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Calendar Of Documents Relating to Scotland
By Joseph Bain


Our thanks to John Henderson for compiling this for us.

"Calendar Of Documents Relating to Scotland Preserved In Her Majesty's Public Record Office, London" Volumes One to Four [1881 To 1888] by Joseph Bain F.S.A Scotland.

and

"Calendar Of Documents Relating to Scotland Preserved In The Public Record Office and British Library" Volume Five (Supplementary) [1964 To 1970] by Grant G. Simpson M.A., Ph.D. and James D. Galbraith M.A., MLitt.

The intention in this section of ES is to enable students of the history of England and Scotland from c. 1272 to 1603 to cross-reference between a very detailed 1970 supplementary volume by Grant G. Simpson/James D. Galbraith and the three available 1880s volumes by Joseph Bain. In essence, the supplementary volume details Joseph Bain's main errors of omission and commission.

N.B. ** Unfortunately, meantime, only Volumes Two/Three/Four and Five (Supplementary) have been found in electronic .pdf format. **

As Volumes Two/Three/Four/Five (Supplementary) are lengthy .pdfs, and thus 'heavy' in megabytes, they will be split into more convenient megabyte sizes to facilitate comparative study.


Brief Biography of Joseph Bain F.S.A Scotland (1826 - 1911)
from, http://members.optusnet.com.au/hardiefamily/familyhistory/bain/bain1_1_6_1_1_3a_5a_1.htm

Joseph Bain was born on 19 June 1826, in Tranent, East Lothian. He was the first child and eldest third son of John Bain Esq and Isobella Todd. Joseph was the first of the Bains to be able to trace his heritage back to the Ancient Kings of Scotland. Joseph like is father before him, grew up in Glasgow, living in Westport - most likely at Sweethope Estate - until 1841, when he was 15. In this year, Josephs grandfather and namesake died and his father inherited the Estate of Morriston. Joseph was educated at the University of Glasgow, where he was a student in 1842. After completing his studies, he worked as was a writer in Glasgow for a number of years and was described as "younger of Morriston". He later returned to study, attending the Univesity of Edinburgh where he studied Law. On 4 October 1853 Joseph married Charlotte Piper in Edinburgh Midlothian, the marriage is also recorded in Corstorphine, Midlothian. Caroline was born in Edinburgh in 1832 the first daughter and eldest child of Edward Piper and Charlotte Mary Feather. She was christened there on 6 Jul 1832. Joseph and Charlotte had 6 children (4 boys and two girls) between 1854 and 1866

John Bain . Born 15 Jul 1854.
Edward Joseph Bain. Born 23 Aug 1855. Married Ella G
Charlotte Isabella Bain. Born 20 Jul 1858. Died Sep 1893
Mabel Foster Bain Born 30 Nov 1860
Francis William Bain . Born 29 Apr 1863. Married Helen Margarita Blandford. Died 1940
Walter George Stewart Bain. Born 19 May 1866

After his marriage, Joseph stayed in Edinburgh as it was here his first two children were born. In 1858 the family was living in Row, Dunbarton, where their third child was born. It is unclear what the family - or at least Charlotte - was doing there at that time. Joseph's mother Isabella died in 1857. Some time after her death but before the execution of her will in April 1860 Joseph returned to Glasgow to take up residence as the Proprietor of the Estates of Westport and Sweethope near Bothwell - these was most likely the same estate that both he and his father had grown up on. Isabella did not have a will and her total estate of 737 was vested in Joseph - as the eldest son - in 1860. The family resided at Sweethope until at least 1863 when their fifth child was born. It is known that John sold the estate at some time during the 1860s, based on BDM evidence, it is likely that this occured around 1865, because their last child was born in Edinburgh in 1866 - on the 1881 census, Walters birth is also recorded as being in Sherborne, Dorset. One theory is that in distributing his estate John Bain Esq sold all his assets (including the Stage Line and the Estate in Westport). The timing of this event would fit with the family removing themselves from Sweethope.

In 1871 the family was living in Lynton, North Devon, and by 1881 Joseph had moved to London, where the family lived in the affluent area of 11 Bristol Gardens, London, Middlesex. Josephs sister, Isabella Todd Bain was living with them at the time - she was a school teacher. Joseph, now in his 50s was working in the Public Record Office in London, where he became acknowledged as an Authority on Scottish History as a result of writing or editing a number of books that summarised the public records of Scotland. His titles include:

"Documents Relating to Scotland in the PRO London" - Edited by Joseph Bain, F.S.A.(Scot), Vol.IV 1357-1509 (Edinburgh 1888)
"The Stirlings of Craigbernard & Glorat" - Joseph Bain F.S.A Scot (privately published in 1883)
"Scottish Chronicles" collected in the London Record Office edited by Joseph Bain, F.S.A
"Rental Book of Diocese of Glasgow" , Volumes 1 & 2 Joseph Bain & the Rev. Charles Rogers (eds.), Grampian Club, 1875. Joseph Bain
"Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland", vol. i, p. 47 Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots Vols I and II. Ed Joseph Bain (HM General Register House, Edinburgh, 1898, 1900
"The Edwards in Scotland, AD 1296-1377". By Joseph Bain. 1901. 105 pages.
"Hamilton Papers"
The "Calendar of letters and papers referring to the Borders"

Joseph's collaborator on the "Rental Book of Diocese of Glasgow" the Rev Charles Rogers was married to Joseph's cousin Isabella Smith Bain. Isabella's was the great grandaughter of James Bain and Anne Turcan, brother to Joseph's grandfather Joseph Bain. Joseph and Charlottes children were all very well educated - the boys attended The Westminster School. Their eldest son John went to Oxford before pursuing an academic career; Edward became an officer in the Royal Navy; and Francis follows an academic career in India and gained renowned for a number of Sanskrit translations.

In 1901, Joseph had retired and was living with Charlotte at Cross Square, Cathedral Close in St David's, Pembrokeshire, Wales. Joseph died in 1911 at the age of 85.


Below is the Preface and Introduction.  We have also included scans of the pages as an additional resource should you wish to check footnotes, etc.

PREFACE

This volume originated from proposals considered in J963 for general reprinting of the older Scottish Record Publications. At that time some concern was felt over the dwindling stocks of these publications, some of which were already out of print. H.M. Stationery Office had made an agreement with the Kraus Reprint Corporation for a programme of reprinting the English Record Publications, which has now largely been completed, and it was thought that a similar programme might be arranged for Scotland. Accordingly the Scottish Record Office consulted a number of scholars working on Scottish history to determine which publications might be selected. Several mentioned Bains Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland but drew attention to its defects, which are outlined in the Introduction to the present volume. Dr Grant G. Simpson, then an Assistant Keeper at the Scottish Record Office, prepared a scheme for a supplementary volume, which would incorporate some of the material known to have been overlooked or ignored by Bain as well as corrections to the original work. The next step was to enlist the assistance of those historians and scholars who were thought to have opinions or information concerning possible corrections and additions and further publicity was obtained through the Scottish Medievalists Group at their annual conference in January 1964. The response to these approaches showed the project to be viable and in 1965 a formal agreement was concluded between H.M. Stationery Office and the Kraus Reprint Corporation for the reprinting of the original four volumes of the Calendar with a supplementary fifth volume. Funds were made available for editorial assistance and for obtaining photocopies of relevant documents.

From 1964 to 1969 Dr Simpson was engaged on the detailed planning and execution of the project, to which he contributed a considerable amount of material, in addition to editing material contributed by other scholars. After Dr Simpson left the Scottish Record Office to take up a lectureship in the Department of History of the University of Aberdeen, the work was taken up by Mr J.D. Galbraith, who was appointed a Research Assistant in the Scottish Record Office in 1970. Mr Galbraith completed the editing of the original copy, saw the entire volume through the press and compiled the Index.

The editors have made due acknowledgement elsewhere to the assistance which they received from the various scholars who contributed material to this volume. I should like to add my own thanks to them and to the other people who have helped the project in various ways: the late Dr B. K Jopstock, U.K. and Commonwealth representative of the Kraus Reprint Corporation, for the early encouragement which he gave to it; Mrs Christine Gouldesbrough for her part in checking references to Public Record Office publications and other printed works: Mr Peter Gouldesbrough and Dr Athol L. Murray, successive heads of the Scottish Record Office's publications section for the co-ordinating role they have exercised; and the staff of H.M. Stationery Office, Edinburgh, for their patience and skill over the composition of difficult material. But above all thanks are due to the two editors who have so successfully carried through a project the magnitude of which was not, perhaps, fully appreciated when it was first planned.

JOHN IMRIE
Keeper of the Records of Scotland

INTRODUCTION

The nature and value of Joseph Bain's 'Calendar'
On 25 October, 1878, an official of the Treasury in London wrote to the Deputy Clerk Register, in charge of the public records of Scotland: 'A certain Mr Joseph Bain is making himself very busy about a proposal of his own that the Government should employ him "to make abstracts or excerpts from the English Public Records of all documents connected with Scottish history down to the reign of Henry VII" This is a succinct description of the origin and nature of the work which was eventually published, in four volumes, over the years 1881-8. The struggles of the editor to gain acceptance of his idea, and the vicissitudes of his research, have been ably and entertainingly described by Professor E .L.G. Stones. .It is sufficient to say here that Bain was a pioneer in the publication by calendaring of record materials in large quantities and carried through a task which was daunting enough in his own day and which no scholar would nowadays even contemplate as feasible. The fundamental information which he made available towards the study of medieval Scotland, especially in its relations with England, has remained of very great importance to scholars for almost 3 century.

The deficiencies of the work, however, have not always been appreciated. Bain's notable industry was not equalled by his standards of scholarship and some who have used the Calendar have failed to realise that it has a number of flaws.

These can best be summarised in the words of Professor Stones:

(1) A number of important documents in the Public Record Office arc omitted....

(2) False datings of documents. In a chronological calendar, undated documents have cither to be assigned a dale, or put in 3n appendix without a date. It might have been better for posterity if Bain had chosen the latter course. His guesses are often right, but where they are wrong they have frequently caused great confusion.

(3) Misreadings of the script, and mistranslations of the original languages, are common enough to demand constant care by the modern user. This is particularly true of documents in French....

(4) A forgivable, but dangerous, foible is his tendency to confuse a new document with an old one already in print, and to put the reader off the scent by giving a misleading reference to the old one.'3

The haphazard nature and the extent of Bain's omissions must be constantly kept in mind. He sometimes presents very full information on topics of apparently marginal interest, but can miss, from the same record group, items of considerable and obvious Scottish significance. A comparison of the published Calendar of Patent Rolls for the years 1247-58 with the entries extracted by Bain shows that he has failed to include nearly two-thirds of those items which, by strict definition, are of Scottish concern. It would be difficult to prepare a comprehensive list of relevant records which he did not cover, in whole or in part, but some obvious examples of omissions can usefully be mentioned. Among financial records he gave up searching the (very voluminous) Exchequer Memoranda Rolls (E 159, E 368) after 1327, although he did consult the (very inadequate) medieval 'Repertories.' His survey of the wardrobe records in the Exchequer, K.R., Various Accounts (E 101) missed several relevant documents, including two account-books of major significance (E 101/13/16 and E 101/369/11). tic mentions Feet of Fines (CP 25) in his Schedule of Records examined for vol.I (p.!xxiv), but appears to have used Fines for the county of Cumberland only.4 He also fails to make comprehensive use of the Fine Rolls (C 60), which he does not include after about 1300, and is erratic in his treatment of the records now forming the Ancient Petitions (SC 8), a class then in process of formation. The Fine Rolls have since been published in calendar form for the period 1272-1471, and transcripts by Constance M. Fraser of petitions relating to Scotland and Berwick are being prepared for publication by the Surtees Society.5 In an important group of Privy Seal documents (E 28, Exchequer, Treasury of Receipt, Council and Privy Seal Records), he found only one item (vol. iv, no. 816), possibly by chance.

Bain's search among records important for diplomacy was imperfect, and some curious gaps include those documents since amalgamated to form the Treaty Rolls (C 76). now published for the period 1234-1325 (vol.I, 1955). Of even more obvious Scottish relevance are the 'Great Rolls of Scotland', the notarial records of the process whereby Edward I in 1291-2 adjudged that John Balliol should become king of Scotland, but Bain docs not calendar then! as such. They have now been published by E.L.G. Stones and Grant G. Simpson under the title Edward 1 and the Throne of Scotland, 1290-96 (Oxford University Press, 2 vols., 1979). His apparent neglect of diplomatic records ostensibly concerning Gascony is. by comparison, understandable, but several items which bear on Scottish affairs have gone unnoticed in consequence, particularly the Gascon Calendar (E 36/187), a catalogue of all such records in the Exchequer and Wardrobe, which includes brief descriptions of documents customarily used in negotiations with France to justify English actions in Scotland. This has since been edited by G.P. Cuttino as The Gascon Calendar of 1322, Camden Third Series, vol Ixx (London, 1949). The other great contemporary inventory of English records, the famous Calendar of Bishop Stapeldon. is also of interest for its Scottish references (E 36/268). Although already printed by Francis Palgrave in Ancient {Calendars, vol. i (1836), it was not used by Bain.

Aim and content of the present volume
Bain's Calendar is far from being the only historical compilation from Victorian, or even earlier, times which presents a mass of useful matter but suffers from defects of scholarship. Professor C.R. Cheney has wisely remarked: 'If it is not expedient to print documents in extenso. then there should be many more aids to the student in the shape of hand-lists, which may enable him to find the document he needs.... We shall never see a revised Ryiner's Foedera, and we do not want one. But the book is there, with all its faults, indispensable for historians. Could we not have printed corrigenda in a handy form, to prevent the constant repetition of Ryiner's errors?'7 When a reprint of the four volumes of Bain's original work was proposed, it therefore seemed desirable to provide, in an additional volume, certain aids, including corrigenda and addenda. To attempt Bain's entire task over again would be impossible, but even a limited amount of correction and addition can enhance the value of a still useful work.

It cannot be emphasised too strongly that even the present volume does not move more than a little further towards the ideal, certainly unattainable, of calendaring in print all those items concerning Scotland in the middle ages which exist among the English Public Records. No scholar should think that by using the five volumes of this work he is absolved from searching for further information in English records, both printed and manuscript. Bain's four volumes have often been looked upon as a kind of quarry, in which delvers could find good things and feel satisfied. The present volume, to change the metaphor, should be seen rather as a signpost, intended both to help scholars in checking the original work and to point them towards additional sources of information. This volume is not the result of a comprehensive survey of the records printed since Bain's time or of those groups of manuscripts which he either did not cover or covered incompletely. Its aim is limited: but it is hoped that even so it may prove helpful.

The volume has been divided into three sections: (1) References and corrections related to the entries in volumes i-iv; (2) Additions, that is. items not noted by Bain: (3) Letters of protection, attorney and respite of debts, which form a specialised group of additions, taken from the Rotuli Scotiae. In the work of compilation certain procedures have been systematic and comprehensive, others have involved only partial coverage, and it is important to make clear the distinction.

Section I: References and corrections
This section lists in order all entries in volumes i-iv. Where it is known that an entry has been printed subsequent to the period of Bain's researches, in. for example, one of the many volumes of Calendars issued by the Public Record Office, a reference is given to such later work. It is reasonable to assume that these works will nearly always be more accurate than Bain and they are normally fuller in content. (The Calendars of Inquisitions Post Mortem (16 vols.. 1904 - ) are. however, an exception: their entries are briefer than Bain's.) References are also occasionally provided to works published by the Record Commission before Bain's time. All these essentially bibliographical references are intended to enable the user to find a more reliable text than Bain's, which he can thus check. No comprehensive comment is offered on mistakes in such entries in Bain, although occasionally a significant error is noted. It will be obvious that use of the indexes in the volumes to which the reader is referred may often lead him to items which Bain missed. In searching for printed materials, the editors have tried to make comprehensive use of the official Calendars, but their coverage of non-official publications, such as those issued by local record societies, has inevitably been less thorough.

Where no other published text of an entry is known to exist, the P.R.O. manuscript reference is stated. These have been taken from handwritten additions in the Round Room copy of Bain's Calendar, at the P.R.O. The references there stated have been assumed to be accurate and have not been checked against the original manuscripts, except occasionally in cases of difficulty. In a very few instances the manuscript quoted by Bain cannot now be found, and such entries have been noted as 'not traced'. The intention in providing the manuscript reference is to enable the user to check Bain's work, either by personally consulting the original text or by acquiring a photocopy of it. In this connection users should remember that membrane and folio numbers have sometimes been altered since Bain's time. Such numbers have not normally been re-checked for the present work and it may be necessary at times to cast around in a manuscript, using the old numerations, in order lo identify an item. It has occasionally been possible to provide a correction or corrections to an entry which remains unprinted apart from Bain. No systematic search for such has been made, but if a correction is known from remarks in print, or if it has been noted by a scholar who has checked the manuscript, it has been incorporated. It should not be assumed that the corrections listed are necessarily all that require to be made to an entry.

Two small groups of Scottish records were transferred in 1937 and 1948 from the P.R.O. to the Scottish Record Office, where they form part of the Register Mouse Series, as RH5. For these items the S.R.O. reference has been stated; and a few which Bain omitted have been incorporated in Section 2 of the present work.

Section 2: Additions
This section provides additional items, and some description of the form of calendaring is necessary'. As a general rule, a reasonably full style has been adopted, mentioning all topics, persons and places referred to. But in some instances methods of shortening the entries further have been used. Where account books or other extensive documents are involved, only the sections relating to Scotland have been calendared and these have been identified as 'extracts'. Where a text is already adequately available in print, only a short calendar is provided and this brevity will be readily explained by the provision at the end of the entry of a reference to the printed text. Short calendars are also used where an item has been drawn from one of the P.R.O. Lists and Indexes. Such calendars are enclosed in square brackets: as are also parts of a more extensive item which have been treated summarily because of their comparative unimportance or partial illegibility. In addition, all supplied information, including dates and editorial comments, is enclosed in square brackets.

Certain calendar entries have for convenience been subdivided by the insertion either of roman numerals or of letters. Numerals are normally used where a number of distinct but related documents share the same reference number or date, because, for example, several such documents have been stitched together or are enrolled on the same membrane.Letters are used to subdivide unusually large entries: the divisions are more or less arbitrary and are designed to make reading easier.

Names have been dealt with as follows. In personal names, surnames are given in the form of the manuscript, but forenames have been modernised, except for unusual specimens. Familiar place-names of frequent occurrence, e.g. of major towns, castles and woods, have been modernised in the calendar entries, but their manuscript forms have been noted in the index, where these are stated in brackets after the modern forms.

The additional materials for this volume have been accumulated in two ways. Hirst, a number of individual items have been kindly contributed by scholars, in response to appeals, or have been noted by the editors in the course of their work. These are all essentially strays, included lest they 3gain sink below the surface and are lost to view. Accordingly. it must not be assumed, because a document from a particular P.R.O. class is included among the additions, that the class in question has been thoroughly combed for additional material.

Secondly, an attempt has been made to check in a reasonably comprehensive way twelve particularly important record classes. In view of the known defects of Bain's original researches, it would be foolish to claim that work for the present volume has extracted every remaining item from this body of records. Indeed, some items whose interest was very slight, or whose text was very illegible, have been deliberately passed by. But, since it is to these classes that the main effort of search has been directed, it is proper to specify theiri here and to indicate how each has been dealt with.

Chancery
(1) Early Chancery Proceedings (C I), 1467-1500: a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes, vols, xvi and xx (1903, 1906).

This class was not used by Bain.

(2) Chancery Miscellanea. Scottish Documents (C 47/22): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes, vol. xlix (1923).

(3) Chancery Miscellanea, Diplomatic Documents (C 47/27-32): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes, vol. xlix (1923).

(4) Duchy of Lancaster, Royal Charters (DL 10): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes, Supplementary Series, no. v, vol. 3 (1964).

(5) Duchy of Lancaster, Cartae Miscellancae (DL 36): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes, Supplementary Series, no. v, vol. 3(1964).

Exchequer
(6) Exchequer. Treasury of Receipt. Council and Privy Seal Records (E 28): a full check has been made from the original records. A set of xerox copies of all items concerning Scotland is now held in the Scottish Record Office. Bain noted only one item from this class (vol. iv, no. 816).

(7) Exchequer. Treasury of Receipt, Diplomatic Documents (E 30): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in List and Indexes, vol. xlix (1923).

(8) Exchequer. Treasury of Receipt, Scottish Documents (E 39): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes, vol. xlix (1923).

(9) Exchequer, King's Remembrancer. Various Accounts (E 101): a selection has been made from this very large class, based on Lists and Indexes, vol. xxxv (Amended edition, 1963). List of Documents relating to the Household and Wardrobe. John - Edward / (Public Record Office Handbooks, no. 7, 1964) has also been useful and indicates material which would repay further searching.

Special Collections
(10) Special Collections. Ancient Correspondence (SC 1): a partial check has been made from the index prepared for a new descriptive list. The process consisted mainly of checking all index entries under 'Scotland', but entries for a number of prominent Scottish personal and place names were also checked. A set of xerox copies of all documents from this class which have been included is now held in the Scottish Record Office.

(11) Special Collections, Papal Bulls (SC 7): a full check has been made from the descriptive list in Lists and Indexes. vol. xlix (1923).

(12) Special Collections, Ancient Petitions (SC 8): a full check has been made from the index in Lists and Indexes, vol. i (1892).

In addition, the more important documents have been incorporated from the register of Richard Kellaw, bishop of Durham from 1311 to 1316 {Palatinate of Durham. Chancery Records, Durham 3/1). This was published in full trans- cript in Registrant Palatimtm Duiiehnensc, ed. T.D. Hardy (Rolls Series, 4 vols.. 1 873-8).

Section 3: Rotuli Scotiae
The principal series of enrolments concerning Scotland among the English Public Records is the Rotuli Scotiae (C 71), a set of 113 rolls extending from 1291 to 1516. These were printed in (apparently) full transcript in two folio volumes published by the Record Commission in 1814 and 1819. Bain was therefore instructed to omit these records entirely from his Calendar and duly noted this fact. But unfortunately the editors of the Rotuli Scoriae had themselves omitted from their edition two categories of entry: 'vacated', that is, cancelled entries, and a considerable number of letters of protection, of respite for debts, and of attorney. Since such items obviously constituted a gap in the coverage of material relating to Scotland, it has been decided to include them in the present volume, even although they are in fact additions to a publication many years older than Bain's. The fact of their omission has often gone unnoticed and the present volume presents an appropriate opportunity to put them into print. In preparation for this a complete check has been made of the manuscript rolls against the printed edition.

It should also be emphasised that most of these additions may have even greater interest for English historians than for those seeking illumination from English records on events in Scotland. They largely concern the activities of Englishmen, in very considerable numbers, who were directly or indirectly involved in the wars against Scotland from 1296 onwards. They provide valuable evidence about those who set out, or intended to set out, on the Scottish campaigns and about who their leaders, retinues and companions were. At the same time some degree of caution is required in interpreting such records. It must be remembered that the issue of letters of protection, or some related document, in connection with service in Scotland cannot be taken as evidence that a particular individual in fact went to Scotland. Further, from about the mid-fifteenth century onwards the Rotuli Scoriae came to be used for purposes of a legal technicality in the English courts: the numerous merchants who took out letters of protection for a journey to Berwick were not setting off to assist in the English war effort, but were merely using this procedure as a convenient excuse to escape temporarily from some legal action. Such entries have only a very tenuous connection with Anglo-Scottish affairs.

For convenience, this section has been divided into two parts. In part i are placed letter of respite and of attorney, and various items omitted from the original edition because 'vacated'. Part ii consists of letters of protection, grouped together since they are so numerous and can be dealt with more succinctly en bloc.

The general aim in calendaring Rotuli Scotiae material has been to exclude as much common form as possible and to retain only the essentials of each entry. Each calendar entry normally contains only the following basic elements: date, name of grantee, term of the grant, and the manuscript reference. Entries for letters of attorney and of respite also give the names of the attorneys appointed or of the officials to whom the writs of respite were directed, plus the place of granting. (For letters of protection the place of granting is not stated, since these are normally listed in the printed Rotuli Scotiae in summaries placed at the end of the section for each regnal year.) Also included in an entry is any specific statement about the grantee's business in Scotland, or his membership of a particular company, retinue or garrison, e.g. 'staying in the castle of Edinburgh', or 'with Robert de Clifford': but general statements, such as 'in the Scottish war', or 'on the king's business', are omitted. If grantees were given letters of attorney or a respite on the same date as their letters of protection, or shortly before or after that, cross-references have been inserted in the form, e.g. '[no. 1440]'. The term of grant is normally stated as. e.g., 'Michaelmas' and this to be understood as 'until Michaelmas next'.

All letters of one type and of the same date have been grouped together under that date. Thus (heir place in the calendar does not necessarily reflect the order in which they appear in the rolls. Manuscript references may occur within date group, so that the manuscript reference given at the end of such a group should not be assumed to be applicable to every item in it. Such changes of reference within groups have been emphasised, where necessary, by paragraphing, or by stating the term of the grants after, not before, the final reference. Individual items in these groups, corresponding to distinct sections or paragraphs in the rolls, have been separated by semi-colons. Where any of the various elements of the entry are common to a number of consecutive items within it, they have been summarised, either at the end of the date group, or after the last item in it to which the common element applies, e.g.: '[all until Michaelmas]'. or 'all with Robert Clifford'.

Almost all the letters of protection for the period 22 November, 1297, to 18 July, 1298, from rolls C 71/2 and C 67/13, have been published in full transcript in Scotland in 1298, ed. Henry Gough (London, 1888) 14-51, together with some letters of attorney and of respite (ibid. 53-5). These letters of protection are accordingly omitted from the present volume. Letters of attorney and of respite with correlate to the protections printed by Gough (nos. 1170-1243) have been cross-referred to that volume, thus: "(Gough, 51]'. Cough's work also usefully provides full texts which can be compared with the brief calendar forms presented below.

On account of the very large number of names involved, it has been decided, with regret, not to incorporate in the Index any of the Rotuli Scotiae materia! calendared in section 3.

Material from the British Library
In his volumes iii and iv Bain included extracts from various manuscripts in the British Museum (now the British Library). These were mainly royal Wardrobe books of the years 1296-1307, which had in various ways strayed from the Public Records. The inclusion of this material in the Calendar certainly enhanced its value, but historians have sometimes failed to realise that it has indeed been printed. Further material of litis type exists in the British Library, and one manuscript has been thoroughly examined to provide additional items for the present volume. This is a Wardrobe book of the year 1 Edward II. 1307-8 (Additional MS. 35093).

Possibilities for future research
It has already been emphasised that comprehensive publication of all Scottish references among the English Public Records would be impossible. Nor would it be appropriate here to embark on an exhaustive survey of record groups which might be usefully examined at some future date. But the editorial work for the present volume has revealed some sources which might well repay investigation and it seems worth while to refer, though with due caution, to a selection of these.

Chancery
(1) Chancery Miscellanea (C 47). Although Scottish Documents (C 47/22) and Diplomatic Documents (C 47/27-32), mentioned above, are the sections most likely to produce Scottish items, some others would be worth searching. In C 47/2 (Army and Navy) and C 47/3 (Household and Wardrobe. Works, etc), for example, there are a few relevant military and household items, mainly for the period 1 292-1306.

Exchequer
(2) Exchequer, King's Remembrancer, Customs Accounts (E 122). This chss includes customs accounts for Berwick, c.l 295 Edward VI (E 122/3/1-19, plus E 122/193/2, 8 and 9). These are mostly writs and receipts relating to assignments on these customs, generally in poor condition. Since Berwick in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries changed hands frequently, these records may be of Scottish interest. A guide, giving short descriptions, is available in Exchequer K.R. Customs Accounts (vol. 1. Aldeburgh Lyme Regis). List and Index Society, vol. 43 (1969).

(3) Exchequer of Receipt. Writs and Warrants for Issues: Privy Seals (E 404/1-228). The warrants under the privy seal in this class derive from the drafts, petitions and memoranda in the Treasury of Receipt. Council and Privy Seal series (P. 28) (see above, p.iv). But the E 28 series is very incomplete and the E 404 records may provide new information, although the payments ordered by the various warrants generally appear on the Issue Rolls (E 403). which Bain did use. There is a published index of the warrants from 1399 to 1485 (E 404/15-78) in Lists and Indexes. Supplementary Scries, no. ix. vol. 2 (1964) and it contains many Scottish references. A set of xerox copies of E 404/1/6 is held in the S.R.O.

(4) Exchequer of Receipt, Writs and Warrants for Issues: Wardrobe Debentures, etc. (E 404/481-516). The records in E 404/485/6-18 concern the chamberlains of Scotland in the period 1296-1318 and arc of obvious interest. E 404/481-4 cover much the same period and might also be worth examining. A class list, giving a general indication of the types of payment to which these warrants relate, is available in Class List of Records of the Exchequer of Receipt, List and Index Society, vol. 31 (1968). Three items from E 404 are printed in full in Ranald Nicholson, Edward III and the Scots (London, 1965), 238-9.241.

British Library' and other repositories
At die British Library the resources of the Cottonian and Harleian collections, in particular, are still to some extent unknown because of the lack of modern catalogues, such as that available for the Royal Manuscripts; and the earlier volumes of the catalogues of Additional Manuscripts are, by modern standards, very inadequate.

Possibilities include: (1) transcripts of unknown record texts among still unprinted chronicles (see, for example, E.L.G. Stones and Margaret N. Blount, 'The surrender of King John of Scotland to Edward I in 1296: some new evidence', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, xlviii (1975), 94-106); (2) original diplomatic and administrative documents, or transcripts of such, among miscellaneous composite volumes put together by collectors such as Sir Robert Cotton (see, for example, documents in Stowe MS.553, folios 28,32.120, apparently concerning a mission to Andrew de Harcla).

New evidence, however, is perhaps most likely to emerge from the unprinted Wardrobe accounts which begin at the year 6 Edward I and comprise some forty volumes. No list seems to have been published, but there is a useful typescript list made in 1932 by E.W. Safford, available in the Round Room at the P.R.O. Examples include: Harleian MS. 5001, accounts of the Wardrobe of the prince of Wales, 35 Edward I (a sixteenth-century copy, which is very incorrect, but may be a complete transcript of the original); Phillipps MS.3785.545, Wardrobe book of the reign of Edward II.

Unprinted Wardrobe accounts also survive in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (MS. Tanner 197) and in the John Rylands Library, Manchester (MSS. 229-32). In order to guide scholars to other similar records already in print, but little known, it is worth mentioning here the Wardrobe books in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London. The society published one of its accounts in full, under the title Liber Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderobae a.r. Regis Edward Primi 28 [1299-1300], ed. John Topham (London, 1787), and extracts from two others are given in Thomas Stapleton, *A brief summary of the Wardrobe Accounts of the 10th, 11th and 14th years of King Edward II', Archaeologia, xxvi (1863)

Acknowledgements
The complex editorial task of producing this volume has been assisted by a large body of helpers, to all of whom grateful thanks are due. The staff of the Public Record Office provided both expert guidance and editorial facilities, and special mention should be made of Miss P.M. Barnes, Miss Barbara Eames, Mr J.R. Ede, Miss D.U. Gifford, the late Mr L.C. Hector and Mr R.E. Latham. The late Miss Mildred Wretts-Smith undertook with care and enthusiasm the laborious task of dealing with the Rotuli Scotiae. Many scholars have generously given time and energy to contribute information. Three in particular have taken a notable share: Professor A.A.M. Duncan surveyed an entire Wardrobe book at the British library and several at the P.R.O.: Professor A.L. Brown extracted the considerable body of new materia] from E 28; and Professor E.L.G. Stones provided both general guidance and a large number of corrections and additions. The following have also assisted in a variety of ways: Mr D.A. Barrie, Professor G.W.S. Barrow, Mr Francis Cowe, Dr Alexander Grant, Mrs Alison Hanham, Mr A.M. Jackson, Professor Ranald Nicholson, Mr J.J. Robertson, Professor G.O. Sayles, Mr Norman Shead and Mr Bruce Webster.

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Bibliography
Key to References
Corrections for Volume 1
Corrections for Volume 2
Corrections for Volume 3
Corrections for Volume 4
General Additions
Rotuli Scotiae
Protections
Index of Persons/Places
Index of Subjects

Volume 1

Introduction
Part 1 (1065 - 1212)
Part 2 (1212 - 1230)
Part 3 (1230 - 1235)
Part 4 (1239 - 1253)
Part 5 (1253 - 1264)
Part 6 (1264 - 1272)
Addendum and Appendix
Index

Volume 2

Introduction
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Appendix

Volume 3

1307 to 1313
1313 to 1321

1321 to 1330
1330 to 1339
1340 to 1354
1354 to 1358

Volume 4

1357 to 1375
1375 to 1394
1394 to 1407
1407 to 1426
1427 to 1453
1453 to 1482
1482 to 1501
1501 to 1508


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