been done. I have given this subject some thought, and I consider it an absolute necessity that the work be done. There are only two shallow places to be overcome, and as soon as trade develops as we expect, the necessity will be more apparent. So do not be discouraged, as men. money and energy can accomplish anything within reason. The United States is engaged in a much greater undertaking at present (I mean the Panama Canal); and I expect to live to come up this river some January or February, in one of my vessels drawing twenty-five feet of water.

As to the future prospects of this great valley, I have often thought over what they would he, hut I am free to say that the possibilities are so great that it is beyond my comprehension. As to agriculture, the high state of cultivation could still be bettered by fertilizers, the crops increased fifteen to twenty-five per cent, and much more remunerative crops raised. I commend this suggestion to your careful consideration. A few years ago sessimum seed was almost unknown Now, your exports of this commodity are very great, last year exceeding one hundred and twenty thousand tons. No doubt you will also go into cotton growing on a large scale, especially when your cotton mills would be buiIt in numbers and on a large scale.

But when we consider your minerals, we are lost n wonder A German expert claims there is more coal in this valley than exists in the rest of the world. I think it quite safe to make the same estimate of your iron ore. Now with those two minerals lying side by side in a country of cheap labor, and an abundance of it, the day is coming when the production of steel from this country will exceed that of all other countries.

Railroads are wanted to open up and develop your country. You have an example before you of what the Pel Han Railroad has done for the country through which it passes. When this road was built, there was no freight to carry, except in harvest time. It is now taxed to its utmost capacity. The South Manchuriau railroad has been double tracked, and it also, at times, cannot carry the freight offered One and a quarter million tons of beans, alone, came over that road for export in 1909, and as you continue building additional roads you will find these conditions will continue.

I consider the Province of Szechuan the greatest mineral bearing country in the world, and with its forty-six millions of people, as soon as the railroads run through there, we shall hear from it. It is practically unknown to the world now, except to a very few travelers.


V. K. LEE
General Manager Han Yang Iron and Steel Works

From what I have said, you will readily understand that you have a gigantic task on your hands. It will take all the energy you are possessed of, and you must have moneyto do it with. One very important factor is what we call "Captains of Industry" to direct all those great works. I am pleased to say that you do not require to go abroad for them as from personal experience I know you have them right here.

However. I wish to say to you, all these great undertakings can only be accomplished by lots of hard work, and you must be up and doing, as your valuable heritage is of no value unless you develop it. The United States also received a valuable heritage, and by persistent hard work it has developed into a rich country. You have as good an opportunity as we had. So you have a prospect ahead of you that no other country has, provided you grasp the opportunity. The making of New China is in your hands.

After the speeches, all went on the verandas to see the fireworks. A tower of bamboo poles had been erected, about sixty feet high, and from this the various pieces were set off. None of us had ever seen such a display. We have been told by different classes of people that there had never been such a reception given to any one in China, and the significance of it is that Hankow is destined to be the greatest commercial center of China.

We left Hankow in a special train provided by the Central Government: At the beautifully decorated station, tire-works were set off. and the principal merchants and citizens, as well as a representative from the Viceroy of Hupeb Province, in which Hankow is situated, were there to bid us God-speed.

On the way, we noticed that the harvest was about over, and the farmers were preparing the land for next year's crops. Our party was much surprised to see such a rich agricultural country which, with the exception of one slight elevation, is perfectly level the entire eight hundred miles from Hankow to Peking. One fact is apparent to all—that it is a very rich country mostly of alluvial soil, but having been under cultivation for thousands of years it now needs fertilizing on a large scale. This would increase the crops very much.

MEMOIRS OF ROBERT DOLLAR PEKING

When we arrived at Peking, the appearance of the city was so different from that of any other we had visited that it could not help causing surprise. Not a flag or piece of bunting was in evidence, and there were articles in the papers that the Japanese were complaining bitterly that their party of distinguished business men, who had just preceded us, had not been well received. However, the Imperial Railroad provided a special train and took the party to see the Great Wall of China, providing a very nice lunch. We learned that the Hankow people paid all our hotel bills, so we sent them eight hundred dollars to be used by the Chamber of Commerce. The day after arrival, we were invited to see the Summer Palace, situated twelve miles out of the city. This was a rare sight as it is closed to visitors. The grounds cover several hundred acres, having a lake about a half mile long bv a quarter mile wide, in the center. They have been laid out, and buildings have been erected, regardless of expense. We were shown the apartments of the late Empress Dowager, her reception and throne rooms. The painting of the Empress has been veiled since her death, but it was unveiled for our inspection. Boats were provided for us on the lake, and the Barge of State was opened for us.

The barge is built of cement and stone, two stories high, and without question it is a most remarkable craft. When not afloat, it looks like a marble palace, and is about eighty feet long and thirty feet wide. The first floor is about four feet above the water, and there are stone steps on each side leading into the water. Marble pillars support the next story, and a small tower surmounts the whole. At first, I could not believe 't was afloat, as the appearance of solidity was such I could not think of its being other than a palace of marble. The rudder is of cement, and as far as I could see under the water it was all cement. It is used on all great state occasions. The appearance of the whole place, grounds and buildings, is that of an evacuated fairy land.

When we got to the gate over twenty foreigners were waiting outside, and when the door was opened they forced their way in amongst our party, although we had never seen them before. Each one of them was armed with a kodak, and, when in the throne room, a boy of their party was detected by an attendant taking an ornament. We requested the Chinese to allow our party to go alone, so that we would not be blamed for the misdeeds of others.

In the evening we attended a reception of the Legation, given by Minister Calhoun in our honor, at which all Americans in the vicinity were present. Later, the same evening, we went to a banquet given by the Press Club of Peking where there were about sixty foreigners and Chinese present.

On Saturday, the men of our party were invited to the Imperial Palace, in the Forbidden City, to be received by the Prince Regent. We drove in carriages to the palace court, as near as carriages art: permitted to go, then passed several gates and courtyards before we came to the reception room, where we were received by the court officials, and wine and cake served. From here, we marched two abreast to the Court room, through two gates, and across courts paved with large, flat stones.

The throne room was small, and at one end was the throne chair on a raised platform. We lined up i" front of the platform; our Minister, Mr. Calhoun, and Dr. Tenry as interpreter, stood in front of the line, and in a few minutes, the Prince Regent entered by a door leading to the back of the platform, which was closed by a curiam. One attendant held the curtain back so His Highness could enter, and another followed him. one standing at each side during the conference, which was carried on by Mr. Calhoun and the Prince. He inquired if we had been well received and if we were pleased with our visit.

Mr. Calhoun explained that our visit was strictly on business and had no political bearing; that we were just ordinary business men from the Pacific Coast desiring to increase the trade and commerce between the two nations, and create a stronger bond of friendship between China and the United States. The audience lasted about ten minutes, after which the Prince retired and we filed out. We learned that we must not turn our backs on him, hence his leaving first. There were twenty-six in our party, this being the largest number that has ever been granted an audience, and this is the first tune that ordinary business men have been presented to the Chinese Throne. We returned to the reception hall where we sat down to a luncheon, and had an interesting unofficial talk with the officials on subjects political and commercial.

We then proceeded to the Foreign Office, to a formal luncheon, where we were received by the various Ministers representing the different boards. 1 sat with the Minister of Communications and Mr. Liang, who really runs the bureau, and had a two-hour interesting talk with '"m on the railways of China, a subject in which I am very much interested.

In the early evening, Ambassador and Mrs. Calhoun entertained us at a reception at the Embassy, and later we were given a banquet at the hotel by the Provincial Senate.

Sunday, we tried to keep free, but the Chinese would not have it, inviting us to an elaborate luncheon at the Botanical Gardens. Large tables were placed in four rooms, and about two hundred sat down. After luncheon the guests were taken around the gardens in chairs and rickshaws. My old friend, His Excellency. Shen Kung Poa. requested me to remain and meet the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Commerce and Communications. We had a conference which lasted until 5 o'clock. Our conversation was mostly general, including international affairs, commercial, railroads and finance. In the evening we were entertained at a beautifully decorated banquet, given by the Chamber of Commerce.

TIENTSIN

We left for Tientsin the next morning on a special train provided by the Government, which included all their best carriages, even one used by the late Empress Dowager. We were received at Tientsin by officials and merchants,


PRIIVATE CAR OF THE LATE EMPRESS DOWAGER OF CHINA ATTACHED TO TRAIN OF AMERICAN COMMISSIONERS

and carriages were provided to drive us to the hotel. The afternoon was spent in visiting the schools and museum. The manual training school was most interesting, showing what work is being done with outcasts in teaching them trades. The result of their work pays the running of the institution. At 6:30 o'clock we were driven to the Viceroy's yamen where an elaborate banquet was prepared for us. The room easily accommodated the two hundred guests. It was thirty feet high, and other rooms, with floors raised four feet, open on the main hall and surround it on three sides. These rooms are all beautifully furnished with Brussels carpets and Chinese decorations, blending old and new China. As the Viceroy of Chili Province is the ranking Viceroy, he was the most important personage we met outside of Peking. Li Hung Chang and Yuen Shai Kai, each occupied his place in their day. They were two of the most distinguished of China's great men. As we drove into the court, great numbers of soldiers lined the way and presented arms. A military brass band was in attendance, making it a very grand affair. The banquet hall was gaily decorated with flags and flowers. The dinner took three hours to serve, as is usual with great Chinese dinners, and the speeches were congratulatory and of welcome.

The next morning we visited the university, and at noon had luncheon at Li Hung Chang's Memorial.

In the evening we went to a banquet given by Mr. Sun. One feature of this function was the illumination of the grounds, which consisted of differently colored incandescent lights placed in rows about two feet apart, on each side of all the walks. The Government had given him a number of soldiers as a guard of honor, in addition to a military band.

Wednesday, we left on a special train to visit the Tongslian coal mine, belonging to the Chinese Engineering & Mining Company, which ;s a modern, up-to-date and well equipped mine of soft coal. In all the shops and mines there is not a piece of American machinery, it all being of Belgian manufacture. They have installed great electrical plants, and as it is conceded that the American installation is the best, it would only have required a good, practical man to be on the spot to have gotten that business. We also visited a cement plant entirely fitted out with Belgian machinery. At present this district vies with Hankow as to which will be the great industrial center of China. Tien tsin, however, has an eighty mile rail haul either to Tongku or Chinwangtao, and this latter port must be deepened and extended before it can become one of the great ports of China. At present a steamer can load to twenty-two feet, but this can only be done by working her at high water. However, as the bottom is very soft and easily dredged, this is not a serious matter. As this is the only ice free port on the north side of the Gulf of Pechili it is of great importance to the Chinese Government; in fact, to all people doing business in Northern China.

As to the future prospects of this district, it is not difficult to predict that they will be great. Iron has been found eight miles from the coal mines, and if it proves to be of any great extent or value, Tientsin will be a great rival of Hankow. The conditions are ideal for development as the country is perfectly level and railroads can be built at a minimum cost.

On returning to Tientsin, my business friends had a private dinner ready for us. The party consisted only of those interested in business, six Chinese ladies and Mrs. Dollar also being present. At midnight we went aboard the steamer "Hsing Ming," and sailed for Chefoo.

CHEFOO, FOOCHOW AND AMOY

At Chefoo they had made great preparations to receive our party. Two Chinese cruisers and several launches were bedecked with flags. At the landing, evergreens and flags were in evidence, and a long, double row of soldiers presented arms as we drove through their ranks in rickshaws. We had a conference with business men lasting most of the afternoon. All matters of commercial interest to both countries were discussed. We found trade had decreased here, and our share of it had fallen off more than that of any other nation. Without railroad communication to the interior, general trade will decrease still more, as the Germans from Tsingtau. through their railway communications, are cutting into this trade and the Tsingtau trade is increasing rapidly.

At 5 o'clock in the afternoon we had a reception at the American Consulate, which was a friendly and informal affair, and from there went to a banquet. We sailed at midnight for Foochow.

We were due to arrive at Foochow in the morning, but were delayed. When we got in, we learned that a reception committee had been waiting for hours, with house-boats and tugs. We went directly to a banquet which had been prepared for us. The streets were crowded with people, and we had barely enough room to pass in our chairs. One noticeable feature, was the number of small school children dressed in white, every other one having an American and a Chinese flag, alternately.

When the banquet was over at 1 o'clock in the morning, we were surprised to find the children still lined up to see us pass out to the various private houses to which we had been assigned, and where our kind hosts made us as comfortable as if we had been at home. There were one hundred and thirty present at the banquet, which was headed by Viceroy Sung of Fukien and Chekang Provinces. The Tartar General Pu was at the table. It appears the Prince Regent was not very sure of the loyalty of the people, and sent the Tartar General here, as he is said to be over the Viceroy. There were a number of officials, some merchants, and some from the Provincial Assembly. We found the members of the Assembly always glad to receive ideas from us, as their legislature is in its formative state and there are many perplexing questions arising.

I find in this city, as in all other important cities, that there is a Japanese daily newspaper printed in Chinese, which is moulding the minds of the people in the Japanese way.

As usual in Chinese rivers, the Min River was full of boats, junks and other craft. We met many rafts of poles coming down. These poles, it is said, take about fifteen years to grow, and there is continual reforesting going on. The poles are all carried out of the woods on men's shoulders to the river, where the rafts are made and floated to Pagoda anchorage, from distances of eighty to one hundred and eighty miles, where they are loaded in junks and shipped to all Chinese ports. They go by the name of Foochow pules. It is difficult to estimate the extent of this trade, but it must run into hundreds of million pieces each year. The fir of the Pacific Coast feels this competition keenly. Going up the Min River from the ocean to Foochow, something over thirty miles, is one of the most picturesque sails in China, and was very much appreciated by our party.

At Amoy, a reception committee came aboard and escorted us ashore, where a number of Chinese merchants were waiting to escort us to the Bank of Communication, where we were served with refreshments and an informal reception was enjoyed. Thence, we were conducted to the Chamber of Commerce, and were formally introduced to a number of the members.

We then returned to the river, passing great crowds along the streets, and went aboard a tug which took us to the limits of the harbor, thence we proceeded a quarter of a mile on land to the Nan Pu Temple, one of the most celebrated in China, which was rebuilt about four hundred years ago. A luncheon was served here by the Chamber of Commerce. at which Taotai Kno and Major General Hung participated. A feature at this luncheon was the presence of a number of retired Chinese merchants from the Philippine Islands. One of them had lived in Manila for fifty years.

This was the first city that brought the immigration question to our notice. They claim, that as n San Francisco, the Chinese are now suffering in Manila from the mal-administration of the law. It was temporarily passed over by the statement that the Commission was going to Manila, and would investigate. No doubt this is only a commencement of what we will hear in Canton. An inscription was cut in a huge rock at the temple, commemorating the visit of the American fleet, and alongside of it a place had been prepared to commemorate our visit. Consul General Julian M. Arnhold did his utmost to make our visit to Annoy pleasant and profitable.


A JUNK UNDER SAIL LOADED WITH FOOCHOW POLES
Deck Loads Often Extend Twenty-five Feet on Either Side, the Cargo Dipping into the Water

CANTON

We arrived at Hong Kong in the evening and sailed for Canton the next morning on the steamer "On Lee," which was put at our disposal by her Chinese owners. We landed at the Admiralty building, which had just been completed. It is a fine, large, modern structure for headquarters of the navy in Southern China, 2nd is located fifteen miles from Canton. We were met by a gunboat—the Captain bringing us a message from the Admiral giving us the freedom of the port and welcoming us to Cantor. This gunboat convoyed us to Canton.

On nearing the city, we could see the illumination, and as we got close enough we found it to be the finest of the many good illuminations we have seer, since our arrival in China. Both electricity and lanterns were in evidence. On landing, a great many troops were drawn up in lines on both sides, and as we marched through their ranks, they presented arms, the bands striking up American tunes.

We were met by a representative of the Viceroy, who, unfortunately, was confined to h-'s bed. The Tartar General, Admiral Li, Taotais and representatives of the Chamber of Commerce were all in line to receive us, so we felt at ease, as we had been a little anxious on account of the immigration and boycott troubles. About one hundred and fifty sat down to the banquet, where short addresses only were made.

Two gunboats took us to the hotel in the. shameen (island) where we arrived shortly after midnight. The next morning we visited the temple of five hundred gem1', where Marco Polo has a very prominent seat. We then visited the ancestral temple of the Chan -family, where we had a two-hour conference with Canton merchants and where a luncheon was served. This is one of the most beautiful temples in China, and with the added decorations it was a grand sight. Mr. Waldron. of Honolulu, replied to the Chamber of Commerce address of welcome, and I gave an address on the question that most interested the Cantonese, immigration into the United States.

Mr. Ng Poon Chew, of San Francisco, interpreted it in his usual able manner, which brought forth great applause from the Chinese audience. On account of the size of the hall and the great height of the roof it was difficult to talk, hut I got the audience to gather close round and all beard very distinctly. From what we could learn from the Chinese, they were quite satisfied with my explanation, and it disposed of the subject. Following is my address:

This is the question of questions before the Chinese and American people. It is many sided, and has its wrongs and its rights on both sides. As to the treaty itself, which is the foundation of the relations between the two countries, talking for the American side, we have this to say, that: inasmuch as it will be up for revision in a short time between our governments, and seeing that at that time it will be left to the diplomats of both nations to decide what is the best for both countries, we are quite willing to leave the entire matter in the hands of the distinguished Chinese an<] Americans who will be chosen by our respective governments to make a just and suitable settlement of all the points at issue. Therefore, we think it would be out of place at the present time to discuss this phase of the question.

As to the treatment of the Chinese in San Francisco who are entitled to land, this matter has not been ignored or neglected by our people. Three months ago a committee of fair-minded men were appointed, three by the Merchants Exchange and three by the Chamber of Commerce, and a thorough investigation was made. I devoted a week of my time to this work, being Chairman of the committee. I felt in undertaking this work that the Chinese were not being properly treated. I cannot do better than read my report of the committee, which was sent to the Commissioner of Immigration, the Secretary of State and to the President :

"We interviewed the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, the Six Companies, the Chinese daily newspaper, and Chinese merchants, and on the other side we had conferences with H. North, Commissioner of Immigration, and several of the immigration officials; and finally we spent a day meeting the "C'hiyo Maru" and another steamer, to see what sort of reception the Chinese had. We followed them to the station at Angel Island, where we saw the passengers examined, and through the courtesy of the officials were shown through the entire buildings and plant, and were given every facility to see the treatment of the Chinese in every stage of the examinations, and the manner of their treatment before and after deportation. After an impartial consideration of both sides of the question, we find that cause for complaint exists to some extent, but on the whole it has been exaggerated.

"We found the examinations to be unreasonably severe, and to answer the questions asked, correctly, was an impossibility, and as the applicants have to prove their own case (in criminal cases the criminal is considered innocent until he. is proven guilty—here he is considered guilty until he proves himself entitled to land), their own evidence, if taken literally and compared with the witnesses, would be sufficient to exclude even- man, woman and child from landing.

"For instance: the eight or ten-year-old son of a merchant is asked his grandmother's maiden name on both his father's and mother's side, the names of people living a block or two distant from his home, their children's names, age, sex, etc. Then the father, who has not been home for years, is asked to corroborate his son's statement, which is simply impossible.

"We find those attempting to land have great difficulty in getting witnesses to go to the station to testify. One young man, a native son, had been two weeks waiting. The witnesses arrived when we were there, so he would have no trouble in landing. This refers only to those witnesses who live around the bay. But many arrive whose witnesses live in distant States. The papers in their case have to be forwarded to the representative of the bureau nearest to where the witness lives, and in the event of change of residence or pressure of business of the official, it makes it a very long and tedious wait. The system of examining the witness is so complicated it seems to us that it is impossible for any person to enter who :s not entitled to.

"The buildings, manner of caring for and feeding the immigrants are all that could be desired, and in justice to those in charge we congratulate them on the conditions as we found them.

"We were informed that those arriving in the first-class cabin had their examination commence at Meiggs' Wharf, which was completed as soon as possible, so that they had no delay in landing, and not one in a hundred was detained. The Chinese have furnished us with details of forty-five cases, all during 1910. Some of them look bad for the officials, but as we only got the Chinese version and not the inspectors,' we do not think it fair to comment on them, but for the sake of commercial good-will and justice we think the Government should investigate. If they desire it, we would give them the numbers of the cases, and in the meantime our consuls should be requested to allay the irritation in China, assuring merchants and students who are entitled to land that they will be allowed to land without any indignities being offered them, and that the department will see to it that instructions are carried out, not in letter only, but in spirit. Iu view of the fact that a large number of our most influential merchants leave this Coast to visit China next month, we consider the foregoing important. We ask justice and a square deal for those who are entitled to land, the same treatment they give us in landing in China.

"We offer the following recommendations:

"First—That a more reasonable and rational method of questioning be adopted.

"Second—That all witnesses, white or Chinese, who live in San Francisco or neighboring towns, be examined in San Francisco, as a witness who has no particular interest in the person, might go to testify in San Francisco, but would refuse to go to the island, especially as it often happens the case would not be reached the first day the witness went, thereby necessitating his making two or more trips.

"Third—That examinations be expedited by sending for witnesses, as the party being locked up has not the means of getting them."

I think that the Chinese should be examined in Canton or Shanghai by the Taotai and a proper American Government officer, whose certificate shall be final, and any person having that certificate should be allowed to land without further examination. I cannot, however, caution you too strongly to have your Government officials see to it that no fraud is perpetrated, as the fraudulent certificates issued some years ago by corrupt Chinese officials and certified to by mercenary American Consuls, who, along with their interpreters, all got suddenly rich, were the cause of all the present trouble.

On my visit to Angel Island I saw several Chinese women that had been brought over by the-*'- owners for immoral purposes. They were caught and ordered deported. No doubt they were brought from China through the connivance of our officials who would receive money if they landed. It has become a notorious fact that the wives of merchants have trouble in landing, while women of other classes have, in too many cases, no trouble getting ashore. The Chinese can have no complaint against the exclusion of this class, as our laws prohibit their importation from any country. I saw some white women among the Chinese who had been ordered deported. In the cases of bona fide students—for some time past none have been refused admittance. Many are going from Shanghai, and there has beer, no trouble. The Young Men's Christian Association there writes to the Association in San Francisco, and a paid representative goes to meet the immigrant on the steamer and gives him all the assistance required. This information is no hearsay, as I have given it my personal attention

In conclusion, I earnestly ask you to stop the fraud at your end and w e will co our utmost to see that it is stopped at our end, and that any Chinese who are entitled to land shall be landed, without delay or any indignities being offered to them.

After the luncheon chairs conveyed us to the terminus of the Hankow-Canton Railways where we were ferried across the river to the terminus of the Fatshan Railroad at Shek Wai Tong, where a special train was in waiting to convey us to the end of the line The cars and all the stations were decorated, and firecrackers were set off at every station as we passed.

At Fatshan a building had been erected and neatly ornamented specially for us to take tea in. For such a short visit it appears incredible that they should have expended so much money. The crowd was so great it was with difficulty that the soldiers were able to keep the way clear for us and the locomotive had to go slowly in leaving to avoid running over people. We got back to the hotel in the early evening. A gunboat was sent to take us from the railway to the shaineen.

Sunday, the Tartar General's wife and Admiral Li's wife gave a special reception and tea to our ladies. This was unique, as such an affair had never been given before. The men were also invited to meet the officials, but there was no mixing of the men and women as it would have been too radical. However, we were very glad of even this break in old- time Chinese etiquette, in that the highest class ladies should meet the ladies of our party. Two of the Chinese ladies wore the Manchu head dress, which showed up conspicuously over the head dresses of the other Chinese ladies.

In the evening we attended church in the Medical College, a small room, but packed full of Europeans. After the service, we had dinner at Dr. Todd's home where we met some of the missionaries, amongst them. Miss Noyes, who had put in over forty-two years in educational work at the boarding school. In this compound there were two hundred and sixty girls, from seven to twenty years of age. They have graduates at work in almost every province in China. We also visited Dr. Noyes' school and Theological Seminary at Fati, across the river from Canton, where they have thirty-two men in various stages of educational advancement

Many ministers and teachers have gone out from these institutions.

The next morning I visited the Canton Christian College, four miles down the river, on the Elunan Island side. They have a big tract of land, and with the. buildings they have and those under way, they will be well equipped. The Chinese merchants are erecting two dormitories, and money is coming from America for houses for the teachers. The fees from tuition pay the expenses with the exception of the European teachers.

From the college, I joined the party at the Provincial Assembly building, which has just been completed. The members gave us a luncheon. This being the last public function we will attend in our official capacity, Mr. Booth said it was fitting that, as I had had the first word in the inception of this trip that I also should have the last. So he called on me to say a few words to the Assembly which were as follows:

First, I wish to thank my fellow Commissioners for giving me the privilege of saying the last word. Two years ago I took the liberty of saying the first word to the President of the Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai, which resulted in asking the Canton and other Chambers of Commerce to join in inviting us to visit you. That invitation stated the object of our visit: First, to create a better feeling of friendship between the two nations, and second, to increase trade and commerce between us. While I appreciate that I am addressing a legislative body, we are here strictly in accordance with the invitation, as commercial men and not politicians, and we wish to make this plain to you as we did to His Highness, the Prince Regent, and to all who have entertained us.

We feel sure that the first part of our invitation has been accomplished, as no party of purely business men has ever had such a reception ;n the history of the world, not merely from merchants and officials, but what we consider the most significant, has been the reception from all classes. This has convinced us that from the highest to the lowest our reception has been sincere, and from the heart.

As to the second part of the invitation—this will require time to develop, as trade aud commerce grow slowly, but. on our return to America, we will endeavor to interest our merchants to visit China with a view to extending their trade. And we would especially ask your merchants to visit our country, with the object of extending their dealings with us.

In conclusion, w e say to you that we will take home the most pleasant recollections of our visit, which will last as long as we live. We feel, that what you have done, has not been for us as individuals, nor even as representatives of the Pacific Coast, but as representatives of the United States of America, of which we are the humble representatives. We all unite in the confidence that peace, harmony and goodwill shall ever remain between China and the United States of America

HONG KONG

We returned to Hong Kong the following day, and were invited by the Chinese Young Men's Christian Association to a reception at its rooms, which would have been a very pleasant affair, had not the immigration question again been brought up by the President of the Merchants' Association. Air. Booth replied that at Canton I had gone fully into that subject, and as my address had been published both in English and Chinese, he referred them to our statement as printed, as this represented fully the views of all the Commissioners. As far as we were concerned, this ended the discussion.

The President of the Young Men's Christian Association gave a fine account of the progress of the Association There are over two hundred members, and their rooms are entirely too small as the membership is increasing daily. The day following our visit they received a cable from New York, stating that they would be given $75,000.00, if the Chinese would give $25,000.00 to make up $100,000.00. Immediately, acceptance was wired, and the directors present subscribed $13,000.00 on the spot, so Hong Kong will get a fine, new, modern Y. M. C. A. building. This being a British colony, it seems remarkable that the money should come from America. Not only here, but in the various large cities of China, the money to make Y. M. C. A. work possible has come from America. (A fine new building has since been erected.)


A SPECIAL BUILDING WAS ERECTED AT FATSHAN, NEAR CANTON. IN WHICH TO ENTERTAIN THE COMMISSIONERS

The next evening we went to a banquet given by Chin Gee Kee, who is the head of the Sun Min Railroad on West River. He lived in America for forty years, and raised all the money to build the Sun Min Railroad >n America, in his dealings with the Chinese there. No Europeans have had anything to do with it, either financing or operating. All our Commissioners were present at this banquet. Ng Peon Choo delivered one of his characteristic speeches that brought the house down with applause.

Now that the trip, or rather the visit, is over, we can sum up the results. First, as to creating a better feding of friendship between the two nations. This has certainly been accomplished, as it would have been impossible for any body of men to have given us the reception we received all over China, unless they were extremely friendly to us as Americans and represented our country. And while our trip was commercial and not political. we could see a great deal of the latter injected into it by our hosts, at the different cities we visited, and the great international game that is being played in Peking, in which America for the first tune seems to be taking an important part. It looks as if our visit at this critical time was opportune and of great benefit and advantage to our country politically, although :t was not so intended. What we have accomplished cannot be told at present as it will take time to develop. We have learned, however, that our success in developing trade will depend to a great extent on our ability to interest our merchants at home in this trade, which can only be increased and developed by either the principals or their best men personally investigating. No other way will ever produce great results. We are all satisfied that by this method a great expansion of our commerce can be secured both in imports and exports. It appears as though our exports will demand more effort, as European competition is very keen, but we have met nothing to discourage us and a great deal to encourage us toward accomplishing the desired end.

At the last meeting we had in Hong Kong, they put the question to the entire membership to express their opinion as to missions and missionaries in China. (In starting out it was the general opinion that missions and missionaries were a detriment to the commercial interests of America and China.) At this meeting I stated to them, that as they had seen the missions and missionaries and had learned a great deal of the commercial interests of China, I would like very much to have them express an opinion.

A motion was introduced and unanimously carried, that the missionaries were of great commercial importance to China; in fact, without them it would have been impossible to have obtained the results, commercially, that we have obtained.


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