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Memoirs of Robert Dollar
Vol. 1 - Chapter Seventeen. Leave for the Orient as Special Delegte of  P. P. I. E.


The first part of the year 1911 we spent at home, having a great deal to look after in our growing business. For some time back, I had been a director of the San Francisco Theological Seminary, at San Anselmo, Cal., and also President of the Port Society.. In June, the meeting of the International Sunday School Union was held in San Francisco, and I was selected Grand Marshal of twenty thousand Sunday School workers that paraded here, each man carrying a Bible in his hand.

On October 4, 1911, we sailed for the Orient on the steamer "Siberia," for I was a special delegate of the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition.

On arrival at Tokio, I presented to the Government officials the importance of their taking a prominent part in the exposition which we intended having two years hence. I was fortunate enough in being able to persuade them to participate.

I first convinced Baron Sakatama, who traveled with me on the voyage over, of the advisability of taking part; and then his father-in-Iaw, Baron Shibusawa, Minister of Foreign Affairs. The President of the Chambers of Commerce of Japan also gave me valuable assistance.

REBELLION IS FORERUNNER OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC

On arrival at Shanghai we found the Chinese rebellion was two weeks old and had gained large proportions, especially in Hupeh and Hunan Provinces. The center of the disturbance was at Wuchang, across the river from Hankow and Han Yang. The first move made was the capture of the city, the deposing of all officials, the beheading of all who had not escaped, and the establishment of a government of their own.

All the soldiers and many of the officers joined the revolutionists, so they started out with a nucleus estimated to be from three to five thousand well trained officers and men. Evidently, they had carefully prepared their plans, as the first move after capturing the capitol of the Province, Wuchang, was to cross the Yangtsze River during the night and surprise and capture the Han Yang Iron & Steel Works and the Government Arsenal, which was only separated from the works by a wooden fence, as, up to a short time previous, they were both owned by the Government.

This latter move was most important because the arsenal was well stored with arms, including a large number of machine guns; in fact, everything that an army required, including materials for making explosives and shells. This arsenal has been kept running to its utmost capacity ever since.

There is a hill behind the arsenal which commands the surrounding country, including Hankow, Han Yang and Wuchang. Here, they mounted the heaviest guns they had captured, thereby commanding the entire district within range, which I think was about four or five miles. With this as a base, they drove the Imperial troops, after several engagements, down the river bank and across Seven Mile Creek, which is seven miles from the native city of Hankow. In taking the native walled city, they left the foreign concessions intact, as they had notified the various powers that they would not molest or interfere with any foreigners. All the buildings outside the walled city and up to the concessions were burned and destroyed; also the terminus of the railroad, and for fifty miles the railroad was captured and the track blown up at the tunnel. The Government had to send troops, principally from Peking, eight hundred miles away, which took some time. Meanwhile, the revolutionists were not idle, as they were gathering men from all parts, practically the whole of Central China being with them. It is a fact that I have not met a single Chinese yet who does not claim to be a rebel. Officials of the Government do not proclaim it abroad, but they will take you in an inner room, if you have their confidence, and in a low tone of voice tell you they hope the rebels will win. I am surprised at not finding- a single person on the Government's side — that is, amongst those outside of the military. When the Government reinforcements arrived the fighting began in earnest. Being ably officered and well disciplined, the Government troops gradually drove the rebels back toward Hankow. Eye witnesses told me that the bravery of the troops on both sides could not have been surpassed, but the rebels lacked a sufficient number of experienced officers, and in many cases, on the field, men in the ranks had to tell others what to do. The carnage on both sides was fearful, and the Red Cross hospitals were soon filled to overflowing, but there were not enough doctors or nurses to care for the wounded. No time was given to bury the dead, and as the same ground was fought over twice, sanitary conditions were fearful. Each side was entrenched so the dead were mostly in the vicinity of the trenches, although it was said there were bodies scattered everywhere on the fields from Hankow to Seven Mile Creek.

At the present time both armies are on the banks of the Han River, which is about a quarter of a mile wide. Latest reports state that the walled city has been destroyed by fire in order to compel the rebels to cross the river. In the meantime the Government artillery had turned their guns on Wuchang, and Admiral Sah's fleet had come up the river within range and shelled the city. From last accounts the place was in a fair way to be totally destroyed.

On the way down the river, Kitikiang, Wuhu and Nanking were all taken by the rebels and the guns of their forts turned toward the river. They have sunk several torpedo boats and captured several steamers with ammunition and coal, so it is quite possible that the fleet may run out of coal and ammunition.

This morning the Woosung fort went over to the rebels. This fort is probably the largest and best in China, as it completely commands the Yangtsze and Whangpo Rivers, and has entire control of the traffic going up the river, as well as to Shanghai. At the same time the Kiangnan Arsenal and Dock Yard, at Shanghai, were taken possession of, together with the old city.

The casualties reported are only a few killed and fifty wounded. The Shanghai-Nanking Railroad station is outside the settlement, in China proper. Very unwisely, the foreign consuls sent some foreign volunteer soldiers to guard it, thereby breaking the neutrality laws by taking sides with the Government against the rebels. Had this unwise and indiscreet act been persisted in, the rebels would have started a fight against the foreigners, but on the arrival of a company of rebel soldiers the Europeans withdrew to within the setttlement where they belonged. In this rebellion there is no danger whatever of any trouble arising between the Chinese and foreigners unless it is brought on by indiscreet acts such as this. This is a line above all others when tactful and level-headed men are required to direct affairs, and it looks to me that if the foreigners are drawn into it, it will be through their own fault.

Orders were given for all to display the white flag of the rebels, and this noon the city's streets were one mass of white flags. In the forenoon, from two hundred and fifty to three hundred United States soldiers landed and marched through the principal streets of the city. They were certainly a tine looking lot of fellows: their marching and drill seemed to be perfect, and they created a very favorable impression. It was evidently done at the request of the Chief of Police, as he preceeded them, to show the Chinese that there was a force of armed foreigners at hand.

The financial situation is bad, as all native banks are closed to prevent a run. The foreign banks are going to help them, and all will stand together as our Clearing Houses did three years ago. In the meantime, in order to carry on their business they are opening accounts in the foreign banks, in which they have perfect confidence. That business is affected goes without saying, and as this city commands the Yangtsze Valley and all the hostilities are on its banks, the rebellion has paralyzed a great deal of the trade. Everyone is hopeful that when the trouble is settled China will enter on an era of prosperity.

In Szechuen, where the rebellion started, we do not hear much, but in Canton, Kwangturig Province, they foolishly declared a republic of their own but that is now held up.

While we consider a republican form of government the best. I am convinced that this empire is not ready to become a republic yet. In fact, it will take many years of education before it will be safe to put the ballot in the hands of the people; so I think the only safe way would be to establish a limited monarchy and retain the present Emperor and Prince Regent as nominal heads. This, I think would work out with the Provincial Assembly in each province, and the Senate or National Assembly in Peking, making the ministers responsible to the National Assembly and the people.

All this to an American may not look like much of a change, but it means the complete upsetting of Chinese customs that have been in vogue for thousands of years, and ousting the officials who have been fattening on the spoils gained from oppressing the poor people in this country. Californians can better understand this by comparing it to our State Legislature. What a change and revolution it would be if the spoils system and perquisites were all abolished. It would put our politicians out of business and an entirely different class of men would be in the legislative halls. But, in this country, it is much more far reaching, as the practice has been going on for centuries, and the men who will now take command will be young men educated in and accustomed to the ways of foreign nations, with an entirely different idea of government than that held by the incompetent and antiquated Manchus, who have been running the government in the old style, on the "squeeze" system. The whole system is wrong, and to correct it they must start the reforms at the bottom and work upward. I was very pleased to learn that one of the progressive men, Alfred Tzee, had been appointed Ambassador to the United States. I know him personally, and his ideas are progressive.

DOING THE PHILIPPINES AS A GUEST OF THE GOVERNMENT

Finding our business cut off by the revolution, I immediately proceeded to the Philippines to see if business could not be drummed up there. Arriving in Manila I found an air of prosperity all over the city, and every one stated that business was good and the bankers reported collections easy. This is the only city in the Orient today that can make such favorable reports. I have inquired particularly if it was only a spurt and if it would last, but every one thinks that it is permanent, and, while I do not. think so much prosperity will continue, it looks to me as if the Philippines are on the road to permanent and steady improvement.

The city has improved in many ways, notably in buildings and streets, and great improvements have been made in the port charges. Now, a ship has no port charges unless she lays at the wharf, and then only one-half a cent, gold, on American net registered ton, per day. Pilotage is only necessary when a captain does not know his berth, and not compulsory, and pilots are not required at all when leaving port.

Governor Forbes directed the Commissioner of the Bureau of Navigation to take one of the Coast Guard steamers and accompany me to any part of the Islands I wished to visit. We left Manila on the Coast Guard cutter "Luzon." and went first to Calipan, on the Island of Miudoro. There is a stone and cement pier with twenty feet of water at low tide. It is a very pretty place, and attractive on account of its tropical vegetation. The Government building and the Governor's residence are commodious and comfortable, and well located on a hill. There are not more than five hundred inhabitants—probably less than on any of the larger islands. The island is about one hundred miles long by forty miles in width. On the southern end of the island is a large sugar plantation, which is managed from San Francisco.

From Calipan, we went northeast to Binaham, Province of Ambos Caniaruies, on Ragay Bay. We also landed at Camico Cove, a few miles away, where they were logging with carabaos, hauling out small blocks of molave (a wood that is almost as hard as ebony) for keel blocks, for shipment to the Government drydock, in Hong Kong. The hewing was rough and poorly gotten out. They were rehewing the blocks before shipping.

The village was en fete, as a priest was coming that afternoon, and at night they were to have a dance and fiesta; in the meantime all work was suspended. At both these places there is plenty of water for a steamer of any draft, within three hundred feet of the shore. For miles a nice, gravelly beach extended both ways. We sailed from Camico for the coal mine at Batan and to see the lumbering at Rapurapu. both islands being close together off the southeast cornor of Luzon. On the way, we passed through the Straits of San Bernardino, which separate Luzon from the Island of Sainar.

I took a steam launch from Batan to Rapurapu Island, four miles distant. There was considerable surf on and it was impossible to approach close to the shore, but as I was determined to see what was being done, I had the launch go in as close as possible and I waded to the shore. It was raining in torrents at the time, and I could not get any wetter with salt water than I was with the rain. The lumbering here is done in such a primitive way I cannot see how it can be of any commercial value. (The timber was not good and was poorly gotten out, so I came to the conclusion that failure was indelibly stamped on the face of the enterprise, which I later found to be the case.)

We went aboard the "Luzon" again and proceeded down the west coast of the Island of Sainar. The Straits of San Juanca separate Samar from Leyte, and they possess even more beautiful scenery than the Inland Sea. The channel is crooked and narrow-, in some places being only two hundred feet wide. The nipa huts of the natives, surrounded by banana, hemp and cocoanut trees, lined the shores all the way. The country is of volcanic origin and the sharp peaks of the hills showed up picturesquely.

We landed at Tadobon, the capitol of Peyte, and looked over the town. The principal industry is the preparing of hemp for the market. They ship it from here to Cebu, to be forwarded to various parts of the world. I found that the Chinese were the merchants and the solid men of the town, and that they had some -very good, mixlern, hydraulic presses which baled the hemp well and quickly. A Chinese boss is over the Filipino laborers, who do all the work. The Americans have made excellent roads running many miles into the island, and we noticed several automobiles for hire—quite a sight in this out of the way place. The telegraph system is very good, every place of any importance having a telegraph office, postoffice and school.

We went from here to Cebu, returning by San Juanica Straits and passing around the north end of the Island of Leyte, thence through the Eillian Straits, where at one place it was not wider than one hundred and fifty feet, with a strong tide running through, One notices very large churches in every village, in marked contrast to the small huts of the natives.

CEBU

The town of Cebu is on the Island of Cebu. The Island of Macton lies about a mile off, making a stra-ght channel up to the city of Cebu. The Island of Cebu is about one hundred aud fifty miles long by an average width of thirty miles. A railroad runs twenty miles north, and forty miles south of the city. Cebu presents a fine appearance from a ship's deck, that is from a commercial viewpoint. There is a tine concrete sea wall, about two thousand feet long, with eight hundred feet yet to build. The upper end, at low water, has eighteen feet of water, the center twenty-four feet and the north end will have thirty feet when it is completed. The Custom House is a large three-story building, sufficient for a city of half a million inhabitants. There are several very large warehouses of the most substantial construction, all of concrete and built on made land, with a dock space of two hundred feet. A fifty-ton crane has been installed, and radroad tracks extend along the fronts of the docks, so that


This Is The First Cargo Of Pig Iron Ever Shipped From China To The United States THE STEAMSHIP "BESSIE DOLLAR" LOADING PIG IRON AT THE HAN YANG IRON AND STEEL WORKS—MAY 27, 1910

vessels can get good dispatch and at a minimum cost. It is one of the most complete little ports I have ever seen. It is also practically a free port, as it only costs nine pesos to enter and clear, and there are no tonnage dues or wharfage charges. A pilot can be picked up seven miles out when a steamer is coming from the north, but it is not compulsory to take a pilot, as the channel is excellently marked by buoys, beacons and lights; in fact, I cannot recall any other port so well arranged.

The exports, in their order, are hemp, copra and sugar. Many small steamers and small schooners make this their home port and gather the products from adjacent islands for export from this port, and, as it is quite central, it should grow to be a large port. There seems, however, to be some difficulty in getting the farmers to increase their production, and it may take some time to get them out of the old rut of producing only what is actually required for present necessity. A small piece of cotton cloth is sufficient to clothe the family, and it takes but little to supply their wants.

If the Chinese were allowed to come into the country in limited numbers, it would revolutionize it in a short time and make the islands a Paradise.

Cebu, like all old Spanish towns, has narrow, crooked streets, a big plaza and an old fort. There are about sixty thousand inhabitants. The Americans have macadamized many of the streets and built several good roads through the island. We went over one of these roads in an automobile for a distance of ten miles and found it to be level and smooth. In that distance we passed a succession of villages, which made it appear as if they were a continuation of the town of Cebu. This island has more population than any of the group for its size, there being five hundred to the square mile, with a total of eight hundred and fifty thousand.

We visited a native sugar mill operate with a carabao. The entire machinery consists of two upright rollers, about twenty-four inches in diameter and three feet long, between which the cane was passed, the juice falling into a wooden trough that had been hollowed out of a tree. This was carried in buckets to a large kettle to be boiled, and later put into a trough shaped like a canoe, where it was worked with a shovel until it was broken up, when it was put into bamboo mats and sent to the seaports for export. With this primitive method of extracting the juice, from thirty to forty per cent of it is left in the cane.

In preparing copra, the cocoanuts are quartered and the shell removed. If for sun-drying, it is broken into small pieces and spread on the ground on mats, and is frequently-turned over until dry, then put in gunny sacks. If it is to be dried by a fire, bamboo poles are spread out three feet from the ground, on which the copra is spread, then a fire of cocoanut. husks is built under the poles and kept going until the copra is dry, or rather smoked, for it is really more smoked than dried, and is blackened, while that dried in the sun is fairly white. It could all be dried in ordinary cheap fruit dryers and come out perfectly white, and, as there is plenty of fuel in the husks, the expense would be small.

In a park at Cebu near the water front is a monument erected to the memory of Magellan and the priest who said the first mass at this place four hundred years ago. Magellan was invited to a conference with the chiefs on the small Island of Macton, opposite the city of Cebu, where he was murdered by the natives. The monument marks the spot where the deed occurred and can be seen from the deck of a vessel a few miles out at sea.

Mr. Alfonso Zarate Sy Cip, manager of a Chinese firm Joaqum Castio & Company, gave a banquet in our honor, at which twenty were present. There were only two Chinese, the others being the leading merchants of the city. The manager of Stevenson & Company gave us an automobile trip ten miles out of the city, and the Collector of the Port, Mr. Bennet. entertained us at luncheon, so we were well taken care of.

The city- seemed to be kept fairly clean, except m the. business section, where the offices are above the warehouses.

NEGROS

We arrived at the mouth of the Danao River, Island of Negros, and found it very shallow even two miles from shore. After getting into the river in our launch, we had plenty of water, although we grounded several times while coming from the steamer. The river is about two hundred feel wide, and the lumber from the Insular Lumber Company's plant is brought down in barges, which carry two hundred to two hundred and fifty thousand feet. At present these barges are towed to Marida by ocean going tugs. They had been using the old Erie Canal barges, but these were scattered along the river, some keel up and others high and dry. The transportation end of the business did not look prosperous. In trans-shipping at the mouth of the river there is no shelter; but four miles east is the small island of Suyac which has a sheltered anchorage on its southeast side, with five fathoms of water, where loading could be carried on at any time.

The Insular Lumber Company has two mills, one on each side of the river. The larger mill has two fourteen-inch band nulls with all improvements and is a complete, up-to-date mill As there are no planers at the mill, all the lumber is shipped in the rough. Most large logs are very defective in the heart, and they told me a block in the center of most of them had to be burned. They were sawing red and white lauan. the former being called "Philippine mahogany" when shipped to America.

ILOILO

We spent one day and two nights at Iloilo, which is a port on the river, protected at its mouth by two breakwaters. There is good anchorage off the mouth, but during the southeast monsoons it gets rough and necessitates the stoppage of loading. The warehouses are on the bank of the river, arid, to give quick dispatch, sugar is loaded from the wharf on one side: and from the lighters on the other side. As much as fourteen hundred tons has gone aboard a vessel in one day, but the average is about six to eight hundred tons. On the lower reach, where three steamers can he at one time, there are twenty-four feet of water at mean low-tide. There are fourteen hundred feet of first-class concrete seawall, and there are yet to be completed sixteen hundred feet more. The Government builds six hundred feet a year and keeps the channel dredged. Many modern warehouses are under construction by progressive English firms.

The streets are distinctly Spanish—narrow, crooked and muddy—and reflect little credit on the city fathers. The only roads worthy of the name are those built by Americans, which extend for several miles in each direction outside the city. We went over these roads m an automobile, and they are as good and as well kept as those of any country. The old Spanish roads can only be described as miserable mud trails, and there are not many of them.

There were a number of small, trim fore and aft schooners in this harbor and vicinity, which goes to show that this is a trading center for the adjoining islands. This being a sugar port, it was booming, and every one was prosperous and correspondingly happy.

We left lloilo by rail for Capiz, on the opposite side of the Island of Ranay, a run of about four and one-half hours. The railroad is well built and appears to be well managed, and the company is doing what it can to induce people to cultivate the soil so it can get more tonnage to carry. They are going to a great deal of expense in demonstrating how the soil can be better cultivated and in showing what crops will bring the most money. There were some very creditable exhibits at various stations along the line. A man in charge of an exhibit told me t was uphill work and very discouraging. In the interior, cultivation is an exception, although the land is suitable for either rice or sugar, for it is difficult to get the natives to work the land. Capiz is a quiet provincial capital, with municipal and provincial buildings; the latter are of reinforced concrete and are nearly completed. Again I have to remark that what the Government has done, it has done well and substantially, in roads, bridges or buildings.

We visited the Industrial School, which occupies an old court house and offices. They are commodious and appeared to be well adapted for the purpose. Girls are taught cooking, needlework, drawing, painting, etc., while the boys are receiving a mechanical training. We watched them at work in the garden, and noticed that the student carefully avoided all manual labor or anything that resembled it, the servants doing the work and carrying the water for irrigating. It looked to me as though they were not being taught that all work is honorable, and that the great essential in this world is to learn how to work. Most of the merchants in town were either half or full Chinese, and the best work on the Government building was being done by Chinese. The contractor told me it was impossible to get the Filipinos to do it.

We visited the Baptist Mission, where we had dinner, and also visited the orphanage where they have sixty children from three to twelve years old. The large building is suitable for a school, and the children, as well as the surroundings, were neat and clean and reflected credit on the management. The children were having dinner while we were there, and they had plenty of good food and seemed happy and contented. Altogether, we were very favorably impressed. They told us that the Protestant church is increasing on the Islands, and that their church was full at every service. We visited the Roman Catholic church, a very large building, and were told that it was crowded at every service, so these people ate evidently good church-goers.

We visited the home of a wealthy sugar grower, for the purpose of seeing how he lived. Like all Filipino houses it was very large and unoccupied on the ground floor, the next floor having the living rooms and bedrooms. All the rooms were much larger than those of the average American house, I should say about twice the size.

The harbor of Capiz is three and one-half miles from the city, with a narrow, crooked channel and only fifteen feet of water, so it is of no importance.

In conclusion, I would say that the Island of Panay is very rich and a good place for agriculture, but labor is required to develop it as there is too much land not in use.

MINDORO

We next visited the Island of Mindoro, where we went to see one of the largest sugar mills at Mangaren. It is a small town that employs about fourteen hundred men At present there are five hundred acres planted. They are expending large sums of money and have one of the best mills, fifty thousand acres of land of the best soil, a fine location and great possibilities. The wharf is too small for tramp steamers, but it is proposed to extend it some three hundred feet. The harbor is perfectly protected and easily approached, as there is plenty of room and water, although there are some shoals marked on the chart. Soundings should be taken.

From here we sailed for Manila after a most enjoyable trip, during which I accomplished all I set out to do. Had we gone by a regular line steamer it would have taken from two to three months to have visited the places we did in eleven days. We covered about seventeen hundred miles. The result of this trip was the establishment by the Dollar Company of a permanent office in Manila, and of our steamers making the Islands a regular port of call.

MANILA

On our return to Manila we saw one of the much talked of fiestas, which was being held to commemorate the three hundredth anniversary of the founding of the College of Santo Lomo. There were many fine floats and banners, men without number in all kinds of uniform, but not one American flag was visible. The procession was preceded by the American constabulary and even they did not show their colors. To an American it certainly seemed strange.

In looking over the loading and discharging of coastwise vessels at Manila, I find there is no improvement in the way of quicker work than there was ten years ago. Winches, as a rule, are not used, unless it is to lower or lift cargo out of the hold, to be landed oil deck, whence it is invariably carried to or from the ship on a single plank in about the most happy-go-lucky manner one could imagine The Government has taken the regulation of rates into its hands. As the Interstate Commerce Commission at home has cut some of the rates in two, it will compel shipowners to force better dispatch.

The lumber rate from Zamboango to Manila will serve to illustrate. The rate is fixed at $8.00 gold per thousand feet, for lumber, the distance being five hundred and eight miles. A mill owner boasted to me that he actually gave a steamer sixty thousand feet a day loading. This was a record. A steamer carrying eight hundred thousand feet has been away at Zamboango, from Manila, five weeks, so that the small, petty way of loading and discharging makes business impossible. We will have an opportunity of finding out how they can handle copra, as we have five thousand measurement tons to go on board.

The Government very kindly put a steam launch at my disposal to go from Manila to Batan, twenty five miles across the bay. to visit a lumbering establishment. The mill is new and there is some construction going on. The entire output is sent to Manila. The buildings presented a neat appearance and their employes are well housed. The plant appeared to be in a healthy and ship-shape condition. One thing that struck me very forcibly was the number of men employed in many places in the mill. I saw as many as three men doing the work that one American does at home.

I have built many logging roads, but I never saw one as difficult as the one owned by this lumber company. I was one of the organizers of the Mount Tamalpais Railroad and we thought it a great undertaking, but this road is even more difficult. The camp is nine hundred feet above the ocean and only four miles away. The company certainly deserves the praise and commendation of the Government for opening up and developing such difficult logging operations in a timber country, that to an ordinary lumberman would seem to be impossible. Going beyond the cutting, into the forest, the timber was better and the country more advantageous for lumbering. I was especially interested in the actual logging operation in such a rough, broken place, as in all lumbering this is where the money is made or lost. The equipment was of the very best and most up-to-date, all of it coming from the Pacific Coast. The method of handling the logs was the same as in the States of Washington or Oregon, except that changes had to be made to suit the conditions of this country. With us one donkey engine takes the logs from the stump to the railroad; here they use more relaying.

For instance, one donkey was bringing the logs from the stump to the edge of a big ravine; then another brought them across the ravine by an overhead wire and trolley; then a third donkey loaded them on the cars, and still another hauled them from the stump to the track. From the foregoing you will see that logging is not a cheap proposition The railroad was laid with forty-pound rails, and the track and bridges were well built and substantial. I inquired about the title to the right of way, and was told they had no title and that any one could homestead a claim across their track, fence it off and shut their wind off. It is enterprises of this sort that will ultimately be the backbone of these islands.

In this connection, I heard the Speaker of the Filipino Assembly say that he was opposed to the Government selling large tracts of lands, and wanted them kept for the Filipinos. From what I have seen of them, it will be in the dim and distant future before they will be in a position to start an enterprise like the one I have tried to describe.

A TALK TO THE QUILL CLUB, MANILA

At a meeting of the Quill Club in Manila. I made the following address on the evening of December 22, 1911:

I have been requested to talk to you on shipping, and Manila as a distributing center.

Before commencing, I wish to compliment the Club on the beautiful table decorations, and also to congratulate you on the absence of wine.

In order for you to make Manila the distributing port for the Far East you must be able to compete with Hong Kong and Shanghai, the present distributing centers. You must make it easy and cheap for ships to enter your port and discharge and load cargoes. You must cheapen the cost from ship to shore; the delays to ships must be avoided by providing better facilities for handling cargoes. When this is done, you will be able to demand of the shipowners the same rate given your more favored neighbors.

As you are probably aware, shipping men have a differential against Manila. This you can eliminate by providing plenty of lighters to give the ship quick dispatch, or if the ship comes to your wharves you must provide facilities for getting rid of the cargo, so that she will not be delayed. There is no way that cargo can be handled as quickly as by lighters, and when a ship comes to the wharf, an ordinary cargo steamer has to pay about thirty dollars a day for the privilege.

When the Government builds other wharves, I would suggest that the Merchants' Association request it to build them much wider and to provide each of then, with a railroad track on the outside of each shed. The sheds are now so close to the steamer that a large vessel has difficulty in lowering cargo between the ship and the shed.

Furthermore, when heavy cargo is to be loaded or discharged, it has to be carried from the railroad in the center of the wharf to the outside. By having a sunken track on the side of the wharf, all heavy merchandise and machinery, especially bulk cargoes, could be loaded directly on cars and stored in the warehouses which are proposed to be built on the fill. This will decrease the cost of handling commodities such as iron, cement, flour, machinery and all heavy-bulk cargoes, and will effect a saving to your merchants.

Coming more particularly to shipping, it is a shame to our Government that there is not a direct steamship line between San Francisco and Manila. I consider it nothing short of a national disgrace that passengers, and especially mails, have to be peddled through various Japanese and Chinese ports before they ultimately reach Manila in twice the time that should have been occupied.

A steamship line running direct should be paid full and liberal compensation for services rendered in carrying the mail. I am opposed to subsidies, as I do not consider them necessary when the service can be rendered without costing the Government anything, as was proposed some years ago, by turning the transport business over to a company who would agree to run a line of steamers twice a month from San Francisco to Manila on a time schedule, not to exceed sixteen days on the voyage. It was proposed that the Government give this line the carrying of all Government freight, troops and passengers at a price less than what it costs now. By doing this, the steamers would he able to carry out this service without any special compensation. The transports now in use could either be laid up or engaged in other service, as they are too slow to maintain a reasonably fast service across the Pacific.

When I looked Tito the prices shipowners in the coastwise trade charged you merchants I considered it outrageous, but when I came to investigate the unreasonably slow dispatch that steamers were getting I came to the conclusion that they were not charging you quite enough. In all seriousness, I say that this condition of affairs is a great handicap to the commerce of these islands, and should be remedied at once by you merchants giving the vessels cargoes as quickly as they can handle them, and take incoming cargoes away from the ships as quickly as they can be discharged; also, you in turn should force the shipowners to handle cargo as expeditiously as is done in other countries.

I would also say in this connection that the aids to navigation, in the way of lighthouses, buoys and beacons, are much better than we have on the west coast of America, and reflect great credit upon the Government of the Islands. I would also call your attention to the great work the Government has done in the way of providing such a tine harbor and docks here, and the fine harbor it has made at Cebu, where a Custom House has been built that is worthy of a city of a quarter of a million inhabitants. In Iloilo a good deal of work has been done and a great deal is under way, so that in the near future those two ports will be a credit to the Philippines.

What the Islands want. There is dense ignorance in the United States of the condition of affairs on the Islands, and a process of education is absolutely necessary to dispel the prevailing lack of knowledge. In this connection I would say that you have taken a step in the right direction by sending Mr. Stewart as your commissioner to accomplish this result. It is a common fallacy that these islands receive a large sum from the United States Treasury Department to keep up the Government. I would remind Mr. Stewart to convince our people that this is not the case. Of all the states, and especially of all the cities that should be interested in your welfare. California and San Francisco, I am sorry to say, show a general lack of interest in your affairs.

On my return home I will do my utmost to change this indifference to active co-operation with you. We are especially interested there in Oriental trade; as a proof of this we sent a Commission from the Associated Chambers of Commerce to Japan, and they in turn sent a Commission to pay us a return visit. Last year the Government of China sent an invitation to merchants to visit them from our coast, and I now carry with me an invitation for the Chinese merchants to visit us next year. We have provided an itinerary for them which covers twelve thousand miles by rail in our country, and involves the visiting of sixty-three of our largest cities. I mention this to remind you that you have never sent us a public invitation to visit you, neither have the merchants of the Pacific Coast ever sent you an invitation to visit us. Therefore, the lack of interest seems to be mutual.

I would ask you, gentlemen, to think seriously of this matter and endeavor to create a closer friendship between us.

I now come to a matter which is of vital interest to us all; that is the 1915 Exposition in San Francisco. The directors of the Exposition appointed me a Spec-al Commissioner to the Empires of Japan and China to endeavor to induce them to make large exhibits. I met with the authorities in Japan and had a favorable reception, and hope before I leave for home to accomplish good results. I then went to China, but as my mission was to the Government and, on account of the revolution, I failed to find the Government, I did not accomplish anything.

A significant fact in this connection is, that our people did not commission me to speak to you on this subject, knowing full well that your interest would be sufficient without any words of mine, and that the Philippine Islands will make one of the best displays, if not the very best, of all the countries that would participate.

From the talks that. I have had with your merchants. I am quite confident in saying that it is unnecessary to urge you to accomplish these results, and I will go back to the directors of the Exposition and report to them that everything will be done in the Philippine Islands necessary to have an exhibit, of which all will be proud.

I thank you for your kind attention and would say that I trust that you will take my remarks in the spirit they are given—in a sincere desire to see prosperity in the Islands.

In conclusion, I would say that no people could have done more to have made my stay more pleasant than you have. This applies equally to the Government, the Governor General and you merchants, and you can rest assured that on my arrival home I will do what I can to forward your interests.

We left Manila for Hong Kong, spending Christmas at sea, and arriving back in Shanghai on the 1st of January, 1912. So ended another active, successful and eventful year.

PEKING

Little could be done here in a business way on account of the revolution, so I visited our Ambassador in Peking and endeavored to get him to cable our Government to recognize the Republic, as at this time it was a foregone conclusion that the revolutionists would win, but he did not see it at that time. I took the matter up with President Taft. but nothing came of it, as we were working with the British Government and it would not consent. While at Nanking, I met and conferred with the new reform Government, and when in Peking I called on the old Manchu Government, and. strange to say, was on good terms with both parties.

At Nanking, the military was everywhere in evidence, and the city was well guarded. The troops were being constantly drilled, and companies of solders in heavy marching order were to be met on almost any road. At the yamen. where the officers and headquarters of the revolutionists were located, soldiers were on duty with fixed bayonets, and it seemed most difficult to get in although I had no difficulty whatever. I was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, but I noticed at two places he had to show his passport, and he passed me in. Inside, the offices were quite temporary affairs, fitted up with modern office furniture, roller-top desks, safes, carpets, etc. Like all Chinese buildings, the yamen was without chimneys and there was no way of heating it, but since the officials have adopted American clothes and they must have heat, stoves have been put in and the pipes shoved out the windows, giving to this venerable place an appearance entirely out of keeping with the highly ornamental Oriental surroundings!

When the President learned I was ;n the yamen he sent his secretary to bring me to his quarters, which the only European style of building in the yamen. This place was formerly occupied by Lady Chang, and was where she received the ladies of our Commercial Commission two years ago.

The President, Sun Yet Sen, received me very cordially. I had a letter of introduction from Y. C. Tong, but he said he knew enough about me so that an introduction was superfluous. Our conversation was principally on the recognition of the Republic by the United States. He was extremely anxious that our country should take the lead as he was sure the others would follow. He was very anxious for recognition from the various nations, as in the official eyes of the nations the revolutionists are only rebels. I pointed out that it would be easier after the abdication, because it would force the hands of the other nations to recognize his Government. This he said he hoped would take place within two days' time; in fact, he had information it would take place the next day. He expressed satisfaction that American citizens were taking interest in the welfare of his country and that it would not be forgotten in the time to come. He was very pleased that Ambassador Calhoun had sent Dr Tenny to investigate and report on the conditions of the new Republic.

I spoke of the proposed visit of Chinese merchants to our country and also about the 1915 Exposition in San Francisco. He said China must have a very good and large exhibit, but in the troubled state of affairs no definite arrangements could be made at present, but he would keep it before him and would see that it was attended to when the Government was fully established and in proper working order. He wore an ordinary officer's khaki uniform without ornamentation of any kind. The man impressed me as one who realized he had a tremendous undertaking on his hands, so much so that the earnestness of his expression was tinged with sadness. He was a fine appearing man of medium height and looked to be about fifty years of age. His secretary and an officer stood within the door of the room while we were talking, and heard what was said.

With the exception of Wu Ting Fang and Chang Chien, I met all the members of the Cabinet, who are comparatively young men, say from thirty to forty years of age. Tang Shoi Yei is a very sober man. and like Sun Yet Sen does not talk much but is an attentive listener. Chang Chien, Minister of Commerce, I did not meet, although I had met him on several other visits. I have been trying to get him to head the merchants who are to visit our country, as he is probably the most progressive man in China. He was offered the office of Minister of Commerce by both Governments.

An arrangement was made to form a coalition government; the strong men of Yuen Shai Kai's party joining the strongest men in Sun Yet Sen's cabinet, which would make a very strong government headed by Yuen Shai Kai, as President. It looks as though he will be military dictator for some time to come.

I went from Nanking to Hankow on one of the largest boats on the run. It was most comfortably furnished, and I was the only first-class passenger, winch goes to show to what extent the revolution has cut into business. There were a number of Chinese on board, but not nearly the usual number.

TIENTSIN

We proceeded to Tientsin, where, on my arrival. I was invited by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce to attend a reception to be held in my honor on the 2nd of February.

The large audience room was tilled to overflowing with Chinese merchants and a few foreigners. The American Consul General and the Vice-Consul General were present. The President and the Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce and the most important men of the city received me. No people could have done me more honor, or rather more honor to the nation I represented, than they did. They paid me the most unusual honor of rising when I rose to deliver my speech, and they remained standing until I had finished talking.

The address I delivered was as follows:

Before commencing I wish to thank you for the elaborate decorations in this hall, and on behalf of the nation I have the honor to represent I acknowledge the courtesy you have shown in having the proportion of over three American flags to one Chinese flag.

I have two subjects on which I wish to speak. First, the invitation of the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast of America to the Consolidated Chambers of Commerce of China. Second, of the Panama-Pacific Exposition which sends a message to you.

As to the first subject: On my arrival at Shanghai, I told the Chamber of Commerce of the invitation, but, on account of the revolution, they asked me not to officially present it then as they would be unable to accept. On my return to Shanghai I will present and recommend its acceptance—the date to be agreed on later when the war is over.

Arrangements were completed before I left America for the party to leave Shanghi in March and go over our rail roads for a distance of twelve thousand miles. A special train of sleeping, dining, saloon and baggage cars will be provided which the party can occupy the entire time of their visit. Sixty-three of our largest cities will be visited, and all our great manufacturing and educational establishments are to be shown.

Our late visits to Japan and the visit of our Commissioners to your country last year (I was a member of each party), were productive of much good. Hence, our extending the present invitation to you, knowing that still greater good will come from it.

The other subject is the Panama-Pacific Exposition. This the people of our country intend making the greatest exposition the world has ever seen. Over forty million dollars of your currency has been provided. The Exposition grounds will be located on the Golden Gate, so that the largest steamers can lie at wharves which are to be especially built for this occasion. Railroad tracks will be laid from these wharves to every building, so there will be no transshipment of exhibits, which can be returned to the wharves in the same way after the Exposition is over, at a minimum expense.

We especially want Chinese exhibits on a large scale, as it is intended to make the exposition of a distinctly Oriental character, and an effort will be made to erect a permanent building where Oriental wares and products may be on permanent exhibition, with a man in charge who will try to develop and increase the trade between China and America,

On account of the uncertainty of the Government at present, I will be unable to lay this matter before the Wai Wu Pu, but it will be done at some future time.

I will close by bringing you a message of peace and good will from America to China, and assure you of our continued friendship. Also I will be most happy to assist in every way I can to bring peace and prosperity to your country.. I returned to Shanghai and on February 24th addressed a meeting of the Consolidated Chambers of Commerce of China in the large audience room of the Palace Hotel. The following is a translation from the China Press of Shanghai:

The Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast of America have commissioned me to present to you an invitation to visit the United States of America, which reads as follows:

"To the Consolidated Chambers of Commerce, of China.

"The Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast, at a meeting held today, decided unanimously to


GUARDIAN OF GATE OF "HEAVENLY PEACE* Entrance to the Forbidden City

extend a cordial invitation to the Consolidated Chambers of Commerce, of China, to send a delegation of fifty to the United States, to arrive in San Francisco on or about the 29th of March, 1912.

"It affords us great pleasure to notify you of this action, and to say that it will gratify the business men of this community, to be able to extend our hospitality also, remembering the kindness and courtesy conferred by you upon our delegation that visited China in 1910.

"We are aware that much good will come from the proposed visit of your representative delegation, for China and the United States have ties of friendship and great interests which both countries desire to promote. Our delegation gained much information in China, and the knowledge then acquired cannot but prove beneficial to your country.

"We assure you that your delegation will see much of the United States, and that it will be our purpose to arrange the itinerary in all its details, so that each and all of our industries shall open their doors freely and gladly. Our men of affairs and business will, to the fullest extent of their ability, strive to make the time you spend in this country both pleasant and profitable.

"The Associated Cham hers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast.

"H. M. Haller. President.
"C. W. Burks, Secretary.
"Sati Francisco, October 3, 1912."

I should have given you this invitation on my arrival here last November, but on account of the great trouble and trials you were going through, I deferred until peace had been restored. Now this happy result has been accomplished, I take great pleasure in publicly congratulating you on the result.

You will notice that the time stated in the invitation is too short, and I would suggest, if you see your way clear to accept, that the date of your visit shall be fixed by mutual consent later on.

Before leaving San Francisco, arrangements had been made for a special tram of sleeping and drawing cars to carry your party through a large portion of our country and ninety days would be required from your arrival in San Francisco until your return to Seattle.

During this trip, we will endeavor to show you our large manufacturing and educational establishments, and we would suggest that your party be made up of representatives of all of your great manufacturing, agricultural and industrial enterprises.

Our Commissioners, who visited you sixteen months ago, were greatly benefited by what they saw and delighted with your hospitality, and we hope for a like result from this visit of your merchants to America.

But the great object that we have in view is not only an increase in our commerce (we are sure that will follow), but an increase of friendly relations, and now that we can call you our Sister Republic, I feel that we will be drawn closer than ever before, and I wish you every success in your great undertaking.

At the request of Dr. Reid I gave a lecture at the International Institute. The hall was full of Chinese with a sprinkling of foreigners.

Following is my address, delivered February 28. 1912:

Chinese commerce, for a nation having a population of four hundred million, is insignificant.

Dr Reid asked me to talk on Chinese commerce. It occurred to me that I could take one specific branch, or treat the subject in a general way; I chose the latter.

In agriculture, I could have taken up the soya bean, sessimuni seed or cotton, and any one of these subjects would have taken up all the time at my disposal; minerals and manufactures are even more diversified.

Your mineral wealth is practically unlimited, but your mines are undeveloped; in fact, you have no idea of the extent and importance of your minerals, as practically no prospecting worthy of the name has been done. In a general way, it is conceded by experts that you have the largest coal fields of any country in the world; in iron ore. enough is known to predict that you have the richest and largest deposits ini the world; copper and other valuable minerals are known to exist in large quantities.

Your mineral exports are on a small and insignificant scale, for you do not produce nearly enough for your own use. In 1910, you imported, principally from Japan, nearly one and a half million tons of coal, for which you paid in good Chinese money over ten million dollars; all of this money should have been expended at home. You bought all you required of iron, steel and the products thereof, except the small amount produced at Han Yang, and during the past weeks we have read in the papers of the probability of this great industry passing out of Chinese hands.

Gentlemen, this should not be. I would consider it a national calamity if either of these mines or works, or the China Merchants' Steamship Company, should pass out of Chinese ownership or management.

You have untold wealth in your mineral resources. All you have to do is to extract it from the earth and sell it, and that of itself will bring prosperity', and furnish employment to millions of your people. I do not hesitate to say that I firmly believe the Yangtsze Valley will yet be the greatest steel producing country in the world. I base my opinion on history, which shows that those nations which have risen to the highest position in the world of commerce, had coking coal and iron ore near together and also convenient to transportation.

In manufactures, you have made a sufficient start to show you what can be done. In the cultivation and manufacture of cotton alone, you should employ millions of your people, and not only produce cloth enough to clothe your four hundred million, but with your soil adapted to the growing of this commodity, and with your myriads of hard-working and industrious people, you would, in time, become one of the greatest exporters of manufactured cotton.

I will not enlarge on other commodities to detract your attention from this main issue, but will just call your attention to what could he done in the manufacturing of silk, dour, iron, steel and machinery.

Then, as to imports; they would increase in the ratio of your exports, as by the great increase of your industries you would raise the purchasing power of your people, and as a consequence your standard of living would increase, and the wants of your people would increase in articles of import from foreign countries. The necessity for a merchant marine of your own would immediately be felt, and like your neighbor, Japan, you would take steps to carry your own commerce.

The necessity for a complete system of railroads throughout the country is so apparent to you all that I need only mention it.

What I have said looks plain and easy, and it would be a pertinent question for you to ask yourselves, "Why cannot we go ahead and start all these industries?" Or rather "What obstacles are in the way?"

First: There is lack of capital. You must borrow money to develop the resources of your country. Had the people of the United States refused to borrow foreign capital fifty years ago, that country would not have one-half the commerce it has today. I mention this, as I know a great number of your people are opposed to getting foreign money, but with proper precautions it is quite safe to borrow a reasonable amount, especially when it is to be used to develop your resources.

Second: You require a good banking law on which solid banks can be built, so that your people's money would be safe, and the banks be able to stand when times are bad as well as when they are good. I need but call your attention to the native banks throughout China today, as about two-thirds of them have closed their doors.

Third: You must have a solid, stable currency, preferably on a gold basis. Business on a large scale cannot be carried on, as at present, with a fluctuating currency. You do not know how much the value of your money has changed overnight, until the foreign banks tell you. Exchange fluctuates so much that it makes good, solid business impracticable.

There are many other changes required in your laws, but these no doubt His Excellency, Wu Ting Fang, will work out, as he is at present engaged on a new code of laws for you.

In conclusion, I wish to give you a word of caution. Your Republican Government is just being organized. It will take two or three years to get it in proper working order, so do not be impatient, but give the lawmakers time. I have every confidence in their ability to give you laws which will enable you to carry out all the matters I have brought to your attention, and I feel that the laws which will be enacted will enable you to become one of the great nations of the earth.

Two days before sailing, I gave a banquet to some of the merchants of Shanghai. Then the Chamber of Commerce gave me a banquet that night, and handed me a resolution to be given to the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast.

This was followed by a speech in Chinese by one of the most popular Chinese orators, Mr. Yih Wei Chun, leader of the City Volunteer Corps and President of the Rice Guild.

"Mr. Dollar," he began, "allow me on behalf of my associates and co-workers to extend to you our heartiest greetings and sincere good wishes for your future welfare.

"All of us are aware that you have endeavored to foster closer relationship between the United States and China, whose commercial interests have been indissolubly bound together for the past few years.

"We deeply appreciate the good feeling and kind sentiment expressed in the invitation by our .American friends, who will thus afford us a capital opportunity to study your industrial and commercial enterprises. We all request you to convey our hearty thanks to your friends for their kind invitation, and also avail ourselves of this opportunity of thanking you personally for your strenuous efforts made on our behalf, when three weeks ago you cabled to President Taft and Congress and the different Chambers of Commerce of the United States, recommending them to recognize the Chinese Republic. Your laudable object in strengthening the friendly ties between the two sister republican nations will be soon realized.

"We regret to learn of your immediate departure for home, and in bidding you farewell we wish you and Mrs Dollar bon voyage and long life and prosperity."

I responded to the speech and the toast for my health, saying:

The laws of neutrality prevented me from expressing myself until the issue of your political struggle was achieved,

You can all rest assured that when I go back to the States you will have one strong, solid friend of China. I will take great pleasure in conveying your thanks and acceptance of the invitation to my friends at home.

The Chinese insisted on seeing us off at the jetty. The "M. S. Dollar," on which we were going to Japan, was anchored two miles down the river, and the dock company sent a tug to take us from the customs jetty to the ship at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. At this same time and place, the tender was leaving to take passengers to the "Tenyo Maru" for Hong Kong. My son Harold and I walked down, while our wives went in an auto. When we neared the place there were several thousands in the crowd, so that it was with difficulty we got to the bridge going on to the pontoon. After elbowing our way, we found this bridge guarded by police, and two double rows of soldiers lined up all the way to the tug and tender. We asked the Captain of Police if we could pass, but he said it was reserved for "some dignitary that was leaving the city." We turned back and reached the other entrance to the jetty, where we met the Secretary and the President, and others of the Chamber of Commerce who had been looking for us. They had found Mrs. Dollar in the crowd and escorted her to the pontoon, so we returned to the place where we thought some dignitary was to pass, and found to our astonishment that I was the dignitary, and was escorted with great honor and respect through the lines of soldiers. They all raised their caps and stood at attention. I was accompanied by the President, Vice-President and Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, and several of the most prominent merchants and bankers of the city, dressed in bright colored silks. It made a very attractive procession.

On the jetty I met many Chinese and European friends. As there were so many waiting to see us off I hurried our departure so they should not be kept waiting. The soldiers were lined up in front of the jetty, and we again passed between the double row of soldiers to the tug. When the tug began to move they cheered, and, with the waving of hats, soldier's caps and handkerchiefs, we started on our way, At this time it occurred to me that we had bought a large, new Republican flag and that it had not been packed away, so I unrolled it and with Mrs. Dollar holding one end and I the other, we waved it. This act produced great enthusiasm on shore, especially among the soldiers as the new flag had not been generally displayed.

Before boarding the tug, the general commanding the troops handed me a large, red envelope. I glanced in it and saw a long document in Chinese which I thought to have translated later on, but after getting settled on the "M. S. Dollar," I found an English translation of it, which with my reply was as follows:

To Mr. and Mrs. Dollar-.

During your short stay in Shanghai you have gained our friendship and esteem. You are of venerable age and came from the other side of the Pacific. You love us as though we were brothers. You wish every progress to our commerce. We cannot refrain ourselves from recollecting your words addressed in the Palace Hotel, "I will do my best in anything that can be done to increase friendly relation trade and commerce between China and the United States of America." It is impossible to express our gratitude for your parental anxiety for our New Republic. We deeply regret the lateness of our acquaintance and the haste of your departure. We hope God will bestow on us another opportunity of having the good fortune to meet again on the jetty.

On your arrival in America please convey our thanks to the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast, who commissioned you to bring us the invitation to visit your States, and express our wishes for the long life and prosperity of Mrs. Dollar, yourself and your President and merchants. Farewell

Chinese Merchants Volunteers' Association.

(Signed)

Li Ping Shu, President, Yih Wei Chun, Vice-President, Wang 1h Ting, Vice-President, Sung Man Yun, Vice-President, Chang Lf. Chun, Vice-President, Tung Shiu, Secretary.

Shanghai, March 1, 1912.

Karatsu, Japan, March 4, 1912. In the President and Members of the Chinese Merchants Volunteers' Association:

Gentlemen : When you handed me your letter on the jetty, in the hurry and excitement, I did not notice that there was an English translation or I should have read it and replied then.

I now take this opportunity of expressing our thanks and appreciation of the great honor which you did us by assembling such a large force of the Volunteers at the jetty to see us off and bid us farewell.

I cannot find words to express the thanks due the Chamber of Commerce, your merchants and your Association for the great courtesies and kind consideration that we have received at the hands of the Chinese people, and I feel that as much as I am not worthy of such great honor, that I must attribute it in a great measure to your friendship to my country. and I accept it as such. Mrs. Dollar joins me in regards to all, and we pray that God will bless and prosper the New-Republic, and bring peace and prosperity to your country.

Yours respectfully, (Signed) Robert Dollar.

It took hours before I got over the great surprise, and it brought forcibly to my mind God's great goodness and kindness to us. Instead of feeling elation, it made me more sober and thoughtful, as it showed more clearly the responsibility of doing what is right and just to all men, and it was only with that sole object in view of helping the New Republic that brought me so prominently before the Chinese people.

After arriving at Karatsu, we received the Chinese papers, giving an account of the farewell demonstration at Shanghai. They stated that no commercial man had ever received such a demonstration. An excerpt from the papers follows herewith :

"captain dollar flies flag of republic as he sails"

"March 2, 1912.—Unfurling a great 'Rainbow Flag' to the breeze as the 'M. S. Dollar' tender left the customs jetty, and shouting 'Salute your Country's flag' to the hundreds which had gathered to bid him farewell, Captain Robert Dollar left Shanghai for San Francisco at 5 o'clock yesterday afternoon. His cry was answered by a tremendous cheer from several companies of the Chinese Volunteer Corps, his escort of honor, and the many foreigners on the wharf added whole-hearted Godspeeds. As the tender shoved into the stream and made its way down the river. Captain Dollar could still be seen waving the flag of the Republic, until the little craft was lost in the maze of the river traffic.

"The farewell ceremonies attendant on the departure of the venerable financier were such as are seldom accorded men in private life. Long before his arrival on the jetty, lines of volunteer soldiers had been formed along the waterfront, under the command of Yeh Wai Chun, Chief of the local Volunteers.

"Captain Dollar arrived shortly before 5 o'clock, accompanied by Mr. Y. C. Tong, Mr. Chung Mun Yew, Mr Chu Fau San, Mr James Thompson, of the Shanghai Dock & Engineering Company, Mr T. C. White, of the American Consulate, Mrs. White, the Princess Der Ling, Mr. and Mrs. J. Harold Dollar, Mrs. Robert Dollar and Mrs. James Thompson.

"He was saluted by the military lines along the dock as he made his way to the customs float, and was greeted there by Mr. Chu Li Chi, Secretary of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, at the bead of a delegation of many of the leading Chinese business men of Shanghai.

"With Captain Dollar's departure, it was learned that the Chinese Chamber of Commerce has officially accepted the invitation of the Associated Chambers of Commerce of the Pacific Coast to visit the United States."

We spent a few days at Tokio, where I called on and received some of the prominent men. The object of this visit was to promote the interests of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Every one did all that could possibly have been done for my comfort, and gave me all the help possible. They could see that from a standpoint of international peace they should make a big exhibit. Baron Shibusawa, "the Grand Old Man of Japan." assured me that he would do his best to gel us exhibits, which meant a great deal, as he is a man of his word. Baron Sokotano, Minister of Finance, was much interested and offered his support. Viscount Uchida's time was so taken up with Parliament that he could not see me during regular hours, but arranged to meet me an hour earlier than he usually got to his office. At first he was not in favor of the exhibition, on account of the cramped financial condition of the country, but when I showed him the effects that a big exhibit would have in increasing the friendly relations between our two countries he saw that it was the thing to do. Baron Ishii. Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs, like Viscount Uchida, assured me that it was only lack of finances that stood in the way. but he thought this could be overcome. Many others of the influential men gave me some of their tune, and all assured me they would make an exhibit.

The following is a synopsis of an address which I delivered in Tokio, and which appeared m the papers there:

"the panama-pacific international exposition and its relation to international peace"

"The primary object of the Exposition is to give the nations, as well as individuals, an opportunity to show their wares and merchandise to the nations of the world, and thereby increase their trade and commerce. Also to bring people from every land to see and know what others can produce cheaper and better than themselves. There are also many who visit expositions for pleasure and to meet those from foreign countries who come either for business or pleasure. So, as a meeting place it: gives them the opportunity of getting acquainted and nations are by this means drawn closer together. The aim of the managers of the Exposition is to get the best Oriental exhibit that the world has ever seen, principally from Japan. China and the Philippine Islands, and, by so doing, those countries will all be drawn closer to the United States, and it is in this way that international peace comes about.

"The first principle of trade is to get acquainted and to be friendly with whom you trade. In this connection, I would call your attention to the beneficial results attained by the visit of our commercial representatives to Japan three years ago, and by your representatives, headed by 'the Grand Old Man of Japan,' Baron Shibusawa, making a return visit to the United States

"Therefore, I claim friendly relations precede commercial, and commerce binds the nations together. But war destroys commerce and friendly relations. Now the great object to be attained, is peace between Japan and the United States, and if this Exposition does not increase and cement the peaceful relations and good will which now exist between us, then I claim that the Exposition has been a miserable failure, and the time and money lost. The keynote is, that the Exposition provides the means of getting our nations together and getting their citizens better acquainted, thereby increasing their friendship, and increasing trade naturally follows; provided, one nation has to sell what the other nation wants to buy. The great volume of trade going on between us at the present tune demonstrates beyond a doubt that each has what the other needs.

"It may not have occurred to the directors and promoters of the Exposition, but I am sure that when t is put before them they will see that the great object to be attained is international peace, and I hope the day is not far distant when an arbitration treaty will be entered into, such as President Taft drafted with Great Britain and France; but not like the empty husk that Congress offered as a substitute after taking all the meat out of the cocoanut."


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